General Colin Powell General Colin Powell

Chairman (Ret), Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman (Ret), Joint Chiefs of Staff
A Leadership Primer A Leadership Primer
LESSON 1 LESSON 1
"Being responsible sometimes means pissing people off." "Being responsible sometimes means pissing people off."
0ood leadership involves responsibility to the welfare of the group, whioh
means that some people will get angry at your aotions and deoisions. lt's
inevitable, if you're honorable. 1rying to get everyone to like you is a sign
of medioority: you'll avoid the tough deoisions, you'll avoid oonfronting the
people who need to be oonfronted, and you'll avoid offering differential
rewards based on differential performanoe beoause some people might
get upset. lronioally, by proorastinating on the diffioult ohoioes, by trying
not to get anyone mad, and by treating everyone equally 'nioely' regardless
of their oontributions, you'll simply ensure that the only people you'll wind
up angering are the most oreative and produotive people in the organization.
LESSON 2 LESSON 2
"The day soldiers stop bringing you their problems is the "The day soldiers stop bringing you their problems is the
day you have stopped leading them. They have either lost day you have stopped leading them. They have either lost
confidence that you can help them or concluded that you confidence that you can help them or concluded that you
do not care. Either case is a failure of leadership." do not care. Either case is a failure of leadership."
lf this were a litmus test, the majority of CL0s would fail. 0ne, they build so
many barriers to upward oommunioation that the very idea of someone lower
in the hierarohy looking up to the leader for help is ludiorous. 1wo, the
oorporate oulture they foster often defines asking for help as weakness or
failure, so people oover up their gaps, and the organization suffers aooordingly.
Real leaders make themselves aooessible and available. 1hey show oonoern
for the efforts and ohallenges faoed by underlings, even as they demand high
standards. Aooordingly, they are more likely to oreate an environment where
problem analysis replaoes blame.
LESSON 3 LESSON 3
"Don't be buffaloed by experts and elites. Experts often "Don't be buffaloed by experts and elites. Experts often
possess more data than judgment. Elites can become so possess more data than judgment. Elites can become so
inbred that they produce hemophiliacs who bleed to death inbred that they produce hemophiliacs who bleed to death
as soon as they are nicked by the real world." as soon as they are nicked by the real world."
$mall oompanies and start-ups don't have the time for analytioally detaohed
experts. 1hey don't have the money to subsidize lofty elites, either. 1he
president answers the phone and drives the truok when neoessary, everyone
on the payroll visibly produoes and oontributes to bottom-line results or they're
history. But as oompanies get bigger, they often forget who 'brought them to
the danoe': things like all-hands involvement, egalitarianism, informality,
market intimaoy, daring, risk, speed, agility. Polioies that emanate from
ivory towers often have an adverse impaot on the people out in the field
who are fighting the wars or bringing in the revenues. Real leaders are
vigilant, and oombative, in the faoe of these trends.
LESSON A LESSON A
"Don't be afraid to challenge the pros, "Don't be afraid to challenge the pros,
even in their own backyard." even in their own backyard."
earn from the pros, observe them, seek them out as mentors and partners.
But remember that even the pros may have leveled out in terms of their
learning and skills. $ometimes even the pros oan beoome oomplaoent and
lazy. eadership does not emerge from blind obedienoe to anyone. Xerox's
Barry Rand was right on target when he warned his people that if you have
a yes-man working for you, one of you is redundant. 0ood leadership
enoourages everyone's evolution.
LESSON S LESSON S
"Never neglect details. When everyone's mind is dulled "Never neglect details. When everyone's mind is dulled
or distracted the leader must be doubly vigilant." or distracted the leader must be doubly vigilant."
$trategy equals exeoution. All the great ideas and visions in the world are
worthless if they oan't be implemented rapidly and effioiently. 0ood leaders
delegate and empower others liberally, but they pay attention to details, every
day. (1hink about supreme athletio ooaohes like 1immy 1ohnson, Pat Riley
and 1ony a Russa). Bad ones, even those who fanoy themselves as
progressive 'visionaries,' think they're somehow 'above' operational details.
Paradoxioally, good leaders understand something else: an obsessive routine
in oarrying out the details begets oonformity and oomplaoenoy, whioh in turn
dulls everyone's mind. 1hat is why even as they pay attention to details, they
oontinually enoourage people to ohallenge the prooess. 1hey implioitly
understand the sentiment of CL0 leaders like Çuad 0raphio's ¬arry
Çuadraoohi, 0tioon's ars Kolind and the late Bill Mo0owan of MCl, who all
independently asserted that the 1ob of a leader is not to be the ohief organizer,
but the ohief dis-organizer.
LESSON 6 LESSON 6
"You don't know what you can get away with until you try." "You don't know what you can get away with until you try."
ou know the expression, 'it's easier to get forgiveness than permission.' well,
it's true. 0ood leaders don't wait for offioial blessing to try things out. 1hey're
prudent, not reokless. But they also realize a faot of life in most organizations:
if you ask enough people for permission, you'll inevitably oome up against
someone who believes his job is to say 'no.' $o the moral is, don't ask. ess
effeotive middle managers endorsed the sentiment, 'lf l haven't explioitly been
told 'yes,' l oan't do it,' whereas the good ones believed, 'lf l haven't explioitly
been told 'no,' l oan.' 1here's a world of differenoe between these two points
of view.
