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SUSHILA DEVI BANSAL COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY, INDORE

SUSHILA DEVI BANSAL COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY, INDORE A Minor Project Report on “Mathematical Modeling And Computational

A Minor Project Report

on

“Mathematical Modeling And Computational Flow Analysis Of Muffler”

A dissertation submitted for the partial fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering under 4YDC to

Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidhyalaya, Bhopal

Department of

“Mechanical Engineering”

B.E. IV year

Session 2008-09

GUIDED BY :

R.D.Thakur Lect (Selection Grade) Dept. of Mech. . S.D.B.C.T. Indore

SUBMITTED BY:

Narendra Gupta Piyush Kumrawat Rakshit Lambhate

Satbeer Singh Bhatia

SUSHILA DEVI BANSAL COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY, INDORE

SUSHILA DEVI BANSAL COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY, INDORE RECOMMENDATION This is to certify that the Dissertation work

RECOMMENDATION

This is to certify that the Dissertation work entitled “Mathematical Modeling is a bonafide work carried out by Narendra Gupta, Piyush Kumrawat, Rakshit Lambhate, Satbeer Singh Bhatia in partial fulfillment for the award of degree of bachlor of Engineering (Mechanical) of Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal during the year 2008-2009.The project report has been approved as it satisfies the academic requirement in respect of project work prescribed for the bachelor of Engineering Degree.

Mr. R.D.Thakur Lect ( Selection Grade) & Guide Mechanical Engineering Department S.D.B.C.T. Indore

Dr. S.G.Sharma Professor &Head Mechanical Engineering Department S.D.B.C.T. Indore

SUSHILA DEVI BANSAL COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY, INDORE

SUSHILA DEVI BANSAL COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY, INDORE CERTIFICATE This is to certify that ___________________________ student of

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that ___________________________

student

of

IV year

Mechanical branch in year 2007-2008 have completed their Project Work of

Mathematical Modeling And Computational Flow Analysis Of Muffler” and

has Submitted a satisfactory report on the Project as a part of partial fulfillment towards the degree of Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical engineering) Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidhyalaya, Bhopal.

Internal Examiner :

Date:

External Examiner :

Date:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The satisfaction that accompanied the successful completion of any task would be incomplete mentioning the people who made it possible and whose constant guidance and encouragement served as an oasis in the desert and crowned our efforts with success.

I am happy to express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide Mr. R.D.Thakur for the kind cooperation, dynamic guidance and active involvement in the proceedings of the project right from the beginning which has greatly helped me in realizing my project.

I am highly thankful to Dr. S.G.Sharma, H.O.D., Department of Mechanical Engineering, S.D.B.C.T., Indore for his cooperation and guidance.

Last but not the least; I am thankful to my parents and friends for their co-operation and encouragement in my project.

RAKSHIT LAMBHATE PIYUSH KUMRAWAT NARENDRA GUPTA SATBEER SINGH BHATIA

RECOMMDATION

CERTIFICATE

CONTENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

CONTENT

ABSTRACT

LIST OF TABLES, SYMBOLS, FIGURES

HISTORICAL REVIEW

  • 1. INTRODUCTION

    • 1.1 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

    • 1.2 APPORACH

    • 1.3 ASSUMPTION

    • 1.4 DIMENTION AND PROPERTIES

  • 2. WORKING AND CLASSIFICATION OF MUFFLER

  • 3. MATHEMATICAL MODEL

  • 4. CALCULATION

  • 5. WORKING WITH ANSYS

  • 6. COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS

  • 7. RESULTS & CONCLUSION

  • BIBLIOGRAPHY

    ABSTRACT

    Since long analysis and designing of a muffler has been matter of interest for engineers. A lot of efforts are being made to analyze the velocity and pressure variation along the length of flow in a muffler. The present work aims at analysis of muffler on flow bench. For this we have created mathematical model which shows the variation of velocity with change in cross sectional area of flow and we have verified the formulated model with the help of already given geometrical model (fig.6.1) in ANSYS which shows the velocity variation along the length of flow.

