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Aligning Personal Brand With Corporate Brand
Prof.Dr. Hubert Rampersad President,
Personal Branding University Miami, Florida,USA

Aligning personal brand with the corporate brand has an impact on the organizational bonding of the empl oyees. This energizes them and gives them the proud feeling that they count, that they are appreciated as human beings and that they make a useful and valuable contribution to the organization. Employees are stimulated in this way to commit and focus on those activities that create value for clients. This will create a strong found ation of peace and stability upon which creativity and growth can flourish, and life within the company will become a more harmonious experience. This has an impo rtant impact on employee engageme nt. Lack of engageme nt is endemi c, and is causing large and small organizations all over the world to incur excess costs, under perform on critical tasks, and create widesp read customer dissatisfaction. Increasingly, successful companies are beginning to recognize that good brand relationships with their employees are more impo rtant than good brand relationships with their customer s. They understand that employees should be hap py first in order to make the customers happy and that corporate brand loyalty starts with empl oyee’s engageme nt. This can be realized by aligning the empl oyee’s brand with the corporate brand. This article proposes a successful method to realize this. Alignment is needed because staff members don’t work with devotion or expend energy on something they do not believe in or agree with. If there is an effective match between their interests and those of the compa ny, or if their values and the compa ny’s values align, they will be engaged and will work with greater commitme nt and dedication towards realizing the company objectives. Identification with the corporate brand is the most impo rtant motive for them to dedicate themselves actively to the corporate objectives and to maximize their potential. When your personal brand is compatible with your corporate’s brand and combined in the best interest of both parties, the results will be higher brand equi ty, brand loyalty, and happy stakeholder s. Doing work related to your personal and corporate brand that is interesting, exciting and provides learning opportunities has become a key personal driver. The emphasis here lies in intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is inherently pleasurable and it arises from within; most people do something because they enjoy doing it and love it. People work harder and better when they perceive that they are treated as human beings and when they do interesting and challenging work.

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Does an Authentic Personal Brand emerge from an Enlivened Consciousness resulting in Enhanced Social Capital
Prof. Lakshman Madurasinghe, Ms (Psy)., PhD.,
Attorney-at-Law ; Consultant Psychologist Chairperson-Planning and Strategic Development- JWC Secretary General, Chamber of Chartered Java Professionals, Greece/USA President, Maharishi Institute of Advanced Technology, SL madu re@canta b.net

Humans are social animals. From time immemorial history is replete with a plethora of examples of how humans interacted with family, small groups, society , country and the world at large to transact his busines s. While these social contacts are salutary to building health networks, others have used them to build tension, conflict and anxiety in our dealing s. While interacting with a global village we observe how the multi-faceted technology and communic ation expansions have brought us very close to each other redefining the old bounda ries. In these ever increasing social interactions it has become clearer that myriad of everyday interactions between people have led to the creation of social capital. We cannot say with any certainty where it is located. Some surmise that it may be located within the individual person or within the social structure. But deeper research has shown us that it is located in the space between peopl e. Therefore it is not the prerogative of any governme nt or social institution but is based on the interactions of humans with other humans based on principles of trust, mutual reciprocity and norms of action. While the found ations of a multi-cultural ethos could be laid using tolerance and civiliy, I believe that t we should reach a stage where we understand and feel for other humans even without express communication, a level I believe is possible though new neural pathways. As Francis Fukuyama (1999) inteprets social capital is an instantiated informal norm that promo tes coope ration between two or more individuals. The norms that constitu te social capital can range from a norm of reciprocity between two friends, all the way up to complex and elaborately articulated doctrines like Christianity or Confucianism. They must be insta ntiated in an actual human relationship: the norm of reciprocity exists in potentia in my dealings with all peopl e, but is actualized only in my dealings with my friends. By this definition, trus t, networks, civil society, and the like which have been associated with social capital are all epiphenomena l, arising as a result of social capital but not constituting social capital itself. Social capital has the most beneficial effect on society is characterized by compe tence, commitme nt, character, and consciousness—th at is, the direct developme nt of human consciousness through a technology of medit ation. Research also indicates that an authe ntic personal brand emerges from a search for one’s true identity and meaning in life, doing what one loves and developing oneself continuousl y. An Authentic Personal Brand should always reflect one’s true character, and should be built on one’s values, strength s, uniquenes s, and genius which then adds meaning and value to what he brings to society thus result© J a va Wo rld C o n g re s All rights re s erv e d . J ava Wor ld C o ng res , J ava World C o n g r es L ogo a nd Illus tr ati o are eit her reg is te r e tr ad em ark or tre a d m ar of J a va Wo rld C o n g re s in Sri L a n ka a n d /o O th er C o u n t rie s . s s n d s k r

Thematic Presentation ing in enhan ced social capital.

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Thematic Presentation

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Holistic Model of Education to Kindle Entrepreneurial Spirit in Youth
Aspasia Peppa., DBA (USA)

Director Professional affairs, CC JP-Greece/USA 30 Ari Velouhioti Street , 19 200 Elefsina,Attiki, Greece. E-M ail:aspasia@ccjpint.org In the ancient past the systems of educ ation we promo ted contained ‘an ideal system of education, which apart from dissemin ating sweetness and light, infused into the minds of the pupils a spiritual urge for coming in contact which the kingdom of the Absolu te. But now when we look at the present state of affairs, the change shocks us deeply and we cry out in the language of Wordsworth. “Whiter is fled the visionary gleam? Where is it now, the glory and the dream “ The imperfection of the patterns are now keenly felt and there is a universal cry for introducing a radical change in the educational system - a change that will touch not merely the methods and curricular but the very objective and ideology of education, in accordance with the needs of the new social, economical and political set-up in the world. The crowing defect of our existing educational system that requires the immediate and earnest conside ration of all those who are interested in the welfare of the stude nts. is its excessively passive and mechanical character. The stude nts play no active role in the attainme nt of knowledg e. His entire educ ation is passive and mechanica l. Things are loaded or his mind which he cannot diges t, which he only crams and therefore they never become his own. They remain floating on his mental surface a mere matter of idle inquires; they never sink deep to become entwined in the mental texture, to help to constitu te a distinct intellectual and spiritual personali ty. These educational systems, is just ‘cramming the boy’s head with a lot of disjointed facts poured into the head as into a baske t, to be emptied out again in the examination room, and the empty basket carried out again into the world. This is the reason why a stude nt who succeeds so well in his college examination fails so miserably in the examination of life. The best product of our examination system is an owlish looking, boy, a veritable bookworm who knows nothing of the world beyond the world books. He is physically poor, intellectually blank and morally insolvent. He has no proper grasps and assimilation, no views and visions of his own. He is determined to no acts, has no desire to form convictions, arrives at no conclusions and his will seems to be suspende d, aslee p, diseased or dead. He simply covers the window of his mind with the pages of books and the plaster of book phrases sticks into his mental skin, making it ineffective to all direct touches of truth. Their souls are regimented and their faces are without feature. It is my contention that a holistic, consciousness based model that activates the full brain and its value –centric in nature will be able to help optimize the full potential, thus giving back to our society, future leaders who are capable of making this a better world for all humani ty.

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It Is in Our DNA to Sense How Long We Can Live
Guy J Ale, Seminar,
11941 Weddington Village, CA 91607 USA

Lifespan
Street, Valley

www.lifespanseminar.com; lifespanseminar@yahoo.com

My name is Guy J Ale, and I am the president of L ifespan Semina r, based in Los Angele s, California. I am honored to have been invited to give a Keynote address at the Java World Congress, and also to write an article for the Congress journal in relation to Congress’ them e. L ifespan Seminars explain that it is in our DNA to sense how long we can live, and teach how to do this. We provide individuals and organizations with a structure of balance and wellness in their personal and professional lives by helping them master the energy and resources inherent in their makeu p. So I am choosing to write under the Congress thematic banner of “Health for All”, which begins with health for each. Obesity is becoming the most prevalent public health problem in industrialized nations, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Developme nt (OECD) said in a study published in Paris on September 23, 2010. “If recent trends continue, projections suggest that more than 2 out of 3 people will be overweight or obese in at least some OECD countries within the next 10 years,” according to the study, Obesity and the Economics of Prevention. What is to be done? What can each of us contribute to understanding personal health, fitness, and optimal living? I find myself to be at fifty in the best physical and mental conditions I have ever been, without the use of drugs, pills, or enhan cements of any kind. So my job, as the president of L ifespan Semina r, is to use this oppo rtunity to show you, dear reade r, what I see in my life, which is a structure of life-affirming choices. I have known how long I can live for the past eighteen years. To address scepticism head-on, this is not a fact but a potential, something that might come true if I make the right decision s. I have lived with this notion since 1992, and the more I live it the more I believe it. I have initially struggled with it, mistrusted it, researched it, gradually accepted it, unders tood it, finally came to rely on it, and now I teach what I’ve learned. Albert Einstein said, “There is no logical way to the discovery of these elemental laws. There is only the way of intuition, which is helped by a feeling for the order lying behind them .” My research of the last eighteen years, along with my intuition, tell me that the awareness of the amount of energy our body contains is a latent capacity in us, currently unknown, as the introduction of fire, the invention of flying, and the discovery of radio waves were before we revealed them. Consciousness in the universe has been developing for the past 15 billion years since the big ban g. We, the carriers of this consciousnes s, are at the present stage of evolution, and have not reached our final form. The awareness of our duration is a natural step in our future progress.

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Modern Trends and Opportunities in Effective Online Education Using Java Technology
Prof. Erantha De Mel
erantha@qnetso ft.com Managing Director QNETSoftware Engineering Research Laboratory

Presently, educ ation systems are unde rgoing a major paradigm shift with the emphasis transferring from teaching towards learning. In simple terms, it’s a learner-centred world. In the pas t, many of us thoug ht that trainers were the centre of the learning universe. Currently, learning is no longer considered as a mimetic process where knowledge is merely transferred or distributed to the trainees or stude nts. Recent studies indicate that electronically medi ated classes are more learner-oriented than teache r-centred. Through the use of multimedia tools, the responsibility for learning is shifted to the learner whereby the instructor facilitates the learning process by acting as a mode rator, resource guid e, and companion in the learning process. This approach makes the learner more proactive rather than reactive. Studies have also shown that learning is enhan ced when stude nts have extensive interaction with one anothe r, and with the instructor in a collaborative and cooperative manne r. Discussion and sharing of information fosters the learning process and learning takes place in the context of real-time discourse. This requires a network of media that allows and encourages two-way communic ation before, during, and after a training program. The knowledge dissemin ation process should also be capable of suppo rting multiple “vehicles of expression” (multimedia) which the trainees and instructor can use to interact. Java has eme rged as a powerful programming language for developing platform-independe nt, cross-platform depl oyable interactive software systems that can be used via internet. In fact, it did not take long for Java to take over “the most sought after” status from many software language s, and become the most preferred tool for creating software; especially software for the World Wide Web. In order to develop new systems for adult educ ation and training that will support the skills needed for the 21st century, it is very vital to understand the implications for radical change in the nation’s traditional context for learning, that are being driven by information technolog y; and the usage of appropriate and cost-effective tools in designing and developing such programs. The “New Economy” - whether described as the information economy, digital economy, or knowledge economy – is characterized by structural changes that have profound implications on the public policies that frame lifelong learning. These changes include industrial and occupational chang e, globalization, the changing nature of competition and the progress of the information technology revolution. They place a premium on knowledg e, skills, and training. Within this new context, the adult who has been an occasional “stude nt” becomes a continuous “consume r” of knowledge available worldwide, anytime and anywhere. As employees increasingly gain control over their own learning and career development, employers face difficult challenges in training and retaining a workforce with consistent levels of skill. In this arena, modern technological tools play a vital role in catering to such demand s. It is a well known fact that Java as a programming language sets off a new paradigm in the software indust ry, and there are nume rous possibilities available by using Java in asynch ronous e-Learning systems offering cost-effective solutions - catering to the needs of “anytimeanywhere” learning.

