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Cdd Chapter 1 B Listening for Main Ideas (p. 2) A = Reporter, B = Joan Lee A: Good morning and welcome to the show .Todays Topic should be interesting to anyone who has ever had to deal with a screaming and frustrated toddler! Most children start to speak somewhere around the age of two, but they often want to communicate well before that. So some parents are trying a new way to help their small children communicate earlier :using sign language . Im watching a baby sign language class at Parents Corner in Lower Manhattan , and Im talking to Joan Lee, whos the director of the program .Joan, good morning! B: Good morning! A: So these babies are learning sign language? B: Well, we dontwere not exactly teaching the babies. Were teaching the parents some basic signs that they can use with their babies .. . A: What kind of signs are you teaching them? B: Well we start with signs for the most important Things in babies lives signs for things like more, milk, upthat kind of thing . A: The things babies need to say ! B: Yes, exactly. A: Where did the signs come from? Did you make them up?
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B: Oh no . Most of the signs are taken from ASL American Sign Language. A: How old are the babies? B: The youngest is four months, and the oldest is about eighteen months. A: Thats incredible Now what are the advantages of doing this? B: Well, mainly its much easier for the parents, and actually for the babies too, if they can communicate. You can figure out what they want . Its very frustrating when your child is screaming his head off and you dont know what heswhat he wants. A: I see. Where did this idea come from? B: From watching deaf children .Some years ago, researchernoticed that deaf children learn to use hand signals earlier ,much earlier, than hearingchildren learn to speak. So they wondered if all children could use hand signals before using words. And it seems that they can. A: Now that raises another question, though. How do children move into speaking from this ? I mean, isnt there a danger that they get so good at sign language that they dont speak? B: No, actually the opposite seems to be true . Signingum using hand signalsmay actually help children develop language earlier. A: Thats interesting. B: Theres also some evidence that it raises childrens intelligence .There was one test done where babiesthat signed scored twelve points higher on an IQ test than babies that didnt. A: Thats fascinating! If you would like to find out
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some more information about using sign language with babies, log on to our Web site at

4 Listening Practice B Listening for Main Ideas (p. 6) Today Im going to talk about gesture , and how we use our hands when we talk. Most of what Im going to say is based on research done by Professor Susan Goldin Meadow.Shes Written about her work in a book called Hearing Gesture: How our hands help us think. Its on your book list Now, Professor Goldin-Meadow has spent a long time studying gesturesand by that I mean the kind of small little hand and eye movements that we use when we talk . We usually dont even notice how were using our hands when we talk . But try talking without hands! Our hands and our eyes and even how we move our Bodies , they all help us to communicate . OK. The first point Id like to make is that everybody gestures, including even people who have been blind from birth . So even someone who has never seen a gesture will use their hands when theyre speaking . So scientists have concluded that gesturing is not something that we learn from other people . Its something that we do naturally , and that were all born with . Now gestures usually support what were saying. For example, I might say , Im going upstairs and I might point upwards with my hands at the same time. And when we talk to each other were paying attention to gestures as well, even though we dont normally

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realize it . Actually, sometimes the gestures give us extra information . For example, if I say to you something like, Professor Clark is in her office, and I point down as I say it ,you will automatically understand: Shes in her office, and her office is downstairs. In fact you will probably think that I said, Shes downstairs, where I never actually said that! I just said it with my hands. But you saw the gesture, so you think you heard it. So usually theres a correspondence, or aa match between the gestures a person makes and what they say in words. The words and the hand movements go together. But sometimes, people use a gesture that doesnt match their words. thats called a mismatch and thats very interesting, because it can show you when someone doesnt understand. Professor GoldinMeadow worked with children trying to do mathematical problems, and she asked them to explain how they worked out the answerand she watched their hands. She noticed that sometimes the hand movements would be different from what the child was saying. And she figured that that indicated where the child was confused. It can tell you a lot about whats going on in their heads. Professor Goldin-Meadow believes that we actually use our hands to help us think, and to help us put things into words. Im sure youve noticed that people use more gestures when they have difficulty with language. For example, when theyre speaking a foreign language, or when theyre explaining something complicated, or when theyre describing a painting, or something like that. So it seems that gestures are an important step between thinking and speakinglike a kind of bridge between ideas and words. So lets summarize what Ive said so far. Firstly, everybody makes gesturesit seems to be an ability that were born with. Second, gestures usually correspond to languagethe gestures go with what a person is saying. When gestures dont match the language, that can indicate that someone is still working out a concept. And finally, it seems that people actually use gestures to help

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them think. OK, any questions so far?