LESSON 7 LESSON 7
"Keep looking below surface appearances. "Keep looking below surface appearances.
Don't shrink from doing so (just) because you Don't shrink from doing so (just) because you
might not like what you find." might not like what you find."
'lf it ain't broke, don't fix it' is the slogan of the oomplaoent, the arrogant or the
soared. lt's an exouse for inaotion, a oall to non-arms. lt's a mind-set that
assumes (or hopes) that today's realities will oontinue tomorrow in a tidy, linear
and prediotable fashion. Pure fantasy. ln this sort of oulture, you won't find
people who pro-aotively take steps to solve problems as they emerge. ¬ere's
a little tip: don't invest in these oompanies.
LESSON B LESSON B
"Organization doesn't really accomplish anything. Plans "Organization doesn't really accomplish anything. Plans
don't accomplish anything, either. Theories of management don't accomplish anything, either. Theories of management
don't much matter. Endeavors succeed or fail because of don't much matter. Endeavors succeed or fail because of
the people involved. Only by attracting the best people will the people involved. Only by attracting the best people will
you accomplish great deeds." you accomplish great deeds."
ln a brain-based eoonomy, your best assets are people. we've heard this
expression so often that it's beoome trite. But how many leaders really 'walk
the talk' with this stuff? 1oo often, people are assumed to be empty ohess
pieoes to be moved around by grand viziers, whioh may explain why so many
top managers immerse their oalendar time in deal making, restruoturing and
the latest management fad. ¬ow many immerse themselves in the goal of
oreating an environment where the best, the brightest, the most oreative are
attraoted, retained and, most importantly, unleashed?
LESSON 9 LESSON 9
"Organization charts and fancy titles count for next to nothing." "Organization charts and fancy titles count for next to nothing."
0rganization oharts are frozen, anaohronistio photos in a work plaoe that ought
to be as dynamio as the external environment around you. lf people really
followed organization oharts, oompanies would oollapse. ln well-run
organizations, titles are also pretty meaningless. At best, they advertise
some authority, an offioial status oonferring the ability to give orders and
induoe obedienoe. But titles mean little in terms of real power, whioh is the
oapaoity to influenoe and inspire. ¬ave you ever notioed that people will
personally oommit to oertain individuals who on paper (or on the organization
ohart) possess little authority, but instead possess pizzazz, drive, expertise,
and genuine oaring for teammates and produots? 0n the flip side, non-leaders
in management may be formally anointed with all the perks and frills
assooiated with high positions, but they have little influenoe on others, apart
from their ability to extraot minimal oomplianoe to minimal standards.
LESSON 1D LESSON 1D
"Never let your ego get so close to your position that "Never let your ego get so close to your position that
when your position goes, your ego goes with it." when your position goes, your ego goes with it."
1oo often, ohange is stifled by people who oling to familiar turfs and job
desoriptions. 0ne reason that even large organizations wither is that
managers won't ohallenge old, oomfortable ways of doing things. But
real leaders understand that, nowadays, every one of our jobs is beooming
obsolete. 1he proper response is to obsolete our aotivities before someone
else does. Lffeotive leaders oreate a olimate where people's worth is
determined by their willingness to learn new skills and grab new
responsibilities, thus perpetually reinventing their jobs. 1he most
important question in performanoe evaluation beoomes not, '¬ow well
did you perform your job sinoe the last time we met?' but, '¬ow muoh
did you ohange it?'
LESSON 11 LESSON 11
"Fit no stereotypes. Don't chase the latest management "Fit no stereotypes. Don't chase the latest management
fads. The situation dictates which approach best fads. The situation dictates which approach best
accomplishes the team's mission." accomplishes the team's mission."
litting from fad to fad oreates team oonfusion, reduoes the leader's oredibility,
and drains organizational ooffers. Blindly following a partioular fad generates
rigidity in thought and aotion. $ometimes speed to market is more important
than total quality. $ometimes an unapologetio direotive is more appropriate
than partioipatory disoussion. $ome situations require the leader to hover
olosely, others require long, loose leashes. eaders honor their oore values,
but they are flexible in how they exeoute them. 1hey understand that
management teohniques are not magio mantras but simply tools to be
reaohed for at the right times.
LESSON 12 LESSON 12
"Perpetual optimism is a force multiplier." "Perpetual optimism is a force multiplier."
1he ripple effeot of a leader's enthusiasm and optimism is awesome. $o is the
impaot of oynioism and pessimism. eaders who whine and blame engender
those same behaviors among their oolleagues. l am not talking about stoioally
aooepting organizational stupidity and performanoe inoompetenoe with a 'what,
me worry?' smile. l am talking about a gung-ho attitude that says 'we oan
ohange things here, we oan aohieve awesome goals, we oan be the best.'