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Easy Tips for Sri Lanka Youth to Enter the Global ICT Job Market
Dr. Ishantha Siribaddana
Secretary General
Secretary General Java World Congress Chairman/Managing Director Institute of Java and Technological Studies - Sri Lanka President Chamber of Chartered Java Professionals International - Sri Lanka Board Member World View Impact - Sri Lanka ishantha@ijts.lk

Introduct ion
Information communic ation technology and computing is the fastest growing field in the world today. The fastest growth of the field ensures the growth of the job market at a high rate. Careful preparation for the ICT job market guarantees short time success in high salaried jobs not only locally, but also in the global job market.

Recognizing skills requirement for Information Technology based job market
Information dissemin ation around the world through compu ters and other related electronic devices require technolog y. The specialty of the field of Information Technology is that, Employers expect soft skills and upd ated knowledge from job seeker s. They do not expect much hard skills from them. Job seekers in the field of ICT should clearly understand why they should develop professional skills and not only academic qualifications.

Preparation methodologies for Information Technology based job market
Traditional job market seeks your academic qualifications, your university degree etc. But job market of the ICT expects your skills and professional background. Therefore job seekers should have a clear idea how to acquire relevant skills rather than limiting to academic qualifications.

Personal marketability Information Technology

growth

based

on

The ICT based jobs fall into the modern job market. Fast growth of the market makes less completion for ICT job seeker s. The competition of the traditional job market puts the salaries down. On the other hand ICT based modern job market is with less competition creates high demand for skilled professionals and brings offers high salaries. Job seekers must be capable to understand how to increase the personal marketable value. For that they have to select the correct ICT subje ct to learn and mas ter. Complete subject knowledge plays a major role to increase the personal marketable value of the particular job seeker.

Selection of wrong Information Technology category may leads to enroll with low level job market
Information technology is mainly divided in to six categories. Majority of the youth waste over three to four years just to select the proper technological category to mas ter. Poor understanding of available categories leads job seekers to select irrelevant IT subje cts. Later they get non related less paid IT jobs and suffer through their whole life.

Get the overall picture of Inform ation Technol ogy first, and sel ect the most sui table subject to mas ter
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In the ICT field job categories are in three levels, low level, middle level, and high level. Job seekers may select wrong subject to master even though they have higher academic qualifications. Highly qualified academics may get lower salaried jobs in the market if they have selected the wrong field in the ICT Arena.

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Academic qualification may be high, but you may get a low salaried job.
Job opportunities are minimal for job seekers if they have only academic qualifications even up to BSc. or MSc. Levels, if they don’t have correct skill by mastering an ICT subject up to the professional level. Their long term experience even may not be counted for selection. Even without any experience or academic qualification high salaried jobs are available for professionally qualified skilled job seeker s. Skilled mean they should be able to complete a given task without allocating time for research work relevant to the project assigned. Non skilled highly qualified academics fail in selection interviews and tests due to the skill compone nt.

Do International certifications examinations provide all?

and

theory

Recognition is not given for the international examinations or certifications but for skills in the information technolog y. You may have highest number of theory certifications provided by the owners of the particular ICT subjects (Vendor Certifica- tions), but it is not the factor for your recognition, but the real practical training. Job seekers having international certifica- tions obtained after cramming theories without practicals, fail in their practical test at the recruitme nt process if you are not having thorough practical training.

Locally completed professional training programs bring success to higher education in overseas
A methodology is to be unders tood to select the correct ICT training program available not only within the country but also oversea s. Wrong academic or professional training programs may waste job seeker s’ time and money. Sometimes even if the academic degree is earned with hard work, it may become an utter waste not only financially but also with time, in the ICT environme nt. Some stude nts may be interested to spend a lot to get overseas educ ation to get high caliber jobs, with a huge investme nt, not knowing better facilities available nearby at a cheaper rate.

What is your plan? Be an Academic or a Professional?
Academic educ ation is to become an academi c. Professional educ ation is to become a professiona l. Clearly select as to who you want to be. Anybody can become a professional through academic education, but takes a long time. Through profes- sional educ ation you can become a professional in a short time. Academic educ ation helps to select the professional field after studying many related subje cts. Today even with a BSc. in ICT, enrolling into a job in information technology is difficult without professional qualifications.

Why not follow ultra fast learning techniques to achieve the highest positions in the IT field in short?
Anybody can follow correct techniques to climb up the career ladder and grow up faster effortlessly, while traditional academics who have comple ted highest levels of educ ation are struggling to grow up.

Get ready to exile from the ICT environment automatically if you do not know the fast updating techniques
Information technology is updating on a daily basis. If you are not updating yourself freque ntly, get ready to exile from the industry automatically. Not knowing easy techniques to upd ate with the technological growth will make you suffer a life time, while others are succeed, easily knowing all fast adaption technique s. Academic qualification first or professional qualification first…The turning point where most of the youngsters go wrong Information technology is a modern subje ct, because all professions were gene rated in about last 30 years. Hence the
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training path also should be modern to get the maximum outcome. Majority of the youth go wrong with traditional learning paths and waste long periods of their younth. It is obvious that getting academic qualifications comes first traditionally, even up to the PhD. But In the field of Information technology it is the other way around, to get the maximum outcome in your youth. Especially in Sri Lanka, this technique is more suitable because 90% of the after A/L school leavers are losing oppo rtunity to enter into their higher studie s.

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Professional qualifications are also in several levels. Do you like to get a low level less salaried ICT job?
Outcome of the high level and middle level professional qualifications in the field of ICT cannot be compa red with any other easily available professional qualification around the world. ICT professionals are highly paid. No one can get a professional qualification just with surface learning of a particular subject or passing an international examination without following a methodical theo retical, practical training and proper experience gaining process while studyin g.

The method to understand the level of the IT Job Market
Low Level IT Job Market (Salary Scale Rs. 10000- 25000) Primary Academic Education is sufficient Creativity and innovation is not needed to apply Mostly the job function is limited to use a software application
Eg: Data entry operators

Middle Level IT Jobs (Salary Scale Rs. 15,000 – 45000) Secondary Academic Education is conside red No room to use creativity and innovation of the empl oyee Mostly job functions are limited to use a developed software application and configuration
Eg: Networking professional System s adm inistration s, Professionals

High Level IT Jobs (Salary Scale Rs. 30,000- 80,000) Graduate level academic qualifications are conside red Enough room for creativity and innovations Programming language to be mas tered up to the professional level for any kind of a software solution developme nt
Eg: Software Engineers, Developers, and Architects Etc.

The Final thought for an ICT Job Seeker
Job seekers in the field of information communic ation technology should not worry about the academic educ ation which they have, whether it is up to Ordinary level or lower, Advance Level or lower. If they select a programming language to master with only other related technolo gies they can involve with the high level job market as a software developer initially and can gradually improve his academic background up to graduate level to become an academically and professionally qualified software engineer later. Earning professional qualifications prior to the academic qualification is faster and can gain more financial benefits for ICT job seeker s. This process is more applicable in Sri Lanka for ICT job seeker s, because graduate level academic qualification acquiring op- portunities are limited to around 2000 stude nts out of all high school leavers. Also when they pass out from the university, average age comes around 23-24 due to the slow process of educ ation (in overseas it is 19-20 maximum)

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Consumer Trust Formation B2C UK EBanking
Nalin Asanka,
Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom, LU1 3JU, NAsanka@centralbeds.ac.uk

Tim French,

Department of Computer Science Technology, University of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom, tim.french@beds.ac.uk

and

Web banking security in developed nations is still in its infancy and will depend largely upon the usage of such systems. It has been seen that different nations have different approaches to using the internet both from a business-to consumer (B2C), and from a business- to-business (B2B)viewpoint. This research focuses on the usage of electronic banking web sites in the United Kingdom. This will involve the investigation, and related analysis of a case study based on the consumer trust behaviour of a B 2C U K E-Banking web site. The investigation will focus on the analysis of the usage patterns, the consumer interaction and the trust perception of a simulated e-banking web site. The study finding will focus on the degree of effectiveness of tangible factors such as trust seals and symbols, security policy and site design phenomena. These factors will be related to usability studie s, and will lead to a number of recommend ations for “best practice” design and impleme ntation guidelines for such financial websi tes. These recommend ations can be generalised for websites in U K involving B2C and B2B interactions. Due to the fast growing technolog y, it provides new dimension to our daily lives. “In this way, Internet banking systems al- low users to manage financial affairs such as checking account balances and transferring money between accounts as fast and easy as it can be. Today almost all the banks commonly use electronic banking. This is commonly known as online banking or e-banking. “Use of the Internet in banking operations can be considered a logical step as the new technology is basically an increment in an already evolving operational infrastructure”. Due to significantly expected security environ- ment in B2C E-Banking systems, there are number of techniques and standards have been developed in order to provide information security in online banking applications. It is worth making notice currently there is no particular standard of methodolo gical approach have been invented for internet banking security. “A number of techniques and standards have been developed for providing information security in different applications, but currently there is no official standard for a methodolo gical approach to web banking security”. However, there are plenty of increasing new attacks and viruses against e-commerce web sites mainly in the financial entities, such as “phishin g” and “pharming” frauds, that must be looked forward in order to gua rantee customer s’ trustworthiness towards Ebanking services. “Measuring Trust in Wi-Fi Hotspot s” research paper states, “Trust is an impo rtant factor when considering privacy and security, since, on the one hand, users many mistakenly trust a malevolent but apparently trustworthy service and thereby open themselves to at- tack; and on the other hand, they may distrust a bona fide
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service and thereby miss out on its benefit s.

Consumer Trust Formation B2C UK EBanking

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Development of a Paddy Parboiling Simulation computer programme in Sinhala
D M C Gunathilaka C
Research Officer, Institute of Post Harvest Technology, R & D Center, Jayanthi Mawatha, Anuradhapura 50000, Sri Lanka.