Chapter 2
CHAPTER 2

Literature
2 Listening Practice
B Listening for Main Ideas (p. 10)

A: Host, B: Gwyneth Dunne A: Good morning. The topic for today is literacy and young people. Statistics show that a love of reading has a big influence on childrens academic success . The top two percent of students in the country read for 65 minutes a day; the top ten percent read for twenty minutes a day. In contrast, the bottom 10 percent read for one-tenth of a minute per day thats basically not at all. Now the best way to improve students reading is to get them to read more . But teachers will tell you that motivating children to read can be difficult when they prefer to watch television or listen to music. Today were going to learn about an organization that uses music to get students interested in reading. And here to talk about it is Gwyneth Dunne. Welcome to the studio. B: Thank you. A: Tell us about Artists for Literacy. B: Well, we collect songs that have been inspired by literaturefor example, a song that has been written about a character , or a situationl in a bookand then we make the song available to teachers. There are a lot of popular songs that have been inspired in one way or another by
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literature. A: Oh! Like The Beatles wrote I am the Walrus. Wasnt that inspired by a poem by Lewis Caroll? B: Yes, it was, but also U2, Metallica, Stingthey all wrote songs that were inspired by a novel, or a story, or a poem that they had read. So we compile CDs of songs inspired by literature and the artists donate the songs. So, for example, weve got Suzanne Vegas song, Calypso. That was inspired by Homers Odyssey. Bruce Springsteens song, The Ghost of Tom Joadthat was inspired by a Steinbeck novel. A: And teachers use the music in the classroom. I guess youre looking at, what, middle school? high school? B: Both. Both middle and high school teachers use them. Teachers in adult literacy programs use them too, actually. A: What do the teachers do with the CDs? How do they use the songs? B: They play the songs and they study the lyrics, and that gives the students an idea of the plot, or the story, or the characters that are in the book. Sometimes theres a video they can watch, and oh, we have interviews with the artists too, on our Web site . It all helps to get students interested,and then theyre more ready to read the book. A: That sounds great ! I guess reading is scary to a lot of kids .But music isnt. B: Yeah. We also did a project where students read a novel. And then they wrote and performed their own songs about the story. So it works the other way around too! A: How did this organization come about? B: Well, the founder of the organization, Deborah Pardes, wrote a song that was inspired by the book

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Angelas Ashes, and she performed the song on the radio. And after the performance , the radio station got a lot of e-mails from listener, asking about the book. So she realized that listening to the song got people interested in reading the book. A: Thats an inspiring story. Gwyneth, thank you for being with us today. B: Youre welcome. A: For more information about Artists for Literacy, go to the Web site at 4 Listening Practice B Listening for Main Ideas (p. 13) A = Anne, B = Brent, C = Cora A: What are you reading? B: The Bone-Setters Daughter. A: Thats an Amy Tan book, isnt it? B: Yep. A: Oh, I love Amy Tan! Have you read any of her other books? B: Yeah, most of them. Ive read C: Which one was your favorite? B: I dont know. I like them all. This ones pretty good. A: The Joy Luck Club was a really important book for me. B: Thats the one about the mothers and their daughters, isnt it? A: Yeah. I read it when I was about fifteen, and I really identified with it! You know, when I was growing up, I didnt know very many other Chinese Americans, and suddenly here was this book and it was like the story of my life! Here at last were some characters that I could identify with! It was great! A: Thing is, it actually got me interested in China really for the first time. My father was born there, and he still has family over there, but he never really spoke very much about it, and after I read that book I started to get interested and I wanted