    LIST OF SYMBOLS, FIGURES, TABLES

    Symbols

    Description

     

    =

    Dynamic viscosity (Ns/m 2 )

     

    0

    =

    Dynamic Viscosity at absolute zero

    =

    temperature. (Ns/m 2 ) Const. = 56.02

     
     

    =

    Const. = 0.1189

     

    t

    =

    temperature (C)

    T

    =

    Temp (K)

    U

    =

    Velocity (m/s)

    =

    Density (kg/m 3 )

     

    D

    =

    Diameter (m)

    P

    =

    Pressure (N/m 2 )

    Re

    =

    Reynolds Number (Dimensionless)

    s

    =

    Length of Flow (m)

    R

    =

    Characteristic gas const. (J/kg K)

    A

    =

    Cross Sectional Area (m 2 )

    Figure No.

    Description

    1.1

    Front View of Fluid Flow with Dimension.

    2.1

    Components of Exhaust System.

    2.2

    Absorber Muffler.

    2.3

    Graph Between Pressure Amplitude and Time.

    2.4

    Transmission of waves.

    2.5,2.6

    Examples of muffler.

    4.1

    View of Fluid Flow.

    5.1

    Six Windows of ANSYS.

    6.1

    Velocity Distribution of Fluid Flow.

     

    Table No.

    Description

    1.1

    Fluid Properties & Values.

    4.1

    Value of Velocity & Pressure at Various Cross-

    section.

    7.1

    Comparison of Velocities at Different Cross- sections Obtained From Mathematical Model & Computational Analysis Using ANSYS.

    HISTORICAL REVIEW

    Analysis of muffler is basically carried out using two approaches. The acoustic bench approach and the flow bench approach. The acoustic bench approach deals with the noise attenuation in case of small amplitude waves while the properties like velocity, pressure variation etc are studied using flow bench analysis. Most of the researchers have analyzed the muffler on acoustic bench. In 1971, R J Alfredson and P.O.A.L. Devies have done much about performance of exhaust silencer components. In 1979 J.W.Sullivan described a method of modeling perforated tube muffler components. In 1980, M.L.Munjal gave a new look at the performance of reflective exhaust mufflers.

    R.S.Benson has described pressure pulsation in pipe system with multiple reciprocating air compressor and receivers. Ahmet S. Ocer has done a comparison of computer simulation techniques of gas flow in a multiple single stage and two stage reciprocating compressor systems.

    CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION

    Chapter 1 describes about the introduction of the Muffler Analysis.

    How it is done, what are the types of Muffler Analysis. The Flow Chart showing Muffler Analysis.

    Problem description, what is our approach towards the problem description. What assumptions are made and dimensions.

    Chapter 2 describes about Working and Types of Muffler and what is the Effect of Back Pressure.

    In Chapter 3 we have prepared a Mathematical Model using Continuity Equation , Equation of State and Momentum Equation and derive the Formula.

    In Chapter 4 we have done the Calculations for Velocity and Pressure at various cross sections in Muffler with that help of derived formula.

    Chapter 5 shows the Introduction of Ansys and the Environment of Ansys.

    Chapter 6 shows the model prepared in Ansys.

    In Chapter 7 we have compared the Results obtained from Mathematical Model and Ansys Software and we gave a Conclusion.

    Muffler analysis can be done by using two ways:

    Acoustic Bench Determination.

    Flow Bench Determination.

    Now, the above two ways can be used to determine:

    Noise. Velocity, Pressure, Density. Respectively

    MUFFLER ANALYSIS
    MUFFLER
    ANALYSIS
     
    ACOUSTIC FLOW BENCEH BENCEH APPROACH APPROACH NOISE VELOCITY, DETERMINATION PRESSURE, DENSITY DETERMINATION
     
    ACOUSTIC FLOW BENCEH BENCEH APPROACH APPROACH NOISE VELOCITY, DETERMINATION PRESSURE, DENSITY DETERMINATION
     

    ACOUSTIC

    FLOW

    BENCEH

    BENCEH

    APPROACH

    APPROACH

    ACOUSTIC FLOW BENCEH BENCEH APPROACH APPROACH NOISE VELOCITY, DETERMINATION PRESSURE, DENSITY DETERMINATION
    ACOUSTIC FLOW BENCEH BENCEH APPROACH APPROACH NOISE VELOCITY, DETERMINATION PRESSURE, DENSITY DETERMINATION

    NOISE

     

    VELOCITY,

    DETERMINATION

     

    PRESSURE, DENSITY

     

    DETERMINATION

     
       
    • 1.1 Problem Description

    For the muffler shown in fig.1, inlet velocity, density & viscosity are known and we have to find out –

    • 1. The temp & pressure at inlet.

