THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
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HARVARD LECTURES ON GREEK SUBJECTS .

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FORMERLY FELLOW OF 'IRIXITV CAMSIKIL".!'....HARVARD LECTURES ON GREEK SUBJECTS LATE PROFESSOR OF GRKF. LIMITED THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1904 .K !N THE I'NIVLRSITY OF EDINBURGH COLL1-T.! Eantion MAC MILL AN AND NEW YORK : CO.

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in Lectures. Gardiner Martin Lane. in there slightly ex- other respects. The panded. of the Class of i 88 i . here and are. comprised not only but also . published almost the form in which they were delivered. and will remain associated of visit in my memory kindness re- with the ceived recollection infinite during my to Cambridge and Boston.PREFACE THESE Lectures Public Lectures delivered at in Harvard University April 1904 owe their origin to a generous gift made to the University by Mr. The hearers to whom they were originally addressed classical scholars.

In the subsequent lectures two features of the Greek First.vi HARVARD LECTURES . which not only seeks out the life. well- given over (I. working on and transmuting raw material of knowledge.). is shown to . mixed body of The book may be regarded kind of companion volume to the as forming a Some Aspects of Macmillan I Greek Genius (third edition. attempted to Under various lights have the bring out something contrast is of at originality of Greece. of nature and of man's their tive all but persistently asks meaning . by a great religious and pursuit that of Phoenicia. and Co. intellect come into special prominence. dominated idea. and this belief in the interpreta- power of mind. The the outset drawn between Greece and two older : civilisations that of Israel. the general public to a similarly and they are now offered readers. 1904). a Love of Knowfacts ledge. to the of material being and II.

Art and inspiration. rather than as the highest outcome of an intense and many-sided (IV. It is but one eminent qualities. so often logic and intui- elsewhere disjoined. example of that balance of contrasted that reconciliation of opposites. operates also apart from the constructive power. a Critical Faculty stand- ing in singularly close relation to the Creative Faculty. one of the primary endowments of the Greeks. tion. and to give theories of history tion (HI. and which is too often thought of.).PREFACE vi i extend beyond the domain of philosophy or of science. in a merely negative way. significance to Greek and Greek views on educa- Secondly. enter into perfect union in the constructive efforts of the Greek imagination. which meets us at every turn in the distinguished personalities of the Hellenic race.). vitality But the critical instinct. and (chiefly from the time of Aristotle onwards) . as the avoidance of excess.

October 1904. Nevertheless there remains a sufficient interesting body of and even illuminating Greek Criticism.HARVARD LECTURES tries to penetrate the secret of the literary art. BUTCHER. Here we have no longer the same sureness of insight . indeed the lack of it is frequently startling. through eyes. which Greece has bequeathed and S. H.). some of those value VI. to enable us to see. literary principles of en- during (V. .

II. GREEK POETRY . III.CONTENTS I. THE GREEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE ART AND INSPIRATION IN 82 IV. 44 . .219 GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM . . GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM . GREECE AND ISRAEL GREECE AND PHOENICIA . . 129 V. VI.169 .

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different ideals of perfection.I GREECE AND ISRAEL Two from nations. marked from the inefface- surrounding races able than those by distinctions more of blood of intellectual or religious by the possession truths which deter- mined the bent and meaning of its history. all Greece in and Israel. felt however. stand out others the history as of the world. became tion. that each off itself to be a peculiar people. they are alike. In this. That history. and form a striking contrast representing divergent impulses and tendencies of human nature. race with B . to each an unfailing source of inspira- The were records and invested famous deeds of the ethical significance. as it was gradually unfolded.

but in separate spheres. Yet this very spirit of exclusiveness was one of the conditions which enabled each to nurture and bring to maturity the life-giving germ which it bore within it. intensely Exclusive indeed national . they would have aroused mutual hatred and suspicion the Jews would have been barbarians to the Greeks. Morientes the epitome of each history. idolaters to the Jews. is its own to nationality. no union. The by which both Jews and Greeks have acted on all after ages is one which has survived the . each nation unconscious of the other's existence. and in dying to vivimus influence lived mankind. between Israel and the Heathen there could be no intimacy. energy. In process of time each people burst the narrow limits of itself. they both between Greeks and Barbarians. For many centuries the work of the Hellenes and of Israel went forward at the same time. From stores the heritage of the past they drew fresh of spiritual were.HARVARD LECTURES In interpreting them each people gained a its deeper consciousness of own ideal vocation. Had they crossed one another's path. the Greeks .

though the idea was and deepened advanced. though during that period and long afterwards elements of foreign civilisations many slowly were absorbed.GREECE AND ISRAEL outward forms of national existence . from the tribe to felt the nation. as with the Jews. . expanded the Greeks as it their history With was otherwise. In the Homeric age Greeks and Barbarians did not yet stand sharply opposed . and. of their peculiar mission. towards unity came. From the family to the tribe. and the religion Judaea that of civilised humanity. Through humiliation and loss of independence they each entered on a career of world-wide empire. however. The Jews were from the outset conscious of their separateness. yet in the process of absorption they were so transmuted that for the Hellenes the net result was a heightened sense of difference between themselves and the non. at length the principles of Hellenism till became of those of civilisation itself. through religion. it belongs to the mysterious forces of the spirit. they for themselves to be destined some high purpose. national The first impulse.Hellenes.

at Parnassus. the seat of the oracle of Zeus. the youngest of the Olympians.' his interpreter. At a very early date the Dodo- naean cult gave place to the worship of Apollo. Apollo here presides Theoxenia of the festival celebrating the friendship the gods. and Apollo.HARVARD LECTURES The at religious in life of primitive Greece centred Dodona Epirus. of whose cult in we catch a curious glimpse (//. xvi. Zeus still remained the supreme god. 23 Dodona retained its far into historical times . religion The Delphic was in its highest . The tribal cults are henceforth merged in a higher worship. A league of states representing the is common at the sentiment of the Hellenes associated with the Delphic shrine. with Delphi as his sanctuary. The nobler energies of the race now obtain a religious consecration. immemorial sanctity but it never formed a meeting-point for the scattered families of the Hellenic race. In reconciling the local deities he stands as the symbol of Hellenic fraternity and union. who made his abode on the Eastern coast of Greece. the famous invocation of Achilles 3). became his 'prophet.

d. predicting future events revealing This lower art of soothsaying was. Aiuvav] vjrp (? 2 ^Trepwret *A*yt$ At'a Naor rCjv ffTpu/jidruv T) K[al T&V TrpocrJ/ce^aAcuwc. morality. 1 Tablets discovered in Epirus in 877 its l give examples of the questions addressed by rude votaries to the oracle of Dodona. in great demand in Greece at all periods of her history. Another C. A Agis asks about some lost property whether they may mattresses and pillows certain have 1 been stolen Dodone by a et ses [/cat 2 stranger.7rw\oA[ei'] aTroAwAec). As so the Hebrew prophets were charged with the spiritual guarding heritage fostered of the Israel. It the binding claim of the moral law alike over states and individuals. deepens the conception both of guilt and purification. religion.GREECE AND ISRAEL intention an effort after spiritual freedom and enlightenment. Ruines. and In speaking the of Delphic prophecy of we must dismiss vulgar or notion merely secrets. TO. TUV . the Pythian Apollo in ideal of Hellenic character art. Carapanos. In this respect it offers a remarkable counterpart to It asserts Hebrew prophecy. no doubt.

it The is ethical and civilising purpose served apparent to every literature. has it 7rpo^>ijrr)<. The pious inquirer at his shrine approaches him in the confidence of glad com- panionship. to a? tart.HARVARD LECTURES inquires whether the as an investment. But of KO.I is in with religion wvaiov Delphi <l><f>t\i/j. He he is bears a personal message to the expounder of the divine it is part of his function to maintain an ethical ideal and to quicken the national con- sciousness. The mind of the supreme god is declared not in dark signs through the voices of nature or through perplexing dreams. . O. and holds converse with him as with a living personality.ov. . the influence of Delphi must not be judged by such isolated utterances. 1 god advises sheep-farming Even at Delphi some of But the responses recorded are trivial enough. utterance the and in rhythmical Zeus. attentive reader of Greek history and is Apollo's chief office not to declare the future nor is he concerned with minute ceremonial observances. the people will . of human Trpo^rai accordance 1 of his the own.VTOL irpofiaTftiovri . but by speech. human Apollo.

Syracuse. such Apollo. He took into his keeping the civic life of Greece. but also an inward revelation. women. over. He was . on inward motive. of poetry xi. slaves. Cyrene. moreByzantium. supervision the colonial system and missionaries of Greek culture were express sanction for settled in every land. on the letter of religion. to the sumptuous of the sacrifice he maintains the of the cause weak and the oppressed suppliants . speaking from the insists ] just. the god of science. of 1 art. he presided Find. on purity of heart rather than on out- ward cleansing. . 9. was invested with all the gracious attributes of knowledge and artistic skill. But he was also the familiar friend and counsellor of the nation. The was as of the Delphic oracle sought the founding of colonies. Under Delphic was organised. telling of clear-felt duties and pointing to the god in the ' human breast. he inculcates duty of reverence for oaths. spirit rather than on the He prefers the pious offering . ' Apollo.judging sanctuary.GREECE AND ISRAEL recognise not only a direct guidance from without. Pyth.

The tude. there are strik- ing differences as well as resemblances between Delphic and Jewish prophecy. even from this point of view. his love of ordered freedom his belief spirit reason and in the supremacy of the the senses : over the Barbarian glorying in brute force. presents a contrast to the Hebrew prophet familiar attihis whose reason and senses remain undisturbed under stress of inspiration. overstepping the bounds of law and reverence. I its am speaking of the Delphic worship on ideal side. Under his influence were developed the contrasted ideals that mark the type of Hellene and of Barbarian with his the self- Hellene control in . also.HARVARD LECTURES at the games and festivals. lifted out of herself in transport. self-knowledge and . now towards slavery. apart from the inherent unrealities and corruptions in which it was embedded. unconscious of moral limitations. priestess. Yet. with blind impulses carrying him now towards anarchy. seized The Delphic and subdued by an apparently divine possession. of the Greek towards god and is as unlike as can be to the distant awful .

a difficult must be owned. The Phrygia and Lydia were among her interests clients. the place. forced to make the gifts choice. which from the eighth century onward she had held as the recognised conscience of Greece. Her material forbade her to pronounce at the clear word which would have put her the head of Greek resistance to the barbarians. regained. the the Panhellenic cause was assumed by Athens and outside the political sphere. it She was. of the East flowed in on her. she could above timid and temporising counsels. it devolved to more and more on poets and philosophers . at the supreme not rise crisis of the nation's history. she now In forfeited and never wholly championship of . Even before the Persian wars Delphi had more than once yielded to the beset an ambitious temptations which priesthood. Now. of the the Hebrew prophet holds the history parallel Nor again does afford Hebrew prophets any to the defection of Delphi from the national cause. politics. Her connexions over barbarian world were widely extended.GREECE AND ISRAEL communion which with the Almighty. And so.

will prophets and conflict. people there was an unending We speak of the monotheism of the Jews . lovers of ease. . They merely never ceased to be the guardians of an ideal national sentiment. by the austere voice of prophecy. The case of the Hebrew prophets is one of marked contrast. it being recalled from disasters. If in a sense they were the spokesmen of the nation. they became so only by combating the the vices of their and denouncing Between fellow-countrymen. only by warning and . religion stood larger one might think the to a and prophets had to bear the hard reproach of appearing anti-national. There were moments when opposed patriotism as . lovers of money. yet they were ever prone to idolatry. Again and again they were saved from themselves only by their inspired teachers.HARVARD LECTURES perpetuate the Delphic tradition by an effort to spiritualise the popular creed and reconcile it with a purer morality. Not that they reflected prevalent opinion. We speak of their spiritual faculty carnal than yet who more they? lovers of pleasure.

and that any premature attempt at expansion would have meant absorption into heathendom. Two conflicting tendencies. The first policy that of expansion . foreign so being regarded as many dangers which might detach the people from their true allegiance. as were at Renan has shown.GREECE AND ISRAEL Jeremiah was cast into prison as a traitor. The prophets towards outside movements and influences was one of extreme circumspection or the narrower distrust. the policy of attitude of the the prophets. to mix with : other nations and learn the ways of the world the other. inclined to say the after all. Once we grant that the peculiar mission of Israel was to guard the principle of monotheism. to shun tions art. was the policy of the kings the second. her earlier and better days was . contact with alien civilisaalliances commerce. But we might be view was. all . more illiberal the truly national one. work within Judaism one. it follows that the pursuit of secular aims and of a many-sided development would have been for the nation the abandon- ment of her high Delphi in calling.

openly expressed century of a larger Hellenism affinities resting not on racial but on spiritual seems to have floated vaguely before the mind at an earlier date. Delphi was long able to pursue a policy of progress and expansion without endangering either patriotism or religion. and that a religious one . to assert the inexorable moral . in the fourth The idea that B.C.HARVARD LECTURES more happily placed currents of thought in relation to outside Vividly conscious though she was of the antithesis between Greeks and Barbarians. Here we between strike on the fundamental difference the Hebrews and Greeks Hebrews preoccupied. Greece must not be kept out of the world. to keep alive his pure worship. the Greeks moved by the impulse for manifold culture. Two distinct individualities stand out in clear relief. dominated by a single idea. general movement of the Rather it was dimly felt that the world was one day is to be hellenised. no timid fears that Hellenism might be lost in barbarism checked her forward energies. To the Hebrews it was committed to proclaim to man- kind the one and supreme God.

for idolatry was a danger near and the inspir- menacing.C. no regard to plastic representation. life. they were pure iconoclasts . unique kind : the lyrical utterances of the Psalms. was alien to of the sixth century B. no public spirit. the Hebrew mode of thought. no organised political In no civic activity. The a reign of law in nature. or rather un- . in its Poetry indeed they had. to man and The Hebrews had no achievement show in the purely secular sphere of thought and conduct. which to the lonians seemed the highest function of the human intellect. outpourings of religious emotion unsurpassed. The search for causes spirit ing principle of the scientific was for them either an idle occupation of which man soon wearies. if we except music science. the complete equipment of of the citizen for secular existence. as in Ecclesiastes. the unfolding of every power the and capacity. They had no art. no philosophy. For the Greeks the paramount end was the perfection of the whole nature. or an encroachdiscovery of ment on the rights of God.GREECE AND ISRAEL law in 13 a corrupt and heathen world.

strict The and the drama sense. the apocalyptic visions of the prophets. depth and range of feeling dramatic . no half undertones its none of the rich variety of poetry in graceful and intermediate forms.' Yet if we ex- cept the idyll of the Book of Ruth and the Song of Solomon a beautiful and in human love-song. or lyric. . is The world not a second which Hebrew poetry reproduces world recreated out of the elements of the actual. the Book of Job . laughter as well as the tears of humanity airy structures of the fancy ironies no none of the playful lights or subtle of existence . which stands such curious isolation from it the other contents of the volume with which is bound up Hebrew poetry is of a different . again. order from that of our Western civilisation it is poetry lifted into another sphere and epic. that sublime drama. . though separate from * reality a region into which we are transported by the power of imaginative sympathy. have not the . are wanting. We .I 4 HARVARD LECTURES in \ approached. made one in its with religion. It is the actual world itself. revealed in words such as those which Isaiah the son of Amos ' saw.

