SUSHILA DEVI BANSAL COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY, INDORE
A Minor Project Report
on
“Mathematical Modeling And Computational Flow Analysis Of Muffler”
A dissertation submitted for the partial fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering under 4YDC to
Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidhyalaya, Bhopal
Department of
“Mechanical Engineering”
Session 200809
GUIDED BY :
R.D.Thakur Lect (Selection Grade) Dept. of Mech. . S.D.B.C.T. Indore
SUBMITTED BY:
Narendra Gupta Piyush Kumrawat Rakshit Lambhate
SUSHILA DEVI BANSAL COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY, INDORE
RECOMMENDATION
This is to certify that the Dissertation work entitled “Mathematical Modeling is a bonafide work carried out by Narendra Gupta, Piyush Kumrawat, Rakshit Lambhate, Satbeer Singh Bhatia in partial fulfillment for the award of degree of bachlor of Engineering (Mechanical) of Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal during the year 20082009.The project report has been approved as it satisfies the academic requirement in respect of project work prescribed for the bachelor of Engineering Degree.
Mr. R.D.Thakur Lect ( Selection Grade) & Guide Mechanical Engineering Department S.D.B.C.T. Indore
Dr. S.G.Sharma Professor &Head Mechanical Engineering Department S.D.B.C.T. Indore
SUSHILA DEVI BANSAL COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY, INDORE
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that ___________________________
student
of
IV year
Mechanical branch in year 20072008 have completed their Project Work of
“Mathematical Modeling And Computational Flow Analysis Of Muffler” and
has Submitted a satisfactory report on the Project as a part of partial fulfillment towards the degree of Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical engineering) Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidhyalaya, Bhopal.
Internal Examiner :
Date:
External Examiner :
Date:
The satisfaction that accompanied the successful completion of any task would be incomplete mentioning the people who made it possible and whose constant guidance and encouragement served as an oasis in the desert and crowned our efforts with success.
I am happy to express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide Mr. R.D.Thakur for the kind cooperation, dynamic guidance and active involvement in the proceedings of the project right from the beginning which has greatly helped me in realizing my project.
I am highly thankful to Dr. S.G.Sharma, H.O.D., Department of Mechanical Engineering, S.D.B.C.T., Indore for his cooperation and guidance.
Last but not the least; I am thankful to my parents and friends for their cooperation and encouragement in my project.
RAKSHIT LAMBHATE PIYUSH KUMRAWAT NARENDRA GUPTA SATBEER SINGH BHATIA
RECOMMDATION
CERTIFICATE
CONTENT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
CONTENT
ABSTRACT
LIST OF TABLES, SYMBOLS, FIGURES
HISTORICAL REVIEW
2. WORKING AND CLASSIFICATION OF MUFFLER
3. MATHEMATICAL MODEL
4. CALCULATION
5. WORKING WITH ANSYS
6. COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS
7. RESULTS & CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Since long analysis and designing of a muffler has been matter of interest for engineers. A lot of efforts are being made to analyze the velocity and pressure variation along the length of flow in a muffler. The present work aims at analysis of muffler on flow bench. For this we have created mathematical model which shows the variation of velocity with change in cross sectional area of flow and we have verified the formulated model with the help of already given geometrical model (fig.6.1) in ANSYS which shows the velocity variation along the length of flow.
Analysis of muffler is basically carried out using two approaches. The acoustic bench approach and the flow bench approach. The acoustic bench approach deals with the noise attenuation in case of small amplitude waves while the properties like velocity, pressure variation etc are studied using flow bench analysis. Most of the researchers have analyzed the muffler on acoustic bench. In 1971, R J Alfredson and P.O.A.L. Devies have done much about performance of exhaust silencer components. In 1979 J.W.Sullivan described a method of modeling perforated tube muffler components. In 1980, M.L.Munjal gave a new look at the performance of reflective exhaust mufflers.
R.S.Benson has described pressure pulsation in pipe system with multiple reciprocating air compressor and receivers. Ahmet S. Ocer has done a comparison of computer simulation techniques of gas flow in a multiple single stage and two stage reciprocating compressor systems.
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1 describes about the introduction of the Muffler Analysis.
How it is done, what are the types of Muffler Analysis. The Flow Chart showing Muffler Analysis.
Problem description, what is our approach towards the problem description. What assumptions are made and dimensions.
Chapter 2 describes about Working and Types of Muffler and what is the Effect of Back Pressure.
In Chapter 3 we have prepared a Mathematical Model using Continuity Equation , Equation of State and Momentum Equation and derive the Formula.
In Chapter 4 we have done the Calculations for Velocity and Pressure at various cross sections in Muffler with that help of derived formula.
Chapter 5 shows the Introduction of Ansys and the Environment of Ansys.
Chapter 6 shows the model prepared in Ansys.
In Chapter 7 we have compared the Results obtained from Mathematical Model and Ansys Software and we gave a Conclusion.
Muffler analysis can be done by using two ways:
∑ Acoustic Bench Determination.
Flow Bench Determination.
Now, the above two ways can be used to determine:
∑ Noise. ∑ Velocity, Pressure, Density. Respectively
For the muffler shown in fig.1, inlet velocity, density & viscosity are known and we have to find out –
1A. Determination of inlet temperature
t ^{2}
=
_{0} +
t 
_{i} = (17.040 + 56.02t 0.1189 t ^{2} ) x 10 ^{}^{3}
here,
1.79 x 10 ^{}^{5} = (17.040 + 56.02t 0.1189 t ^{2} ) x 10 ^{}^{3} 1.79 x 10 ^{}^{2} = 17.040 + 56.02t 0.1189 t ^{2} 0.1189 t ^{2} –56.02t + 17.022 = 0 t = (56.02 ±÷ ((56.02) ^{2} –(4 x 0.1189 x 17.022))) / (2x 0.1189)
t = 0.336 or
t = 470.81
T = 0.336 + 273.15 T = 273.486 K
T = 470.81 + 273.15 T = 743.96 K
or
T _{i} = 743.96 K
1B. Determination of inlet pressure
P _{i} =
_{1} RT _{1}
= 1.23 x 287 x 743.96 P _{i} = 0.96 x 10 ^{5} N/m ^{2} (gauge)
P _{i} = 0.96 x 10 ^{5} N/m ^{2} (gauge)
1.3 Assumption