    • 2. Velocity variation along the length of flow.

    • 3. Pressure variation along that length of flow.

    • 1.2 Approach

    1A. Determination of inlet temperature

    t 2

    =

    0 +

    t -

    i = (17.040 + 56.02t -0.1189 t 2 ) x 10 -3

    here,

    1.79 x 10 -5 = (17.040 + 56.02t -0.1189 t 2 ) x 10 -3 1.79 x 10 -2 = 17.040 + 56.02t -0.1189 t 2 0.1189 t 2 –56.02t + 17.022 = 0 t = (56.02 ±÷ ((56.02) 2 –(4 x 0.1189 x 17.022))) / (2x 0.1189)

    t = (56.03 ± 55.94) / 0.2378

    t = 0.336 or

    t = 470.81

    T = 0.336 + 273.15 T = 273.486 K

    T = 470.81 + 273.15 T = 743.96 K

    or

    T i = 743.96 K

    1B. Determination of inlet pressure

    P i =

    1 RT 1

    = 1.23 x 287 x 743.96 P i = 0.96 x 10 5 N/m 2 (gauge)

    P i = 0.96 x 10 5 N/m 2 (gauge)

    • 4. For finding velocity distribution along the length of flow, we first prepare a mathematical model for it (chap-3) and we have verified the formulated model with the help of already given geometrical model (fig.6.1) in ANSYS which shows the velocity variation along the length of flow.

    1.3 Assumption

    • 1. Flow is isothermal.

    • 2. Flow is compressible.

    • 3. Flow is turbulent.

    For the initial analysis with the fictitious fluid, the flow is in turbulent regime. This may be verified by computing the Reynolds’s number of the flow

    R e = VD

    /

    R e = (0.5 x 0.25 x 1.23) / (1.79 x 10 -5 ) = 8589 Reynolds Number >2000. So, Flow is turbulent.

    1.4 Dimensions & Properties

    • - Dimensions are shown in fig.1.1.

    • - Properties.

    Table 1.1

    S.No.

    Properties

    Symbol

    Values

    1

    Velocity at entrance

    U 1

    0.5 m/s

    2

    Density at entrance

    1

    1.23kg/m 3

     

    Viscosity

    at

       

    3

     

    1

    1.79 x 10 -5 Ns/m 2

    entrance

    4

    Pressure at outlet

    P 4

    Zero (gauge)

    Fig. 1.1

    CHAPTER 2 WORKING AND TYPES OF MUFFLER MUFFLER
    CHAPTER 2
    WORKING AND TYPES OF MUFFLER
    MUFFLER

    A device used to attenuate sound while also allowing fluid (usually gas) to flow through it; also known as silencer (muffler). Mufflers are extensively used to reduce the intake and exhaust noise from pumps, fans, compressors, and internal combustion engines. Although active noise control techniques are emerging, most mufflers continue to use passive silencing methods. Passive mufflers are categorized as reactive or dissipative based on their primary method of attenuation. Reactive mufflers reflect sound back toward the noise source, and dissipative mufflers use porous materials to absorb the sound.

    Fig. (2.1) below explains the working of all the key components of an exhaust system used in automobile. The major components used in a typical automobile exhaust system are exhaust manifold, resonator, catalytic converter, exhaust pipe, muffler, tail pipe, ‘Y’ pipe, ball flanges. All of these components are especially designed for providing suitable and effective exhaust flow, silencing, and emission levels.

    Catalytic Converter Fig. 2.1 In automobiles, a component of emission control systems used to reduce the

    Catalytic Converter

    Fig. 2.1

    In automobiles, a component of emission control systems used to reduce the discharge of noxious gases from the internal-combustion engine. The catalytic converter consists of an insulated chamber containing pellets of catalyst through which the exhaust gases are passed. The exhaust's hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are converted to water vapour and carbon dioxide.

    Resonator

    A resonator is one part in exhaust systems that work with the muffler to reduce noise, by making sound waves "cancel each other out". The "exhaust note" is an important feature for many vehicle owners, so both the original manufacturers and the after-market suppliers use the resonator to enhance the sound.