And All as with the individual so with the nation. To the Greek poet. of pathos and hope. It is belongs to the domain of heaven. Hebrew poetry there is a pervading sub- limity which has no precise parallel in any other literature. . face. race. 15 The two face to God and the Soul. his short of the moral civic inventiveness. is ' Wonders are many and man ' : nothing more wonderful than yet marvellous as are the achievements skill. feeble and perishhis vicissitude ' and decay are stamped on terrestrial life. his fall of man's art and daring courage. himself ' Man a able in a thing of nought. are colloquy. the spiritual in experiences of the past. lyrical and is descriptive. engaged in everlasting We overhear voices of pleading and warning. all sublimity he attains through suffering.' ' ' even as dream when one awaketh . of repentance and forgiveness. the note of sublimity of a different kind. The earth shall reel to and fro . as summed up pressed In in an unforgotten are ex- language instinct with poetic emotion. by the endurance of god-sent calamity. In Hebrew poetry. and by an unconquerable will.I GREECE AND ISRAEL living realities.

. shut up the sea said. corner stone thereof. more in the contemplation of God's everlasting righteousness.' For he spake and it was done ' : he commanded and I stood fast. : ' And God said. Or who the stars when the morning all sang together. and shall be removed like a cottage. : Clouds and darkness are round about him righteousness and judgment are the habitation of his seat. and ? the sons of God shouted for joy with doors . Hitherto shalt thou shall come. laid if thou hast understanding. but no further and here thy proud .' At the sight of the majestic order of still the universe. too.' Essentially sublime. Or who and .1 6 HARVARD LECTURES \ like a drunkard. his unsearchable greatness. The Lord : King.' 'The Lord sitteth above the water-flood : the Lord remaineth a King for ever.' Where wast thou when ? laid the foundations of the earth declare.. ' Let be light and there was it light. . there arises ' a sense is of awe-struck exultation. are the descriptions which suggest the omnipotence of the there divine word. . the earth may isles be glad thereof yea the multitude of the may be glad thereof..

ho\vevcr. Yet at times some troubled reflections escape their lips. The Hebrew poets seldom dare to dwell upon those problems touching the moral government of the world which exercised a grave fascination over the imaginative mind of Greece. the other of polytheism.I GREECE AND ISRAEL ' ' 17 He who commandeth the waves be stayed ? sun and it riseth not. of Aeschylus may be placed side by as the two protests of the ancient world against divine oppression the one the protest of monotheism. and sealeth up the stars.' Greek poetry in its more serious forms is almost as deeply penetrated with theology as is Hebrew poetry with religion. or in shorter outbursts of lyrical emotion. the cry of In one book. of the Bible humanity utters itself in tones of reasoned rebellion and with unique audacity. of The character of Zeus in the Prometheus it exhibits every line and colour of tyranny as . Let us glance for a moment at these two poems. They form a spirit luminous comment on the contrasted the two nations. as in the Psalms. The Book of Job and the PromctJicns side.

' ' enforcing his will by 2 relentless ' ministers. ungrateful to those friends who had done him service. 1 A single point may be Prom. 224-225. * Ib.' distrustful malevolent towards his subjects. 187 Trap' eavrif TO SiKaiov i-^uv. 324 8 Ib. 955. Ib. cp.ois Kparvvuv. cp. of the tyrant The two sufferers. Ib. the other of his hate . His character is thrown into yet darker shade in by the appearance history is the play of lo. meet by chance on the rocks of Scythia. in whose recorded one of the distinctive marks a selfish and heartless love. ' the new l lord. 149.18 HARVARD LECTURES Zeus is \ was understood by the Greeks. the old legend is In various so modified as to place in strong relief the beneficent effects of Prometheus' revolt. . justice in ruling his by 4 his own 3 ' laws. 35. the one the victim of the love of Zeus. rpa-xjus /J. the other of a chained captivity. details. 389. 403 t'Si'otJ v6/j. moreover. the one the very emblem of restless movement.6vapxos ovd' iiirfvBvvos Kpartl. lo and Prometheus.' keeping 5 own hands. and irresponsible. Even his do not question the judgment of his foes.' a harsh monarch of his friends. 310. 96 2 3 vtos rayfe.

it subdues to ' own are use the forces of nature heart . under the rule of Cronus men were as S' gods %a)ov. indirectly Till 19 In to all Hesiod the the evils theft of fire leads that flesh inherits. then. timorous existits ' ence . blind hopes planted in man's did act the pledge of future progress. It came as manner of woes and was were the Fall of man. Prometheus.GREECE AND ISRAEL mentioned. therefore. gold. it. enjoying all happiness ware 6eol all it In the train of civilisation sicknesses. The age race of ignorance was the age of of Prometheus. but from death Many critics have maintained that of in ranging ourselves on the side Prometheus against in Zeus we are interpreting the drama sense and in a a modern manner alien to the thought of . The design of Zeus was to sweep away rescued the race. Nor by an the Prometheus. life man not merely from a itself. as some would have of impatient philanthropy forestall wise purposes of Zeus. rises for the first time out of a feeble. by the act far the human so from forfeiting a state of primitive well-being. In Aeschylus. of brute stagnation.

the hero as Athens is loved to portray him. pitiful to weak . is But the character of the benefactor outlines drawn in no less . ' He the is tender as well as magnanimous.HARVARD LECTURES Aeschylus. not only eminent for will-power the . Prometheus embodies the Greek type of moral heroism as truly as Zeus does that of tyranny. . lo pours her The tormented and into his ear . an ill-fated god. Prometheus two sides of the heroic character. the foe of Zeus. The hero of Greek poetry. moved by unites the a chivalrous. because I loved mortals overmuch ' (Sta rrjv \Lav 1 <j>t\6r'rjTa /Sporty^). Out and of the strong came forth sweetness. confiding woe and the sublime it sorrow of the god finds room within 1 for the Prom. 119-122. a romantic impulse to redress the wrongs of the world. firm than that of the oppressor of mankind and the words in which Prometheus sums up his own history accord with : all the facts of the dramatic presentation 'In chains ye see me.' Towards Ocean Nymphs he shows a delicate gentle courtesy. courage or indomitable also generous in in his he is sympathy.

That Aeschylus should such a light before an have placed Zeus in Athenian audience. The Aeschylean heroes are often men the blood of gods Koi)7ru> <r<f>iv whose veins still runs 1 t^rnyAov cu/xa Sai[j. it the splendid chorus. his fault. We are carried back to an age anterior even to the action of the Iliad. 146. the one strong in the consciousness of physical power.GREECE AND ISRAEL plaintive outpourings of the ' mortal. One dynasty of gods has overthrown another. then. so as all love overmuch ' has been creation. mourns in sympathy with him 397-435If this.6vwv. lines is the true reading of the play. animate and in inanimate. Fr. presents the struggle between two each equally unyielding. has seemed to many readers an impiety so daring as to be impossible. let But at us not lose sight of the far-off period is which the action imaginatively in laid. In this play they are not godlike men but actual gods. the other in moral greatness and wisdom. but not without the rough and lawless deeds which 1 Aesch. And. . wills.

The play itself looks forward to a future which shall adjust the disorders of the present.' ' most blessed of the all blest. difficult question of the within but once we admit that . crime.HARVARD LECTURES accompany such Zeus is a change. and the supreme His omnipotence far is limited by this So is he from being omniscient that he secret ignorant of the on which the permanence of his throne His reign is stained by caprice and depends. he represents a passing epoch ruler of the visible order of things he is the in an era when might and right are not yet reconciled. The shadow of dispossession hangs over him. between his Fate there is is still a discord. is This is surely not the in same Zeus ' that elsewhere ' called Aeschylus. He is subject to a mysterious power stronger will than himself.' . We the cannot here discuss the sequel . insecure. ' sovereignty of as yet new lord ' of Olympus has had a beginning he will also have an end unless he mends his ways of governing. ' king of kings. control. The The .' all-seeing.' the ' men path of wisdom.' who rewards who guides men in according to their works. Rather.

in a final harmony. lawlessness into righteousness that even for in the Zeus Time could be the great Teacher. As Aeschylus elsewhere sets the Eumenides against Apollo. the old against the new. sovereignty without Power is it ineffectual : Power without cannot Wisdom. This view of the Prometheus. many of the elements for the future reconciliation are ready to hand. the authority of so eminent a scholar as Dissen. in a letter to Welcker printed Welcker's Trilogie 1824. is. of the In the Prometheus^ the supreme god becomes assured only when Wisdom and Power shall Wisdom have entered into indissoluble union. 2 be enthroned as immortal. in I have placed before supported by I find. though may last for a time. full significance of Prometheus' words aAA' eKStSacr/cet Trdvd' o y/y/iacr/cojj' xpovos*- then. and as growing from . 981. which pupils for more than twenty years. 1 This is probably 2 my Prom. so in the Prometheus does he set Zeus against the Titan. the new against In each case the strife must be resolved the old.I GREECE AND ISRAEL 23 mythological framework of the Greek religion the supreme god might be exhibited as subject to a law of development. see an interesting .

The mind the of Aeschylus of the loved elder move among went.24 HARVARD LECTURES explanation of what at first I the sight seems the most daring audacity ever enacted on the Greek to stage. profoundly religious But Aeschylus the theologian would surely dramatic it have shrunk to from a situation so perilous piety. by Janet Case. giving scope. a process of becoming. To Aeschylus the dramatist no theme could well have been more congenial than that of the Prometheus. With them too the higher displaced the lower. as did. Their story. March 1904. was one of moral growth. There was a law of evolution. like that of humanity. to the Prometheus Bound . dim forms world. Also has been ably and independently put forward by Professor in his introduction Lewis Campbell (1890). from which even deity was not exempt. for a conflict of it will-power on a scale of such colossal grandeur. Before his vision gods in their succession came and Viewed in the immense perspective of the past the sway of these gods was almost as ephemeral as that of mortals. were not that the fluid and ever.shifting forms of Greek mythology article in the Classical it Review.

reviews his proudly friends proclaiming his own innocence. . righteous. and then. As compared with other men he knows himself to be guiltless. Just as Prometheus maintains silence silences one of those so too Job held ' eloquent Aeschylean his ' peace seven days and seven nights life. His seek to convince him that he has done wrong. They cannot extort from him the admission. however. the voice of accusation seems to touch more nearly on blasphemy. as addressed to a God who was sense not only supreme. is it also in is some degree he regards In Prometheus an expression of proud defiance towards one as a tyrant whom and an upstart. and whose future In Job. but in the highest It is. the language they use about the deity similar. this very . And as the chief actors use similar language about themselves.I GREECE AND ISRAEL 25 lent themselves to the utmost freedom of poetic handling. we observe in some points of setting of the at the outset detailed resemblance the two poems. In passing to the Book of Job. like Prometheus. overthrow he calmly contemplates.

xvi. 7-16). The feeling is one of in the conflict and strange perplexity. shouldest oppress ? In his anguish God and his enemies seem ranged on one side (ch. him despair : yet plead he should be at the cost of his 21). x. But again by a sudden revulsion of feeling he turns to God. life (ch. It is the sort of irony which belongs to it In form an accusation in is in reality an expression of belief the very attributes that are denied. to reconcile his Hence the sudden power. . an appeal to the deity to remove the inconsistencies which explain seem the to darken in his character. Almost same breath with passionate remonstrance and complaint there come accents of trust and utter self-surrender. it a hard adversary is for man to plead against will.26 HARVARD LECTURES i perfection of power and goodness which adds a sting to the apparent injustice. x. Now God though ix. 3). (ch. love. 20- 'Thou knowest 7) . he invokes own cause he makes him . to flaws his his goodness and transitions is own work. to be judge in his whom . that I am not wicked' 'is it ' good unto thee that thou (ch. and alternations of mood.

the man . it But the theory was giving experience . xxiii. such as Job's . xvi. hath tried me. the future Job has no clear it belief in immortality. behold.' shall I When ' he (ch. come ' forth as gold Now have ordered my i cause 8). punished. that he West. xiii. . ' the East nor in the I Oh I I knew where might his ' find ! him ! that might come even to seat I would order my I ' cause before him. and he (ch. is The sense of in ill treatment and despair case a is heightened Job's by Whereas Prometheus special circumstance. stands out dimly as a hope. is conscious that he in an is immortal and that his victory assured. my He that witness in heaven.GREECE AND ISRAEL his arbiter even while 27 he is his adversary: is ' Even now. complains not in God hides from him. friends. Vers. i-io). was discredited by way and with the blank so created the of things fell whole scheme into confusion. For commonplace minds. At the most.). life The old patriarchal theory of was in need of no hereafter. I know that I shall be justified (ch. that voucheth for me is is on high' that 19 Rev. The good man was always bad rewarded.

at a here. are soon in deeper The endings cantly different. remains unshaken by persuasions and threats. for the divine How account misrule it ? There are moments life when Job hints. after as the key to these moral problems lost but such rare glimpses darkness. who in all his troubled question- ings has never lost his central trust in the God : whom he has upbraided. strong in conscious right and in foreknowledge of the future.' Job. And so Prometheus. The God who is the antagonist of Prometheus has power. but he has not goodness of Job is : the God who is the antagonist perfect in goodness as in power. as would seem. ends by a retractation . of the two poems are signifi- The decisive contrast lies in the characters of the two deities whose justice has been impugned. At the close of the drama.28 HARVARD LECTURES formulas still \ the old sufficed. life But to those who looked steadily on the discord between merit and reward was apparent. from out of elemental ruin earthquake and lightning and tempest he utters his last Thou seest what unjust things defiant words ' : I suffer.

xxviii.GREECE AND ISRAEL ' I know that thou canst do all things. it was race. is tellect. While philosophy had for the Jews no meaning. as they are flashed before him xli. which I knew infinite not ' (ch. the source from spiritual enlighten- which they drew ethical and ment Thither they turned as to living oracles inscribed with the finger of the Almighty. in a series of sublime descriptions (ch. dormant throughout.). human . Vers. To history they appealed as the supreme tribunal of God's justice. xlii.). Jehovah's answer for awakened. The mysteries of creation. Yet even had merely shown him Nature's immensity and the nothingness of Man.. things too wonderful 2. Nor was the history of their past merely a possession of their a treasure they held in trust for the own . I have uttered that which I understood not. now fully Job the bewildering problem remained unsolved..in- have subdued the heart as well as the Love. for me. factor in their national It was the chief unity. history had a deeper significance than it bore to any other people. 3 Rev. and that no purpose of thine can be restrained .

30

HARVARD LECTURES

i

The
the
'

story of the Jews was part and parcel of

book of the generations of man.

5

Before

the eyes of the prophets

history as a whole

emerged
the

as an orderly plan, conceived in the
itself

counsels of the eternal, slowly unfolding
in
rise

and

fall

of empires, in

startling

catastrophes, in sharp

and swift punishments
;

which smite the innocent with the guilty
not
life,

but

less in
its

the normal processes of a nation's
its"

growth,

decay,

its

obedience,

its

rebellion, in

the seed-time and harvest of the

moral world.

The

great

monarchies, Egypt,

Assyria, Babylonia, Persia, pass across the scene.

Their fortunes cross and interlock with those of
the chosen race.
Israel
is

the pivot on which

their destiny turns.

