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**Tee Kok Peng
**

Department of Telecommunication Engineering,

Faculty of Electronics and Computer Engineering (FKEKK),

Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM).

Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia.

Kokpeng86@yahoo.com

Abstract—This paper is design, discuss, and simulate the

parameter and characteristic about a pyramidal horn

antenna. The specification for this antenna is 10 GHz of

frequency, 19 dB of gain, and 19 dB of directivity.

Keyword: pyramidal horn antenna, characteristic, CST

simulation, calculation, antenna parameters.

I. INTRODUCTION

Horn antennas are very popular at UHF (300 MHz-3

GHz) and higher frequencies. They often have a directional

radiation pattern with a high gain , which can range up to 25

dB in some cases, with 10-20 dB being typical. Horns have a

wide impedance bandwidth, implying that the input

impedance is slowly varying over a wide frequency range.

The bandwidth for practical horn antennas can be on the order

of 20:1 (for instance, operating from 1 GHz-20 GHz), with a

10:1 bandwidth not being uncommon.

The gain often increases and the beam width decreases as

the frequency of operation is increased. Horns have very little

loss, so the directivity of a horn is roughly equal to its gain.

Horn antennas are somewhat intuitive and not relatively

simple to manufacture. In addition, acoustic horns also used in

transmitting sound waves (for example, with a megaphone).

Horn antennas are also often used to feed a dish antenna, or as

a "standard gain" antenna in measurements.

Popular versions of the horn antenna include the E-plane

horn show in Figure 1. This horn is flared in the E-plane,

giving the name. The horizontal dimension is constant at w.

Figure 1: E-plane Horn Antenna

Another example of a horn is the H-plane horn, shown in

Figure 2. This horn is flared in the H-plane, with a constant

height for the waveguide and horn of h.

Figure 2: H-plane Horn Antenna

The most popular horn is flared in both planes as shown

in Figure 3. This is a pyramidal horn, and has width B and

height A at the end of the horn.

Figure 3: Pyramidal Horn Antenna

II. CALCULATION

For this designing, we assumed that the frequency for this

antenna is 10 GHz, and waveguide dimension also must

determine to fit the requirements. One of the requirements in

this designing is cutoff frequency at waveguide must be less

than operating frequency of antenna. The low frequency

signal that receives from the antenna cannot feed into

waveguide and transfer to any demodulator to convert this

signal if the operating frequency is lower than the waveguide

cutoff frequency. Since we are design that a>b, the lowest

cutoff frequency in TE10 (m=1, n=0) mode can be calculated

using equation below:[

From the calculation above, cutoff frequency for waveguide

is 7.4948GHz which is lower than our design frequency

10GHz. The requirement for this waveguide had been

achieved and the dimensions for waveguide can be used in our

design. The dimension of waveguide is:

Waveguide length, a = 0.02m;

Waveguide width, b = 0.01m;

In order to calculate our a1 and b1 from gain, we need to use

the equation below to get the x value. [3]

Try and error method is applied in this case in order to get

an accurate x value. Software Microsoft Excel is use in

calculating x and compare with each other to ensure the x

value is accurate. The starting value in calculate x accurate

can be determined by using equation below:

The parameter for this design is assumed as below:

Frequency, f = 10 GHz

Gain, G = 19 dB

Directivity = 19 dB

a = 8cm

b = 5 cm

The value ρe , ρh, a1, b1, Pe and Ph are calculated as below:

×

17.0307 cm

From the calculation above, we notice that Pe and Ph having

a same value. This proved that the x value that we calculated

is correct. From the parameters above, we can calculate our

directivity at maximum gain by applying the value a1 and b1 to

get A, B, GE and GH

Directivity can be calculated by equation below:

From the directivity that we set at the beginning of design,

we can do a reverse engineering to get our a1 and b1. The

product of GE and GH can be determined and set anyone of

these two and calculated the remaining.