    Exhaust Manifold

    Exhaust manifolds are generally and traditionally simple cast iron units which collect engine exhaust and deliver it to the exhaust pipe.

    A car muffler is a component of the exhaust system of a car. The exhaust system has mainly 3 functions:

    1.

    Getting the hot and noxious gas from the engine away from the vehicle.

    • 2. Reduce exhaust emission

    • 3. Attenuating the noise output from the engine

    The last specified function is the function of the car muffler. It is necessary because the gas coming from the combustion in the pistons of the engine would generate an extremely loud noise if it were sent directly in the ambient air surrounding engine through the exhaust valves. There are 2 techniques used to dampen the noise: absorption and reflection. Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages.

    THE ABSORBER MUFFLER OR DISSIPATIVE MUFFLER

    The muffler is composed of a tube covered by sound absorbing material. The tube is perforated so that some part of the sound wave goes through the perforation to the absorbing material. The absorbing material is usually made of fiberglass or steel wool. The dampening material is protected from the surrounding by a supplementary coat made of a bend metal sheet.

    The advantage of this method is low back pressure with a relatively simple design. The inconvenience of this method is low sound damping ability compared to the other techniques, especially at low frequency.

    The mufflers using the absorption technique are usually sports vehicle because they increase the performances of the engine because of their low back pressure. A trick to improve their muffling ability consists of lining up several "straight" mufflers.

    Fig 2.2 \ THE REFLECTOR MUFFLER OR REACTIVE MUFFLER Principle: Sound wave reflection is used to

    Fig 2.2

    \

    THE REFLECTOR MUFFLER OR REACTIVE MUFFLER

    Principle: Sound wave reflection is used to create a maximum amount of destructive interferences.

    Fig 2.2 \ THE REFLECTOR MUFFLER OR REACTIVE MUFFLER Principle: Sound wave reflection is used to

    Fig 2.3

    Definition of destructive interferences

    Let's consider the noise a person would hear when a car drives past. This sound would physically correspond to the pressure variation of the air which would make his ear-drum vibrate. The curve A1 of the graph 1 could represent this sound. The pressure amplitude is a function of the time at a certain fixed place. If another sound wave A2 is produced at the same time, the pressure of the two waves will add. If the amplitude of A1 is exactly the opposite of the amplitude A2, then the sum will be zero, which corresponds physically to the atmospheric pressure. The listener would thus hear nothing although there are two radiating sound sources. A2 is called the destructive interference.

    Definition of destructive interferences Let's consider the noise a person would hear when a car drives

    Fig.2.4

    Definition of the reflection

    The sound is a traveling wave i.e. its position changes in function of the time. As long as the wave travels in the same medium, there is no change of speed and amplitude. When the wave reaches a frontier between two mediums which have different impedances, the speed, and the pressure amplitude change (and so does the angle if the wave does not propagate perpendicularly to the frontier). The figure 2.4 shows two medium A and B and the 3 waves: incident transmitted and reflected.

    Example

    If plane sound waves are propagating across a tube and the section of the tube changes, the impedance of the tube will change. Part of the incident

    waves will be transmitted through the discontinuity and the other part will be reflected.

    Mufflers using the reflection technique are the most commonly used because they dampen the noise much better than the absorber muffler. However they induce a higher back pressure, lowering the performance of the engine (an engine would be most efficient or powerful without the use of a muffler).

    waves will be transmitted through the discontinuity and the other part will be reflected. Mufflers using

    Fig. 2.5

    The upper image represents a car muffler's typical architecture. It is composed of 3 tubes. There are 3 areas separated by plates, the part of the tubes located in the middle area are perforated. A small quantity of pressure "escapes" from the tubes through the perforation and cancel one another.

    Some mufflers using the reflection principle may incorporate cavities which dampen noise. These cavities are called Helmholtz Resonators in acoustics. This feature is usually only available for up market class mufflers.