In their pride they boast

of victories not their own.
'

The Assyrian
I

says
it,

By

the strength of

my
'

hand

have done

and by

my

wisdom

;

but they are each an

instrument, though

they

know

it

not, in

the

hands of the Almighty, by which he chastises
his forgetful

people or re-admits them to his
is

favour.

History, in a word,

the

drama

in

which God himself is the protagonist, vindicating

GREECE AND ISRAEL
his justice

31

and moral government on the stage

of the visible world.

its

Never has any people been so conscious of own spiritual calling as the Jews none has
;

had

so

profound

an intuition of the
their

future.

They pondered
equipment
for

long
its

preparation

and

their
lapses,

office,

unique

design,

their repeated

their baffled

hopes, the

promises postponed.
of
national

The outward
fell

trappings
All that

existence

away.

constitutes history in the eyes of secular nations

war and

politics,

the deeds of kings, heroic
these things occu;

struggles for independence

pied an ever lessening space in their annals
their only
spirit.
life

was the indestructible
to suffer

life

of the
wait.

They were content

and to

They had all the tenacity of hope. cumbered of material greatness, they
It

Disenenlisted
forces.
'

themselves on the side of purely spiritual

was the prerogative of

their race to be

an

ensign to the nations,' to bear the
the true God.

banner of

The only Greek

historian

whose philosophy

of history recalls in some chief features that of

32

HARVARD LECTURES
is

\

the Jewish Scriptures

Herodotus.
its

To him
and

the course of the world,

incidents great

small, are under divine governance.
'
'

The same
is

l

forethought

or providence which

at

work

in

maintaining a just balance of forces within the

animal

kingdom,

likewise

presides

over

the

destiny of empires.
its

This supreme power reveals

will

through various modes of utterance

through oracular voices, through signs, through
disturbances in the
It

physical order of
pride,
it

nature.

humiliates
its ruin, it

human

lures

on insolence

to

pursues the guilty through generaas in Jewish history the fortunes

tions.

And

of Israel intermingle with the secular currents
of universal
history
is

history, so
in
its

in

Herodotus

Greek

read

larger

and world-wide

relations.

The

great military monarchies pass
;

before our eyes in a series of apparent digressions

but

the main theme

is

never forgotten

;

the

tragic action
incidents,
till

moves onward through retarding
at
last
its

the

divine
all

retribution

hastens towards

goal,

and

the pride of

the East, gathered into one under Persia, flings
1

irpovolr),

Herod,

iii.

108.

GREECE AND ISRAEL
itself in

preordained ruin on the free land of

Hellas.

The problems of
mind
of
Israel.

politics

never exercised the
arose

No

questions

about

royalty, aristocracy, or democracy,
to put forward their several claims
;

as entitled

there was

no thought of tempering the evils of unmixed or extreme constitutions, or of harmonising
conflicting
ideals,

such as at an early period

seized

upon the

reflective spirit of Greece.

The
for

Jewish wars of liberation were waged not
political,

but for religious freedom.

It

has been

remarked
with

by Renan that the Jews accepted
any that of Persia, was
worship.
political

easy acquiescence

regime
of

which, like
their

fairly tolerant

religious

On

the other

hand,

the mind of Israel,

ill-fitted

indeed to found a

secular state, or to adjust the various functions

of government, went out in aspiration towards
the citizenship of a larger country.

The oneEven the
covenant
its

ness of

God

carried with

it,

as an implicit con-

sequence, the oneness of humanity.
law,

though

in

the

first

instance a

with a single people, and in spite of

minor

D

34

HARVARD LECTURES
rules, itself

\

enactments and disciplinary
a unifying power.
Its

became

moral precepts, flowing

from one God as the sole source of law, had
a universal and
binding
force.

And

if

the

demands of
so
its

the law

knew no

restriction of race,

No ancient privileges were open to all. accorded to strangers such a constitution
position as they enjoyed under the Mosaic code.

At Athens

resident

aliens

received

a
in

more
any

humane and favoured treatment than
other state in Greece.
Still,
;

even there, they

had no

legal or civic status

access to the courts

was secured to them only through the service and though this measure of of a patron
;

recognition

may

be put down

in

part to Attic

^>i\av0p(07rla or

kindliness, the direct

motive

undoubtedly was a commercial one.

With the

Jews the

rights of the alien

are placed on a

clear religious basis

the unity of
'

God

involving

the brotherhood of man.

Ye

shall

have one

manner of

law, as well for the stranger, as for
:

one of your own country

for I

am

the Lord

your God' (Lev. xxiv. 22).
that
'

The
'

declaration
x.
1

God

loveth the

stranger

(Dent.

8)

The sense of the inequalities of life strike in with a new and piercing force. the With the preaching of prophets in the eighth century Judaism became essentially a social religion. At the heart Judaism beneath hard and often repelling universal exclusiveness the idea of humanity was being matured. of sympathy for the poor and the oppressed. takes a deeper and tenderer tone. ' the stranger The lessons. Thou shalt in love him as ye were strangers xix.GREECE AND ISRAEL 35 involved far-reaching consequences which cannot be extracted from the kindly religious sentiment expressed in the Homeric words. 34). a religion of humanity. and the beggar are from Zeus. its the land of of Egypt' (Lev. let upon the mind To undo the ' ' . of suffering and the memory of the house of bondage are brought the ethical thyself.' moreover. to satisfy the afflicted . heavy burdens and ' the oppressed go free ' ' to open the eyes of the blind soul ' . to deliver suffering humanity this from the darkness of the prison-house . for ' in to reinforce duty. In the last days of the kingdom of Judah the feeling of compassion for the weak.

that war between Hellenes is forbidden. barriers must be broken down. and under the law of the dom foreshadowed by the prophets. city its The outward fabric and framework of the type. Plato's Republic justice finds an earthly home. In a regenerate spiritual kingall society. as distinct from the moral principles on which it is based. already united The families of the by a common be called origin. There are full citizens. it is subject to the usual Hellenic limitations with. one notable exception. are henceforth ' to be united by a common hope.36 HARVARD LECTURES i became the absorbing passion of the Hebrew. between Greeks and barbarians retained within the city sharp lines of demarcation are drawn. Such a moral enthusiasm could recognise no restrictions of age or country. earth. indeed. are essentially of the Hellenic In laws and bye-laws. But the is distinction . for the sake of .' prayer for Greek thinkers no less than Hebrew prophets In figure to their imagination an ideal society. an house of For my house shall all people. and that one Hellenic state may and not enslave another.

the true The method secret he desires to discover of training intellect and character: nature how human may be moulded into the form of perfect goodness how the highest natural endowments. but beyond these there a great disinherited class.I GREECE AND ISRAEL in virtue 37 whose complete training the state exists in . the external But his real concern organisation of is the state. and intellect the governing power resides is their hands . history was to him full of despair. the love of beauty. and the love of truth. The high hopes of early The lesson of Greek youth had been shattered. Selfishness and corruption. of traders and artisans who are not true members but only of slaves parts of the community. and who are mere will. facile Plato is under no illusions as to any mode of reforming society. . the inordinate assertion of the individual without regard to the welfare of the . instruments for carrying out their masters' So far Plato does not rise above his is own age not with and country. which his makes man one with himself and one with fellow -men. which reveals the world of art and literature. may be fostered and combined.

' life content only he can and be pure from evil or unrighteousness. 496 D-E. wisdom and knowledge and power the power of government combined with true philosophic were united in the same persons. . . and depart in peace and good will with bright l hopes. We in are the reminded of the union foreshadowed Prometheus of power and goodness in the govern- ment of Olympus. on the Rep. and studies the law of 1 upward progress vi. ascent of On the one hand he traces the the soul.38 HARVARD LECTURES this \ whole life. was what confronted him in civic The thinking man who in shrinks from engaging the turmoil of faction ' may well be tempted to ' hold his if peace and do his live his own own business.' No merely external changes could restore a Until society so deeply corrupt. of the nobler philosophic the darkness its nature. maninsight beneficence. from to the light. kind could have no release from evil. at an forces intellectual Plato is bent on arriving apprehension of the moral which underlie all political and social improvement.

He is not seeking to ameliorate the to raise the outward conditions of existence. He strains his eyes after it the heavenly vision. and in that the pattern of his city is up the heavens.GREECE AND ISRAEL 39 other hand he gives a penetrating psychological analysis of the successive stages of moral decline both in states and individuals. or lot of the poor and struggling. in has the fall glow of little short of let Hebrew prophecy their intensity. But us not mistake his drift and purpose. towards which the mind must . but is the vision of a philosopher not a prophet. His words emotion. state. to bring thought and action religious harmony. The fervour with which he describes the power of philosophy to raise and transform into life. The him to his highest conception of justice or is ' an laid ideal. in He is well aware that the earthly which he seeks embody human goodness.' regeneration of society stands out before as a far-off hope. He has not the directly operative aim of the social reformer. of one spectator of all who ' ' is the time and all being . for whom great the laws of truth and conduct are the primary reality.

see ' Could they they the philosopher as he is. the invincible optimism which survived every disappointment. They laid hold of own possession. The spirit of hope. would certainly accept him for their guide. sustained them to the the future as their last.' The vision of the prophets differed from the vision even of the greatest of the philosophers in the ever increasing clearness with which its reality was apprehended. with a confi- dence unapproached by any other nation. poets forecast To the Greeks . so distinctive of the Jewish people. the business philosopher to open the eyes and to direct the groping steps of the multitude. being merely an in His belief never of reason. unless we may find a distant parallel in the exhilaration of tone with which the the imperial greatness of Roman Rome. that the ideal is none the worse as yet ideal. as the illuminating is and the vision of the of power of the human life. in wavers the sovereignty the in affinity of the human Good It soul to the divine.40 HARVARD LECTURES in far-reaching is i strive aspiration. though no era of righteousness Yet he for insists dawning on the world.

viii. II (margin). Jebb. TO //. life But the it by leaving half of for remained Greece to make the earth a home. and for were presumptuous it.eAAoz/. ' uncertain ' is the future ] aSi]\ov Forecasts the future. .GREECE AND ISRAEL the future is 41 dim and inscrutable. ordered and well equipped for 1 Find.' to the Heavenly Jerusalem.) 2 Ecclesiastes iii. rSiv 8 /xeXXocrwv rerv<p\d3VTau (Trans.' 1 says Pindar. the loss of whose earthly country seemed to point him forward with a more victorious certitude to city ' the which hath foundations. It spirit of Israel. Ol. man to seek to pene- trate its His duty is to seize the present with it limitless possibilities. 'He hath set Eternity in their heart': 2 so might we sum up the Jewish ideal simplified untouched.' future it The is the secret belonging to the gods. a temper of mind wholly unlike that of the Jew. 'have been doomed to blindness. ad init. and to use with that rational energy and forethought which are born It is of an enlightened experience. poets and prose writers repeat with many of variations the ' sad refrain.

The matchless success in so force of the fields Greek mind and activity is. Hebraism and one in all the distinct. however. complete as man. secular poetry. with the living God. religious the other in the secular gifts and wealth and graces. to the inalienable treasure of the For the present. its many to of all human to this. diversity of its Thus the sharp contrasts of the sculptor's plan Showed the two primal paths our race has trod Hellas the nurse of . Judaea pregnant man do not ask you to estimate the value of these two factors. has added world. as we shall see. due above that it was able harmoniously combine diverse and even opposite Hellenism stand out intensity of its qualities. not indeed for the individual. the life. Each people is at once the historical counterpart and the supple- ment of the ing its other. Each element. philosophy. our immediate .42 HARVARD LECTURES if \ the race. by contribut- own portion to our common Christianity. to compare I things so incommensurable. political intercourse. social supplied lacking elements art. the Greece science. one against the other. life.

civilis- and out of keeping with our progressive ation. a dwindling minority. like the vailed "by the Hebrews. be Nor an was it till ancient Hellas it ceased to independent nation that became one of the history. as with the Hebrews. have always prenot few.GREECE AND concern is 1'SKA EL 43 with I Greece. though hope. Hellenes. imagine. moving their forces of the world's With the Greeks. Outside are the larger ranks of the I non-Hellenes their hardly like to the call them by But the Greek title. a small and peculiar not. Barbarians. That a cheering omen when we is are asked to believe that the study of Greek now an anachronism. their greatest the moment of apparent for fresh is overthrow has been the starting-point spiritual or intellectual conquest. by the many. I people . the days of abasement have once and again preceded triumphs . Within these walls the Hellenes are. .

But theyalso started new branches particular. and did the carrying ancient world. gold-working. and at a later I period Carthage. trade of the They earlier perfected nations.II GREECE AND PHOENICIA *^ IN this lecture I propose to place side by side that of Phoenicia two contrasted civilisations and that of Greece. need not remind you that the Phoenicians were the pioneers of civilisation in the Mediterranean. in by the discovery of the purple dye. of industry of their own. The history of Phoenicia centres mainly round the names of the great commercial cities of Sidon. 44 . the industrial discoveries of exhibiting singular resource and ingenuity in developing such arts as pottery. established an immense trade in textile fabrics. and the like. and. Tyre. glass-making.

they would quietly wait there till of spring enabled them to sail on calmer They opened up trade routes for overland as well as maritime commerce. they felt their way along of the the stepping-stones of the Greek archipelago furthest limits till they pushed to the world. known and to Their settlements extended over the whole Aegean. The Phoenician merchant would penetrate into African deserts or exile himself 1 Isaiah xxiii. and thence they traded from the coasts of Britain to those of ' North -West of nations India. and for at each point shipping some new cargo their homeward voyage. along the African coast the the western Atlantic .GREECE AND PHOENICIA 45 Fearless and patient navigators and explorers. 2. the return seas. Overtaken by winter on a distant coast. exchanging manufactured articles for the natural products of the country. 8. whose ' merchants were ' were ' princes. Mediterranean. whose traffickers l the honour- able of the earth. ' Phoenicia was ' the mart ' .' In the earliest glimpse we get of them we see their mariners touching their at every shore. .

one may hope.46 HARVARD LECTURES n for years in the bazaars of to extend his markets. they eked out their gains trafficking in slaves. ' Those English of but. are said have doubled the Cape of Good Hope and circumnavigated Africa. but they drove hard bargains on the strength of their monopoly .' says a French writer. Tyrian sailors. as antiquity. truth in the description for the Phoenicians amassed indeed wealth untold. the very out- and laid the foundation of a great colonial dominion. by kidnapping and ever they Wherand were appeared they were dreaded disliked. though. maintained themselves in scattered groups among unfriendly populations. despatched by Pharaoh Necho of Egypt. they Unpleasant names are already This applied to them in the Homeric poems. About 600 on a mission to B. a mere handful of men. for business purposes. . indispensable. this people created a world-wide commerce. Nineveh or Babylon Starting from the coast of Palestine. with only partial . and secured a monopoly in most of the markets of the world . holding posts of civilisation.C.

and not the means. . Every artifice of concealment was employed by them to maintain their monopoly. facts. and times committed acts of murderous cruelty upon those whose indiscreet curiosity impelled them to pursue the quest. one another's But. some inevitable misunderstanding to learn between people who refuse language. pursuit in life. the Sabbathless of They had no larger horizons. of their trade routes. With jealous exclusiveness they guarded the secret of their geographical discoveries. were an inhuman and unlovable They were animated by one passion. making all allowance for these and speaking without any anti-Semitic prejudice.GREECE AND PHOENICIA was. Wealth was with them the end of Theirs was. By at inventing fabulous horrors in they sought to deter rivals from following their track. perhaps. we must own that the Phoenicians race. no hopes beyond material advancement. the greed of gain.' phrase. of the winds and currents. ' Bacon's fortune. partly 47 due to the instinctive antipathy which has the Semitic and always existed between be traced to In part it may Aryan races.