The breakage of rice kernels during milling operation is the major loss occurring in rice post harvest processing. Broken kernels are essentially a loss, because they have much lower market value than head rice. Parboiling of rice is an ancie nt traditional process of Asian countries. Generally, parboiling process consists of three stages: soaking the cleaned raw rough rice to saturation moisture content, gelatinization of rice starch by adding heat to the moist kernels through steamin g, and drying the product to moisture content suitable for milling or storage. It’s reducing the level of grain breakage and increase in head rice yield during milling. It is also improve nutritive and some sensory qualities of rice. However, parboiling of rough rice associated some drawbacks that reduce rice kernel whiteness and increase in kernel hardnes s. Also, some consumer s, especially those who are used to eating un-pa rboiled rice, dislike the cooking and eating qualities of parboiled rice. This research study was carried out to develop a paddy parboiling simulation software in order to optimize paddy parboiling process. It can also be used to prepare rice with high consumer deman d. This compu ter programme was developed based on the paddy parboiling mathematical model developed by Gunathilake (2009). Computer programme can be used to predict the rice qualities such as kernel whitenes s, broken grain %, head rice yield % and kernel hardness by the function of paddy parboiling treatme nts i.e. soaking water tempe rature & duration and steaming pressure & duration without performing the actual experiment. However, the predicted values by compu ter programme need to be verified with actual values to check its accuracy for prediction. Hence, the predicted values by software of above mentioned rice qualities were verified with actual data obtained by parboiling of two Sri Lankan paddy varieties namely B G 358 (Samba) and B G 352 (Nadu). Goodness of fit of predicted values with actual value was reported 7.51. It was less than 10 hence, it was revealed, that the compu ter programme was capable to predict values similar to actual values. Therefore paddy parboiling simulation compu ter programme was suitable for obtaining the rice quality parame ters such as rice kernel whitenes s, broken grain percentage, head rice yield and rice kernel hardness change with parboiling treatme nts i.e. soaking water tempe rature & duration and steaming pressure & duration also programme can be successfully adop ted to overcome drawbacks of parboiling process such as loss of colour and texture by optimizing the parboiling treatments according to the consumer requireme nt. It is also useful to minimizing parboiling cost while increasing the rice quality in rice processing. One of the main advantages of this compu ter programme is functioned in Sinhala language therefore it is user-friendly for most of Sri Lankan users.

© J a va Wo rld C o n g re s All rights re s erv e d . J ava Wor ld C o ng res , J ava World C o n g r es L ogo a nd Illus tr ati o are eit her reg is te r e tr ad em ark or tre a d m ar of J a va Wo rld C o n g re s in Sri L a n ka a n d /o O th er C o u n t rie s . s s n d s k r

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Social Mobility and Goal Attainment of Education in Sri Lanka
Dr. (Ms) SJMNG Samarakoon and Mr. R.M.Susantha Rasnayake, Department of Economics and Statistics,
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihul oya Department of Social Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihul oya nimalakith@sab.ac.lk, nimalakithsjm@gmail.com

A study was carried out to examine the educational need achie vement and social mobility in developing societies with special reference to Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka has been able to achieve one of the highest literacy rates among developing nations. In addition, the local educ ation system encourages a full nine year period of compulsory schooling for all children. As a developing country, Sri Lanka is one of the first counties in the developing world to first achieve the millennium developme nt goal of increasing opportunities for primary education. On the other hand, there is a high competition for higher educ ation and vocational educ ation because educ ation is the leading force of the social mobility in Sri Lankan Society. Even though Sri Lankan educ ation system maintains relatively high standa rds, it has certain shortcomings espe- cially when it comes to social mobility. Within this context, the purposes of this study were to investigate how stude nts determine their future social and professional opportunity via education, to examine the possibility to reach their targets of educ ation and to assess the restrictions that they meet in achieving educational goals and social mobility. A formal systematically selected random sampling method was used to select the sample for the present study. The sample consisted of 150 third year university stude nts representing all five faculties of the Sabaragamu wa University, 60 from Social Sciences and Language s, 12 from Survey Sciences, 16 from Applied Sciences, 40 from Manageme nt Sciences and 22 from Agricultural Sciences. A pre-structured questionnai re was used as a tool for data collection. It was revealed that the stude nts themselves decide their ultimate goal of the educ ation during the period of their G .C E. . (O/L). Nevertheless a substantial number of them have no clear picture about future direction of their education. The G.C. . A/L is the turning point of need achie vement of educ ation and social mobility that they meet in the future, but it E depends on many socio-economic and psychological variables including self motivation, socio-economic and educ ation background of the family and resources availability at A/L schoolin g. It was also revealed that the self motivation for need achievement of educ ation is the key factor that leads to future social mobility. According to the study, the stude nts adjust their ultimate vision of the educ ation based on available oppo rtuni- ties at the job market based mainly on areas such as IT and foreign language s. It can be concluded that although govern- ment implement free educ ation policy up to university education, no equal access to educ ation exists. This discrepan cy in turn creates an unequal social mobility that will restrict the oppo rtunities for the direction of social sustainability in developme nt in the 21st century.

J ava Wor ld C o ng res , J ava World C o n g r es L ogo a nd Illus tr ati o are eit her reg is te r e tr ad em ark or tre a d m ar of J a va Wo rld C o n g re s in Sri L a n ka a n d /o O th er C o u n t rie s . s s n d s k r

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© J a va Wo rld C o n g re s All rights re s erv e d .

J ava Wor ld C o ng res , J ava World C o n g r es L ogo a nd Illus tr ati o are eit her reg is te r e tr ad em ark or tre a d m ar of J a va Wo rld C o n g re s in Sri L a n ka a n d /o O th er C o u n t rie s . s s n d s k r

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A Study To Develop Strategies For ICT Enhanced Mathematics Education In Classrooms In Sri Lanka
Mr. K. Senaka, U.

Bandaragama Central College , Bandargama, Sri Lanka senakaupalik@yahoo.com

Traditional mathematics education has failed to motivate some stude nts and also failed to maintain their interest in the subje ct. According to Ambjorn N. (2003) shortcomings of the traditional mathematics education architecture include its inability to stimulate interest within stude nts and teacher s, promo te their understandin g, support personaliz ation, facilitate transition between different layers, integrate abst ractions with applications, and integrate mathematics with human culture. In Sri Lanka the research studies carried out by the National Education Research and Evaluation Center (N ER E in the C) field of educ ation has emphasi zed that current mathematics educ ation has failed to achieve the expected target s. National educ ation commission (N EC) revels that as the traditional classroom approach is becoming less fit to meet this challeng e, the need to look for alternatives has begun to rise rapidly. This has made educationists world over to turn to modem technolo gies to develop suitable alternatives. The N EC has emphasi zed that Sri Lanka is already experiencing a significant delay in introducing ICT related developments effectively into education. The mix-up between the objectives of ICT for educ ation and ICT educ ation has also become a barrier in achieving fruitful results in the past. According to Secondary Education Modernization Project (SEM P),Teachers have trained to use ICT as a teaching and learning tool in Mathem atics, Science and English. Some teachers have started ICT use as a teaching and learning tool. But the standards of the lessons they teach are inconsistent and no proper instructions provided for them. Lesson s, teaching methods and softwares they used vary from each othe r. There is a need of manual of instructions with necessary strategies and an instructional package. In identifying strategies for enhancing the mathematics educ ation by using ICT as a tool and develop higher order think- ing skills in mathematics through ICT, five research objectives have been identified 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To identify the available softwares related to integrating ICT into the teaching and learning process of math ematics at junior secondary level. To develop group method using identified software’s that can be used for teaching learning process of math ematics at junior secondary level. Testing identified software with various categories of children (School type, Location and abilities of children ) with spe cial emphasis on Higher order thinking skills To identify the strengths and weaknesses at identified ways of ICT enhan ced mathematics educ ation with spe cific reference given to higher order skills. To develop strategies and an instructional package for ICT enhan ced mathematics education with special em phasis on Higher order thinking skills.

Collaborative action research methodology is being used in order to achieve the target of developing strategies for ICT enhan ced mathematics educ ation in classrooms in Sri Lanka. For this Endeavour, two main collaborations are adop ted. 1. 2. Developing strategies for ICT enhan ced mathematics educ ation in classrooms in Sri Lanka by school based research Developing web based solution for ICT enhan ced mathematics education in classrooms in Sri Lanka with the assistant of java congress (Learning Manageme nt System) Based on the experiences gathered during the previous research studie s, problem of the study was identified. The

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objec- tives of the present study and the limitation were identified. To diagnose the prevailing real problems in the mathem at- ics classrooms in Sri Lanka the data collection instrume nts for the pilot study is being develope d. Identification of the ooms samples was comple ted during this stag e. Web based solution for ICT enhan ced mathematics education in classr

in Sri Lanka (Learning Manageme nt System) is being developed

Simplified Methods For Learning Mathematics At Secondary Education Level
Mr. M.D.Hengoda,
dharmasiri.mathlab@gmail.com Co-ordinator/Mathslab Project, Uva Provincial Education Office, Badulla.

It is worthy noticing the fact that a substantial percentage of pupils fail their mathematics G .C E. (Ordinary Level) exam . pape r. This problem prevails in both urban and rural schools and this very reason has remarkably affected the reliability of the local secondary educ ation system. There are many factors contributing to this situation. Among them, dearth or lack of simple methods and techniques require due attention. As a remedy to this problem, a novel approach has been develope d. Accordingly, the environme nt where pupils learn mathematics is needs to be transformed into a conducive place to support learning process. Several simple methods have been developed basing on Russian mathem atician’s concept s. These methods are being appreciated by the pupils producing positive outcome s. It is also proposed that subjects like mathematics should be taught using informal and non-formal methods in addition to standa rdized technique s. Games like card pack, checked boards, carom boards etc. with modifications are being used as suppo rting tools to promo te mathematic learning. According to the feedback obtained and performances of pupils these novel methods can be proposed to introduce. It is also recommended to use ICT in promoting these techniques as preliminary work carried out with ICT applications supports this recommend ation.