    Back pressure Fig.2.6 Car engines are 4 stroke cycle engines. Out of these 4 strokes, only

    Back pressure

    Fig.2.6

    Car engines are 4 stroke cycle engines. Out of these 4 strokes, only one produces the power, this is when the explosion occurs and pushes the pistons back. The other 3 strokes are necessary evil that don't produce energy. They on the contrary consume energy. During the exhaust stroke, the remaining gas from the explosion is expelled from the cylinder. The higher the pressure behind the exhaust valves (i.e. back pressure), and the higher effort necessary to expel the gas out of the cylinder. So, a low back pressure is preferable in order to have a higher engine horsepower.

    CHAPTER 3

    MATHEMATICAL MODEL

    Mathematical modeling is the use of mathematical language to describe the behavior of system.

    We are using continuity equation because

    it

    is

    based

    on

    law

    of

    conversation of mass which

    states

    that matter

    cannot

    be

    created nor

    destroyed or in other words we can say that mass is constant.

    We are using equation of state because it obeys perfect gas law or reaching towards perfect gas law.

    We are using momentum equation because The term ρAV is constant at every section of flow due to continuity equation. This means that momentum per second at any section is equal to that product of a constant quantity and velocity.

    • 1. Continuity Equation

    AU = Const.

    - - - - - - - - - (1 –a)

    Differentiate partially with respect to length along flow (s)

    AU

    (

    /s)

    +

    ((/s(AU)) = 0

     

    AU

    (

    /s) +

    [A(U/s) + U(A/s)] = 0

     

    AU (

    /s) +

    A(U/s) + U(A/s) = 0

    - - - - - - - - - (1- b)

    Equation (1 –b) is partial differential form of continuity equation.

    2.

    Equation of State

    P =

    RT

    (P/s) = RT (

    /s)

    - - - - - - - - - (2 –a) - - - - - - - - - (2 –b)

    Equation (2 –b) is partial differential form of Equation of State.

    • 3. Momentum Equation P 1 –P 2 = - (P/s) =

    1 U 1 (U 2 –U 1 ) U (U/s)

    - - - - - - - - - (3 –a) - - - - - - - - - (3 –b)

    Equation (3 –b) is partial differential form of Momentum Equation.

    Model -I

    Substitute the value of (

    /s) from (2-b) in to (1-b), we have

     

    A(U/s) +

    U(A/s) + (UA/RT) (P/s) = 0

    - - - - - - - - - (4)

    Now substitute the value of (P/s) from (3 –b) in to (4), we have

     

    A (U/s) +

    U(A/s) - (

    U 2 A/RT) (U/s) = 0

    A (U/s) +

    U(A/s) - (U 2 A/RT) (U/s) = 0

    A (U/s) [1 - (U 2 /RT)] = - U (A/s)

    [(1/U) – (U/RT)] (U/s) = (-1/A) (A/s)

    [(1/U) – (U/RT)] U = (-A/A)

    Now integrate (5)

    -lnA = lnU – (U 2 /2RT) + C

    Taking antilog

    - - - - - - - - - (5)

    (1/A) = U –e (U2/2RT) + e C

    - - - - - - - - - (6)

    Now we are interested in finding the value of constant in equation (6)

    When cross sectional area A = ( /4) (0.25) 2 = 0.049 m 2

    Then,

    Velocity = 0.5 m/s

    Apply this condition in equation (6)

    (1/ 0.049) = 0.5 – e ((0.5)2/2 x287 x743.96) + Const

    Const. = 20.908 (1/A) = U – e (U2/2RT) + 20.908

    (1/A) = U – [1 + (U 2 /2RT) + (U 2 /2RT) 2 /2!+ (U 2 /2RT) 3 / 3! +

    . . . . . . . .

    .

    ]

    Neglecting, all higher power terms because U<1

    (1/A) = U –1 – (U 2 /2RT) + 20.908

    (U 2 /2RT) – U + ((1/A) – 20.908) = 0

    - - - - - - - - - (7)

    This model shows the variation of velocity along the length of flow with change in cross sectional area.

    Model –II

    Substitute the value of have,

    /s from (2-b) & U/s from (3-b) in to (1-b), we

    -(

    A/

    U) (P/s) +

    U(A/s) + (UA/RT) (P/s) = 0

    - - -

    -

    -

    - - -

    -

    (8)

    (P/s)[(UA/RT) – (A/U)] = -

    U(A/s)

    A(P/s)[U 2 -RT)/URT] = -

    U(A/s)

    -A/A = [(U 2 –RT) /

    U 2 RT)] P/s

    -A/A = - ((RT-U 2 ) /U 2 ) P/P

    now integrate

    -ln A = -lnP. ((RT-U 2 ) /U 2 ) + const.

