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Dr. Omar Houache In charge for Chemical Process Safety Office: 1008 PCE Dept. email: firstname.lastname@example.org Office Hours: Hours posted on door or By appointment
The course will provide an overview of Process Safety in the Chemical & Process Industry, focusing on the nature of chemical plant accidents, their causes, and steps to eliminate them, with emphasis on inherently safe designs. Chemical & Process Industry accidents deal most often with Flammability and Toxicity issues and these are dealt with in more detail. The role of Human Error in accidents is also studied and some major accidents will be examined to show the relevance in today's workplace. The course requires active student participation via discussions of system designs, their weakness and improvements.
7. k). h). Understand the risks associated with a process.Learning Outcomes: By the end of this course. c. e. . Identify and evaluate hazards associated with a process facility (a. e. k). d. Appreciate the importance of safety. c. 6. 3. f. Recognize the role that ethics plays in process design and operation (f. g). you should be able to: 1. j). and the consequences of deviation from normal operation (a. k). e. 5. 4. e. 2. c. Understand toxicology & quantitatively analyze release and dispersion rates of liquids and vapors (a. i. both on-the-job and at home (h. e). Participate actively as a member of a Process Hazard Analysis team (a. Understand the technologies to prevent fires and explosions (a.
Louvar Chemical Process Safety. 2002 Chapters 1-13 .Textbook for Safety D. Crowl and J. F. Fundamentals with Applications Second Edition. A.
Inherent safety and safety culture C. Public perceptions of chemical industry/processes 2. Introduction to safety and risk assessment A.Topical Outline: 1. Ethics D. Dose/response models C. Accident process and loss statistics B. Entry and elimination from humans B. Toxicology A. Threshold limit values .
Flow of liquids through holes and pipes B. Estimating worker exposure to chemicals C.Topical Outline: 3. Source Models A. Flashing liquids and liquid pool evaporation . Exposure Control/mitigation 4. Industrial Hygiene A. MSDS B. Flow of vapor through holes and pipes C. Laws and regulations.
Flammability limits B. Fires and Explosions A. Emergency response planning guidelines and explosions . Dispersion models B.Topical Outline: 5. Vapor cloud explosions D. Process and equipment designs to prevent fires estimation C. Pasquill-Gifford model for dispersion coefficient 6. Toxic Release and Dispersion A. Ignition sources C. Dust and mist explosions.
Hazard surveys A. acceptable risk 9. Relief valves and systems B. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment & Accident Investigations B. Design to prevent fires and explosions Relief systems A. Evaluation of risk. Analysis of case studies .Topical Outline: 7. Relief design considerations 8.
Grading % Midterm 1 Midterm 2 Continuous Assessment (Quizzes. Term Project) Final Exam 30 40 January 10th 15 15 Date October 23rd November 27th . HWs.
please either turn it off or place it in silent mode prior to class. .Cell / Mobile Phones If you have a cell / mobile phone.
Homework is based on real plant problems. listen and take notes. • Work and submit homework.Expectations for Students • Attend lectures. • Homework problems are more open-ended than previous courses – need to make decisions. . pay attention. • Homework problems are in both English and metric units – usually consistent.
Cell / Mobile Phones If you have any special problems or needs: Please see me! If you cannot hear me or see overheads or boards: Please see me! .
Purpose of Process Safety To provide fundamental tools which are used to design / manage / operate a chemical plant safely .
explosive. Loss prevention: Prevention of injury to people. loss of equipment. Safety: Strategy of accident prevention. Risk: Probability and consequence of an accident.Definitions Accident: The occurrence of a sequence of events that produce unintended injury. Hazard: A chemical or physical condition that has potential to cause an accident. Significant Chemical plant hazards: flammable. death or property damage. damage to environment. inventory or production. reactive & toxic hazards .
. • Scenario: A sequence of events which causes the hazard to result in an accident.Definitions • Incident: Loss of control of material or energy. • Incident outcome: The physical manifestation of an accident.
it is a condition of employment! .Management Systems A – Attitude F – Fundamentals E – Experience T – Time Y .You Safety cannot be prioritized .S-A-F-E-T-Y S .