© J a va Wo rld C o n g re s All rights re s erv e d . J ava Wor ld C o ng res , J ava World C o n g r es L ogo a nd Illus tr ati o are eit her reg is te r e tr ad em ark or tre a d m ar of J a va Wo rld C o n g re s in Sri L a n ka a n d /o O th er C o u n t rie s . s s n d s k r

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Technology Transfer for the Rural Population
Prof. Arthur Bamunuarchchi
Emeritus Professor, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Nugegoda, International Consultant, Rural Post Harvest and Food Processing, ADB/JFPR Project 9133, Cambodia oliver_bamunu@y7mail.com The vast majority of the Sri Lanka popul ation comprises of rural peopl e. Most of these people are associated with Agriculture although those in the coastal belt are involved in marine fisheries, and some in the interior are involved in inland fisheries. A sector of these people is also involved in rearing poultry and livestock. These are the sectors that provide their livelihood and they too provide the food source for the entire population. Thus the rural popul ation of this country is the most impo rtant sector in terms of food supply and food security. It has been found in the recent times that though these people are involved in producing these commoditie s, they are not well informed on the scientific and technological ideas that relate to these commoditie s. The same trend can be observed throughout all those who are associated with these commodities from harvesting to consumption i.e. down the entire post harvest chain. This lack of knowledge results in great losses in these sectors. Surveys condu cted have shown the loss of fresh produce (fruits and vegetables) countrywide to top 30% - 40%, leading to an annual Rupee loss of about ten billion (Rs.10/= billion.). When the non perishable sectors and fish are involved, these losses would certainly be much higher. It has been revealed in surveys that many of the traders at the Manning Market in Colombo have been in the fresh produce business for a quite a long time; some for more than 25 years. It was surprisingly revealed that many of them have never been exposed to the science and technology information with respect to the commodities that they deal with. Nevertheless many seminars and workshops are being held quite regularly on these aspe cts, but unfortunately not for this target group. Further, a survey carried out in the southe rn part of the country with those who are involved in the fish chain assessing their knowledge and attitude on fish, indicated only about 5% of the individuals surveyed have been exposed to any form of science and technology information on fish. Knowledge on processing and product manufa cture among those who deal with these commodities from harvesting down the line is totally lacking. The reason for the large losses and a very low level of rural processing is a resultant of lack of knowledge in relevant fields. This, in fact, is a hindrance for exploiting the vast potential of these sectors, stagnation in these production sectors, and the lack of improvement of the rural population. Lack of value added to produce and stagnation of significant food industry developme nt too are further results of this weakness. Developing a country, in fact, is centred around developing the rural population, not only the physical need s, but also the total human system. This requires knowledge and information to be passed down, especially on science and technology aspects on materials that they deal with i.e. on food crops, fisheries, poultry and livestock. This will enable them to harness the potential of these sectors, participate actively on value added procedures and deliver a quality product in sufficient qua ntities. To achieve this end, it is needed to develop and evolve appropriate learning packages, deliver them to households in the rural areas and support hands-on application of what they learn. Perhaps a total enlightening package on the science and technology aspects of the above sugges ted commodities included would be the best way. Only then can a country ever think of improving its food sectors thereby to achieve a MDG,food and nutrition for all. This, in fact, is a global need

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Utilization of carambola (Averrhoa carambola) fruit for product development
Dr. K.H. Sarananda
saranandahe wage@yahoo.com Head/Food Research Unit, Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya.

Postharvest loss of carambola fruit (star fruit) is excessively high due to high perishability of the fruit. Fresh fruit has lesser market demand hence the production is often wasted. The fruit has high medicinal value which can be utilized for everybody if both normal and low sugar products are manufa ctured. Studies were therefore condu cted to find out the possibility of producing ready-to-serve drink and jam with normal sugar level and low sugar. Normal Ready-to-serve drink (RTS) was prepared based on Sri Lanka Standard Institu te (SL SI)specifications and the product was tested for physico-chemical parameters during the storage period of 6 months at ambient tempe rature. When ripe fruit was used the colour of RTS was attractive and addition of artificial colouring was not required. Total plate count of the product tested at monthly interval showed no microbial growth has taken place hence the product was tested for sensory evaluation. The results showed that the product was of very high quality and a minimum sedime ntation was observed at the later part of the storage period. The low sugar RTS was prepared based on SL S Ispecification except the sugar level. This prod- uct was also preserved for 6 moths equally to that of normal sugar RTS . Fruit pulp without seeds was used to prepare jam. The product was reached the consistency without adding pectin. The jam had an attractive colour and the product was preserved for the tested period of 6 months without causing physico-chemical change s. Low sugar and no sugar jams were prepared by adding sucralose as a sweetener. Both low sugar and no sugar products required more pectin to be added for setting and the colour of the jam was lower when sugar level was lowered. The colour can be improved by adding artificial colouring. Both low sugar and no sugar jams were preserved for the period of six moths tested without causing considerable change in their physico-chemical parame ters. Key words: Carambola fruit, low sugar jam, low sugar RTS, physico-chemical parame ters, Ready-to-served drink, sensory evaluation,

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E-communication through mobile phones approach in Agricultural Extension
Prof. R.P. Mahaliyanaarachchi,
rohanamaha@hotmai l.com

Chair/Agribusiness Management, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihul oya

In agricultural extension there are different approaches applied by different agricultural extension organizations which reflects the philosophy of the system. An approach should reflect following dimensions/ characteristics. They are domi nant identified problems/a reas, the methods which are designed to achieve the targets/ objectives, characteristics of the group of people mana ging the program, the nature of the extension personne l, the financial aspects of the program, the impleme ntation strategies/technique s, and the evaluation methods/ criteria. All these approaches follow the non formal educational procedure, subject matter related to agriculture, final objective is to improve the living standards of the rural peopl e, and help the rural community to solve their problem s. The basic objective of this approach (E-communication through mobile phones) is to provide information about mode rn agricultural technolo gies and practices, provide alarm signals about pest and disease outb reaks, provide marketing information and provide solutions to farmers’ problem s. Here the target group is total farming community in the country not specified for one or two crops. Even though there is a big coverage, it does not need a large number of field extension staff to achieve the given target. The philosophy in this approach is to get an improvement of the agricultural sector in the country by increasing the production in general farming by using modern e- communic ation technolog y. The distinguishing features of this approach are centralized control program plannin g, and possibility of two way communication. Evaluation is done by the number of farmers actively participating and benefitin g, continuity of the program, and increasing the total production. Advantages • Have a good coverage (most part of the country) • Easy to control • Less number of field extension staff • Low cost compare to traditional extension methods • Manage through professionals • Effective communic ation flow • Quick responses to the farmers problems • Possibility to provide on time information Possibility of Impleme ntation Current availability and usage of mobile phones by the rural community is fairly high in Sri Lanka. Also the prices of mobile phones are relatively low. The most impo rtant is chargers for mobile phones including SMS are fairly low. Also coverage of the mobile phone service providers is reasonably high in rural areas. Especially several mobile telecommunic ation service providers cover most of the rural areas. The impo rtant factor is the software developme nt and organizing an impleme nta- tion organization. The governme nt support is essential to implement this type of extension approach. It is believed that mobile phone service providing companies also can take an initiative to open a farmer advisory section or joint venture to implement this approach.

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An on line decision making package (Program First ) and Agro climatic data base for rain fed farmers
Prof. K.D.N.Weerasinghe
kdnweerasinghe@yahoo.com Senior Chair/Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya, Sri Lanka

The present paper explains the program “First” created by the author and co-workers as an Agroclimatological decision making program for the farmers to orient their cropping strategies based on the rainfall of the present and pas t. The Markov chain analysis is employed in the package which is used by number of authors to predict or accounting the form of the distributions of dry and wet spells in weather cycles in different countries. The theoretical probabilities of wet and dry spells derived from the Markov Chain are observed to be fitted with probabilities of various sequen ce lengths (Weerasinghe 2006). Therefore compu ter program “First” and the data base developed by us for Sri Lanka, can be stored in a server and make practically available for the farmers for their day to day decision making, through a communic ation network of internet or Mobile. Program First creates weekly, ten-day or five-day rainfall files from the daily rainfall data files. The probability of any week being wet (Pw) or dry (Pd) is calculated for all years of record using Markov relationships: The conditional probabilities with respect to repetition of two dry weeks (Pdd), two wet weeks (Pww), a wet week followed by a dry week (Pw/d), or a wet week followed by wet week (Pw/w) can be also calculated. Here, the selection of criteria for dry and wet spells at set probabilities or chances is in the domain of the user. In addition, this program helps to calculate the forward or backward accumulation of rainfall from any given date by the user. This identifies the date at which a required total is reached each year. For the practical usag e, rainfall accumul ations can be compiled from the day of the onset of the rainy season of the particular year. As explained by different author s, 50 mm rainfall accumulation is sufficient for dry land crops, and 100 mm for field crops or dry-sown padd y, 200-250 mm rain for the puddling and preparation of wet paddy field. However, based on the experience, farmer himself can calculate the amount needed and make the decision on performing Agricultural practices such as planting, harvestin g, condu cting irrigation practices etc. by interacting with the program.

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Development of a knowledge based information system and dissemination of information through IT; A case of Millet industry
Dr. N.M.M.G.S.B. Navaratne,

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayawardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka. sbnava1234@yahoo.com In the recent past a significant growth has been identified in the utilization of millet (Elusinia coracana) grains in different food products lines. Especially different millet based foods have been eme rged and they have been attracted by the health conscious consumers as health foods. Sri Lanka being a tropical country has all the resources to produce millets for self sufficiency but almost 50% of the processed millet based foods has a foreign origin. The major problems encountered by millet producers and processors today are lack of technical know-how on cultivation, processing and upd ate information sources in the business environme nt. Arrangements to provide upd ate information to farmers and processors on cultivation, processing and marketing of millets would be much helpful for them to minimize the constraints associated with the indust ry. Moreover, there is a vast potential to upgrade and link this valuable industry with the dynamic market with the help of relevant institutions such as universities, research bodie s, public and private sector agencies and the communi ty. For the time being the major drawback for the developme nt of the millet industry is non-availability of complete set of appropriate technical information on all commercial aspects of the product. Hence our intention is to integrat e whole information available on cultivation, processing, and marketing of millets as a package and dissemin ate them to needy peopl e, from research stations to rural farmers, while ensuring a smooth flow of information through the facilities available in the information technolog y. Moreover based on the constructive criticisms from the audience the content of the information will be improved. Therefore this effort will be a stepping stone for continuous developme nt and improvements for millet industry in Sri Lanka.

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Evaluation of nutritional properties and development of value added rice flour based products using traditional rice
Ms. H.G.C.S.Ariyarathna K.K.D.S.Ranaweera and Prof.
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Sri Jayewardenepura University of Sri Lanka. kkdsran@yahoo.com

A study was condu cted to evaluate the nutritional properties of Traditional rice varieties and to produce value added rice flour based products using traditional rice varieties. Seven traditiona l. Rice varieties, namely ma vee, suwadel, kurulu thuda, pachchaperuma l, dahanala, hatada vee, raththabilial were comparatively assessed in terms of proximate composi tions and major nutritionally significant elements by analysis using atomic absorption spectroscopy (aas). Medicinal and other characteristics of these traditional rice varieties were collected from secondary data and through interviews from ayuvedic medical practitioners and paddy farmers engaged in traditional rice cultivation. Traditional white rice suwadel and red rice kurulu thuda were selected for making value added products. Rice based bread was produced by incorporating flour of these two varieties. Incorporated product samples were prepared separately using the flour of traditional white rice suwadel and traditional red rice kurulu thuda and assessed for the sensory properties. The best traditional rice flour substitution percentage was decided based on statistical analysis of the results. The bread formula with desirable maximum substitution percentage of traditional rice flour was found to be 35% substitution level of the traditional rice flour among the levels of substitution studie d. Two sensory evaluations were carried out to evaluate sensory properties of 35% traditional rice flour substitu ted bread. In the first one 35% suwandel rice flour bread was compa red for sensory properties with 100% wheat flour bread. In the second sensory evaluation 35% suwandel rice flour bread was compa red for sensory properties with 35% kurulu thuda rice flour bread to identify the consumer preference for a traditional white rice flour bread and a traditional red rice flour bread. There was no significant difference between 35% traditional rice flour bread and 100% wheat flour bread. Similarly, no significant difference was found between 35% white rice variety bread and 35% traditional red rice variety bread. Results of proximate compositions traditional rice varieties are compa red with the results of lightly milled raw rice (source: world health foundation, 1979) which was the most suitable data available. It revealed that ma vee, kurulu thuda, pachchaperumal, dahanala, hatada vee, and raththabilial have higher protein content than lightly milled raw rice, and when conside ring fat content ma vee, suwadel, kurulu thuda, pachchaperuma l, dahanala and hatada vee have higher fat content than lightly milled raw rice. All seven varieties are have low carbohydrate content than lightly milled raw rice but contains more or less the same amount of energy as in lightly milled raw rice. The aas results reflect all seven varieties contains calcium, potassium, magnesium and sodium than iron, zinc, cuppe r, manganeseas nutritional minerals. All seven traditional varie- ties have many medicinal values such as controls diabetic and tube rculosis, reduce obesi ty, increases the body immuni ty power, reduces constipation, cures urine problem s, etc as a result these are used in ayuvedic medicine s. The paddy farmers can be encouraged to grow traditional rice varieties by providing technical and financial support for the cultivation.