    (1/A) = (1/P) ((RT-U 2 ) /U 2 ) + const.

    P

    = A ((RT-U 2 ) /U 2 ) + const.

    At cross-section (1)

    - - - - - - - - - (9)

    - - - - - - - - - (10)

    P = 0.96 x 10 5 N/m 2 , A = 0.049 m 2 , U = 0.5 m/s

    Apply these conditions in equation (10), we have

    0.96 x 10 5 = 0.049 [((287x273.5) –(0.5) 2 )/(0.5) 2 ] + C

    C = 6.239

    Now equation (10) becomes,

    P = A [(RT –U 2 )/U 2 ] + 6.239

    - - - - - - - - - (11)

    This Model Shows the Variation of Pressure along the length of flow with change in cross sectional area & velocity also.

    CHAPTER 4

    CALCULATIONS

    Determination Of Velocity At Various Cross Section Along The Length Of Flow

    CHAPTER 4 CALCULATIONS Determination Of Velocity At Various Cross Section Along The Length Of Flow Fig.4.1

    Fig.4.1

    At cross section (1)

    Area = 0.049 and velocity = 0.5 m/sec. (Known)

    At Cross section (2)

    Area = 0.01227 and Velocity = ?

    (U 2 /2RT) – U + ((1/A) – 20.908) = 0

     

    (U 2 /(2x287x743.96)) – U + ((1/0.0245) –20.908) = 0

    6.369x10 -6 U 2 – U + 20.908 = 0

    U = (1 ± ÷ (1-(4x20.8x6.369x10 -6 )))/(2x6.369x10 -6 )

    U = 0.78 m/s

    Hence, Velocity at Cross-section (2) is 0.78 m/s.

    At cross section (3)

    Area = 0.01226 and velocity = 0.78 m/sec.

    At Cross section (4)

    Area = 0.049 and Velocity = 0.5 m/sec

    Determination of pressure at various cross section along the length of flow.

    At Cross section (1)

    Area = 0.049 and

    Pressure

    P 1

    =

    1 RT 1

    = 1.23 x 287 x 743.96

    = 0.96 x 10 5 N/m 2 (gauge)

    At Cross section (2)

    Area = 0.0245 and Pressure = ?

    P = A [(RT –U 2 )/U 2 ] + 6.239

     

    P 2 = 0.0245 x [ ((287x743.96) –(0.78) 2 )/(0.78) 2 ] + 6.239

    P 2 = 0.03167 x 10 5 N/m 2

    Hence, Pressure at Cross-section (2) is 0.03167 x 10 5 N/m 2

    At cross-section (3)

    Area = 0.0245 and Pressure = 0.03167 x 10 5 N/m 2

    At cross section (4)

    Area = 0.049 and Pressure = 0 (known)

     

    S.No.

    Cross-Section Area (m 2 )

    Value of Velocity (m/sec.)

    Value Pressure (N/m 2 ) (gauge)

    of

     
     

    1

    0.049

    0.50

    0.96

    x 10 5

     
     

    2

    0.01226

    0.78

    0.03167

    x 10 5

     

    3

    0.01226

    0.78

    0.03167

    x 10 5

     

    4

    0.049

    0.50

    0.96

    x 10 5

     
     

    Table 4.1

     

    CHAPTER 5

    WORKING WITH ANSYS

    5.1. What ANSYS is ?

    ANSYS is a general-purpose finite element-modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems.

    ANSYS finite element analysis software enables software enables engineers to perform the following tasks :

    Build

    computer

    models

    or

    transfer

    CAD

    models

    of

    structures,

    products, components or system.

    Apply operating loads or other design performance conditions.

    Study

    physical

    responses

     

    such

    as

    stress

    levels,

    temperature

    distributions or the impact of electromagnetic fields.

    Optimize

    a

    design

    early

    in

    the

    development

    process

    to

    reduce

    production costs.

    Do prototype testing in environments where if otherwise would be undesirable or impossible (e.g. biomedical application).