Since the product of GE and GH is almost at the maximum

value, therefore we set GH as 100,

According to the GE and GH graph, A and B values is shown

below:

( )

,

_

¸

¸

−

,

_

¸

¸

− · −

,

_

¸

¸

− 1

1

6

1

2

3

2

1 2 2

3

2

0

2

0

2

χ π λ

χ

π π

χ

λ

χ

G a G b

( ) 5.04348

2 2

0

1

· · ·

π π

χ χ

G

trial

( ) 48022 . 4 · accurate χ

( )

( ) cm 14 . 6 5

4

1

56.14cm

4

1

2

1

2

1

1

2

1

2

1

1

·

1

1

]

1

¸

−

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

·

1

1

]

1

¸

−

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

a

a a p

b

b b p

h

h

e

e

ρ

ρ

10

50

12.2474

50

1

1

· ·

· ·

λ ρ λ

λ ρ λ

e

h

b

B

a

A

25 . 81 B to correspond G of value The

100 A to correspond G of value The

E

H

·

·

dB 056 . 17

50 50

1859 . 10

log 10

10

· ·

λ ρ λ ρ

h e

H E

p

G G

D

1661 . 8021

50 50

) 1859 . 10 )( 4328 . 79 ( · ·

λ ρ λ ρ

e h

H E

G G

21166 . 80

100

1661 . 8021

· ·

E

G

10

12.2

≈

≈

B

A

Calculation for a1 and b1 from directivity is shown below:

III. SIMULATION

A. Gain and Directivity

3-D RADIATION PATTERN OF PYRAMIDAL HORN ANTENNA

From figure above, the gain and directivity of simulation

result is 18.86dB and 18.8dBi. This simulation results almost

same with the value (19dB) that we assume before design this

antenna.

B. Radiation Pattern

The radiation pattern of pyramidal horn antenna

C. FNBW and HPBW

FNBW & HPBW of pyramidal horn antenna

From the figure above, the blue color line is HPBW and the

purple color line is FNBW and. FNBW is equal to 42

◦.

HPBW

is equal to 20.2

◦

.

IV. DISCUSSION

The calculation part is important for design a pyramidal

horn antenna. In order to get more accurate result, it is

encourage that take more decimals places up to 5 or 6 digit.

This also can improve the accuracy of result.

From the radiation pattern, we obtained our half power beam

width (HFBW) also known as 3dB angle with a value of 20.2

degree. Besides that, the result of first null beam width

(FNBW) is determined as 100 degrees with a centre of 0

degree in the front position.

From the simulation result, we can see that are an around

0.14dB different in the gain. This problem occurs is due to the

round up value is slightly different from the actual value. But

in this case, 0.12dB still consider as acceptable tolerance.

When using CST software, we have to ensure the unit is in

millimeter or meter, because this can let us easy to insert the

value. For example, when we had set the unit for length in

meter, we need to convert length in meter. We also cannot use

too many decimal places to avoid error occur when the

software is simulate the data.

cm B b

cm A a

e

h

9802 . 8

50

) )( (

333 . 12

50

) )( (

1

1

· ·

· ·

λ ρ

λ

λ ρ

λ

Comparing the a1 and b1 value from calculation by using gain

with the value calculated from directivity, we assume that

these values are same because there are only a little different

which is not significant enough to declare as different value.

We can conclude that our specification at the beginning stage

for directivity is located at maximum gain. If the directivity

power level is lower than gain, the a1 and b1 value should be

smaller which are nearer to the waveguide or vice versa.

.

V. CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, this pyramidal horn antenna can be

design in specification of parameter like frequency, gain,

and directivity. From the simulation result and the

calculation result, we can conclude that the directivity of

a horn is roughly equal to the gain. Pyramidal horn

antenna has a directional radiation pattern with a

high gain.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We would like to send our appreciation to our lecture

Mr. Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Bin Abdul Aziz who

guided us along this design and advices given to improve

our knowledge in horn antenna design as well as

microwave understanding that help us in completing this

design task.

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.antenna-

theory.com/antennas/aperture/horn.php

[2] David M. Pozar, ‘Microwave Engineering’ 3

rd

Edition

2005 page 109

[3] Constantine A. Balanis, ‘Antenna Theory, Analysis and

Design’ 2nd Ed., Wiley, 1997

[4] Constanine A.Balanis, “Antenna Theory Analysis and

Design Third Edition” John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005, pp