and. The . But. too. left history they have no and it is to the research of the Greeks we are almost wholly indebted for such Litera- fragments of information as we possess.HARVARD LECTURES To the past and the future they were alike indifferent Among the articles of their export trade we may reckon they the to alphabet. was wanting Phoenicia was not a country or a continuous territory. through art which writing. sense for unity. ture they had none. or Their art was of the merely art an imitation reminiscence of political of others. speaking roughly. on occasion. but a series of ports. again. Enough own for them they could draw up Even of records. conveyed Greece the of though they themselves never really if learnt to write. Phoenician towns dis- played heroic qualities in defending their independence. Their municipal which is was not without the vigour often inspired by commercial activity life . discipline and loyalty were but feebly even the great colony of Car- thage suffered the battles of the State to be . we may say that civic felt . that their tariffs their and keep their accounts.

all From the Phoenicians they learned crafts . were born sailors and The Greeks. and spirit in explored paths in a which the love of science and the love of adventure were equally blended. keen the pursuit of commerce. Aetvavrai? which was given to a party of shipowners who They transacted their business on board their too were always afloat sea. But with Plutarch 298 . 49 In the absence of any high ideal of personal or national welfare the individual was crushed in the onward movement of material civilisation. hands. they were in shrewd men of business. who from the dawn of history looked upon the sea as their its natural highway. the arts and handi- secrets by degrees they wrested from them the of their trade routes. home was on the Like the Phoenicians. to Let us turn now also. c.GREECE AND PHOENICIA fought mainly by mercenaries. eager to make money. traders. ' To them at Miletus ship. and equipped all themselves with the instruments of wealth their and civilisation which in their 1 jealous teachers sought to retain own ii. Greece. might be applied the name.

did they were yet sight idealists.50 HARVARD LECTURES n the Greeks the love of knowledge was stronger than any instinct of monopoly . The Greek states is equal measure grasp the principle of the subordination of the lower to the higher aim. it the desire to impart and in giving to others they received again their own with usury. less yet they regarded prosperity as a means. place it and true. They had a standard of measure. They not lose of the higher and distinctively life its human aims which give significance. affairs of life. the love of knowledge carried with it. No people was ever less detached from the practical insensible to outward utility . all in . never as an end. a faculty of distinguish- ing values welfare order. where the Semitic instinct for trade was dominant. the distinction between the material means and the moral or intellectual ends was not apprehended with the or so decisively translated into same sureness . In Corinth and Aegina. Shrewd traders and merchants. The unquiet spirit of gain did not take possession of their souls. the several elements of national its fell each into proper did not.

certain Granted that satisfied external conditions must be and material wants supplied. he was but following the guidance of educated thought and deepening a popular conviction. but of the is noble life . and. and living with all the fulness of life. that Greece was aware of the ends of Phoenicia was not. fulfilling his function as a member of the social organism. not as a trader. by the Phoenicians. ' Aristotle speaks of the State as existfor ' ing not the sake of mere life. became to the Greeks the highest of the practical sciences. to unfold the powers of the heart as well as of the head. to provide free scope for the exercise of its human personality in manifold activities. mechanism for getting of wealth its function was to build up character and intellect. ' : An The Athenian is could have said with Burke State a partner- . The State the was to be no mere . the science of man. Still the ideal fact remains life . ignored And so political science. though the formula his own and bears a philosophic stamp. the true aim of civic existence felt still lies beyond.GREECE AND PHOENICIA action as at 51 Athens. but as a man.

colonising But the Phoenician scattered over the Mediterranean shores. . elements of armies. instability of can be drawn than that between Greek and Phoenician colonisation. city some cases. civic fleets.' The Greek animated by the same conception. 40 dx/)77"ra S-TpaKTa. population. orators are and in all perfection. the From the the Phoenicians Greeks learnt art. were as a rule little more than trading stations and factories planted along the great international in routes . l become ' useless. and not 1 Phil.' Phoenicia remains a lasting witness to the power resting on a purely commercial basis and unsustained by any lofty No more striking contrast or aspiring aims. in every virtue. if all the material disjoined from the nobler sources of inspiration. iii. to the mother a portion of their commercial revenues. Wealth. paying over. Demo- sthenes never wearies of insisting on the moral basis of national greatness. but owning no real allegiance. strength.. ineffectual. unavailing. in all art. > dv6vrjTa.52 HARVARD LECTURES all \\ ship in science. all rudiments of the colonies.

from the regions of the Caucasus to Lower Italy. displayed a magnificent and conquering energy territorial . Plato might speak of the sea as ' a bitter and brackish neighbour.a. entering into union To keep on good on to terms with the populations whose land to they had use the and turn profitable resources of the neighbouring tribes. 75 A tt\jUi'p6i' iriKpbv yeirovrjfj.L Laws iv. to Sicily. native settled. was their chief endeavour. . of ambition in Sardinia. In the Macedonian period the chain of Greek cities extended to the Indus. and Spain were precisely the occasion of her downfall. and even to Gaul. the greatest of Phoenician colonies. The influence of Greater Greece is the determining people. Carthage.' 1 l a pleasant thing enough KO.C. the coasts and islands were studded with Greek towns from the Crimea to North Africa. indeed.GREECE AND PHOENICIA infrequently detached in 53 sentiment. Nor did they show much power for of self-government or political any aptitude with others. but her projects Sicily. fact in the history of the Hellenic in Already the sixth century B.

and their colonial activity was the highest political achievement of the race. the highest instincts of the race sought other satisfaction in the colonising energy. Nature. 102. The emigrants and.C. Different motives led the several states to send out colonies. Greece was a poor country eVrt: 1 Trevirj aei /core avvrpcxfios the growth of population outstripped the means of existence. vii. and a foreign market was necessary to supplement the food supply and to furnish the material for native industries. however. . had marked out a maritime destiny for the Hellenes. But though actual need was perhaps the most frequent of the impelling causes of emigration. but dangerous. worship as the symbol of their spiritual unity we expressly read in regard to the foundB.) ing of Naxos (735 the earliest of the first Greek colonies the in Sicily the act on touching new shore was to erect an altar to Apollo 1 Herod.54 HARVARD LECTURES and n to have near you. Each founding of a city was a missionary enterprise. as carried with them the Apolline . likely to bring in other strange products besides foreign merchandise.

Great diversity of aim and method prevailed in the colonising states. Corinth. they were nurtured on the same heroic on the same days they sacrificed to legends . 3. pursued a commercial policy. vii. as their kinsfolk in the mother they lived under customs and institutions similar in spirit to the old. tive owed its final and distinc- form to the part the city played 1 in repelling Thucyd. guardians of a common herit- age which they were bound to protect against surrounding barbarism . The and sense of Hellenic clarified. the same gods cities . in the The jealousies which were so rife narrow cantons of Greece were softened in and sometimes forgotten absence from home. . however widely dispersed .GREECE AND PHOENICIA 1 55 Archegetes. growing out of a religious federal union. I. the Venice of antiquity. they listened to one Homer. Athens. and that policy rested on a colonial basis. entering much Her later on the field of colonial expansion. kept larger political and social ends in view. kinship was deepened of The Hellenes became aware themselves as children of one family. colonial empire.

Hellenic colonisation. work of colonisation Athens sought to introduce a large and comprehensive occurs in spirit. Fitting in with the of adventure and the disinterested curio- sity of a restless and daring intellect. the (henceforth new city named Thurii) was restored under the guidance of Pericles. A of salient example the history Magna Graecia. The art of naviga- tion demanded a closer study of astronomy and of mathematics.56 HARVARD LECTURES \\ the common danger which menaced Greece Even into the during the Persian wars. . had one notable spirit characteristic. the importation of unfamiliar products. The opening up unknown lands. viewed generally. Eleans. states of and Boeotians. the teresting home of so in many social novel and inorganisation. But widely as the Greece differed as colonising agencies. it carried men into the heart of every science. With the in- enlargement of the physical horizon new tellectual needs sprang up. it it who : desired to make a Panhellenic community from the outset comprised not Athenians only but Arcadians. experiments After the destruction of Sybaris.

the versatile colonial intellect of Greece. and down to about the middle of the fifth century. . Pythagoras. who was ' poet. Anaxagoras. Anaximenes. are The philosophic intellect All the early philosophers lonians by birth Thales.GREECE AND PHOENICIA 57 the acquaintance gained with alien civilisations. Xenoand of these the first three phanes. That same Miletus. We are reminded of the effect of similar ex- plorations on our own Elizabethan age. incomtype of character patible activities.' The intellectual movement of the Greek world during the sixth century. Indeed. historian. radiates from Greater Greece. as it might seem. produced a which it is not too fanciful to compare with so romantic a personality as that of Sir Walter Raleigh. soldier. philosopher. which from the eighth century onwards sent forth belong to one city Miletus. for anthropological and his- We can observe the fascinatdiscoveries ing influence of geographical on the imagination of a poet such as Aeschylus. with its many-sided and. courtier. whetted the desire torical research. Heraclitus . chemist. of Ionia led the way. Anaximander.

Cos. but also Terpander.58 HARVARD LECTURES who n intrepid mariners. Hellanicus. Hippocrates. Pythagoras . the father of medicine later a century Crete . Ibycus. the colonies of Southern Italy and Sicily followed the Ionian lead. the Diagoras. smaller to dramatic dialogue. In philosophy. Epicharmus. Samos. to rhetoric. gave to the ' world atheist the ' Cynic Diogenes and Melos. Bacchylides. Gorgias I need not complete the list. not mentioned. Archilochus. Arion. . islands contributed their share. Stesichorus. Ceos produced . and colonies of her own you rob her of some of her greatest only those just names . also made fearless excursions into the domain of physical science. Mimnermus. Anacreon. Withdraw from Greece the blood. Alcaeus. the earliest outburst of inspired song after island of Lesbos. In poetry. Homer came from The the Sicily gave birth to comedy. Herodotus. and gave to western Europe its first speculative impulse. Empedocles. the great Simonides . planting some eighty settlements along the 'inhospitable' shores. Sappho. penetrated to the remotest corners of the Euxine.

but enriched the common sacred stock by a ceaseless output of ideas. and flexible intelligence. vii. that they did not forget their language. Difficult problems prefor sented solution.' As it was. 299. their rich TreXia. the mode of thought of the several colonies took their own local colouring. themselves and pressed practical All the adaptive powers of the race. and from it kindled new and illuminating thoughts which they transmitted to the land of their origin. their evrpa- were called into play. . The marvel is that at a dis- tance from home. l forget their poets. fire The taken from the hearth of the metropolis city. The old forms of constitution for the to be too rigid new countries. Histoire de f Art dans I' Antiquite. 1 Perrot. The literature.GREECE AND PHOENICIA In 59 the colonies again the most diverse political experiments were proved tried. they not only maintained their Hellenism despite all diversity of developments. they were not merged in the prevailing ' barbar- ism . they kept alive. the art. a mere handful of strangers. Rival centres of industry or culture each acquired a distinctive character. and their gods.

by the discovery of a of artistic expression. intense in character and of far-reaching con- sequence. Famous artists travelled with their wares. new material as the medium would strike out its some bold experiment which finished only received form in the old home. Hence there was an un- limited interchange of art products extending even to the outlying regions of Hellenism. it might be. Miletus reposi1 Here I am much indebted to hints kindly given me by Professor Waldstein. free from the hampering traditions of a school. . Among stimulus the causes which acted as a powerful on artistic production none ranks higher than the agonistic contests of Greece. Not only were the great religious and social centres. Delos. Each state was eager to know and appropriate the best results that had elsewhere been accomplished. Delphi. aided. such as Olympia. A colony. The desire to win national renown in this field of coveted achievement created a civic rivalry.60 HARVARD LECTURES The history of Greek art l n offers multiplied instances of this vital and effective interaction between the colonies and the mother city.

To Glaucus of Chios .GREECE AND PHOENICIA tories 61 we might almost say museums art could be viewed. Crete. Samos. the language. and other whence the hereditary craft of certain families and schools found its way to the Grecian mainland. This free trade expansive variety to in art . and the sentiment of Greece. an art which he working of marble his son bequeathed to Micciades and his direct descendants. I can do no more than allude to the detail For the we should recall the history of sculpture from the second half of the seventh century onward. in connexislands. Bupalus. had an influence analogous to that exercised by the poetic recitations of the sodists wandering rhap- on the thought. Here topic. no less than artistic it it quickened the sense of Hellenic patriotism . . had it in it an educative and force gave unity culture . especially ion with Chios. and Athennis. is attributed the invention of soldering iron the first to Melas of Chios. but where locali- works of ties also minor took a pride in acquiring masterpieces representing well-known individuals or different schools. Archermus.

which prepared the way for Another colonial sculptor of genius was a contemporary of Phidias in the Paeonius of Mende. discovered at Olympia 1875. Cleonae. in Thracian His Nike. visiting Sicyon. near Aenus Chersonese. during the second half of the sixth century and the first half of the fifth. and Ambracia. rival Pythagoras of Rhegium. the fresh sculpture and daring originality displayed by Sicily pre-eminently in the earlier metopes from Selinus and also by Magna Graecia. Crete produced a well-known school of sculpture. Argos. . their and there introduced new methods. a Eleutherae. names being those of Dipoenus and who travelled through Greece proper. exhibits an original spirit which unfifth doubtedly influenced the art of the century. we note in Later. the earliest Scyllis. introduced his principles of ' symmetry and rhythm hieratic bonds. ' . and famous of Myron of chiefly as the sculptor of Olympic victors. he marks the last step in the process of emancipation from archaic and the age of Phidias.62 HARVARD LECTURES Samos n In the art of bronze-casting originated with Rhoecus and his son Theodorus.

under whom were executed the great mural decorations have held with Cimon a at Athens. appears to position similar to that of Phidias with Pericles. point. fruitful its power from assimilating taste every element of to it artistic all and culture which came other Hellenic centres. period. when painting reached masters of the art the were Zeuxis from Heraclea. in painting. Parrhasius from Ephesus. which battle- more than a thousand years was the of ground of southern Europe. worth remembering that among highest sculptors Scopas was a Parian . large hospitality. At certain critical to moments of history Phoenicia threatened engulf our Western civilisation. Greeks and Phoenicians confronted one another for centuries. and Apelles from Colophon. Even in the following when Argos and Sicyon and Athens it is took the lead. swept by a long succession conquering races. 63 Polygnotus of Thasos.GREECE AND PHOENICIA Again. In the Periclean age itself one of the most is distinctive features of Attic art its its breadth of of view. . In for that enchanted island of Sicily. and in its the fourth century.

not a It is just this human interest. she passed away. her they owed their first To lessons in shipbuilding and navigation. and the vestiges of her that remain have an antiquarian. lesser arts and certain their knowledge of some of the crafts. her memorial has perished with her. a more gifted people on the road of material progress. lacking in the Phoenicians. as it would seem. In her day she did some humble. The heard voice of Greek historians. There to is in it a natural expansiveness. As for Phoenicia. applications practical all of arithmetic. real. shores. human quality. her ruined columns and along deserted poets. in Sicily as elsewhere. with her wealth. go where we may through the island. but to service mankind in helping forward. which marks so conspicuously the Hellenic temperament. as was foretold by Ezekiel in his doom of Tyre.64 HARVARD LECTURES n Yet to-day. it is Greece that speaks to in us. a desire enter into kindly . in Greek philosophers and is still who lived or died there. But. though with a reluctant hand. the undying pages of the past. and. in her theatres and temples.