2. Flow is compressible.

3. Flow is turbulent.
For the initial analysis with the fictitious fluid, the flow is in turbulent regime. This may be verified by computing the Reynolds’s number of the flow
R _{e} = VD
/
R _{e} = (0.5 x 0.25 x 1.23) / (1.79 x 10 ^{}^{5} ) = 8589 Reynolds Number >2000. So, Flow is turbulent.
1.4 Dimensions & Properties
Table 1.1
S.No.

Properties

Symbol

Values

1

Velocity at entrance

U 1

0.5 m/s

2

Density at entrance


1.23kg/m ^{3}


Viscosity

at



3



1.79 x 10 ^{}^{5} Ns/m ^{2}

entrance

4

Pressure at outlet

P 4

Zero (gauge)

CHAPTER 2
WORKING AND TYPES OF MUFFLER
MUFFLER
A device used to attenuate sound while also allowing fluid (usually gas) to flow through it; also known as silencer (muffler). Mufflers are extensively used to reduce the intake and exhaust noise from pumps, fans, compressors, and internal combustion engines. Although active noise control techniques are emerging, most mufflers continue to use passive silencing methods. Passive mufflers are categorized as reactive or dissipative based on their primary method of attenuation. Reactive mufflers reflect sound back toward the noise source, and dissipative mufflers use porous materials to absorb the sound.
Fig. (2.1) below explains the working of all the key components of an exhaust system used in automobile. The major components used in a typical automobile exhaust system are exhaust manifold, resonator, catalytic converter, exhaust pipe, muffler, tail pipe, ‘Y’ pipe, ball flanges. All of these components are especially designed for providing suitable and effective exhaust flow, silencing, and emission levels.
Catalytic Converter
Fig. 2.1
In automobiles, a component of emission control systems used to reduce the discharge of noxious gases from the internalcombustion engine. The catalytic converter consists of an insulated chamber containing pellets of catalyst through which the exhaust gases are passed. The exhaust's hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are converted to water vapour and carbon dioxide.
Resonator
A resonator is one part in exhaust systems that work with the muffler to reduce noise, by making sound waves "cancel each other out". The "exhaust note" is an important feature for many vehicle owners, so both the original manufacturers and the aftermarket suppliers use the resonator to enhance the sound.
Exhaust Manifold
Exhaust manifolds are generally and traditionally simple cast iron units which collect engine exhaust and deliver it to the exhaust pipe.
A car muffler is a component of the exhaust system of a car. The exhaust system has mainly 3 functions:
1.
Getting the hot and noxious gas from the engine away from the vehicle.
The last specified function is the function of the car muffler. It is necessary because the gas coming from the combustion in the pistons of the engine would generate an extremely loud noise if it were sent directly in the ambient air surrounding engine through the exhaust valves. There are 2 techniques used to dampen the noise: absorption and reflection. Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages.
THE ABSORBER MUFFLER OR DISSIPATIVE MUFFLER
The muffler is composed of a tube covered by sound absorbing material. The tube is perforated so that some part of the sound wave goes through the perforation to the absorbing material. The absorbing material is usually made of fiberglass or steel wool. The dampening material is protected from the surrounding by a supplementary coat made of a bend metal sheet.
The advantage of this method is low back pressure with a relatively simple design. The inconvenience of this method is low sound damping ability compared to the other techniques, especially at low frequency.
The mufflers using the absorption technique are usually sports vehicle because they increase the performances of the engine because of their low back pressure. A trick to improve their muffling ability consists of lining up several "straight" mufflers.
THE REFLECTOR MUFFLER OR REACTIVE MUFFLER
Principle: Sound wave reflection is used to create a maximum amount of destructive interferences.
Fig 2.3
Definition of destructive interferences
Let's consider the noise a person would hear when a car drives past. This sound would physically correspond to the pressure variation of the air which would make his eardrum vibrate. The curve A1 of the graph 1 could represent this sound. The pressure amplitude is a function of the time at a certain fixed place. If another sound wave A2 is produced at the same time, the pressure of the two waves will add. If the amplitude of A1 is exactly the opposite of the amplitude A2, then the sum will be zero, which corresponds physically to the atmospheric pressure. The listener would thus hear nothing although there are two radiating sound sources. A2 is called the destructive interference.
Fig.2.4
Definition of the reflection
The sound is a traveling wave i.e. its position changes in function of the time. As long as the wave travels in the same medium, there is no change of speed and amplitude. When the wave reaches a frontier between two mediums which have different impedances, the speed, and the pressure amplitude change (and so does the angle if the wave does not propagate perpendicularly to the frontier). The figure 2.4 shows two medium A and B and the 3 waves: incident transmitted and reflected.
Example
If plane sound waves are propagating across a tube and the section of the tube changes, the impedance of the tube will change. Part of the incident
waves will be transmitted through the discontinuity and the other part will be reflected.
Mufflers using the reflection technique are the most commonly used because they dampen the noise much better than the absorber muffler. However they induce a higher back pressure, lowering the performance of the engine (an engine would be most efficient or powerful without the use of a muffler).
Fig. 2.5
The upper image represents a car muffler's typical architecture. It is composed of 3 tubes. There are 3 areas separated by plates, the part of the tubes located in the middle area are perforated. A small quantity of pressure "escapes" from the tubes through the perforation and cancel one another.
Some mufflers using the reflection principle may incorporate cavities which dampen noise. These cavities are called Helmholtz Resonators in acoustics. This feature is usually only available for up market class mufflers.
Back pressure
Fig.2.6
Car engines are 4 stroke cycle engines. Out of these 4 strokes, only one produces the power, this is when the explosion occurs and pushes the pistons back. The other 3 strokes are necessary evil that don't produce energy. They on the contrary consume energy. During the exhaust stroke, the remaining gas from the explosion is expelled from the cylinder. The higher the pressure behind the exhaust valves (i.e. back pressure), and the higher effort necessary to expel the gas out of the cylinder. So, a low back pressure is preferable in order to have a higher engine horsepower.
CHAPTER 3
MATHEMATICAL MODEL
Mathematical modeling is the use of mathematical language to describe the behavior of system.
We are using continuity equation because