769-783

In order to calculate our a1 and b1 from gain. The starting value in calculate x accurate can be determined by using equation below: From the calculation above.1661 GE = 8021.21166 100 According to the GE and GH graph.1859 ) 50 50 ρh λ ρe λ = 8021 .02m.1661 = 80.04348 B= λ ρh λ 50 = 12. we can do a reverse engineering to get our a1 and b1.Waveguide length. GE and GH χ ( trial ) = χ1 = χ( accurate G0 2π 2π A= a1 50 = 5. a = 0. b = 0.25 Directivity can be calculated by equation below: D p = 10 log 10 G E GH 50 10 . Software Microsoft Excel is use in calculating x and compare with each other to ensure the x value is accurate.14cm 1 2 3 1 a − 2π χ λ 2 G02 1 3 − 1 6π χ 2 1 − 4 = 56.14 cm Try and error method is applied in this case in order to get an accurate x value. [3] 2 G b 2 χ − ( 2 χ − 1) = 0 2π λ ρ p e = ( b1 − b ) e b1 ρ p h = ( a1 − a ) h a1 2 1 − 4 1 2 = 56. we can calculate our directivity at maximum gain by applying the value a1 and b1 to get A. The product of GE and GH can be determined and set anyone of these two and calculated the remaining. From the parameters above. B.056 dB From the directivity that we set at the beginning of design.1859 ρe λ 50 ρh λ = 17 . b1.4328 )(10 . Waveguide width. we notice that Pe and Ph having a same value. f = 10 GHz Gain. G E G H = (79 .01m.48022 λ ρe λ The parameter for this design is assumed as below: Frequency.0307 cm Since the product of GE and GH is almost at the maximum value. we need to use the equation below to get the x value. therefore we set GH as 100. ρh. G = 19 dB Directivity = 19 dB a = 8cm b = 5 cm The value ρe . × 17. This proved that the x value that we calculated is correct.2474 = 10 b1 ) = 4. A and B values is shown below: A ≈12. Pe and Ph are calculated as below: The value of G H correspond to A = 100 The value of G E correspond to B = 81 .2 B ≈10 . a1.

Radiation Pattern IV. FNBW is equal to 42◦. HPBW is equal to 20.8dBi. it is encourage that take more decimals places up to 5 or 6 digit. This also can improve the accuracy of result. the blue color line is HPBW and the purple color line is FNBW and.12dB still consider as acceptable tolerance.2◦. From the simulation result. FNBW and HPBW a1 = ( A)( λ) b1 = ( B )( λ) 50 ρh λ 50 = 12 . This simulation results almost same with the value (19dB) that we assume before design this antenna. we obtained our half power beam width (HFBW) also known as 3dB angle with a value of 20.2 degree. Gain and Directivity SIMULATION FNBW & HPBW of pyramidal horn antenna From the figure above. A. This problem occurs is due to the round up value is slightly different from the actual value. Besides that. From the radiation pattern.14dB different in the gain. We also cannot use too many decimal places to avoid error occur when the software is simulate the data. the result of first null beam width (FNBW) is determined as 100 degrees with a centre of 0 degree in the front position. because this can let us easy to insert the value. But in this case. the gain and directivity of simulation result is 18. When using CST software. when we had set the unit for length in meter. 0. we can see that are an around 0.9802 cm ρe λ III.333 cm = 8. For example. B. we need to convert length in meter. we have to ensure the unit is in millimeter or meter.86dB and 18. In order to get more accurate result. DISCUSSION The calculation part is important for design a pyramidal horn antenna.The radiation pattern of pyramidal horn antenna Calculation for a1 and b1 from directivity is shown below: C. 3-D RADIATION PATTERN OF PYRAMIDAL HORN ANTENNA From figure above. .

‘Microwave Engineering’ 3rd Edition 2005 page 109 [3] Constantine A. .com/antennas/aperture/horn. ‘Antenna Theory. this pyramidal horn antenna can be design in specification of parameter like frequency. “Antenna Theory Analysis and Design Third Edition” John Wiley & Sons. Inc.antennatheory.php David M. CONCLUSION As a conclusion. If the directivity power level is lower than gain. Analysis and Design’ 2nd Ed. we can conclude that the directivity of a horn is roughly equal to the gain. 2005. From the simulation result and the calculation result.. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We would like to send our appreciation to our lecture Mr. Wiley. Pozar. we assume that these values are same because there are only a little different which is not significant enough to declare as different value. V.Balanis. the a1 and b1 value should be smaller which are nearer to the waveguide or vice versa. Pyramidal horn antenna has a directional radiation pattern with a high gain. Balanis. 1997 [4] Constanine A. gain. Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Bin Abdul Aziz who guided us along this design and advices given to improve our knowledge in horn antenna design as well as microwave understanding that help us in completing this design task. pp 769-783 [2] . REFERENCES [1] http://www.Comparing the a1 and b1 value from calculation by using gain with the value calculated from directivity. and directivity. We can conclude that our specification at the beginning stage for directivity is located at maximum gain.

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