telling A bowl fore- stalls your curiosity by personal history. of its A you something word or jotting on " a piece of pottery " sometimes a mere vrpocr- ayopevw his friend. Such sepulchral greetings have a memorial value of a very special kind. to give utterance to the passing thought or fugitive is emotion . that is uttered over the slab is . . if oral utterance impossible. or even a chance wayfarer. to exchange greetings with the stranger on the road. the and the dead.ii GREECE AND PHOENICIA relations 65 human with others." again. Even of inanimate objects are drawn into the this circle genial human intercourse. The "^aipe. and so in bind together friendly intimacy the present living and the absent. departed repeated on the sepulchral and not infrequently the farewell word expanded into a brief dialogue between the dead man and the surviving friend. carries the message of the a artist to Or again. to make writing serve the turn of speech. or. fragment inscribed with the name of an Athenian youth calls up a tender reminiscence of old friendship is when it found far from Athens in the rock-tombs of is Etruria.

ap. spontaneous the unspoken thought had it been intercepted before reached the lips. 97. only in the Utopias of the comic poets that material enjoy- ments come into the foreground of the In picture.66 HARVARD LECTURES n Unlike more formal monumental inscriptions. mind is not subjected to things material it is the inner world that dominates the outward. In does not occupy a true commonwealth material well-being commanding place. are human beings all : by the bounty of Plutus equipped with effort good things without any ' of their own Of their own accord 1 rivers of black broth. 1 one of the fragments of Pherecrates (a contemporary of Aristophanes). vi. so . The elements It constituent of is happiness are moral and intellectual. they are the direct address of person to person . with other characteristics Plato's ideal This is of a piece already noted. and its had taken external shape while yet upon way. Athen. they make an immediate appeal as if to the heart for the very reason that they are so simple. . In all these instances .

who. the trees will districts grow bread and delicacies springs will . and if men Even be very long-lived. as with other nations. Take again the The occasion enjoyment of a Greek festival. ideal sentiment of was not. From the roofs rivulets will run of the juice of the grape and hot soup and omelets made and anemones. .-/AY) PHOENICIA 67 gushing and gurgling. in certain break forth which will cure will if all diseases suffering will cease. that 'a they die at all. at the agonistic . ways from the springs of with cheese-cakes of lilies 1'lutus. even too moments.' Some rabbinical descriptions of the material happiness that will prevail in the visible kingdom of God do not fall far short of this comic paradise. will flow along the high.' is still may in not its starve loftiest Judaism. . . The rivers will flow with wine and honey . The people shared the more refined tastes of their gods. we admit good dose of materialism may be necessary for religion that we the world.GREECE . and to express itself in a form which would have shocked the Greece. a little much inclined to hanker after material delights. one for eating and drinking.

expressing themselves in diverse in forms of poetry and music. nor he retain it as a personal possession . It tion of the individual . manhood with too of ciplined powers intellect and imagination. or parsley. no material value the wreath of wild laurel. offence against was an good taste. Money was It lavished on purely personal enjoyment counted vulgar. demanding of dis- from them no costly banquets. it was hung up in the shrine of the local deity. was but the symbol of did his consecration. oriental. with which he was crowned. n and dramatic from with their came and forth for the day sanctuaries. Similarly the great national athletic contests.68 HARVARD LECTURES festivals. the glorificaon his selfish side. mingled gladly the throng of worshippers. a violation of the law of measure and self-restraint. the reward . The Greek way of regarding private luxury offers a similar note of idealism. of the victor had olive. inhuman. so long as the finer instinct of Greece prevailed over Asiatic ostentation. but perfected human powers religion : dedicated to the service all its physical skill .

. but the occasion of the outlay and the end in view. As for meanness. the worst was that which was combined with display .ev jap ytier' e^reA-eta?). Large outlay on rare and interesting occasions 1 Eth. 2. 21. may motto of the private life of the Periclean age.a- \ovp. We are of the beautiful. But. where an economical person boasts that he had invited his guests to a wedding breakfast on the express understand- ing that they were each to bring their own food. of which we have an example in a fragment of a comic poet. Mere economy had no attraction for a Greek. having spent then spoils liberally on a fitting object. the TO whole Ka\bv effect for the 1 sake of a all trifle (ei> fjuicpw ttTToXet). of forms of meanness.GREECE AND PHOENICIA 69 implied a failure to discern the true ends which make saying social existence desirable. Refinement and simplicity such was the ideal be taken as the union. it was viewed with special disfavour. the real question being not the amount you spend. the \Ve ma}- recall man in Aristotle's Ethics. Nic. but without extravagance (CKoK. ' The famous lovers ' of Pericles. who. iv.

2 The vast sums spent on the been so Parthenon and other criticised edifices have. NIC. The on total the depends not amount expended. he says. 10. is also in the . Olynth. Demosthenes looks back life. In the next generation. iv. 2. 1 aesthetic quality that affects Great outlay. 2 Dem. indeed.70 HARVARD LECTURES in even private . according to the old ideal of Athens. the houses of Miltiades and Themistocles differed in no way from those of the ordinary citizen. iii. grand it manner. with regret to the lost simplicity of private In earlier Athens. while the public buildings and temples were on a scale of grandeur and magnificence that no future ages could surpass. 25-26. life meets with approval from characteristically Aristotle and one of the most Greek features able outlay is in his description is of such justifi- that not only it the outlay on the great scale. . but on a certain effect is impressive harmonious and the imagination. by some modern economists as much wealth locked up in bricks and mortar as unproductive expenditure which contributed 1 Eth. should be limited to public objects.

man and his material surroundings passed away. All the efforts of art might in its service . if be difficult such expenditure.GREECE AND PHOENICIA to 71 the ruin of Athens. To spend largely on our satisfaction. the profit. again. is ? there not much be said defence in Simplicity in the city home. a thing in relation to which are above the world of sense. of their higher. for worthy objects which transcend self and minister to the enjoyment of the community. Here. it From the narrow to financial justify point of view may But. private on our personal was luxury. to its beauty and and inspired in the citizens a passionate and admiring attachment. their collective self. Athenians look beyond material interest or and estimate the value of ideal ends. The individual was praiseworthy munificence. the embodiment of the people's nobler aspirations. worthily be expended that wealth was not wasted which added dignity. splendour the that was the principle. was in some sense a spiritual fabric. the Athenian in its we try to look at to it in spirit. selves. To incur great outlay and culpable luxury. . the city was the enduring reality it .

we love would pursue knowledge it aright. which makes a man eagerly pursue the ideal perfection of citizenship. an inherent dignity. We are not now speaking of education in the narrower sense. ideas on is at the root If many Greek education. upon our view. which ' fits men for perfect citizenship. This the only education which. may is be followed in the spirit of a shopkeeper intellectual and the vulgarity thus fostered more ignoble than the frank avowal of money-getting as in itself the end. the liberal education. Nothing is so truly de- grading as the intrusion of lower and mercenary motives into the sphere of the higher Plato l activities. that other sort of training i. we must disinterestedly. deserves the name 1 . Laws 643 K-644 A.72 HARVARD LECTURES This conviction that the things of the mind have a worth. but of that other education in virtue from youth upwards. which cannot be measured of in terms of money. and teaches him how is rightly to rule and how to obey. Even learning . distinguishes between the education which aims only at outward and worldly success and the true. .

But leisure to the Greek thinker means for not the opposite of activity the activity is of of essence . of life but a special form activity an activity not evoked by external . spontaneous. is mean and illiberal. . and at is not worthy to be called education all. 7- 6 d<r%oAoi'>/u e $ a yo-p <T)(Q\&fali. and delightful an ordered energy which stimulates It is all the vital and mental powers. Leisure the Hellenic starting-point.' The superior value of leisure life in the Hellenic scheme of itself is as compared with work connects with this high ideal of citizenship. Eth. 1 in that this we may have leisure. needs.' says Aristotle. the normal condi- tion of the citizen.' At first may bear some resemblance working to the schoolboy view of the term as being of the nature of break. but free. is ' Without leisure there no freedom. x. 1 an energy strenuous '"/a Nic.ev.GREECE AND PHOENICIA which aims at the acquisition of wealth or bodily strength. or mere cleverness apart from intelligence and justice. order sight ' We work. an infelicitous the holi- days. the prerogative of freemen. in an interruption.

Hence the organised enjoyment of leisure was elevated by the Greeks into a national art. it he who is unproductive labour. his speaking of ' love I of philosophic conversation. and the instinct for beauty. released from the bondage of mechanical routine. then. . especially those of rich men and pity you traders. and satisfying at once the instinct for conduct. and associated the with religion festivals. the dramatic performances provided refined the community with a recreation which was the birthright and privilege of all. 1 The ' lover Symp. a pupil of Socrates. Greek With the more leisure. 173 c. was not idleness. and politics. is So the mere is money-maker engaged in the idler . l There a passage in Plato's Symposium is where Apollodorus. they are irksome to me. the instinct for knowledge. The games. But when hear other discourses. I who are my companions. be- cause you always think that you are hard at work when (oieaOe you are ' really doing nothing n Troieiv ovSev TrotoOz/re?).74 HARVARD LECTURES u and productive. finely endowed natures is it led to philosophy.

' says Stevenson. i'0}>crj-vous. nous somuics serieux 'These. but in ! the ' evening. the adjective to scholastic pedantic. when thought was divorced and cloistered learning had become came and as the fashion of a few. ends that are human and It is half playfully said. but one sees the meaning. that cr%oX>. It was only from action. L. in And it reminds one a little of a passage R. or leisure to ' denote a ' busy trifling.' decay of civic life. the evening they found life. he consecrates delight- his leisure to ful. where he tells of the evening he spent at the Club-house of the are all We Royal Sport Naiitique in Brussels.GREECE AND rHOENlCIA of 75 wisdom ' is the true worker . The . 'were the words. Stevenson's Inland Voyage. but think that in was a very wise remark. They were but in all employed over the frivolous mercantile concerns of Belgium during the day . in commerce during the day employed ' .' was accepted equivalent ' With the ideal view of leisure went a corre- sponding ideal conception of friendship. I I some hours for the serious concerns of may the have a wrong idea of wisdom.

A man's ' and and understanding.' says Bacon. do clarify break up in the communicating and discoursing maketh daylight darkness and in the understanding out of confusion of thoughts. especially when the loss of freedom had robbed politics of its chief interest.' That is a genuine with another. Such phrases as he who has friends has no . mind could of An atmosphere of dis- intimacy was the first condition interested learning.' ' Friendship Hellenic sentiment. that the rules to be found of in the later Greek writers for the are as friends numerous as the making modern prescriptions for making ' happy marriages. Friendship and philosophy in were linked together perfect friendship inseparable union. and in itself a ' became mode wits of mental illumination. are still The .76 HARVARD LECTURES employment of leisure n consisted intellectual mainly of in oral discussion life. on the deeper problems strife human Only through the of con- versation and the kindling contact of mind with truth be elicited. friendships of Greece factor proverbial and so important a in did friendship form social intercourse.

1 Diog. 2 Lacrt. ov8eis </H'\OJ. 8 and . v. So Eth. 1245 b 2O oudels Eth. from you and yet identified the spectacle of his noble with you and in actions and the sympathetic sense of his existence your own sense of personality is is ennobled. 21 w <pi\oi. <j>i\oi. he tells us. ch.' To know that you have a good man as your friend quickens the play of vital . Your friend different . NIC. demands implied friendship ~ in perfect The between good men as sketched by Aristotle glows with an eloquence which surprises us in a writer so studiously quiet in tone. ix. it is not as with cattle herding on the same spot.GREECE AND PHOENICIA friend ' 77 l point to the high friendship. </>i'Xos $ TroAAot 9. and deserves to stand beside the impassioned chapter describing' the bliss of philosophic speculation. in which the distinctive that is is of man a life ' social. It even a friend's privilege to give up wealth. not merely together gregarious that what living means . is realised in that partnership of speech life and thought consists. Friendship. energy life it promotes the vivid consciousness of is which is the essence of happiness. End.

the intense of a brief moment to the feeble satisfaction life of an age. civic fj.eydXtjv T) TroXXaj KOL . one great and glorious deed to insignificant actions. one glorious year of to many years of trivial existence. life itself. permanently perhaps. Some lines of necessary will at once have occurred to you while ing. as in in the task of education. adaptation. for the sake of his friend. are profoundly and true. ideals. xai /3iukrcu KaXiDs tviavrbv w6XX' TVXOVTWS. and so achieve the true self-love. just as our own age and the In many points of detail Greek way cannot be our divergence I way. ' ' He joy will prefer. I But the principles would submit.' totle the glorified I l many Aris- Friendship is for form of human intercourse.' says Aristotle. can be transferred to country. &v 1) 9 6\iyov yap xpttvov eXoir' TroXiV rip^fia. have been speakour industrial life Under the stress of the principles here indicated will need adjust- ment. realising his higher self through self-sacrifice. ch.d\\ov Zrr) much 9. limitation. themselves.78 HARVARD LECTURES n station. Nic. any department of i)cr6i]i><u ff(J>b5pa r) Eth. Kal fiiav irpa^tv KCL\T)V Kai fj. as 1 And. am far from suggesting that these Greek they stand.

79 we need a reminder that there arc certain ideals of character. introduced a large and humanising conception into the one-sidcdness of an earlier civilisation with which they came contact. to test this or that But sometimes we may do well revise our standards all. The of wealth the happiness . on our own immediate branch of ends as the teachers of knowledge. certain paramount ends of all conduct. human like endeavour. and to ask ourat. after we arc aiming what kind of It human being we desire to produce. to fix our eyes on the machinery of education.' that mere wealth is of material not well-being. on the direct mercantile results of our system. They knew man is live that livelihood by bread alone. perhaps. is The satisfaction wants not the end of of nations. We are tempted. . on the subjects of instruction. as have tried to show. selves what. Greece to emphasise I The Greeks. calls ' in They had ' a perception of what Isaiah live.GREECE AND PHOENICIA life.' the things that by which men does not not life. which should underlie and determine our efforts. was part of the beneficent function of this idea.

So HARVARD LECTURES its n individuals. in spite of all moral flaws and imperfections. of existence. disregard of consequences and exceptional biographies of men sense. is The true value of the goods of life determined by the sense of as a whole. have I mentioned in who stand out at intervals the pages of Greek history to great calls of duty men who responded rare and showed a splendid . and yet ideal types. and which. has source deeper than in the or accumulation of riches the expansion of life commerce. such I as inspired the in Plutarch. I All this may all be called have here omitted reference to the ideal creations of Greek poetry. and by tively their relation to the higher and distinc- human ends idealism. again. speak of idealism a more restricted We have seen how the breath of poetry touches the common affairs of life. disengaging . make that us feel they belong to a humanity nobler and richer than the people of our everyday world that they are real and concrete personalities. to those features of character which lift the men and women of Homer or Sophocles above the trivial and the real. the heroic figures Nor.

partly philosophy felt for the Hellenic people by a poetic instinct truths which their philosophers arrived at It by reflection and analysis.ii GREECE ANH PHOENICIA mind from the things of . . their recreations to their estimate of human personality and human was for fellowship. 81 the things of the It is sense. was these truths that gave meaning and reality to the public and private life of the Greeks their institutions. partly poetry. their external surroundings. so that the practical world them lit up by an imaginative ideal.