it

is
based

on

law

of

conversation of mass which

states
that matter

cannot

be

created nor

destroyed or in other words we can say that mass is constant.
We are using equation of state because it obeys perfect gas law or reaching towards perfect gas law.
We are using momentum equation because The term ρAV is constant at every section of flow due to continuity equation. This means that momentum per second at any section is equal to that product of a constant quantity and velocity.
AU = Const.
         (1 –a)
Differentiate partially with respect to length along flow (s)
AU

(∂

/∂s)

+
((∂/∂s(AU)) = 0


AU

(∂

/∂s) +

[A(∂U/∂s) + U(∂A/∂s)] = 0


AU (∂

/∂s) +

A(∂U/∂s) + U(∂A/∂s) = 0

         (1 b)

Equation (1 –b) is partial differential form of continuity equation.
P =
RT
(∂P/∂s) = RT (∂
/∂s)
         (2 –a)          (2 –b)
Equation (2 –b) is partial differential form of Equation of State.
_{1} U _{1} (U _{2} –U _{1} ) U (∂U/∂s)
         (3 –a)          (3 –b)
Equation (3 –b) is partial differential form of Momentum Equation.
Model I
Substitute the value of (∂
/∂s) from (2b) in to (1b), we have

A(∂U/∂s) +

U(∂A/∂s) + (UA/RT) (∂P/∂s) = 0

         (4)

Now substitute the value of (∂P/∂s) from (3 –b) in to (4), we have


A (∂U/∂s) +

U(∂A/∂s)  (
U ^{2} A/RT) (∂U/∂s) = 0

A (∂U/∂s) +
U(∂A/∂s)  (U ^{2} A/RT) (∂U/∂s) = 0
A (∂U/∂s) [1  (U ^{2} /RT)] =  U (∂A/∂s)
[(1/U) – (U/RT)] (∂U/∂s) = (1/A) (∂A/∂s)
[(1/U) – (U/RT)] ∂U = (∂A/A)
Now integrate (5)
lnA = lnU – (U ^{2} /2RT) + C
Taking antilog
         (5)
Now we are interested in finding the value of constant in equation (6)
When cross sectional area A = ( /4) (0.25) ^{2} = 0.049 m ^{2}
Then,
Velocity = 0.5 m/s
Apply this condition in equation (6)
(1/ 0.049) = 0.5 – e ^{(}^{(}^{0}^{.}^{5}^{)}^{2}^{/}^{2} ^{x}^{2}^{8}^{7} ^{x}^{7}^{4}^{3}^{.}^{9}^{6}^{)} + Const
Const. = 20.908 (1/A) = U – e ^{(}^{U}^{2}^{/}^{2}^{R}^{T}^{)} + 20.908
(1/A) = U – [1 + (U ^{2} /2RT) + (U ^{2} /2RT) ^{2} /2!+ (U ^{2} /2RT) ^{3} / 3! +
. . . . . . . .
.•
]
Neglecting, all higher power terms because U<1
(1/A) = U –1 – (U ^{2} /2RT) + 20.908
(U ^{2} /2RT) – U + ((1/A) – 20.908) = 0
         (7)
This model shows the variation of velocity along the length of flow with change in cross sectional area.
Model –II
Substitute the value of ∂ have,
/∂s from (2b) & ∂U/∂s from (3b) in to (1b), we
(