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to know more. So I suddenly started asking my parents all these questions, and I wanted to speak more Chinese at home. C: Wow. A: Yeah, and then we went there on a vacation shortly after that and it was like I discovered all this family that we had over there. It was so cool. C: All because of The Joy Luck Club. A: Yes, it was, really, in a way. B: Did you see the movie? A: Oh yes, I did, and I loved the movie too. C: I felt like that with The Catcher in the Rye. A: Really? C: Yes. I know its a really typical teenage book, that everybody has to read in high school, but it was a bit like what you felt. You know, you feel that no one understands you, and suddenly you read a book that just describes exactly your experience. C: The kid in the storywhats his name? B: Holden Caulfield. C: Holden Caulfield! Thats right. He was always going on about other people being phony, because adults just seemed sowhats the wordso insincere and kind oflike dishonest or something to him. Thats really how you feel at that age, I think. At least thats how I felt. B: Did you read it in high school? C: Yeah, and I remember it was the first time I ever liked a book that I had to read for school! After that, I actually got interested in English classes. B: The first book that I remember was Treasure Island. C: Treasure Island? Really? B: Yeah. When I was little, wed go to visit my grandparents in Brooklynon Sundaysevery Sunday. And the adults would have a big lunch, and talk, and Id be really bored. But they had a lot of books. So one day I started to look through the books and I noticed Treasure Island because it had these great pictures of pirates, and ships, and desert islands. The illustrations were beautiful. A: Yeah.

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B: And then I started to read the story, and I was hooked! And after that, Id pull out that book every Sunday and read it. It must have been at least a year. When I was done I just started all over again because it was quite difficult, so a year later I understood a lot more. I can still see some of those pictures. C: Ive never read B: It just really appealed to my imagination. For years after that I used to play pirates and look for buried treasure. That was all I wanted to do. A: Thats why books are so great for kids. They open up a whole world of possibilities to you.

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Chapter 3
CHAPTER 3

Life Sciences

2 Listening Practice
B Listening for Main Ideas (p. 18)
A = Guide, B = Whole Group, C = Group Member 1, D = Group Member 2

A: Hello, everyone. I know many of you have come from far away to visit us here in Cornwall in England, so welcome to the Eden Project ! To begin, let me give you a bit of background on the project. Our aim is to take horticulture the science of growing fruits, plants, and flowersand blend it with art ,science, and education. We also work to find a balance between growing plants for our needs and conserving land worldwide. Overall, our aim is education and not just for people already interested in plants and horticulture .We want to make plant-based issues interesting to the ordinary person . We have 100,000 different plants here, and 5000 different species of plant. B: Wow. Thats amazing. A: Yes, it is. Oh, I forgot to mention, feel free to ask questions at any time. OK, you can see that we have some amazing gardens to walk around in. Three different areas in fact, including the two biomes . The biomes are the clear domes that you see from here. Well talk about the different areas and then you can explore on your own . If you move closer to the map ,youll be able to see better. As you can see, we have three different areas with different kinds of plants in each area
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: one is the outdoor landscape , another is the warm temperate biome, and then the third is the humid tropics biome. Each biome has different sections with different types or categories of plants , whether it will be plants for food , plants for use in making fiber clothes and things like that and so on. There will be signs giving you information on each section. Lets talk about the outdoor landscape first . This has the natural landscapes and plants of temperate regions .This is like our region of Cornwall ,like where we are now, and really most of Britain , as well as parts of Russia and parts of North and South America . This landscape will continue to change over time, and, of course, the plants here change with the seasons too . Oh, its quite a long walk down to the end of this section, but there is a train that runs from here at the Visitor Centre . Any questions? OK, lets go on to the warm temperate biome .You can see it here on the map .Think of the regions of the Mediterranean for this one, as well as parts of South Africa, Australia, and some of California in the United States. Plants in these regions have to live in difficult conditions :very dry and usually the soil isnt very good . C: So, would these plants include things like olive trees and citrus fruits? A: Yes, exactly. OK, lets talk about the second biome. This is the humid tropics biome . Think of tropical regions such as West Africa , Malaysia and tropical South America. Its actually the largest biome in

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the world and has over 1000 plant species 0001 in it. And, of course, the temperatures are pretty warm in there, so bear that in mind. D: Can I ask how, or where, you got all these different plants? A: Yes, thats a good question. First of all, they werent taken from the wild and most of them are not rare . Many were grown from seed in our nursery here and others came from botanic gardens or research centers around the world. Also, we consulted with people from the different regions represented here when we got plants. OK, thats all. Thanks for coming and enjoy exploring the Eden Project! Ill be around for a few minutes if there are any more questions. B: Thank you. That was great. 4 Listening Practice B Listening for Main Ideas (p. 22) A = Teacher, B = Student 1, C = Student 2, D = Student 3 A: Good afternoon. In todays class were going to be talking about bees .What do you know about bees? OK, so you think you dont know a lot. What, could you repeat that? B: All I know is that it hurts when they sting me. A: Yes, it does hurt. And thats what most of us think about when we think about bees. But, in fact, bees play an important role in nature. Did you know that bees are mentioned in almost every religion and literature of the world? Imagine. You probably think of bees in warm places, but they actually survive in all kinds of places : the Himalayas and even in the Arctic tundra. So, theyve been around for a very long time and live in most parts of our world. And, there isnt just one kind of bee. Does anyone want to guess how many different species