There is mystery none of those oppressive secrets with atmosphere of Oriental poetry is which the charged. and the exact impression conveyed to the eye has been trans- mitted to another mind. revealing word in A single epithet. felt to And the thing seen until it not be truly understood has taken shape in words. one Homer 82 will often . open up to inmost and us the very heart of the object its . . A fresh out upon the universe. see each object as characteristic it and lucid intelligence looks There is the desire to is. to catch it in some moment is of grace or beauty.Ill THE GREEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE No one can read spirit that the Homer without being aware of man has here shaken off no brooding sense of the torpor of an earlier world and has asserted its freedom.

There but a single exception to the rule of minute delineation. torrent. all on a Over each and of these the poet is lingers with manifest enjoyment. the bowl. characteristic. in thought and emotion. Beauty and stature terms . the vineyard. will stand out great. the piece of the armour. In the description of the human person the outward qualities are but lightly touched. would seem. Man is is some- thing different from a curious bit of ship that delights the eye. too the the the to be worth describing dawn. as there is in the Greek poets of the decline or in modern novels. . no inventory of the features of men or women.83 permanent character outline. these arc noted in general the . brooch. O ' in clear-cut Nothing O is too nothing O the sea. trivial. workmana ' He speaker of words and delineation is a in doer of deeds. But the portraiture of the individual There of fair is is not drawn with any exactitude. winter the nightly heavens.' and his true speech and action. chasing wool -basket. colour of the it hair is sometimes as a added racial not unfrequently.

but garrulous they are not. though each thing. itself is in the highest degree with a flexible and expressive. great and small. the inner world significant connexion they enforce arguments by sayings containing the condensed . play of particles conveying delicate shades of feeling and suggestion. They appeal both they into their to living witnesses and to the experience of the . mood some form of utter- ance .HARVARD LECTURES Again. The naivete of Homeric must not lead us to think of primitive Homer as representing rude and Homer stands out against thought. each passing Homeric men seeks are talkative . but they say. they compare and they contrast the bring outer and . past . making and actions They endeavour it to present their case to themselves as itself to presents the minds of others. has its interest. The language developed fine a vast background of civilisation. the great and the small are not of equal importance. They wish their feelings to speak. There is already a sense is the critical spirit society awake. of relative values . have always something to They are bent on intelligible.

THE GREEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE wisdom of marvellous structural life. to enlarge their outlook. it Poetry us. its with the its resources vocabulary. not for them. to be instructed in lessons. intimate in it union of reason and passion. a refuge from world-weariness. They something beyond is But the world of . Gladly they allow themselves to of be carried into the region the unknown. the poet aims at being more than entertaining. 85 Homeric of its discourse. suffice. life. Strabo observes or that tale ' to construct an empty teratology of marvels on no . as so often is for an escape from reality. coherence. crave Common for reality does not it. the imagination it no nebulous abode of fancy is still the real world. has future all the germs of Greek oratory. He sings to an audience who facts desire to extend their knowledge of the its of life. though enriched and transfigured. and throbbing with an intenser Through known adventures they in pass imperceptibly into an undiscovered country- strange and yet familiar find which they is still themselves at home. Moreover.

I. 2. iii. even personages. has Strabo i. that his yewypcKfriJcrjs e/jUTretpia^. 4 more Strabo in accurate has.vbv. 2. the geography ' of Homer of not invented that he ' is the leader rrjf geographical knowledge 3 (ap^yertj<. 9 K fjLrjdevbs d\7)0ovs dvavreiv Kevrjv reparo2. the scientific is accuracy Homer still the Odyssey a truly remarkable recent investiga- geographical document. The desire indeed to identify Homeric 1 localities and d' i. 13 ware Kal TJ}V 'OSv<rfftiav ets KaOdirep Kal rrjv 'IKidSa dirb rdv ffv/jL^dvruv ^frayayelv 3 Ib. and tions tend to heighten its value as a record of early travel. Ib. i. ovd' 'OfirjptKov. . Cp. and stories are later accurate. an exof cessive belief . 2. of course. and that ' the Odyssey like the Iliad a transference of actual 2 events to the domain of poetry. i.' He to insists. 7. 1J TO d irdvra irXdrrfiv ov irida. \oyiav 2 ovx '0/j.r)pii<6i'. than those of ages. 4 Ib.86 HARVARD LECTURES is in basis of truth not Homeric is ' l . 2. that ' the more Homeric critics' (ol Eratosthenes 'O^piKwrepoi) and his school ' as ' opposed following d/co\o- the poems verse by verse (rot? CTTCO-IV dovvTes') were is aware that . in particular.

the coasts winds and currents. the Odyssey its geographical bearings has lately been subject made the of a fascinating and exhaustive inquiry entitled.7 HE GREEK LOVE OF K'NOl^f.' who a in several arity passages that betrays art. suspicious famili- with But. What- ever may be thought of his Phoenician theories. Victor Berard Les PJicniciens ct in his two volumes fOdyssec. who has Odyssey. An ingenious writer. illustralights. M. and early islands. convinced translated the himself that a very the authoress of the woman who lived at a place poem was now into the ' young called Trapani.KPCE 87 led to some strange results both in ancient and modern times. apart from such in all extravagances of criticism. and introduced herself work under the name of Nausicaa in ' the would-be princess being truth a ' practised washerwoman. by M. as and rash we may regard some of his attempts at locating the scenes described in the poem. and with the habits of those . Berard has shown with a wealth of tive material precise and an under entirely new acquaintance of the how with with the poet had the its navigation Mediterranean.

Athene. pirates.V irtpi rois K\i/juKri fit rois di/e^ots 5ia.6fs i.a. vol. Strabo rb 2. 20 TO KO. yet calling up frequent reminiscences of the actual lands they had themselves visited.ivei. that he may go to Sparta and sandy Pylos to inquire about his father's return. howequips KO. 1 under the form of Mentor i. They refuse. And we sailors can imagine with what avidity the seafaring on population of traders. Berard. 64 ff.fpa. The close correspondence in the Odyssey of between poetic fancy and the mariner's life realities a may be illustrated by In a few ii. p. 1 Even when we pass the into the outer zone of wanderings of Odysseus.HARVARD LECTURES mariners. Book for 212 2 ff. and their return home from of their voyages listened Odyssey to to the recitation the the description of places lying on fabulous shores or bordering on the world of fairyland. . 2 Berard. Telemachus asks the suitors a ship and twenty comrades. the Cp. rrfv yeuypa<J>iai> "0/A-rjpos. there are links of connexion with reality. examples taken from M. and of perils they had encountered. iro\v/j.V ever.

we are told. apparently. Turn now of the In 'Sailing Directions' to-day. almost before the wind to the Peloponnese. At sunset is falls. During the day. Some set hours after sunset sail.THE GREEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE expedition. these Greek waters. Mentor and Telemachus The time is marked by line 388 : SureTO T ?yeA. land and sea breezes follow one another alternately. this ship i i of Telemachus leaving Ithaca about sails P. The wind and dawn it the pilot do the At early the mariners easily make the harbour. Hence. therefore. seven times in in connexion with travel.. Then wards for several 1 1 hours there a calm. Later.M. would be more difficult. it keeps the it ships locked in the harbour. the dead of night. To- P. Athene sent wind from them the ' a favouring a fresh North West (aKpaij sea. gale. . and denoting.M.' Zetyvpov} singing at over the wine -dark Next morning to dawn they reach official Pylos. the land breeze rises.ios cr/ctowi'To re Tracrai ayi'iou a formula occurring. the Odyssey.M. work. The sea breeze springs up each morning about 10 A.

T. 780 where the sailors go to waylay Telemachus on his return.M. Eumaeus' convoy of Odysseus from Phaeacia other places in the Odyssey fif. . story of the Phoenician merchant-ship quitting the isle of Syria the same formula being there used r rjeXios K. The South East and South West wind born clashed and the stormy North West.. lasts two days and two nights 1 then it falls.. 389 ff. Finally Boreas prevails (383-392). Zephyrus. and does not about 9 A. and the North East that rolling is in the bright air.s aiOprfffveTijS /zeya ' KiAivStoV. xiii. J Book V. 1 the knowledge of a skipper.\.. describing the xv. we cannot doubt. 24 ff. voyage of with all The poet who described this Telemachus wrote. . Notus. Here we have Boreas. p. as he approaches the : Phaeacian coast a tempest arises crvv 8' Ev/ads re Xdro? re OTecTov Zc</>upos re Svcra^s Ku//.go HARVARD LECTURES see again ' in for Sailing Directions ' the land fall till breeze then freshens. vol. 481 ff.' Eurus. (xv. after Odysseus had quitted the island of Calypso. 471) as in ii. is and a The same custom of embarking at night : found in three iv. . It four winds. In One more example may be added.a KOI Bope?. 295-296. 388 Berard. onwards a great wave. i.

is In l summer it never lasts more than three says days.. literature.. is The and Its wind called Bora most to be feared demands most active and incessant watch. N..'2 The poet he is of the Odyssey knows what he relates . blow time in same different parts of the Adriatic. light (cp. . minutely accurate in each detail 1 and the Instructions Nantiques. No. aWpr)<yevGTr)<i}. This was on the morning of the ' third day.' frequently happens.' This. iii. symptoms by a and surmounted another cloud compact more and fleecy. that winds at the from the N.' we read. 2 Aen. are furious blasts announced black by the following cloud. covers the horizon in the N. 203-204.E. . a not the storm of but genuine last Adriatic three clays : storm.E. .. 706.. at Again we look It our ' Sailing ' Directions. totidem sine sidere nodes.K. .THE GREEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE ' 91 windless calm ' comes on. Berard. and S. : Virgil's storms always that was part of his poetic furniture Tres adeo incertos caeca caligine soles Erramus pelago..W.

read as having thought Laws is 1 Rep. The 1 love of knowledge (TO <>tXo/m#e9). as is in Adriatic he a describes it. observing and recording every human invention and discovery. as is marked a the love of characteristic of the Greeks as money (TO <j)i\o^pi]/jia- TOV) of the Phoenicians From and Egyptians. One alert in thing alone they viewed with unconcern the language of the foreigner. off the Phaeacian coast. Up to the time of is Alexander. the dawn of history to know seemed to the Greeks to be in itself a good thing apart from all results.92 HARVARD LECTURES storm. the laws and institutions of other traveller's countries. 747 c. and Travovpyia noted as a similar race distinc- . iv. curious confirmation of is the old tradition that the island of Phaeacia none other than Corfu. ao<pia. the Scythian Anacharsis traveller of the only it whom we E. where the contrast between tion. v. 435 Cp. They had the mind. for for the facts of outward his man his ways and for works Greeks and Barbarians. says is Plato. They had curiosity for a keen -eyed and dis- interested nature.

Neither Herodotus.THE GREEK LOVE worth his Of- KNOWLEDGE while to learn any language other than his critus. at all. led The conse- neglect foreign languages to quences more serious than the absurd etymological guesses that found acceptance in G recce. own. the facts ' must be looked a special way. neither nor conceals. The notion that Greek words represented the original to and natural names of things gave theories as to rise mistaken the relation of a language and thought.' says Hcraclitus. researches. ' The god speaks of Delphi. as of any such linguistic aid in as we know. availed themselves. nor Dcmofar nor Plato. to them the only human language opher if like and even a sceptical philosEpicurus felt no doubt that the gods. in see rightly. fell Even so great thinker as Plato a victim to fallacies which could hardly have misled him had he been of any other tongue. The order for Greeks to in soon became aware that. but . their Greek seemed . they spoke of spoke in Greek. familiar with the grammar But the open eye and the open mind arc not all that is required to discover truth.

Fr. ' Unless a man 3 has good hope ' once more to quote Heraclitus he shall not find out the unexpected. TOVTO rb Cp. initial But the stage of stage in scientific 4 ' wonder inquiry.' says Aristotle. 2 3 4 10 [123] <f>vffis /J. 983 a 12-20. just as marionettes appear wonderful to those ' who the have not yet investigated the cause end we should be astonished as if . Ib. in things were not that they are a ' : there is nothing would if astonish 1 geometrician 1 more than the Heracl. Met. the incredible which happens.' It is Truth assumes paradoxical forms. (rrj/jiatvfi. yap <t>i\o<r6<jx>v TrdOos. 7 [18] tav i. into her inmost recesses.' 2 And ' again. av\inaTov OVK i^evp-ffcffi. 2. and the investigator must be on the look-out for surprises. p. Plat. into her mysteries In the process of initiation no one can succeed who ' is faint-hearted in the search. is ' only the We begin. 155 ov n fjLaXa. HXirrjai. therefore.' hide.94 HARVARD LECTURES l in gives a sign. Her secret must be wrested from her unawares.T) Ib. Arisl. TO Theaet. Nature loves to She must be tracked. ^ai'judfetv yap . 1 [93] oure \tyei otfre KpvTTTft dXXd Kpuirrecrdai <f>t\eT. by wondering that a thing should be so.

but never reaches to the central to of things. not unlike his account the most of the evolution of a dramatic action impressive tragic effect being that which arises from the shock of surprise at an unlooked for event followed by the discover}' of necessary sequence could : the catastrophe. II 1452 a 2-3 (the union of the irapa ryv So^av with the 5t' (L\\r)\a). as here described by Aristotle. the discovery of law throughout the universe. to be over-confident in the power long of a formula 1 .' prove to be commensurate The to progress of science from the is unexpected inevitable. ix. . They elated are tempted at times to be too much by their own successes.THE GREEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE diagonal with the the 95 should side. however startling. they cannot decipher ' the Poet. to accept a hasty generalisation. As soon as they began think at they directed their energies to the search for causes. From the outset Greek thinkers looked slightingly on that multifarious learning which holds together a mass of unrelated truth facts. it not have been otherwise than in was 1 : the end was already implicit the beginning. all.

2 Meno.96 HARVARD LECTURES difficult in and language of l facts. revising their and testing each judgment. in one of the (a when a Hippocratic writings treatise On Diet in Acute Diseases) introduces a point he had overlooked in the ' words. the data of experience are interrogated. We can see the writers at their task.' Yet the facts are looked at steadily. . or opinions the image is that of Plato. and reviewing conclusions. for physician. to ward appearances. runaway things not until they have been tied down by 1 the chain of causal sequence do they 278 D TCIS Plat. This argument will be of assistance to is my opponent. still by methods indeed imperfect. collated. p. it What is a refreshing candour. 2 though he shares the thought with decessors are.yfJ.' Everywhere there the same invincible desire not to rest in outto penetrate to reality. Polit. : many of his pre- like the statues of Daedalus.dTwv /ua/cpas cai /J. TUH irpa. 97 -98 A. but without bias or partiality. instance. sifted. but interpret phenomena. to make the words of Mere beliefs nature and of man intelligible.T) paSt'ons Xa/Jas.