    5.2 ANSYS Environment

    The ANSYS consists of six main regions or Windows.

    • (a) Utility Menu

    Contains utility functions that are available through the ANSYS session, such as file controls, selection, graphics controls and parameters. We also exit the ANSYS program through this menu.

    • (b) Main Menu

    Contains the primary ANSYS functions, organized by processors (pre- processor, solutions, general post-processor, design optimizer etc.)

    • (c) Tool bar

    Contains push buttons that executes commonly used ANSYS commands and functions. We may add our own push buttons by defining

    abbreviations.

    • (d) Input Window

    Shows programs prompt messages and allows us to type in commands directly. All previously typed in commands also appear for easy reference and access.

    • (e) Graphics Windows

    A window where graphics displays are drawn.

    • (f) Output Window –

    Lists text output from the program in response to every function executed. It is usually positioned the other widows and can be raised to the front when necessary.

    Fig. 5.1

    Lists text output from the program in response to every function executed. It is usually positioned

    5.3 Graphical Interface vs. Command File Coding

    There are two methods to use ANSYS. The first is by means of the graphical user interface or GUI. This method follows the conventions of popular Windows and X-Windows based programs.

    The second is by means of command files. The command file approach has a steeper learning curve for many, but it has the advantage that an entire analysis can be described in a small text file, typically in less than 50 lines of commands. This approach enables easy model modifications and minimal file space requirements.

    5.4 Steps Involved In Analysis

    1.

    Preprocessing:

    defining

    the

    problem;

    preprocessing are given below:

    the

    major

    steps

    in

    o

    Define key points/lines/areas/volumes

    o

    Define element type and material/geometric properties

    o

    Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required

    The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i.e. 1D, 2D, axis-symmetric, 3D).

    • 2. Solution: assigning loads, constraints and solving; here we specify the loads (point or pressure), constraints (transnational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting set of equations.

    • 3. Post processing: further processing and viewing of the results; in this stage one may wish to see:

    o

    Lists of nodal displacements

    o

    Element forces and moments

    o

    Deflection plots

    o

    Stress contour diagrams

    Chapter 6

    COMPUTATIONAL FLOW ANALYSIS

    The color of fig shows the variations of velocity along the length of flow with change in cross sectional area.

    The color of fig shows the variations of velocity along the length of flow with change

    Fig 6.1

    CHAPTER 7

    RESULT AND

    CONCLUSION

    RESULT

    Sr. No.

    Cross Section

    Velocity

    Obtained

    Velocity

    Obtained

    Area (m 2 )

    from

    Mathematical

    from

    Computational

    Analysis

    Analysis

    1

    0.049

    0.5

    0.5

    2

    0.01226

    0.78

    0.62

    3

    0.01226

    0.78

    0.13

    4

    0.049

    0.5

    0.42

    CONCLUSION

    Table 7.1

    The results obtained from computational analysis and mathematical analyses are different. Because in mathematical analysis, we haven’t considered the effect of whirling. So we have to consider the whirling effect of gas flow in mathematical analysis.

    BIBLOGRAPHY

    R.J.Alfredson and P.O.A.L. Devies components”.

    “performance of exhaust silencer

    J.W.Sullivan components”.

    “method

    of

    modeling perforated tube muffler

    M.L.Munjal “the performance of reflective exhaust mufflers”.

    R.S.Benson

    “pressure

    pulsation

    in

    pipe

    system

    with

    multiple

    reciprocating air compressor and receivers”. M.L.Munjal “analysis and design of muffler”. Ahmet Selamet “ analytical, computational and experimental studies of automotive silencers”.

    ANSYS SOLUTION VOL3 NUMBER 3

    -ANSYS Inc.

    MECHANICAL AND EXPERIMENTATION MANUALS

    -Prof. S.C. Lakkad Dept. Of Aerospace Engg. IIT Kanpur

    ANSYS MANUALS

    http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys http://www.ansys.com

    http://www3.sympatico.ca/peter_budgell/home.html

    AUTOCAD MANUALS

    APPENDIX –1

    FLOTRAN CFD ANALYSIS

    • 1.1 What is FLOTRAN CFD Analysis ?