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have been named ?Yes? C: Maybe a few hundred? A: No, there are more than that. Any other guesses? No? OK, there are 22,000 kinds of bees2200 that have been named. Yes, there are a lot of different kinds, arent there? Lets talk about the kind of bee that makes honey, the honeybee. Who knows how the honeybee makes honey? D: It starts with flowers, right? They go around to different flowers and take the nectar ,but Im not sure about the rest. A: Yes, thats right. A female worker bee goes around to all different flowers and gathers nectar. Then, she goes back to the hive well talk about the structure of the hive in a minute. And, how is the nectar changed to honey? Anyone? No? OK, the worker bee passes the nectar on to another bee , and the nectar gets passed from one bee to another. Each bee works with it and gradually more and more moisture goes out of the nectar. And finally, its stored on the comb. And over time more nectar is gathered, more honey made and added to the comb. Now, you know that different honeys have different flavors . If youve never thought about it before, you can probably guess why. The bee picking up the nectar visits a lot of flowers, and each different flower adds a different flavor to the final product of honey. C: Excuse me, can you explain how the worker bee carries the nectar back to the hive? A: Yes, good question. She carries it in a bag on her stomachnot surprisingly called the honey sac. When this bag is full, she returns to the hive with all the nectar. Now, lets talk about the structure of the hive. There are three kinds of bees in the hive the female worker bees as weve talked about, then the
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male bees, called drones, and then the queen. There could be up to 200,000 worker bees in a hive, but more typically there are more like 50,000. Then, there are only a few hundred drones , and finally, theres only one queen per hive. B: How many worker bees did you say? A: There can be as many asas 200,000, but theres more likely around 50,000. OK? Next lets talk about communication among bees It turns out that bees can communicate to some extent They can actually let other bees know about the location of food , not just where it is, but how good it is and how much there is. The bees do a kind of dance ,moving around in the air. Its actually called a waggle dance because of the way they move their bodies. Apparently, the size and pattern of this movement is what gives the other bees the information . An Austrian zoologist named Karl von Frisch did experiments to learn about this. D: Can you repeat that zoologists name, please? A: Yes, its Karl von Frisch. D: Thank you. A: OK, lets look at some slides

CC

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Psychology
2 Listening Practice
B Listening for Main Ideas (p. 27)

Chapter 4

Many people worry about memory loss. Its normal to lose memory as you get older. In fact, memory loss can begin when someone is in their twenties. But how much of your memory do you have to lose, and how quickly does it have to happen? Research on the brain and memory is a huge area these days. Doctors are looking for ways to help people improve their memory and possibly prevent loss. Today on the show, were looking at one program to help memory, called The Boot Camp for the Brain. Whats The Boot Camp for the Brain? Its a two-week program developed by a psychiatrist named Gary Small. His program combines four elements: a special diet, daily physical activity, stress relieving exercises and, of course, memory exercises. The memory exercises take about 15 minutes a day. Dr. Small claims that this combination can improve your brains function. Michele Rubin is one of Dr. Smalls success stories. Rubin is a 46-year-old mother of three teenagers. At the start of the program, her memory tested as average for her age. When she took memory tests after the program, her memory was equal to a 20-year-old person. Rubin says that a few years ago she started to feel that she was forgetting things and that her memory was not as good as it used to be. She says that the program was life-changing. Since the program, in addition to exercising more and improving her diet, she has started using memory strategies, reading non-fiction and doing crossword puzzles. She also helps her children with their math homework as a way to work her brain. Dr. Small says that he has evidence that the two-week boot camp program does in fact change the brain. He did a study with 17 volunteers. All of the volunteers had mild memory complaints. Dr. Small randomly chose eight people to participate in The Boot Camp for the Brain, and the remaining nine people did nothing different. They did brain scans on all 17 people before and after