Pr. It the Greeks as came to them did the Sirens' voice to Odysseus. xii. A^o/v-ptros yovv aiVos rr\v a>s (fiaaiv HXeye f3ov\T0a. may be detected strata chiefly.111 THE GREEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE in 97 stand fast and become ' the true sense know1 ledge. were. It is was generally combined with not the timid Oriental fear that reverence. partly conscious of the spirit And we find in them that the of inquiry. fact would I discover the cause of one than become King of the Persians. of is The reverence instinct speak rather that restraining which reminds 1 man of the limits assigned to Ev.i fj. embedded : in ancient rarely I of mythology it is a feeling hinted at in literature. however. - Odyss.' said ' Democritus. luring the promise that he should him with things know all the things that have been and those that are t. man might find out too much and so incur the jealousy of the gods though of this feeling traces .' 2 They peril. ho\vever.a\\ov evpelv airioXoyiai' llepffwv ol (3aai\eiav yevtffOai. 3 fj-lav human T) Democr. xiv. 27. ap. H . Rather. 189-191. Eus. daring indeed and far-reach- ing.o be.' The love of knowledge worked on with a potent spell.

men many and the the strange them. swift death to which they are doomed away. him that the utmost scope of avail his powers cannot completely to grasp the eternal order of the universe. neither may they be grasped by the mind. But the whole idly. turn aside from ness of these men. and like a then are they whirled vapour fly aloft. each persuaded only of that on which he has himself chanced to light. In this passage some of the readings are doubtful. 1 my tongue the madHallow my lips and cause Emped. Thou. for these man boasts that he has found it: all things no eye hath seen. Man cannot place himself at the centre and see as far as the circumference. nor ear heard. since thou hast strayed hither. more than human wisdom may discern. 36-49. shalt learn no But. . is blunt the edge of thought life in brief span of that death which they behold .98 HARVARD LECTURES and tells in faculties. then. driven this way and that. through the limbs of accidents that befal . O ye gods. in Empedocles J : strikes this note ' memorable verses are Straitened the powers that are shed .

of a day may From the House of Holiness speed me on guide thy willing car. At their entreaty the portals of the paths of night and day are flung open by Retributive Justice who 1 holds Farm. O Muse.' my way and As in conduct the pride a sphere not its (y {3 pis') which thrust itself into own. the 144 keys. Trpbs av-yas TjeAi'oto. Here too temperate it was right to exercise the quality of self-restraint (crc0<j>po<rvvr)*). beseech. much -wooed tell maiden white-armed. and violated the rights of others- gods or men feeling was condemned though . I them the stream of holy words.THE GREEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE to flow from 99 And thee.' x Parmenides the at poet whose the is sight straining straight rays in of the The youthful inquirer borne the chariot of thought to the house of the goddess Wisdom. less frequently asserted. creatures me the things that the hear. . Take again the magnificent opening lines of the of ' poem was sun. The daughters of the Sun show the way. so too the prevailed. that the its intellect should beware of over-stepping proper limitations. The goddess receives cuel TraTrraifovcra.

order rests The cosmic on certain . one and the same law that runs through the physical and the moral world ' : The Sun l will not overpass his bounds. conspicuous in the early Ionian philosophy. the ministers of out.' him The link is not yet broken between nature and man. for The reverential is awe with which the search is Truth here described rare in the mouth ethical either of poet or philosopher. 'Epivves fjnv 29 [94] "HXtos tiriKovpoi virep^<rerai utrpa el 8t fir). contributed to The great idea which Ionia that of the human thought was It is universal rule of law. will find Erinnyes. But an sense a sense of moral limitations is akin to religious emotion. Fr. or the justice. on moral sanctions. Sixr)! .HARVARD LECTURES him graciously and proceeds to expound to him both truth and error the unshaken heart of ' persuasive truth ' and the vain fancies of mortals. principles of limitation divinely ordained it is the embodiment of supreme Justice that Justice later all whose earthly counterpart seemed to Greek thinkers to stand at the summit of ' : the virtues 1 neither Evening nor Morning oi>x Heraclit.

pT(av ovru) doKel 17 BiKaioffuvr). not as under the shadow of the temple. Fortunately utilise for the Greeks they were able to the scientific observations made in Egypt and Chaldaea by an organised priesthood. Greek scientific knowledge.' : 101 The thought : is not unlike that of Wordsworth's lines Thou dost preserve the stars from And the most ancient heavens through wrong Thee are . 15 KCU dia TOVTO TroXAd/cts KpaTiffTos /cat rdv a. in grew up under secular influences. v. Nic.THE GREEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE Star so wonderful. while they themselves dispensed with the teaching of 1 Arist. however. was developed thought. partly an atmosphere of laythe through nature. in the East There was class Greece no separate and leisured of priests and scholars the free is . Eth. itself hampered Even from medicine. ovd' effwepos ovd' iyos . no sacred books which play of intellect. etccu I. philosophic investigation of partly in by the close study of health and disease physicians in those families of which the art was hereditary. which slow to detach in magic. fresh and strong.

Why ? ' is often wrong the but no anxious scruples. Even re- cosmogonies they do not take ready-made. Science followed the ebb and flow of thought its free movement was unhampered into lifeless . making it the starting-point for fresh inquiry. no priestly authority deterred them from venturing into hidden domain of causes. they sought out the cause (TO &IOTI) OTI). behind the fact (TO Their answer to the . to Chinese.HARVARD LECTURES the priests. a triangle are represented numerically by 4. and 5. are . is the awakening of the lay mind. . the sides whose lengths are 3 and 4. In the abstract mathematical sciences first they were the to ask the Why of things. All the accumulated lore of the earlier civilisations they appropriated. and seldom failed to hit on the true answer. The Greeks dared The fact was not to ask the question Why ? ' ' Thus Greek enough ' . Greek philosophy. if One of the facts long known Hindoo. and Egyptian architects was that the sides of 3. its truths were not conveyed through hieratic channels and never hardened dogmas. science. But they never ligious rested in unverified tradition.

geometry the created for themselves and so rapid was fifth advance that by the century B. as it would seem. his interlocutor reveals to him the property of ' ! this famous the ' triangle.. it was geometry as an its applied science. Indeed .C. in which the emperor himself takes a part. and such was requisite for the arts of building and landGreeks their surveying. The kind . was born in Egypt . Tchaou-kong. according to Herodotus. Geometry. Theoretic . was.THE GREEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE perpendicular to one another.C. in short. ! wonderful exclaimed emperor the but : it never occurred to him to ask reason the wonder in which philosophy begins some- times stops short of philosophy. a Greek geometry the history of the new thing but in human mind. about 100 B. Not the till the Greeks appeared in history was reason asked and the answer given.. passed before is any so ? asked the Why a this dialogue written by i Chinese emperor. practical in as aims. Century upon one In a century question. the greater part of what is contained in the elements of Euclid had attained to demonstrative and logical form.

To the Jews. there was but one knowledge and .104 HARVARD LECTURES which the Greeks discovered of the idealist in of geometry characteristic is temperament literature. attained. with is unwearied insistence. offered a sacrifice to the gods in joy at a mathematical discovery. earlier In what civilisation was mathematics ? pursued with this disinterested ardour The Jews that as well as the Greeks felt that the paramount need of humanity was knowledge man his should know to the truth about himself the power outside and But relation him. Many and various were the answers. so conspicuous in their art and Lines which have length without breadth. indicate at once that we are in the region of pure thought. we are told. The . conditions of empirical reality are neglected the mind is striving towards ideal forms. Pythagoras. which are absolutely straight or curved. the Greek. What ? knowledge was looked ? Can it be and how difficult. No It problem appeared to at him more from every side by a succession of great thinkers. the answer was not remote or difficult . asked himself. on the other hand.

had their sacred Already in the seventh century B. Greeks. words of this so ran the And the command when thou 'ye shall teach your children. in due time to The knowledge wisdom of the Lord was the beginning and end of wisdom. like the Jews. At Athens. and upon thy gates. when thou risest up. down and And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thine house.THE GREEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE that the highest thee. divine voice . speaking of them when thou when thou sittest in thine house.' had been revealed to them by repeated at history . ever}* crisis of their marvellous written indelibly on . a public recitation of Homer was held every fourth year .C. in thy ' : The word in is very nigh unto mouth and It thy heart. to be guarded inviolate and disclosed the world. from the sixth century onward. and liest walkest by the way. that thou mayest do the it. they assembled to hear their minstrels recite the Homeric poems. at the Delian festival and in many other parts of the Hellenic world. the conscience of the nation it was indeed the secret of which they were the repository.' The volume.

C. But there was this difference. in the Periclean to the corresponding custom continued exist. to the was analogous in Jewish provision that once every seven years the law was to be read at the Feast of Tabernacles in the hearing of all Israel. The popular mind still found knowledge of all things human and met with no solution already presenting destiny . in them the . The drama was interpretations of its own human its philo- sophy had entered on long quarrel with . Jews and Greeks the reading of their own ancient volume served to heighten the sense of spiritual kinship and to create an ideal of conduct : to the Greeks the Homeric poems had now become but one among many means of satisfying the needs of thought and imagination. In 444 B.io6 HARVARD LECTURES It in at the Panathenaic festival. for each nation. same time. we read of Ezra on his return from Babylon to Jerusalem renewing the old observance and reading the book of the law to the assembled people . problems that had there. Whereas alike. divine but the deeper and pressing intellectual arisen. and it is curious to reflect that at Athens at the era.

in the widest sense of the word. as this day to pious minds. to the Jews the law. The intervals of sacred leisure all which were enjoyed by classes within the community. Homeric poems. was still the one book on which to meditate day and night. was being subjected to discussion. More- knowledge was to be translated . Received traditions were now being questioned. had lost their unique authority. The Why Thus the of duty. Nor was the knowledge of it a thing to in be received with languid or otiose mind. while Meanwhile 7 the} never ceased to be the inspiration of the race. to go back upon it in his inmost thoughts. the to Man's bliss was exercise himself therein. no less than the meaning of knowledge. of the Sabbath and the non-performance of kinds of thirty-nine various work afterwards enumerated by the Rabbis did not exhaust the significance of the over. to drink deeply of those inexhaustible springs.EDGE . 107 poetry Socrates it the road that had started speculation on was to pursue for centuries.in THE GREEK LOVE OF h'XOin. or quietude of religious rapture. were devoted to the deepening of the religious life for the outward observance .

places bliss the supreme of man in a certain mode of knowing and is thinking. Still of the life the greater issues of were once for all determined. But the human Reason with him the one instrument by which this highest know- ledge is to be attained. the . and there was no riddle left for the wise man to solve. but to pass beyond the unwritten word. to all circumstances as the vivifying principle of conduct. and divine the things that were unsaid. all Alone it is loved for its own sake .' There remained a the multitude of details strict law. the later left or in Rabbinical ' phrase. in outside province of which. it became necessary not to rest satisfied with the letter of the law. our activities it is the most continuous. Aristotle.io8 HARVARD LECTURES and adapted in into action. like the Jew. the rules of conduct could only be discovered by im- mediate aicrOrja-is perception by what Aristotle calls that delicate and sensitive faculty facts which intuitively apprehends the particular case. as with the Greeks. It is a thing either intrinsically divine or the divinest gift that we of possess. the commands to the human heart.

the deep repose of It is it the soul in the contemplation of truth. 7. the least dependent on exMan's felicity consists in ternal conditions. 8 see the whole chapter. life a higher than human . and directed inward. Arist. x. not upon ends external to itself . an activity of mind that set free from mechanical occupations and the pressure of material needs. Eth. . we should bear ourselves all as im- mortals (dOavari^eiv\ and do to live in that in us lies accord with that element within us. so far we may. an energy which is also tranquillity. nor can we live save in ' virtue of the divine principle inherent in us. is that sovereign principle of Reason. the things of as man and of mortality but.THE GREEK LOVE OF KXO IVLEDGE 109 most pleasurable.' Here we have the love of highest : knowledge 1 in its Greek conception. the exercise of this sovereign faculty with such untiring vigour as our human is condition admits. Such a life of speculation It is the noblest employis ment of leisure. Nic. which true self. listen therefore to those Let us not who tell us that as men and mortals we should mind only . our and which 1 in capacity and dignity- stands supreme.

first of all. inquiry. But no Greek facts. that I he understandeth and knoweth me. the to know what had really happened. and earth. the facts of history. need not stay to enlarge on the divergence between this ideal and that suggested by the words of ' : the Hebrew prophet in his Let not the wise let let glory in his wisdom.i io HARVARD LECTURES with religious in touched emotion. again. was interesting because it The past was in itself worthy fact of investigation. some unifying must be Particulars discovered. and almost I carried into the sphere of mysticism. judgment. An explanation of the facts must be sought. A was true. The interpretative . : but him that in this. principle viewed in larger relations. . that am the Lord which exercise loving- kindness. neither the man mighty man glorieth glory glory might . could treat history as a mere succession of a chance sequence of events. .' righteousness in the Consider. of tolerant and sympathetic in its We have here "la-Topia" primary sense as the search for truth. intellectual how the Greeks regarded curiosity They felt.

to bear upon It them. And it is re- markable great with what of intellectual insight the ap- historians Greece do actually prehend the wider significance of the special chapters in Greek history which they severally narrate. this is We true of have already seen what sense . possible. not the is facts. if that of paramount interest the facts must. but the meaning of the . and countries hitherto disconnected drawn the current of in universal history. his Each of these philosophic in writers was own way a historian. The conflict of Greece and Persia was for Herodotus the culminating point of a great drama. an national character. a clash of forces rendered inevitable by events had been long preparing kingdoms of the East. and is hidden meaning extracted. Thucydides saw that in the in the Peloponnesian war and Athenian downfall. in the tragedy of the crisis inner affecting Polybius recognised historical that per- with the empire of Rome new into spectives were opened up.THE G KEEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE force of mind must be brought their facts. be made into truths.

no intimate confidences to bestow. of praise or blame is left to the Thucydides is concerned with under. and the permanent conduct to enable the statesman to direct the present and in is some measure under no to forecast the future. He has He offers few reflections containing a moral judgment. Great passions were there aroused. dides is 1 To penetrate the mind of Thucy- a less easy task. terror and grandeur. While the moral impression is clear and sharp. In his austere reserve he is far removed from the ingenuous charm and candour of Herodotus. to misread the severe impartiality of felt He the sombre fascination of the its Peloponnesian war. to He is not ready come forward and reason with us. 1 issuing in Supr. the award reader. He are illusions. Psychological facts : often : unlovely enough he records them as coldly but to regard is him cynically in- different his art. deeds both of . standing rather than with judging to throw light on his aim is the laws of principles human of action . 32. destructive energies let loose.HARVARD LECTURES Herodotus. p.

impulse shows causes. itself in His philosophic .THE GREEK savagery and LOl'E OF KNOWLEDGE events heroism. The the therefore. The outward were for the historian a material in which must be rendered terms of mind. who would interpret world of facts must analyse the various forms in which mind manifests the vital surface. human will. and the law of whose succession can be discovered. as with tracing causes . The is great agent in shaping the outward circumstances historian. of which they are the outcome . They are not startling or dramatic incidents. He is does not profess to read the purposes of a supernatural power. but phenomena whose reason lies deep in the moral disposition of nations and individuals. not final Herodotus but the secondary causes which are revealed on the stage of life human and in the heart of the actors. their roots in it Events have character. itself. laws and reach must study forces which are History is its at work below the written a scroll by human intelligence in the large I and . is here that we must seek mere their inner meaning. Neither destiny nor chance for him the governing force of the world.

is Thus. It ' is this clear oecumenical view. for the and rapid phrase of Thucydides. the finished grace. the sentence packed with thought. however. Carthage supremacy of the world his design to exhibit the organic unity of history. He and narrates the for the is struggle between Rome and .' Unfortun- a serious deterrent to the reader. as he conceived it. centuries direct writing between his two and three later. he is not a philosopher ative insight a historian. Greek artistic feeling Polybius has lost the for writing. which makes him the teacher of ately his style is all time. The . the faculty of reserve. Thucydides a philosophic historian. the idea of a universal history corresponding. the flowing simplicity of Herodotus terse . We long for the ease. the delicate sense of proportion. the precision of each single word. but he expounds no : theory he remains a historian. the energy. ' to the fact of universal empire. of imagin- who brings out both the poetry and facts.ii 4 HARVARD LECTURES in legible letters of the past. or again. derives guiding principles from Thucydides.' says Freeman. the philosophy latent in the Polybius.

containing useful lessons for men of affairs. National life. while he intends his history to be a practical treatise. in his persistent effort to exhibit the relations of cause and effect through the is texture of the narrative. for us here that. and such causes he follows back in life. has for him an ethical basis it is character. In particular. he even assures you that the size and price of his book ought not to keep people from buying it. Yet admirable as is the substance of his writing.THE GREEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE freshness and distinction of the . he pays the penalty attaching to neglect of form he is read by is the few. source vidual character. He is always anticipating he wearies you with objections and digressing . equally In arranging his materials he is inartistic. however. He writes with an insipid and colourless monotony. he is true to the philosophic tradition he has inherited from Thucydides. as distinguished from the occasion of its happento their indiin ing . and the institutions that grow out of . His interest. he at pains to search out the true cause of an event. dilating on the excellence of his own method. like .Attic idiom are gone.