A/

U) (∂P/∂s) +

U(∂A/∂s) + (UA/RT) (∂P/∂s) = 0

  





  



(8)

(∂P/∂s)[(UA/RT) – (A/U)] = 
U(∂A/∂s)
A(∂P/∂s)[U ^{2} RT)/URT] = 
U(∂A/∂s)
∂A/A = [(U ^{2} –RT) /
U ^{2} RT)] ∂P/∂s
∂A/A =  ((RTU ^{2} ) /U ^{2} ) ∂P/P
now integrate
ln A = lnP. ((RTU ^{2} ) /U ^{2} ) + const.
(1/A) = (1/P) ((RTU ^{2} ) /U ^{2} ) + const.
P
= A ((RTU ^{2} ) /U ^{2} ) + const.
At crosssection (1)
         (9)
         (10)
P = 0.96 x 10 ^{5} N/m ^{2} , A = 0.049 m ^{2} , U = 0.5 m/s
Apply these conditions in equation (10), we have
0.96 x 10 ^{5} = 0.049 [((287x273.5) –(0.5) ^{2} )/(0.5) ^{2} ] + C
C = 6.239
Now equation (10) becomes,
P = A [(RT –U ^{2} )/U ^{2} ] + 6.239
         (11)
This Model Shows the Variation of Pressure along the length of flow with change in cross sectional area & velocity also.
Determination Of Velocity At Various Cross Section Along The Length Of Flow
Fig.4.1
At cross section (1)
Area = 0.049 and velocity = 0.5 m/sec. (Known)
At Cross section (2)
Area = 0.01227 and Velocity = ?
(U ^{2} /2RT) – U + ((1/A) – 20.908) = 0

(U ^{2} /(2x287x743.96)) – U + ((1/0.0245) –20.908) = 0

6.369x10 ^{}^{6} U ^{2} – U + 20.908 = 0

U = (1 ± ÷ (1(4x20.8x6.369x10 ^{}^{6} )))/(2x6.369x10 ^{}^{6} )

U = 0.78 m/s

Hence, Velocity at Crosssection (2) is 0.78 m/s.
At cross section (3)
Area = 0.01226 and velocity = 0.78 m/sec.
At Cross section (4)
Area = 0.049 and Velocity = 0.5 m/sec
Determination of pressure at various cross section along the length of flow.
At Cross section (1)
Area = 0.049 and
Pressure
P _{1}
=
_{1} RT _{1}
= 1.23 x 287 x 743.96
= 0.96 x 10 ^{5} N/m ^{2} (gauge)
At Cross section (2)
Area = 0.0245 and Pressure = ?
P = A [(RT –U ^{2} )/U ^{2} ] + 6.239

P _{2} = 0.0245 x [ ((287x743.96) –(0.78) ^{2} )/(0.78) ^{2} ] + 6.239

P _{2} = 0.03167 x 10 ^{5} N/m ^{2}

Hence, Pressure at Crosssection (2) is 0.03167 x 10 ^{5} N/m ^{2}
At crosssection (3)
At cross section (4)
Area = 0.049 and Pressure = 0 (known)

S.No.

CrossSection Area (m ^{2} )

Value of Velocity (m/sec.)

Value Pressure (N/m ^{2} ) (gauge)
of



1

0.049

0.50

0.96
x 10 ^{5}



2

0.01226

0.78

0.03167

x 10 ^{5}


3

0.01226

0.78

0.03167

x 10 ^{5}


4

0.049

0.50

0.96
x 10 ^{5}



Table 4.1


CHAPTER 5

WORKING WITH ANSYS

5.1. What ANSYS is ?
ANSYS is a generalpurpose finite elementmodeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and nonlinear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic and electromagnetic problems.
ANSYS finite element analysis software enables software enables engineers to perform the following tasks :
Build
computer
models
or
transfer
CAD
models
of
structures,
products, components or system.
Apply operating loads or other design performance conditions.
Study
physical
responses


such

as

stress

levels,

temperature

distributions or the impact of electromagnetic fields.