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Comparison of nutritional and antioxidant properties of traditional rice variety, Kalu Heenaty with new improved (BG 250 and BG 359)
Anil Gunaratne, Amitha Bentota, Lal Vidanaarchchi, Sarath Malwi Pathirana
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, P.O. Box 02, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka Regional Paddy Research Center, Department of Agriculture, Bobuwala, Sri Lanka Faculty of Applied Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, P.O. Box 02, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka gunaratne1050@yahoo.com

Total contents of protein, fat, fiber and vitamin E and amino acid content and composition of brown rice flour from traditional rice variety kalu Heenati (K H )and new improved varieties of B G 250 and B G 359 were investig ated. Total antioxidant capacity (T EAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were also investigated. Significant variation existed between K H and new improved varieties in all the tested antioxidant and nutritional parame ters. K H possessed the highest content of protein (10.1 %), vitamin E (1.4 µg/g DW), TAC (0.66 mmol trolox/100g DW) and TPC (100 mg gallic acid/100g DW). Total contents of protein and Vitamin E of B G 250 and B G 359 were 7.34%, 1.11 µg/g DW, and 6.28%, 0.88 µg/g DW respectively. TPC and TEAC of B G 250 and B G 359 were 0.12 mmol trolox/100g DW, 20 mg gallic acid/100g DW and 0.16 mmol trolox/100g DW, 20 mg allic acid/100g DW were respe ctively. However, fat and fiber contents were not that much varied among the tested sample s. Amino acids content was also higher in K H than the tested new improved varieties. K H exhibited superior well balance amino acids content possessing higher proportion of essential amino acids than those of B G 200 and B G 359. This study revealed that traditional rice variety Kalu Heenati possessed high content of nutrients and antioxidant activities suggesting its potential to be develop as a high quality functional food. Furthermore, this informa- tion will be extremely helpful for rice breeders to develop high quality new rice varieties.

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Integrating ICT to Students – ‘My School My Life’
Fathhi Mohamed
Cheerurteam.com (Pvt) Ltd Level 8, SL IITCampus, Technology Park, New Kandy Road, Malabe Sri Lanka

Sri Lankan culture is carved with patriotism. Unlike in any other part of the world, Sri Lankan’s patriotism towards their sec- ond mother is remarkable. Sri Lankans spend a quite a lot of time in admiring, gossiping even benchma rking their respec - tive school s. But unfortunately, there is a serious lack in persistence and instant availability of these information So, we have developed a website under the theme ‘My School My L ife’, ww w.cheeru rteam. com website provides a common ICT platform for those who are interested in being upd ated on schools. It gives recognition to performance of young children which would otherwise gone unnoti ced amidst other top level news. This would not only serve the loyal ‘old boys’ and ‘old girls’ but also be a great encourageme nt for the youngs ters. The portal also contributes to developing stude nt capacity by incentivizing school children to use the ICT resource in the school for developing content and cheering their school electronically. It adds value to educ ation through links to higher educ ation oppo rtuni ty. Background - Even though governme nt spend quite a lot of resources on ICT developme nts, the success will drastically rely on the usage of the ICT by the mass.. Students are the future gene ration and the future leader s. Websites or rather systems like this will encourage the stude nt to use the ICT by way of cheering for their school or maintaining the school perform- ance profiles of them. Objectives - School stude nts are the future leaders of the country.. So, recording their school level performance in proper way will encourage them to do more.. Where this will force the creativity to make innovation in every field.. Then indirectly this will build better countrymen for the Sri Lankan society. Methodologies used – To rival the heavy operational cost, we start to leverage the internet. Integrating the social media networks like facebook/ twitter/flicker/google docs to the site helped us to minimize the operational cost. Mmobile applications were used to feed data. Results and/or observations of the study - The concept is on operation for last 18 months.. The response was fantastic. Since the school arena is so vast, we thoug ht of focusing on certain things at first and slowly move to other s. So, we selected school cricket at the beginning. This actually paid off, then we were able to move to rugby, basketball and so on.. As a result of the success; we were awarded the National best e-content award for the e-News category at the e-Swabhimani awards. Benefits to the needy groups/individuals - As I highlighted above.. The benefits are very straight forward. We maintain the performance of the stude nts, that in return will boost the stude nts to do well in their respective field.. This will start contributing to the national economy.. How the ICT tools help the transferring these information/resources - Our whole concept is revolved with ICT tools.. Com- plex operation like this can only be achieved through ICT. The operational data were feed to the system through mobile applications, because of speed and cost effective. Apart from the website, we use couple of other mediums to transferring or broadcasting information. We have facebook applications, mobile site and SMS alert service. Recently we have partnered up with T N LRadio to broadcast the school sports in the daily news bulletin.
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Oyster (Crassostrea madrasensis) and Mussel (Perna viridis) Lanka – New challenges in Aquaculture farming in Sri
W.M.T.B Wanninayake,
Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Wayaba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila, Sri Lanka. tbwannii@sltnet.lk

Bivalves such as oysters and mussels are widely distributed throughout the tropical and tempe rate waters. They occur in mangrove areas and coastal regions, where they follow a brief period of juvenile mobility and attach to racks; wharves fish traps, logs and other static objects. In many countries in Asia and the Pacific it is a tradition to collect naturally occurring molluscs as a cheap source of food. Once upon a time, molluscs were a cheap animal protein for poor people in many European countries, now they are expensive, luxury items in Europe and North America. As Sri Lanka is a tropical country it is very rich in edible bivalves such as Oysters, Mussels, Clams and Cockles around the coastal areas. In Trincomale e, Mulaitiv, Manne r, Kalpitiya, Chilaw, Negamb o, and Southern Coastal areas fishermen are used to harvest bivalves from natural habit ats. The presence of the tourism industry in the coastal line of Sri Lanka and the recent developme nt in the sector in the North Eastern Province offers attractive marketing opportunities for the viability of the project. Average phytoplank ton density for oyster and mussel culture observed in culture areas range from 20 µg to 45 µg chl.a/l sea water and primary hourly productivity observed to range from 75 µg to 120 µg carbon/m3 . Oyster culture: Rafts (5m x 5 m) and rack (5m x 1m) culture of mangrove oyster, C.mandrasensis were carried out in a estuary in the Mannar district, North Province of Sri Lanka. Spat were obtained from wild population, fruit basket s, coconut shells, discarded tiles and dead oyster shells used as culture subst rates. Sea water tempe rature was observed to be 24C° - 32 C ° and salinity 24‰34‰ ppt. The normal annual salinity ranged from 5‰ - 34‰. At Achchan kulum farm C.mandrasensis attained 40 mm 2 months after spat fall. Mean length is 60mm; at 8 months 90 mm at 10 months and reaches 100-110 mm within year which is normally referred as marketable size. Mussel farming: Mussel culture is considered to have the highest potential for production as compa red to other organisms such as fin fish, crustaceans or other molluscs. The culture of green mussel P.viridis was carried out in Trincomalee harbour in the East Coast of Sri Lanka. The spat were collected from natural beds suspended from rafts ranging size 5mx5m to 8m x 6m. Coir ropes and fruit baskets were used as culture subst rates. The green mussel attained the average marketable size of 7 cm – 8 cm in 8 months, during which time the average production was observed to be 7 kg/m of rope at the culture site. Oyster and mussel culture in Sri Lanka have been observed to be highly economically viable aquacul - ture system in the country.

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An entrepreneurship: Improving access to livelihood opportunities for fishermen
D.A.M. Silva De

Department of Agribusiness Management, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University, P.O. Box 02, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka desilva.achini@yahoo.co.uk

A fishery is typically defined in terms of the “people involved, species or type of fish, area of water or seabe d, method of fishing, class of boats, and purpose of the activities or a combin ation of the foregoing features”. Study focuses were to categorized different players in fishery based on their entrepreneurial nature (personality traits and size of networks) and availability of multiple livelihood s. Study locations, Beruwala (178 fishers) and Negambo (172 fishers) are conside red as impo rtant fishing hubs located in West and South West coast of Sri Lanka. Data collection tools were semi-structured interviewer adminis tered questionnai res and focused group discussions with fisher groups. Questionnai re composed of 3 sub sections, personality traits, networks and multiple livelihood s. Seven personality traits were used to measure the level of entrepreneurship of the responde nts and responde nts were divided into 3 groups based on scores. Of the sample boat owners were ranked top as an entrepreneurs (74.28% were entrepreneurs) while crew men (7.27% were entrepre- neurs) were the least entrepreneu rial. Moreover, non entrepreneurial category was high among crew men. Biggest social networks were exists among boat owners and ranges 110-171. Wholesalers and retailers were rank second and third on the lineup of the size of the networks respe ctively. Smallest social networks were found among small-scale subsis tence fishers and size of the network lies on 23-48. Highest number of multiple livelihoods was recorded from boat owners (range was 3-7) and least were found among crew men and auctioneers (range was 1-3). Size of the network and number of multiple livelihoods has positive relationship with entrepreneurshi p. Fishes use networks to find clients and referral routes to clients, to help you by helping other s, to find allies and collaborators, to source supplier s, to obtain market and technical information, to have fun, make social contacts, to raise their visibility, to share knowledge and research, to com- pare ideas, to share human company and to dreams into reality. Key words: fishery, entrepreneurshi p, social networks, multiple livelihoods