    It is a comprehensive tool for analyzing two-dimensional and three dimensional fluid flow fields. Using FLOTRAN CFD elements FLUID 141 and FLUID 142, we can achieve solutions for the following –

    Lift and drag on an airfoil

    The flow in supersonic nozzles

    Complex, three-dimensional flow patterns in a pipe bend.

    In addition, we can use the features of ANSYS/ FLOTRAN to perform tasks including

    Calculating the gas pressure and temperature distributions in an engine exhaust manifold

    Studying the thermal stratification and breakup in piping systems

    Using flow mixing studies to evaluate potential for thermal shock

    Doing

    natural

    convection

    analyses

    to

    evaluate

    the

    thermal

    performance of chips in electronic enclosures.

    Heat exchanger studies involving different fluids separated by solid regions.

    • 1.2 Types of FLOTRAN Analyses

    We can perform these types of FLOTRAN analyses –

    Laminar or turbulent

    Thermal or adiabatic

    Compressible or incompressible

    Newtonian or Non-Newtonian

    Multiple species transport

    These types of analyses are not mutually exclusive. For example, a laminar analysis can be thermal or adiabatic. A turbulent analysis can be compressible or incompressible.

    • 1.2.1 Laminar Flow Analysis

    In these analyses, the velocity field is very ordered and smooth, as it is in highly viscous, slow-moving flows. The flow of some oils also can be laminar.

    • 1.2.2 Turbulent Flow Analysis

    Turbulent flow analyses deal with problems where velocities are high enough and the viscosity is low enough to cause turbulent fluctuations.

    Laminar and turbulent flows are considered to be incompressible if density is constant or if the fluid expends little energy in compressing the flow. The temperature equation for incompressible flow neglects kinetic energy changes and viscous dissipation.

    1.2.3

    Thermal Analysis

    Often, the solution for the temperature distribution throughout the flow field is of interest. If fluid properties do not vary with temperature, we can converge the flow field without solving the temperature equation. In a conjugate heat transfer problem, the temperature equation is solved in a domain with both fluid and non-fluid (that is, solid material) regions. In a natural convection problem, the flow results mainly or solely from density gradients brought about by temperature variations. Most natural convection problems, unlike forced convection problems, have no externally applied flow sources.

    • 1.2.4 Compressible Flow Analysis

    For high velocity gas flows, changes in density due to strong pressure gradients significantly influence the nature of the flow field.

    • 1.2.5 Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow Analysis

    A linear relationship between the stress and rate-of-strain cannot describe many fluid flows adequately. For such non-Newtonian flows, the ANSYS program provides three viscosity models and a user-programmable subroutine.

    • 1.2.6 Multiple Species Transport Analysis

    This type of analysis is useful in studying the dispersion of dilute contaminants or pollutants in the bulk fluid flow. In addition, we can use multiple species transport analysis for heat exchanger studies where two or more fluids (separated by walls) may be involved.

    APPENDIX –2

    FLUID 142, 3 –D FLUID ELEMENT

    We can use FLUID 142 to model transient or steady state fluid/thermal systems that involve fluid and/or non-fluid regions. The conservation equations for viscous fluid flow and energy are solved in the fluid region, while only the energy equation is solved in the non-fluid region. we use this FLOTRAN CFD element to solve for flow and temperature distributions within a region.

    For the FLOTRAN CFD elements, the velocities are obtained from the conservation of momentum principle, and the pressure is obtained from the conservation of mass principle. (The temperature, if required, is obtained from the law o\ conservation of energy.) A segregated sequential solver algorithm is used; that is, the matrix system derived from the finite element discretization of the governing equation for each degree of freedom is solved separately. The flow problem is nonlinear and the governing equations are coupled together. The sequential solution of all the governing equations, combined with the update of any temperature- or pressure-dependent properties, constitutes a global iteration. The number of global iterations required to achieve a converged solution may vary considerably, depending on the size and stability of the problem. Transport equations are solved for the mass fractions of up to six species.

    Figure FLUID142 3-D Fluid- Element

    Figure FLUID142 3-D Fluid- Element Figure shows the geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for

    Figure shows the geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element. The element is defined by four nodes (tetrahedral) or eight nodes (hexahedral) and by isotropic material properties. Tetrahedral and hexahedral elements cannot be combined. The coordinate system, selected according to the value of KEYOPT(3), may be either I Cartesian or cylindrical.