Optimize

a
design

early

in

the

development

process

to

reduce

production costs.
Do prototype testing in environments where if otherwise would be undesirable or impossible (e.g. biomedical application).
5.2 ANSYS Environment
The ANSYS consists of six main regions or Windows.
Contains utility functions that are available through the ANSYS session, such as file controls, selection, graphics controls and parameters. We also exit the ANSYS program through this menu.
Contains the primary ANSYS functions, organized by processors (pre processor, solutions, general postprocessor, design optimizer etc.)
Contains push buttons that executes commonly used ANSYS commands and functions. We may add our own push buttons by defining
abbreviations.
Shows programs prompt messages and allows us to type in commands directly. All previously typed in commands also appear for easy reference and access.
A window where graphics displays are drawn.
Lists text output from the program in response to every function executed. It is usually positioned the other widows and can be raised to the front when necessary.
Fig. 5.1
5.3 Graphical Interface vs. Command File Coding
There are two methods to use ANSYS. The first is by means of the graphical user interface or GUI. This method follows the conventions of popular Windows and XWindows based programs.
The second is by means of command files. The command file approach has a steeper learning curve for many, but it has the advantage that an entire analysis can be described in a small text file, typically in less than 50 lines of commands. This approach enables easy model modifications and minimal file space requirements.
5.4 Steps Involved In Analysis
Preprocessing:
defining
the
problem;
preprocessing are given below:
the
major
steps
in

Define key points/lines/areas/volumes


Define element type and material/geometric properties


Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required

The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i.e. 1D, 2D, axissymmetric, 3D).

2. Solution: assigning loads, constraints and solving; here we specify the loads (point or pressure), constraints (transnational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting set of equations.

3. Post processing: further processing and viewing of the results; in this stage one may wish to see:

Lists of nodal displacements


Element forces and moments


Deflection plots


Stress contour diagrams

Chapter 6
COMPUTATIONAL FLOW ANALYSIS
The color of fig shows the variations of velocity along the length of flow with change in cross sectional area.
RESULT

Sr. No.

Cross Section

Velocity

Obtained

Velocity

Obtained

Area (m ^{2} )