Statistics-1 OSHA Occupational Safety & Health Administration FAR FR Fatal Accident Rate Fatality Rate incidence rate per 100 worker years = 200. smaller is better! .000 hours exposure 100 years x 2000 hours/year fatalities per 1000 employees and entire life = 108 hours exposure 50 years x 2000 hours/year x 1000 employees per person per year (exposure poorly defined) For all of these indicators.
. A "near miss" is a form of an accident that does not result in injury or property damage. that interferes with the completion of an assigned task. undesired event which may or may not result in injury or property damage.What is an Accident? An "accident" is an unplanned.
Why do Accidents Occur? We choose to handle dangerous process materials and energies To make a living To provide society with desirable products As long as we choose to handle them. a potential for loss events exists Things can be done to reduce their likelihood and severity to negligible or tolerable levels .
One researcher found that for every serious or disabling injury.Background Many people believe that "accidents happen". there are: 10 minor injuries 30 property damage incidents 600 near-miss accidents . They believe that the occurrence of an accident is inevitable and cannot be avoided. Some say "it was just bad luck" or "they were in the wrong place at the wrong time". All of these excuses fail to identify the true causes of accidents.
How Do Accidents Occur? The causes of accidents can be broken down into 2 basic components. . unsafe conditions and unsafe acts. Unsafe conditions are hazardous conditions or circumstances that could lead directly to an accident. An unsafe act occurs when a worker ignores or is not aware of a standard operating procedure or safe work practice designed to protect the worker and prevent accidents.
How Do Accidents Occur? Unsafe Acts Operating equipment or machinery without permission Defeating safety devices Using defective equipment Using the wrong tool for the job Not using personal protective equipment Incorrect lifting techniques Working while intoxicated Horseplay Unsafe Conditions Lack of guarding on machinery Defective tools or equipment Crowding workers into one area Inadequate alarm systems Fires & explosions Poor housekeeping Hazardous atmospheres Excessive noise Inadequate lighting .
tools.How Do Accidents Occur? Personal Factors Job Factors Lack of knowledge or skills due Non-existent or poorly to inadequate training developed work standards Improper motivation Substandard equipment design Poor equipment maintenance Physical limitations of the worker Distractions which interfer with Purchase of substandard the worker’s ability to equipment. and materials concentrate on their job Unusual increases in equipment usage .
How Do Accidents Occur? The personal factors described in previous Table generally lead to unsafe acts and the job factors are likely to contribute to the unsafe conditions. . If you can identify the personal and job factors which may contribute to an accident in your work area. you have taken the first step toward the prevention of accidents.
Chemical Plant Accidents Consequences Probability Fire Explosion Toxic Releases High Intermediate Low Hazard Fatalities Low Intermediate High Hazard Economic Loss Intermediate High Low 3 Types of loss for large hydrocarbonchemical plant accidents 36 30 31 Fires Explosions Vapor Cloud Others .
What must we do to keep them from happening? Design of process Management of process Operation of Process Regulations You will learn about these things in this course! .
1991) .” T. Plant Design for Safety: A User-Friendly Approach (NY: Hemisphere. Kletz.Inherently Safer Design Inherently safer designs permanently and inseparably reduce or eliminate process hazards that must be contained and controlled to avoid accidents. A. “The essence of the inherently safer approach to plant design is the avoidance of hazards rather than their control by added-on protective equipment.
but • Passively reduces potential loss event impacts • For chemical processes. etc.Inherently Safer Design Strategies MINIMIZE = Reduce hazardous material/energy quantity • Reduces energy • Reduces potential accident severity SUBSTITUTE = Replace with a less hazardous material • Reduces/eliminates available chemical energy • Reduces/eliminates potential accident severity SIMPLIFY = Reduce unnecessary complexity • Reduces likelihood of an accident MODERATE = Use under less hazardous conditions • Available energy may be the same. . this usually means lower temperatures. pressures. concentrations.
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