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the program. Dr. Small says that the eight people who participated developed significantly more efficient brain cell activity in a front part of the brain that controls everyday memory tasks. The people who participated also said that they felt less forgetful after the program. Dr. Small emphasizes that this study was very small and that a larger study is needed. But, he still feels that the results are important. Other scientists say they are cautiously optimistic about Smalls approach. They feel more research is needed, but say its possible that The Boot Camp for the Brain could delay serious memory problems. Michele Rubin and many others who have participated in the program believe that it has definitely helped their memory. So, if youre worried about your memory, The Boot Camp for the Brain might be worth looking into. Tomorrow, were going to look at some other programs and ideas for improving memory. 4 Listening Practice B Listening for Main Ideas (p. 30) A = Host, B = Dr. Phyllis Rae, C = Roberto, D = Tim, E = Lily A: Good morning and welcome to our show. Today were talking about memory. Our guest is Dr. Phyllis Rae. Dr. Rae has done quite a bit of research on memory and how the brain works. Hello and welcome, Dr. Rae. B: Hi, thanks for having me. A: Now, Ill confess that I worry about my memory sometimes and Im pretty sure that some of our listeners have similar worries, so I hope you can give us some tips. B: Well, I think I probably can. One thing that people often dont realize is that feeling anxious or worried about your memory will definitely have a negative impact on your memory. So what I mean is that if youre feeling stressed out because, for example, you always forget peoples names. Well, the stress of worrying about it will actually make it harderharder to remember names. A: Really? So, we should try not to worry about it so
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much. B: Exactly. A: Well, were going to let our listeners get in on this conversation. Lets see what they want to know about memory. First we have Roberto from Phoenix calling. Hello, Roberto, whats your question? C: Hi! You mentioned forgetting peoples names. I have a terrible problem with this. So, Im wondering if there are any little tricks that I can use to help me remember. B: Yes, there definitely are. With almost any trick or technique, the goal is to make the name youre trying to remember as meaningful and memorable as possible. Try to associate the name with an image. Try to make the image as vivid as possible. For example, if you meet someone named John Hatfield, take a moment and come up with an image. Lets see, I might picture the man standing in a field next to an enormous red hat, and the name John is written in large letters on the hat. You can picture anything that would be helpful, but make it really memorable. Actually, the sillier it is, the better, because youre more likely to remember. C: Thank you. Thats really helpful. I think having a technique to use will help me feel less worried about this too. B: Good, so that will help with the stress factor we talked about. A: Thanks for calling, Roberto. Our next caller is Tim calling from Boston. Hi, Tim. D: Hi, this is a great topic. A: Thanks. B: Good. D: My question is about whether we can improve our memory or not. Ive been hearing more and more about exercises to strengthen the brain and things like that these days. Well, Its almost like people are saying that we have to work out our brain in a similar way to working out our bodies. Is this true? Should I be trying to exercise my brain? B: Great question. And, the answer is Yes. Research is definitely showing that exercise for our brains is

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beneficial. And yes, there is a parallel to exercise for our bodies. You can almost think about it as if the brain is a muscle and you have to work it to strengthen it just as we do with muscles in our bodies. D: So, how do you give your brain a work out? B: There are lots of ways. A lot of puzzles, for example crossword puzzles, are good for your brain. Puzzles that involve pictures and diagrams are also good. And there are actually a lot of good books available now with many different ideas on how to give your brain a work out. I recommend you find a book that looks interesting to you and then do the exercises. D: OK, I will. Thanks! A: Thanks for the question. B: Id also like to add that giving the brain some exercise is a good idea as you get older. Age affects the brain just as it affects the body, so regularly working out the brain can help it stay healthy as you age. A: That seems like good advice, especially since were all getting older. OK, our next caller is Lily from Chicago. Hello, Lily. E: Hi! I think my memory is pretty good, but the thing that drives me crazy is when I have something on the tip of my tongue, but I just cant remember it. B: Ah, the tip of the tongue syndrome! When what youre trying to remember is so close, but you just cant think of it, and the harder you try, the worse it gets, right? E: Yes, exactly. B: Ive found the best approach is to talk around the topic. For example, if youre trying to remember the name of a movie, talk about what the story is about, who the characters are and so on. This gives your brain time to work on it, and very often, if you dont push too hard, it will come back to you. E: Thanks! A: OK, its time for a break. Well come back in a minute for more of your questions.

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