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Community driven development approach in rural livelihood improvements; Experience in Sri Lanka
Dr. J.M.J.K. Jayasinghe,
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka. jcy6199@yahoo.com
Approximately 15% of the Sri Lanka’s popul ation is still poor. The majority of poor lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture for their foods and livelihood s. Rural communities in Sri Lanka lack access to basic services and financial resources which have impeded agri- cultural growth and the diversification into non-farm economic activities. As a result, the life of rural communities has exposed to food insecurity, malnutrition, diseases and physical and mental disabilities. Moreover, unempl oyment rates in the rural sector reflect higher among youths and women. Most smallholder farmers receive low incomes because they have been disconne cted from information and markets; the only option they had was to sell the produce to middlemen whose margins amount to a high share of the farm gate price. Improving the productivity, quality, competiti veness and incomes of poor producers and empowering them in decision making on resource utilization are issues to be addressed to bring the community out form poverty and vulnerability. A number of government as well as foreign funded livelihood developme nt projects have been impleme nted in Sri Lanka. The objectives of this paper are; • To share the knowledge and experience of a livelihood developme nt model that adopts the communi ty driven developme nt approach. • To receive the comme nts from interested parties and improve the model characteristics. • To dissemin ate information to the stakeholders with a view to improve the income and quality of life of the rural communi ty. Head Count Index and Unsatisfied Basic Needs Index were used for initial area (districts) selection and identification of social classes respe ctively. In selected districts, Grama Niladhari Divisions (GNDs) with most poor and poor were selected for project intervention. Villages in GNDs for next steps were identified by the Government Agent in the district. A publicity campaign was carried out to make the people understand about the Community Driven Developme nt (CDD) approach and operating principles. A general assembly held in each village submits the willingness to comply with the principles and inclusion of the village to the program. Small groups of 7-10 people and a Village Organization (VO) were formed and the V O was registered under the Compa ny’s Act to provide the legal entity. Participatory Wealth Ranking and Tools of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) approaches were used to categorize income groups and to prepare the village developme nt plan (VDP)respe ctively. A rupee a day savings of members formed a group savings fund to be used for emergencie s. The Village Developme nt Fund (VD F)was issued to the V O based on the village population. V D Fwas used for capaci ty buildin g, economic and social infrastructure developme nt and livelihood developme nt as decided by the communi ty. Loans are issued to members for livelihood developme nt activities under the rules and conditions decided by the village assembl y. VOs were federated to form a district federation. Manuals prepared for the community and federations provide guidance in operation. In seven districts more than one thousand accountabl e, self governing and sustainable local institutions (VOs) were established to manage productive investme nts. Nearly 1 Mn rural people have been benefit ted from the V DF of Rs 3775 Mn during 2006-2010. Rural community was emp owered to develop group activities and make decisions on utilization of available resources for the village development. Small groups formed were 22,640. The total compulsory savings and normal savings of the members were values at Rs 106 Mn and Rs 166 Mn respe ctively. The number and value of loans issued for livelihood activities were 110,578 loans of Rs. 85 Mn. The majority of households have increased their income due to project activities and the proportion of the popul ation with an income below 1 US$ per day has droppe d. Participation of women, youths and vulnerable people from poor and poorest categories in income gene rating activities has been improved. Infrastructure developme nts such as rural roads, drinking water facilities, irrigation systems, resource centers, etc, have been promo ted and the poor were expected to be the main beneficiaries of them. The community contribution for village infrastructure developme nt was Rs 407 Mn. Developme nt of agricultural roads improved the market access to rural produce and assured easy supply of inputs for production. Women have developed recognition, particularly improved self confidence and self worth. And their active participation in decision making at household level and VOs level has increase d. Technology transfer on production increased the productivity, quality and then incomes from livelihood s. Involveme nt of the private sector in the input supply, extension, storage, processing and marketing has been increase d. The capacities of rural communities in working with public, private and people s’ organizations to increase the size and diversity of livelihoods have been improved. Dairy, maize, tea, pot ato, rubbe r, cinnamon and processed foods were identified as high potential sectors for scaling up. For sustainable income gene ration, farmers from high potential
© J a va Wo rld C o n g re s All rights re s erv e d . J ava Wor ld C o ng res , J ava World C o n g r es L ogo a nd Illus tr ati o are eit her reg is te r e tr ad em ark or tre a d m ar of J a va Wo rld C o n g re s in Sri L a n ka a n d /o O th er C o u n t rie s . s s n d s k r

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product sectors could be grouped into Producer Groups and the present productivity and quality levels could be further improved with more emphasis on all three stages of production cycle; input supply, production and marketing.

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Improving on-farm livelihood in rainfed agriculture through FAO- aquacrop model
Dr A.S. Karunaratne,
Department of Export Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University, P.O. Box 02, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka, asha.karunaratne@yahoo.co.uk

Global demand for fresh water is constantly rising as a consequen ce of popul ation growth, enriched diets, and overall rises in living standa rds. Rainfed and irrigated agriculture forms the dominant basis of livelihood security for most rural communities in many developing countries in Africa and Asia. It is clear that this dependen ce will continue in future scenario with uncertainty due to the impact of climate chang e. The most crucial factor that can hamper crop yield in rainfed agriculture is poor distribution of unreliable rainfall that can cause frequent dry spells rather than absolute water scarcity. User-friendly software and simulation models that quantify the effects of water on yield at the farm level can be valuable tools in improving the livelihood through manipul ating water and irrigation manageme nt strategies. To address this need the United Nations-Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has developed a user friendly compu ter simulation crop-water model called AquaCrop. The overall aim of this study was to illustrate practical applications of AquaCrop model in livelihood safeguarding in rainfed agriculture in tropical region through selected case studie s. In case study 1 AquaCrop was adop ted with the objective of identifying the potential growth and yield of bamba ra groundnut (Vigna subterranea) landraces which is the subsis tence level women farmers’ crop in sub-Saharan Africa, in various agro-ecological regions and to evaluate the possibilities of transferring them to different locations across semi-arid Africa. The selected site for sample applications was the University Farm, Botswana College of Agriculture, Notwane, Botswana (240 33 ‫ ׳‬S, 250 54 ‫ ׳‬E, 994 m above sea level) experiencing a semi-arid climate with an average annual rainfall (30-year mean) of 538 mm. The simulations were aimed at three landraces; Uniswa Red, S19-3 and DipC which have originated from Swaziland, Namibia and Botswana respectively which demonst rated different mechanisms in response to drought. The results indicated that Namibian and Botswana landraces thrive well under dry and hot spells in Botswana compa red to Swaziland geno type. As the second step, correct sowing dates of better performing landraces was evaluated with the aim of maximising stability of yield and livelihood in women farmer in Botswana. Case study 2 was condu cted to calibrate and validate AquaCrop model for Sugar cane varieties in Sri Lanka and thereby to improve the crop water productivity through field manageme nt strategies. AquaCrop simulations were performed at the experi- mental farm Sugar Research Institu te, Udawalwe. The forecasting of sugar cane growth and yield provide information for areas assigned for new cultivations having new livelihood oppo rtunities for persons being resettled in the areas affected by the conflict. The overall results can be successfully applied to upgrade the livelihood of rainfed farming communities by means of improved crop water productivity through field manageme nt, calibration of AquaCrop for new crops in Sri Lanka, crop file tuning for local condition s, formulation of irrigation guidelines and assessme nt of the effects of climate chang e. The information about the application of AquaCrop software can be dissemin ated through training session s, workshops and seminars at practical end-user level. The user oriented simple information technology with the FAO-AquaCrop network provides networking oppo rtunities among AquaCrop users communi ty worldwide. Key word: Rainfed agriculture, FAO-AquaCrop mode l, livelihoo d, women, bambara groundnu t, sugar cane

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Jeevamurtham As An Effective Tool To Ensure Food Security In Humid Tropics
P.I.Ya pa
Department of Export Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University, P.O. Box 02, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka piyapa39@yahoo.co.uk

Crop production in the humid tropics is mainly based on chemical fertilizers and different forms of chemicals to control weeds, pests and disease s. The continuous practice of these environmentally-unfriendly agronomic practices for a considerably longer period of time (since 1960s) has caused soil degradation to a dreadful state resulting the farming unprofitable. The fertility status of the farmlands has become extremely poor that looming food crisis is commonpla ce in many countries in humid tropics. Also, the infertile lands produce crop yields with inferior nutritional quality. Growing malnutrition and deteriorated health conditions among farming families in humid tropics rings alarming bells. It is evident that the second gene ration of the traditional farming families does n’t choose agriculture as their livelihood and there appears to be an oncoming danger that farming will gradually disappear from this area in the future. To give lifeblood to the deteriorated farming, there is an urgent need to take immediate actions by all the parties involved with agriculture including farmers, scientists, governme nt and non-governmental organizations etc. One of the best options available may be the rehabilitation of the degraded lands to recover the lost fertility of the soil. Crops growing on soils with acceptable levels of fertility will not have problems with getting all the essential nutrients supplied and the edible yields produced will be superior with the nutritional quality as well. Farming will then not only be profitable but also will fulfil the nutritional demand of the society to alleviate the problems of malnut rition. Soil organisms play a key role in maintaining the fertility status of the soil. Their contribution to enrich the soil with all the essential plant nutrients is immens e. Therefore, the lost soil biological activity should be recovered first to establish a healthy soil for producing enough healthy food. Thetechnology of jeevamurthum and its application is nothing but the culturing of beneficial soil microbes somewhe re outside the soil and introduction of them in to microbially degraded soils. Jeevamurthum is made of soils from a virgin forests or grassland s, dung of indigenous cattle, sugar,organic n sources and water as key ingredie nts. After a proper curing procedure, the mixture finallyproduces a rich culture of beneficial microbes and they are ready to use in the soils with deple ted microbial activity. The technology involved in production of jeevamurthum is so simple that a farmer can prepare the culture on his own with the facilities available in rural farms in poor humidtropical countries. Key words: soil microbes, jeevamurthum, top soil

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Moving on with new technology and with inbuilt confidence.
Prof. Ajith Alwis, De

Science Team Leader, Sri Lanka Institute of Nanotechnology (Pvt) Ltd., Biyagama, Sri Lanka. Professor/Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka. ajith@cheng.mrt.ac.lk, AjithD@susnanotec.lk

Twenty first Century will depend very much on knowledge power. However, purely concentrating on services will not benefit an economy. The rage today or the ‘in thing’ is knowledge economy. The stress by the author is to combine the two concepts; Nano silica from paddy and Renewed hope with mineral sand. Across the globe another technolo gical revolution is shaping up. The new revolution is termed Nanotechnolog y. Unlike other industrial revolutions this is open to anybody who has a sense of impo rtance of science and technolog y. World won’t be waiting for such people and when the hard facts become clear it may be too late for those groups. It should be noted that more than 70 countries in the world have their own nano technology initiatives. Sri Lanka unfortunately had failed to benefit from earlier technological revolutions in any meaningful manne r. In Sri Lanka our fruits still go to waste and the percentage such as 50% wasted is not an indicator to have for a country. This indicates that we have failed to use knowledge and at times one begins to think whether we learn to do something or earn somethin g. When one views the interest in certificates and degrees and how courses originate in educational institutes and sometimes even institutes overnight, the observations only reinforces the internal thinking. Japan is similar to Sri Lanka in terms of resource availability. Singapore similarly leveraged the human resources. One could argue whether in Sri Lanka we encourage thinking at any level?! De Bono mentions that many countries have even allocated time for developing thinking skills into the school curricula. Tuition is the rage in Sri Lankan education! Sri Lanka moves on with a perennial brain drain problem and a poor track record of investme nt on science and technolog y. An economist once won the Nobel Prize for economics by showing how countries develop with investme nts in Science and Technolog y. This should be mand atory reading perhaps in our economic courses from which the national planners eme rge. Sri Lanka over the years has maintained a poor percentage such as 0.13% of GDP into research and developme nt. Much of that again has been spent on salaries and general expenditu re with the result the scientific infrastructure had really fallen behind in terms of ability to compe te globally. Poor state of equipme nt and services, non availability of esse ntial tools have stalled progress in science in Sri Lanka. If we are to benefit from a new opportunity definitely some bold deci- sions were needed and the requi reme nt of the commitme nt from the top. In developing the nano technology national initiative these requi reme nts were met. National Nano initiative’s main emphasis on adding to the competiti veness of the local indust ries, adding value to national resources and developing human resources to meet the needs of the in- dust ry. It is quite clear that esoteric research is not the aim and rapid economic results are urged. The speed and the efficiency are closely moni tored. The objective of giving Sri Lankan science a new lease of life and adding pride to the label Made in Sri Lanka is hopefully would be an outcome we all will be able to witness within a period of three years.