from
Mathematical

from
Computational

Analysis

Analysis

1

0.049

0.5

0.5

2

0.01226

0.78

0.62

3

0.01226

0.78

0.13

4

0.049

0.5

0.42

CONCLUSION
The results obtained from computational analysis and mathematical analyses are different. Because in mathematical analysis, we haven’t considered the effect of whirling. So we have to consider the whirling effect of gas flow in mathematical analysis.
BIBLOGRAPHY
∑ R.J.Alfredson and P.O.A.L. Devies components”.
“performance of exhaust silencer
∑ J.W.Sullivan components”.
“method
of
modeling perforated tube muffler
∑ M.L.Munjal “the performance of reflective exhaust mufflers”.
∑ R.S.Benson
“pressure
pulsation
in
pipe
system
with
multiple
reciprocating air compressor and receivers”. ∑ M.L.Munjal “analysis and design of muffler”. ∑ Ahmet Selamet “ analytical, computational and experimental studies of automotive silencers”.
∑ ANSYS SOLUTION VOL3 NUMBER 3
ANSYS Inc.
∑ MECHANICAL AND EXPERIMENTATION MANUALS
Prof. S.C. Lakkad Dept. Of Aerospace Engg. IIT Kanpur
ANSYS MANUALS
http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys http://www.ansys.com
http://www3.sympatico.ca/peter_budgell/home.html
AUTOCAD MANUALS
APPENDIX –1
FLOTRAN CFD ANALYSIS
It is a comprehensive tool for analyzing twodimensional and three dimensional fluid flow fields. Using FLOTRAN CFD elements FLUID 141 and FLUID 142, we can achieve solutions for the following –
Lift and drag on an airfoil
The flow in supersonic nozzles
Complex, threedimensional flow patterns in a pipe bend.
In addition, we can use the features of ANSYS/ FLOTRAN to perform tasks including
Calculating the gas pressure and temperature distributions in an engine exhaust manifold
Studying the thermal stratification and breakup in piping systems
Using flow mixing studies to evaluate potential for thermal shock
Doing
natural
convection
analyses
to
evaluate
the
thermal
performance of chips in electronic enclosures.
Heat exchanger studies involving different fluids separated by solid regions.
We can perform these types of FLOTRAN analyses –
Laminar or turbulent
Thermal or adiabatic
Compressible or incompressible
Newtonian or NonNewtonian
Multiple species transport
These types of analyses are not mutually exclusive. For example, a laminar analysis can be thermal or adiabatic. A turbulent analysis can be compressible or incompressible.
In these analyses, the velocity field is very ordered and smooth, as it is in highly viscous, slowmoving flows. The flow of some oils also can be laminar.
Turbulent flow analyses deal with problems where velocities are high enough and the viscosity is low enough to cause turbulent fluctuations.
Laminar and turbulent flows are considered to be incompressible if density is constant or if the fluid expends little energy in compressing the flow. The temperature equation for incompressible flow neglects kinetic energy changes and viscous dissipation.
Often, the solution for the temperature distribution throughout the flow field is of interest. If fluid properties do not vary with temperature, we can converge the flow field without solving the temperature equation. In a conjugate heat transfer problem, the temperature equation is solved in a domain with both fluid and nonfluid (that is, solid material) regions. In a natural convection problem, the flow results mainly or solely from density gradients brought about by temperature variations. Most natural convection problems, unlike forced convection problems, have no externally applied flow sources.
For high velocity gas flows, changes in density due to strong pressure gradients significantly influence the nature of the flow field.
A linear relationship between the stress and rateofstrain cannot describe many fluid flows adequately. For such nonNewtonian flows, the ANSYS program provides three viscosity models and a userprogrammable subroutine.
This type of analysis is useful in studying the dispersion of dilute contaminants or pollutants in the bulk fluid flow. In addition, we can use multiple species transport analysis for heat exchanger studies where two or more fluids (separated by walls) may be involved.
FLUID 142, 3 –D FLUID ELEMENT
We can use FLUID 142 to model transient or steady state fluid/thermal systems that involve fluid and/or nonfluid regions. The conservation equations for viscous fluid flow and energy are solved in the fluid region, while only the energy equation is solved in the nonfluid region. we use this FLOTRAN CFD element to solve for flow and temperature distributions within a region.
For the FLOTRAN CFD elements, the velocities are obtained from the conservation of momentum principle, and the pressure is obtained from the conservation of mass principle. (The temperature, if required, is obtained from the law o\ conservation of energy.) A segregated sequential solver algorithm is used; that is, the matrix system derived from the finite element discretization of the governing equation for each degree of freedom is solved separately. The flow problem is nonlinear and the governing equations are coupled together. The sequential solution of all the governing equations, combined with the update of any temperature or pressuredependent properties, constitutes a global iteration. The number of global iterations required to achieve a converged solution may vary considerably, depending on the size and stability of the problem. Transport equations are solved for the mass fractions of up to six species.
Figure FLUID142 3D Fluid Element
Figure shows the geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element. The element is defined by four nodes (tetrahedral) or eight nodes (hexahedral) and by isotropic material properties. Tetrahedral and hexahedral elements cannot be combined. The coordinate system, selected according to the value of KEYOPT(3), may be either I Cartesian or cylindrical.