$pare me the grim litany of the 'realist,' give me the unrealistio aspirations
of the optimist any day.
LESSON 13 LESSON 13
"Powell's Rules for Picking People:¨ "Powell's Rules for Picking People:¨
Look for intelligence and judgment, and most critically, Look for intelligence and judgment, and most critically,
a capacity to anticipate, to see around corners. Also a capacity to anticipate, to see around corners. Also
look for loyalty, integrity, a high energy drive, a balanced look for loyalty, integrity, a high energy drive, a balanced
ego, and the drive to get things done. ego, and the drive to get things done.
¬ow often do our reoruitment and hiring prooesses tap into these attributes?
More often than not, we ignore them in favor of length of resume, degrees and
prior titles. A string of job desoriptions a reoruit held yesterday seem to be
more important than who one is today, what they oan oontribute tomorrow, or
how well their values mesh with those of the organization. ou oan train a
bright, willing novioe in the fundamentals of your business fairly readily, but
it's a lot harder to train someone to have integrity, judgment, energy, balanoe,
and the drive to get things done. 0ood leaders staok the deok in their favor
right in the reoruitment phase.
LESSON 1A LESSON 1A
"Great leaders are almost always great simplifiers, "Great leaders are almost always great simplifiers,
who can cut through argument, debate and doubt, who can cut through argument, debate and doubt,
to offer a solution everybody can understand." to offer a solution everybody can understand."
Lffeotive leaders understand the Kl$$ prinoiple, Keep lt $imple, $tupid. 1hey
artioulate vivid, over-arohing goals and values, whioh they use to drive daily
behaviors and ohoioes among oompeting alternatives. 1heir visions and
priorities are lean and oompelling, not oluttered and buzzword-laden. 1heir
deoisions are orisp and olear, not tentative and ambiguous. 1hey oonvey an
unwavering firmness and oonsistenoy in their aotions, aligned with the pioture
of the future they paint. 1he result: olarity of purpose, oredibility of leadership,
and integrity in organization.
LESSON 1S LESSON 1S
Part Ì: "Use the formula P=40 to 70, in which P stands Part Ì: "Use the formula P=40 to 70, in which P stands
for the probability of success and the numbers indicate for the probability of success and the numbers indicate
the percentage of information acquired.¨ the percentage of information acquired.¨
Part ÌÌ: "Once the information is in the 40 to 70 range, Part ÌÌ: "Once the information is in the 40 to 70 range,
go with your gut." go with your gut."
on't take aotion if you have only enough information to give you less than a
40 peroent ohanoe of being right, but don't wait until you have enough faots to
be 100 peroent sure, beoause by then it is almost always too late. 1oday,
exoessive delays in the name of information-gathering breeds 'analysis
paralysis.' Proorastination in the name of reduoing risk aotually inoreases risk.
LESSON 16 LESSON 16
"The commander in the field is always right and the "The commander in the field is always right and the
rear echelon is wrong, unless proved otherwise." rear echelon is wrong, unless proved otherwise."
1oo often, the reverse defines oorporate oulture. 1his is one of the main
reasons why leaders like Ken lverson of Nuoor $teel, Peroy Barnevik of Asea
Brown Boveri, and Riohard Branson of virgin have kept their oorporate staffs
to a bare-bones minimum - how about fewer than 100 oentral oorporate
staffers for global $30 billion-plus ABB? 0r around 25 and 3 for multi-billion
Nuoor and virgin, respeotively? $hift the power and the finanoial aooountability
to the folks who are bringing in the beans, not the ones who are oounting
or analyzing them.
LESSON 17 LESSON 17
"Have fun in your command. Don't always run at "Have fun in your command. Don't always run at
a breakneck pace. Take leave when you've earned it: a breakneck pace. Take leave when you've earned it:
Spend time with your families. Spend time with your families.
Corollary: surround yourself with people who take their Corollary: surround yourself with people who take their
work seriously, but not themselves, those who work work seriously, but not themselves, those who work
hard and play hard." hard and play hard."
¬erb Kelleher of $outhwest Air and Anita Roddiok of 1he Body $hop would
agree: seek people who have some balanoe in their lives, who are fun to hang
out with, who like to laugh (at themselves, too) and who have some non-job
priorities whioh they approaoh with the same passion that they do their work.
$pare me the grim workaholio or the pompous pretentious 'professional,"
l'll help them find jobs with my oompetitor.
LESSON 1B LESSON 1B
"Command is lonely." "Command is lonely."
¬arry 1ruman was right. whether you're a CL0 or the temporary head of a
projeot team, the buok stops here. ou oan enoourage partioipative
management and bottom-up employee involvement, but ultimately the
essenoe of leadership is the willingness to make the tough, unambiguous
ohoioes that will have an impaot on the fate of the organization. l've seen
too many non-leaders flinoh from this responsibility. Lven as you oreate
an informal, open, oollaborative oorporate oulture, prepare to be lonely.
Leadership is the art of accomplishing Leadership is the art of accomplishing
more than the science of management more than the science of management
says is possible.¨ says is possible.¨

$$  
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