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The Next Generation Of Computers Through Nanotechnology

Rohini M. de Silva and K.M. Nalin de Silva Department of Chemistry,
University of Colombo, Colombo 03. kmnd@chem.cmb.ac.lk

The next decade promises to be an exciting and challenging period in the history of compu ters as nano technology influences to redefine a new dimension in the way compu ters are manufa ctured. It’s not entirely new domain as the Litho- graphic principles behind the manufa cturing process can be adop ted for nano tech processes. What is revolutionary are the minute molecular-level sizes at which those circuit boards can now be mad e. This is the core of nano technology which is derived from the Greek nano which means dwarf or tiny. In quantitative scientific terms, “tiny” is in the area of a billionth of a meter. Nanotechnology is the creation of useful/functional materials, devices and systems through con- trol of matter on the nanome ter length scale and exploitation of novel phenomena and properties at that length scale. The length scale reached by technology has dropped steadily from the millimeter scale of the early 1950s to the present day atomic scale. In 1950, the first transistor measu red 1mm. Nanotechnology ushers in a more significant and useful age of miniaturization. The Integrated Chip of the 70s did the same thing that was decisive in manufa cturing increas- ingly smaller chips that now power our cell phones and compu ters. But they have their limits and we have reached that. With molecule-sized nano tech based manufa cturing of processor chips, memory modules and storage devices, these limits can be breached that will eventually bring two things: (1) more powerful, more cost-effective and more power- efficient compu ters across all platforms, from mainframes down to laptops; and (2) smaller compu ter footprints for the same power and efficiencies we currently have. Processor chips these days have developed so powerful due to grater transistor densities and therefore they require more effective cooling systems employing fans and even water-based coolants usually reserved in mainframes. Practical limits have been reached for lithographic technolo gies that create those wafer thin circuits containing millions of etched transistors. The next step is the Nanotechnolog y’s molecular-level lithography. Not only will it produce more powerful compu ter engines, it can make them ope rate cooler and with less bulk. Over the next decade compu ters can be no larger than the largest cell phones of today. Over the next few years, disk drives, more powerful RAM with higher capacities and speeds but lower costs can be manufa ctured using nano technolog y. In addition molecular electronics which involves the study and application of molecular building blocks for the fabrication of electronic compone nts will play a major role in bringing molecular compu ters into the market in near future. Key Words: Lithography Compu ters, Nanotechnolog y, Molecular Computin g, Molecular electronics and

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Separation of Carotenoid Bixin from Annatto Seeds Using Thin-Layer and flash Column Chromatography
Dananjaya, S. H. S. Edussuriya, M. Dissanayake, A. S. and 2 K.Radampola
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Ruhun, Matara, Sri lanka Department of Fisheriesand Aquaculture, Faculty of FM ST. University of Ruhuna, Matara, Sri lanka madurani@chem.ruh.ac.lk

Annatto (Bixa Orellana; common name “Wal Rambuta n”) seeds are known as the only natural source of bixin, a carotenoid widely used in the food industry as a colourant. Annatto is commonly found in many parts in Sri Lanka, growing even in poor soil condition. The pods containing the pigments are plentiful and readily available and the pigment can be easily extracted to an organic solvent. Bixin has properties of a colourant as well as an antioxidant. Bixine has π electron system and anti oxidant property. It can be bound with metal surface. This pigment can be used as an anti corrosive agent. Preliminary studies have been carried out to investigate this property. An improved and efficient method for the isolation of the pigment has been develope d. This method involved simple flash column chromatography. The pigment was confirmed as pure carotenoid bixin, by its melting point, UV-vis and F T IR spectroscopy data. It was reported that nearly 1.1% of pigment was available in the dry seed [1]. The present method can be used to isolate (~1 %) of the pigment which is the highest reported yield so far. Key Words: Annatto, chromatography. Bixa orellana, Bixin, Carotenoids and flash column

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Presence of pheophytin and its formation as a chlorophyll derivative in selected stored plant species.
P.K.Dissanayake, N. Yamauchi and M. Shigyo
Department of Export Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural Science, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Yoshida, Japan prasajith@yahoo.com

Chlorophyll degradation, which is not extensively studie d, is an essential and inevitable natural process in green plants. Most of the green leaf vegetable and fruits loss their postha rvest quality mainly due to off colouring or yellowing as a consequen ce of chlorophyll degradation. The study of chlorophyll degradation of many plants have been revealed the chlorophyll degradation mainly progress through formation of chlorophyllide. Recent studies have revealed that the chlorophyll degradation could be progressed through formation of pheop hytin as a chlorophyll derivative. Therefore present study was to investigate the presence and formation of pheop hytin as chlorophyll derivatives in selected stored plant specie s. Green tea leaves, bell peppe r, parsley and Japanese bunching onion were used in the study. Chlorophyll content of green tea leaves was measu red using N,N-dymethyle formamid e. Presence of chlorophyll derivatives of 80% acetone extract of green tea leaves were detected using HPLC at 663nm. Formation of chlorophyll derivatives especially pheop hytin were studied by incubating crude enzyme extract of bell peppe r, parsley and bunching onion with chlorophyll a and buffer. After one hour of incubation reaction was stopped by adding 80% acetone. Chlorophyll derivatives were studied using H PLC at 663nm. Pheophytin level of processed green tea leaves showed very high amount when compa red to other plants sugges ted that in addition to the process of chlorophyll degradation there was mechanical damages while processing the tea leaves lead to formation of pheop hytin. However to study chlorophyll degradation within tea leaves it is necessary to conduct further study. In parsley, bell pepper and Japanese bunching onion presence of pheop hytin was promine nt. This all indicated that early study of chlorophyll degradation need further think to elucidate the mechanism of chlorophyll degradation of green plants. This will help to implement an effective methodology to extend the shelf life of green plants. Key words : formation of pheop hytin, stored plant species

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Impact of foreign and local influences on the development of sports and physical education curriculum in Post Independence Sri Lanka
Dr. D.M. Ranaweera,
Department of Physical Education, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka. Belihuloya, Sri Lanka. ranaweera.dm@gmail.com

This present study focuses on two major research questions framed the study: what have been the major foreign and local forces that have been impacting to shape Sports and Physical Education as a school subject in Sri Lanka and how can Sri Lankan utilize the knowledge that will be gained through this study to inform future directions for the development of sports and physical educ ation on the Island?. The research questions were addressed using a social constru ctionist theoretical framework through the collection and analysis of data from a variety of primary and secondary sources. In addition, open -ended interviews were condu cted with thirty-four informants who have intimate current experience and up to thirty years in the field. The study revealed that no sufficient published research findings or scholarship are available with regard to physical educ ation in Sri Lanka. The research also revealed that many diverse foreign and local forces have influenced the physical educ ation in Sri Lanka rema rkably. British traditions have been and continue to be the major foreign influence. However, other foreign influences, particularly during the Cold War, from the USA ,the Commo nwealth and the communist countries were ex- tensive both before but particularly after Independen ce. These foreign social forces intervened with local forces such as party politics, educ ation resou rces, religion, gender and other cultural beliefs. The study identified a number of impacts of these influences on the developme nt of sports and physical educ ation cur- riculum in Sri Lanka, most of which have close parallels in other countries of both the North and the South. The major issue for physical educ ation in Sri Lanka is that it has endu red low status and struggled for its identity since the colonial period owing to traditional academic biases relating to its focus on the practical and the body rather than with abst rac- tions and the mind, and a widesp read focus on educ ation for white collar empl oyment. Owing to the influences from the capitalists and the communist model s, the research found that physical educ ation curriculum theo ry; policy and practice developme nts in Sri Lanka have displayed characteristics of the two major sports and physical educ ation models; the health and the sports-based mode l. It is clear that both models are of value in contributing to the sports and physical educ ation curriculum for Sri Lanka and therefore the paper proposes a “mixedmode sports and physical educ ation curriculum mode l” and other recommend ations that will best address issues of inequali ty, gende r, social class distinction, ethnici ty, religion, geographical locations and resource allocations. Finally the paper proposes a number of areas of research which would assist in the developme nt of an appropriate “mixed mod e” curriculum for sports and physical educ ation in Sri Lanka. Key words : foreign and local influences on physical educ ation curriculum

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Increase of land price and its socio-economic impacts: Post-disaster situation in the coastal belt of Ampara District
Dr. SMM. Ismail,
Vice Chancellor, South ismaakmal@yahoo.co.uk Eastern University of Sri Lanka, Oluvil.

Mr. M. Riswan,
Department of Social mriswan2008@gmail.com Sciences, South Eastern University of Sri Lanka, Oluvil.

Ampara is one of the districts situated in the South Eastern Coast of the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka has had the misfortune of facing many disasters in the recent past which created a severe impacts on its peopl e. This area has suffered a lot as a result of armed conflict and natural disaster. The effects of the conflict include: internal displaceme nt, damage of houses and infrastru cture, loss of livelihood and a high percentage of single-headed household s. Tsunami tidal waves were devastated in the eastern coastal belt of Ampara district. These effects have had directed to increase the land price particularly in costal area comprising the Divisional Secretariat Divisions of Kalmunai, Sainthamaruth u, Karaitivu, Nin- tavur, Addalaichenai, Akaraipattu, Potuvil and Sammanthurai. Therefore, this study is significant as it explores how far post-tsunami and post-war scenarios pilots to increase the land price and formed impacts on economi c, resettleme nt, housing and infrastructure developme nt activities in the area of research. The main objective of this study was to find out the increase of land price, its causes and impacts in the pos t-disaster situation in the coastal part of Ampara district. This study campaigns qualitative and quantitative method s. However, it was carried out mainly through a qualitative field research by using desk analysis and field survey. The data were collected through literature review, focus group discussion and questionnai re survey. The study revealed that the land price of coastal region of Ampara district has been increased rapidly and it caused for a number of socio-economic impacts in the post-disaster situation. Further, the present study also revealed that the land use pattern has been changed which in turn affected agriculture and other economical activities. Key words: Land Price, Socio-economic impacts, pos t-disaster, resettleme nt and infrastru cture

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Integrated medicine in Sri Lanka
Dr. Hemachandra Pathirathna
Chairman – National Medical Foundation (Jathika Vaidya Padanama), Expert on integrated Medicine certified by Academic Council IIM ,Colombo University; Expert on IK Medicine Listed in Nuffic, Netherlands organization for Higher Education, Expert on I K Medicine Listed in MOST programme UNESCO.

The men of 20th century thoug ht that the East is East and the West is West. It seems correct from the short-sighted outlook and culture. However, it is well docume nted that the science evolved in Asia. According historians, the pioneers of knowledg e, who developed the science beyond the knowledge have based on instincts and five sense, appea red in the ancient period of some 7000 years ago in Himalaya of India. However, the true and perfect knowledge evolved 3000 years ago, which was obtained mostly with help of the “third eye” by awakening the highest faculties of human mind. In a specific way, that was not known to the west. The knowledge acquired by them was taken to Greece by invaders. That can be one of the reasons as to why Hippocrates, the father of medicine in the allopathic school, strongly believed the theory of the four humour s. A traditional theory of physiology in which the state of health--and by extension the state of mind, or character depended upon a balance among the four elemental fluids; bloo d, yellow bile, phlegm and black bile. These were closely allied with the four elements (air, fire, water, and earth). The theory of humours misconceives the concept of Vatha, Pitta, Kapha , the knowledge of Tribasic biological balance. This concept was introduced to the light in the spinning of life out of elements unders tood by the modern sci- ence under chemist ry, specially by elements of natural selection namely Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen Nitrogen, Sulphur, Phospho rous. Since then, things became incompatible which in turn, created a wide gap between science of the East and that of West. Integrated Medicine in Sri Lanka has placed the essentials in correct place and paved the way for integrating the two knowledge systems in a perfect manner and applying practically to cure some disease s, which the age old Ayurveda and Modern allopathic system did not mee t. In relation to east and west, the atomic nature of the world can be introduced to describe in the east in Maithree Upanisha d. That was in a period before Lord Buddha. It is said that energy of the universe is in two chamber s. The chambers with the inner force are named as Artharayama while the outer chamber is termed as Upansa. The inner chamber has named as Artharayama coined from two sankrit words, Antar + Ayama means inner force and there are particles of the inner core. It is worthy noticing that the atoms with functional values were unders tood about some 3000 years ago. Experimentally, it has been unders tood that the inner core is with a force and an outer area is of electrons which are sub atomic particles. Interrelation of those outer and inner chambers have quite clearly depi cted by naming so as Artharayama and Upansu that shows the crystal clear knowledge obtained through the third eye. Maithre Upanishads says that Viswa Agni is in two chamber s. That means energy in the universe is in an atom. In 1929, Sir Herbert Stanley the Governor of then Ceylon open the college of Indigenous medicin e. The concept behind the establishme nt of the college was the Integration of knowledge systems of medicin e. Within the wall of this college, many new findings will come into effect which will bring the benefits to the public.

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Combination Of Western and Ayurveda Medicine To achieve a Better control of Diabetes Mellitus
Dr.B.A.Rathna pala
Ayurveda Medical Practitioner, Member/National Medical Foundation Padanama) (Jathika Vaidya

Today, Diabetes Mellitus has become one of the serious health issues worldwide and this problem is still on the rise. According to the estimates, fifty million people worldwide had Diabetes Mellitus in 2000 worldwide and this is expected to be doubled by year 2010. As per the WHO declaration, diabetes is an incurable diseas e. Basing on long-term obse rvations and research findings, a novel methodology for curing Diabetes Mellitus has been developed by combining both Western and Ayurvedic Medicine systems. The first and foremost principal used in using drug activity was that the body matter do not use sectarian views as Ayurveda and Western in reaching with drug matter. Overcome barriers of words and arrears of thoug hts are a necessity. It was observed that though people are not prescribed by a doctor, they take medicines of schools of both Ayurveda and Western intermittently. Some of those who have used a combin ation of these two medicine systems were able to control Diabetes Mellitus. Studies carried out on the effect of using two medicine systems namely Ayurveda, Western medicines enabled to achieve several criteria of relative drug activity. The new knowledge found is practically not known to both systems so far but can fruitful and evolves a new method for curing Diabetes Mellitus. A clinical assessme nt carried out to study the efficacy of treatments showed positive results and these treatments have been approved by the ethical commit tee, University Sri Jayewardenepu ra.

J a va Wor ld C o n g re s , J a va World C on gr e s L o go and Illus tr atio a re e ith er re g is ter e tr ad em a rk or tre ad m ak of Ja va Wo rld C o n g re s in Sri L a n ka a n d /o O th er C o u n trie s . s n d s r r

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Combination Of Western and Ayurveda Medicine To achieve a
© Ja va Wo rld C o n g re s All rights re s erv e d .

J a va Wor ld C o n g re s , J a va World C on gr e s L o go and Illus tr atio a re e ith er re g is ter e tr ad em a rk or tre ad m ak of Ja va Wo rld C o n g re s in Sri L a n ka a n d /o O th er C o u n trie s . s n d s r r

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Home Based Workers of Sri Lanka.
Mrs. Kala Peiris and Dilanthe Withanage
HomeNet Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka kalaithk@yahoo.com, dilanthe.withanage@gmail.com In Sri Lankan economy, a large number of people are engaged in income gene ration activities working from their home s. Information reveals that the majority of home based workers are women from economically disadvantaged background s. Studies done by Cenwor and Siyath Foundation have shown that these home based workers face many challenges and issues in terms of their right to live and work. Some of the issues identified are low income and poor asset base, illiteracy and low quality in educ ation and training, ill health, gender inequali ty, child labor, environme ntal degradation, challenges of globalization, inadequ ate legal protection and threat to traditional knowledge and skills. Cenwor and Siyath Foundation represented Sri Lanka in 2001 in Kathmandu at a regional conference organized by UNIFEMto establish a regional coalition to uplift the status of Home Based Workers. At this forum, a declaration was passed to work collectively in fighting for the rights of Home Based Workers across the south Asian Region. HomeNet Sri Lanka is the focal point in Sri Lanka to have established a network of organizations working with Home Based Workers. The broad objectives of HomeNet are to, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Voice the issues faced by Home Based Workers Advocate for national policies for Home Based Workers Strengthen the income gene ration activities and economic stability of Home Based Workers Network at local and international levels Conduct research and studies to improve the status of women Home Based Workers

A set of recommend ations for a National Policy on Home Based Workers has been drafted and tabled at the parliament. A signature campaign has been launched to get the support for a national Policy on Home Based Workers. Home Net Sri Lanka is working with various stakeholders to advocate for the ratification of ILO convention 177 on Home Work. The experience of the present economic policies is to strengthen the private sector with the belief of expansion in the contributory factors of the private industries which would in return gene rate empl oyme nt oppo rtchinties with in the country. Yet the strata at the home based level ruled and governed by many socio economic factors are getting restricted at their home fronts engaged in economic activities which are very much hidden in national statistics yet making a significant contribution to the national economy. The forces of strengthening local economies are mostly to target the groups at the community level and to emp ower community level livelihood interventions and income gene ration has been a practice in the struggle of alleviating poverty for many years. One major argume nt of globalization is to say that the stronger and the most competiti ve would survive challenges against the poor and marginalized communities in our nations. In such context working for the empowerment of Home Based Workers is a very strategic move in terms of reaching overall standards of sustainable developme nt and Millennium Developme nt Goals. Since Home Based Workers represent the lowest level of the trade channels access to new technolo gies is major hurdle for them. Ever moving external environme nt is a challenge for their day to day activities since their area of movement is limited to the local interventions and the traditional processes mostly with in a closed circle. Understanding this context the collaborations established with Java World Congress, HomeNet Sri Lanka has created a broad vision in introducing technology to uplift the status of Home Based Workers in Sri Lanka. Following areas are to be intervened in developing programmes to integrat e different dimensions of work which need to be closely moni tored in order to gain the broader objectives of Home Net Sri Lanka. With the support of Java Language programs are designed in following areas, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mapping of Home Based Workers Micro level planning for Home Based Workers Personal assessme nt Market linkages and virtual marketing Collective Advocacy Initiative Campaigns for mass mobilization © J a va Wo rld C o n g re s All rights reserved.

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Use of ICT for Disaster Management Case: Post Tsunami Opera- tions at Centre for National Operations (CNO)
Dilantha Withanage Dhammike Mendis
Web and Media Team CNO Sri Lanka 2005

and

A natural disaster can happen to any country at any time irrespective of the country’s prosperity level. It has been a proven fact in recent past with examples of Katrina typhoon in USA and Tsunami which affected many countries on 24 December 2004. Today, after 6 years of the Tsunami disaster, the world is equipped with more advanced disaster man ageme nt technolo gies such as early warning systems powered by latest satellite communic ation systems. But it is still the role of human to effectively manage the recourses of ICT and keep the minimum destru ction to the lives. The objective of this paper is to discuss the use of ICT in effective disaster manageme nt in post Tsunami operations, as Sri Lanka has never suffered such disaster in its recent history. Soon after the Tsunami disaster, the vital part of communic ation within and outside the country was the information. This was a challenging task as there was no time to waste on planning a “high level” information system, yet the require- ment was to represent the situation to the world through ICT; the media is web. At CNO, several “desks” were formed led by experts in each field such as; media, logistics, ICT, mappin g, IDPs etc. The role of media and web desk was to communic ate with all parties, coordinate and upd ate the situation with official statistics. Started with plain H TM L and later moved on to PHP/MySQL based web application, the web site www.cnos rilanka. org (no longer online) played the major role in providing information being the official “interface” of governme nt of Sri Lanka. The information posted at www.cnosrilanka.org on causalitie s, displaced personne l, and urgently required items such as food, medicine and clothing helped the international relief organizations and donors to manage their work and send the impo rtant items in need directly to the correct points. The information was represented with location and map based technology to make a clear picture on the disaster. Effective use of Search Engine Optimization (SEO) helped the CNO to rank top and get directed the traffic coming from various people with good will to help Sri Lanka. In conclusion, the web media desk at CNO successfully faced the challenge of developing the portal within 24hours and keeping it live 24X7 until the close of post Tsunami operations at CNO.

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Consciousness-Based Approach to Conflict Prevention

Dr. Colonel Gunter Chassé,
German Air Force, Retd.

Overview of the presentation • • • • • • • • Introduction Peace is a must to achieve UN MDGs U N ES calls for “peace in the minds of men” CO Unified Field Technology (UFT) available to create peace in the minds of individual and society as a whole U FT tested in reduction of war activities, social violence and crime Permane nt groups of UFT experts can prevent conflicts and create peace Program easy to impleme nt Preamble of UN ES Charter CO

“Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defenses of peace must be constru cted.” • • • • • • • • • • • • • Maharishi‘s Transcende ntal Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program with Yogic Flying Unified Field Technology Benefits for Society (1) Decreased Terrorism Journal of Offender Rehabilit ation Decreased Crime Rate in Cities Journal of Crime and Justice Decreased Violent Crime, Wash., DC Social Indicators Research Decreased Crime in Capital Cities The Journal of Mind and Behavior Benefits for Society (2) Improved National L ife: Decreased Fatalities , Social Indicators Reduction of Armed Conflict Journal of Social Behavior and Personali ty Increased Progress Towards Peace Journal of Social Behavior Reduction of International Conflict Journal of Conflict Resolution EEG Brain Wave Coherence Application to Society:

Creating a strong, integrated, peaceful national consciousness through permane nt coherence creating group Conclusion 1. Unified Field Technology successfully tested in prevention of conflicts 2. Group practice reduces ethni c, religious and political tensions that fuel violence and conflict 3. Group of √¯ of 1 % of popul ation creates unity and coherence in society and prevents conflicts 4. Impleme ntation in university, college or military acade my 5. Prepare the ground for UN MDG 0718 061 597

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