Demosthenes (Macmillan and Co.' Or again itself. that the true history is revealed. when defeated by Philip. ' instinct with is ? the No. i. Demosthenes selves to carries the failure back to them- their will own indolence and improvi- dence. 144. H. ii. Character with him Every Philippic oration is Is Philip dead ? thought. The lie idea in that the true causes of events as a deep character was appropriated : theory of history by Polybius Demosthenes had long ago received an inspiring motive of to lay the it from Thucydides as 1 civic eloquence. he to only If ill. were wont or their blame on their politicians generals.n6 HARVARD LECTURES movement of a people's character. He not be put off with superficial is all in all. on unkindly fortune. The Athenians. another ' you will instantly create 2 Philip for yourselves. what difference you anything befals him. Dead or ill. Butcher. . explanations. it is : Always letting slip the present and imagining that the future will take care of we that have 1 made Philip great and exalted him See S. on adverse winds. 2 p. Phil.).

the strong man's ability to seize the present future. 1 The arts.THE GREEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE to a height of 117 power above that of any previous l king of Macedon. Under this aspect of simple Time achieves. 39-41. . as a succession of moments.' Men who can hope to succeed must have a mind that can anticipate and control outward circumstances ' : but in politics. - come Olynth. 9. \. the sciences. it is true. \. the Athenians to wait upon the time events ' . the external frame- work of duration of its action. He looks on and almost unconsciously learns his lesson. Its full is and of to shape the a favourite topic Demosthenes. they begin for action 2 . as in war. Phil. they strike after the blow The use of opportunity. Man cannot ignore revealing power. think when has has come fallen. a silent its work own. Chronos (%povo<i) is time viewed in its extension. significance may art. best be read in con(/catpos) nexion with the Greek idea of Kairos in literature and so No the other nation has distinguished subtly different forms under which time can be logically conceived.

however. . 981 dXX' ^/c5i5d<rK 2 travB' 6 yrjpda'Kuv X/WPOS. 7- r 7 56ete $' SLV . P. 4 A saying of Thales (quoted Plut. Nic. to the thought and language of Bacon. vii Sap.' ' the touch-stone 4 of every deed. fitv yap euros ijd-r). 6 \pbvos TWV rotoijTUv evpeTrjs ffvvepybs dyaQbs elvai. . xxxii. 3 Simon. 9) ' in answer evpriKev ' to the question ri ffo<pu>ra.eifav /Sdcraj/oy xP^vov oiidfvbs Hpyov.' the one wisest thing. : Find. Conv. 01. ' things 2 Time ' the proof of real 3 truth. too indeterminate to admit easily of personal embodiment in literature or art. est) et Sapientissima autem res tempus (ut ab antiquis dictum novorum casuum quotidie auctor et inventor. Cp. 59-61 8 r f^ Xpbvos.Tov . TO. remained on the whole too abstract.' 5 Arist. Xpovos TO. ' Time alone ages teaches all l . of Cos Fr.' The as phrases in which Aristotle describes Time agent or joint-agent sive discovery.ii8 HARVARD LECTURES its m ' into being under as is it gradual influence. It was I otherwise with Kairos believe.5 bear in the work of progres- an impressive resemblance C/ironos. 1 a word which has. . xi. T) i. Eth. 5 fvp-fjfffi. V. 175 oi>K : ZaTiv /j. Bacon Aphor. in no single or precise equivalent : any Aesch.

transformed only did in effectual. is a youth pressing forward with his feet and back. holding a pair of slight touch of is which he inclines with a the riijht o hand to one side. . Sometimes he wings on scales. 119 other present Kairos is is that immediate it . which what . His hair long o in front if and bald behind he must be grasped. into purposeful activity. an athlete god. . at all. and vitalised momentous. Not to the poet Ion is compose a hymn Kairos which he called the youngest child of Zeus opportunity being truly thought of the as the latest and god-given is gift but in art rendering of Kairos various and interesting. symbol- the sadness felt over the In lost moment that cannot be recalled. In one relief. is the palaestra and here he in most at home Kairos appears It the guise of a Hermes. . we make our Time charged with opportunity to be seized own possession. where Kairos occupies the centre.in THE GRKEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE language. Regret (Merdvoia) is represented as a shrinking and dejected form who ising stands beside an old man. by human energy decisive Time the inert . by the fore-lock.

they obstacles aside or . in is in the wrestling bout Kairos who grazes the with his chariotgoal . is the flash daring and right judgment'. and with obedient is trained to be the mind's servant. they are masters of things outward boldly forth to call they go meet the incalculable thing we thrust fortune .120 HARVARD LECTURES Kairos who seizes the lucky moment . their calm and clear reflection does not . and reaches even genius. The sense of the opportune that is here suggested is ' as unlike as possible to as ' ' what it commonly known triumphant it opportunism of . Their intelligence. wheels closely Kairos to whom men stadium. a a offered sacrifice as they entered the Kairos swift but is the god of the sure in man with mind body decision. They know how to seize occasion . to action. goes with high originality and to the point of Thucydides and Demosthenes had the same ideal of statesmanship. issue in any hesitating purpose it leads direct . from illusion. in Great of the men are those whom the power strong spirit dominates free matter. initiative.

The views of Greek thinkers on Education are in accord with this attitude of mind. . remaking touch . of creative art Just as in the region the imagination the lifeless impresses its own form on them with sopher. but in the energetic action brings to bear on correlates. over material forces territory each brings some new outlying under the domain of reason. in a much more can complete and deeper sense. divers its elements. if needs must be. so too the Greek philo- historian. It is a view akin to that of tragedy. We have followed the working of the Greek not in a passive it intellect as revealed reception of ideas. each proclaims spiritual in ways the supremacy of . all that comes within unifies its range : it interprets. orator. the facts of ex- perience of spirit. where external actions and events are but the setting in which character is displayed . man prove himself to be not the creature. in the attempt.THE GREEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE fall. where. With all . but the lord of circumstances. which he moulds in the strength of his spiritual energy. translates outward things into terms all transmuting dead material.

untouched by the quickening force of reason. Heraclitus. the acquisition of the storing of them in the is memory discipline all this possible without any or enlargement of mind. Stob. . is the striking saying of Democritus. facts. Plato. Extensive reading. True learning ship. their insatiable love of knowledge.HARVARD LECTURES their restless curiosity. ' they had of no respect for mere Wealth was the thought. secondly. all ' speak in similar depreciatory ' terms of mere polymaths men of multifarious learning. a joint search and joint discovery. Cp. iroXXot 7roXi'/t<x0&s vjov OVK Zx ovffl ' . To 1 the Greeks the subject Democr. not wealth : of learning 7TO\vvotr]v. erudition. ' thing they coveted acricelv 1 ov TroXvfJbaOirjv xptf. is bound up with human fellowa partnership in which there is give and take. taught seemed of Ib. 8l. First. 4. the facts must be assimilated and interpreted the formative power of thought must work upon the material of knowledge. Aristotle. ap. In order that learning may become wisdom two conditions must be satisfied. iii. It is And. learning must be humanised.

spirit over truth. Greek learning draws its inspiration not so much from solitary study as ideal from noble companionship and intercourse. To the Greeks education was primarily a train- . Just as Greek poetry. Friends have all common. as the Greeks ceived it. There education is one salient difference between as understood by the Greeks and the popular idea of education in our own day. was based on broad and deep sympathy sympathy of intellect and character. The was show the is right method of learning.THE GREEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE less 123 importance than the teacher's office man who to taught it. lie himself a learner. the following leads ' of this argument whithersoever it was the bond of union.' might have been written Greek class-room. more than that of any other nation. collective is the expression of the people's so life. The Pythagorean and sympathy of aim. the prized the possession of the brotherhood of learning. human con- Education. who in and through learning becomes a teacher. ' every the The love of of joint investigation. motto Koiva ra rwv things in ' (f)i\a)v.

looks rather to the or acquisition of needed product with for a career it knowledge that is thinks more of the Acquaintance the than of the process. its full The Greek Paideia (TraiSeia) in sense involves the union of intellectual qualities. a training spirit. with that is fortifying in thought or elevating in imagination. but it also implies a refinement and delicacy of feeling. mental completeness with the Greek. It is and moral on the one hand on mental illumination. facts counts more with modern . ignoble. a scorn of what is self-seeking. a devotion to civic ends. an enlarged outlook life . in public a suppression of the individual. and grasp are primary But that mental completeness was not to be won through intellectual disit meant also a cipline alone discipline and .124 HARVARD LECTURES of faculty in ing that should fit men for the exercise of thought and the duties of citizenship. moulding of character. dishonourable familiarity with all a scorn bred of loving poets and philosophers. The modern world some skill . a deepening of the sympathetic emotions. Our nearest equivalent for this .

a weight of erudition civilising becomes a and liberating power. in from the many left is and the impression not unfrequently on outsiders by the life of learned isolation conveyed ' in the remark of a French writer. between learning and citizenship is a meeting-point of virtue and knowledge. . The man of learning in .THE GREEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE generous and many-sided training but unfortunately the is 125 Culture . word is has to acquired a tinge of meaning that alien the Greek Paideia. We have here . . shut up within a charmed of a secret hidden circle. modern times is too apt to remain in seclusion he seems to be possession . life. Learning is thus humanised it instead of a dead living force. a Culture of it to many minds superficial suggests kind polish.' is Now it Greek culture link in its ideal form a connecting . that every man of learning is more or less of a corpse. an out- come of character. Besides. it has about an air of exclusiveness is thought of as the privilege of a favoured few. an attitude of the whole mind towards The intellectual elite are not estranged from the life of the community. a it refinement.

a few gentlemanly has. the antithesis of any in mere specialism. Minute Phil. no longer regarded as a hall-mark of ing. incidentally to disprove the ' and. It the narrowing influence Berkeley. One chief function of academic training should . v. 24. or a sign that good breedat College one has acquired vices. Dial. fortunately. in the theme. The is call to burn our unlawful books of Greek heard from many sides. be to foster this broad view of learning in so doing. : saying Gentlemen are untaught by the World what a they have been taught by the College. therefore. But those who will care for the deeper principles of education never cease to go back to what the Greeks this have said or hinted on teachers have tion. And the popular mind jumped to the conclusion that Greek has ceased to have any value ex- cept to furnish barbarous compounds for the advertisement of a new umbrella or of a quackmedicine. All great been Greek is Educa- Greek view. in spirit. and that emancipates us from 1 two senses.' A tincture of Greek is.126 HARVARD LECTURES its in the spirit of a University in true conception. .

of liberal studies. 278 b-E. This greater than the information he conveys. Nor behind can we forget that the man himself is what he says or for the higher writes. the minute work of the investigator. and lifts us into the higher air also. . similar remark may be made about the teacher. must not lead the teacher to miss the larger relations of his subject.7'HE GREEK LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE 127 of a trade or a purely professional calling. Phaedr. But even within the domain of learning. and lose sight of the whole.?) e-^ovra 1 And a TifAKarepa wv crvveOtj/cev eypa-^ev}. 1 Plat. Plato observes that forms of literary composition the or title name of writer : author is is an inadequate for description the well enough one the who has nothing phrases in him greater than paper ?'} he puts on (TOV //. so Personality teacher is something leaves an beyond Learning. who impress on other minds greater than his own knowledge. As The Life is something beyond is Literature. itself become a contraction and that the thoroughness of the craftsman. we are reminded that expert knowledge may of the intellect .

and from point of view Teaching while it I believe some one has said is the vilest of trades becomes the noblest of professions.128 HARVARD LECTURES true of all in is teachers who have their in any degree to succeeded in making appeal the this that mighty and impulses of half-utilised force idealistic youth as . .

the literary- Greeks created almost every form of art the epic. the elegy. . With no models before their eyes to provoke imitation or rivalry. the romantic novel. but answer to certain artistic laws of the part human mind. the the idyll. the dialogue. only the We who see for the are most to perfected forms. what frequent failures.IV ART AND INSPIRATION POETRY GREEK literature is IN GREEK the one entirely original literature of Europe. apt what varied and repeated experiments. the types so created shows that they rest on no arbitrary rules or on the mannerisms of a and oratory people. In the Poetics K . and the permanence of history. lyric. must have gone to the forget making of each of these 129 types. the drama.

d\X' dirb ircipys iravTO. like experiment.pe'iov] ri\6e 2 Herod.t-rpov TT?S irfipas Cp. but things by experiment. tdSia Poet.3aXoiVa ij fTrawaro. . 9 tv ols KO. of the survival of the TJppoKev rfjf Treipas that is Aristotle's phrase. ireipa apiarov. TO ijpwiKov dirb dpfj. iv. the hexameter to epic song. iv. it stopped. Poet. 5 .' itself. vii. as fittest : we should CLTTO say.irr6(jia.I TO [ia/j. 3 Arist.6rToi> Arist. eirei HffX f T ^ v B-VTTJS (pvffiv. OptinroLffi <f>i\^et yeveffBai. in the Popular observation summed it up 1 simple proverbial form.' It is nothing the sentiment which Herodotus ' : puts into the its mouth 2 of Mardonius to Nothing comes of all own accord men. The process here indicated was a familiar idea to the Greeks. 9 a. fit 3 fj.130 HARVARD LECTURES iv Aristotle cess notes the gradual and tentative prospecial by which metres proved them- selves adapted to the several kinds of poetry the iambic to tragedy.Toi> yap ov5ev. 12 TroXXds /xera/SoXds /uera. On the same ' principle tragedy as Aristotle remarks. and there instinct. They 1 are instances. having passed through many changes 3 found its natural form.' Man's 1 selective working tentatively. xxiv.

its assumed sharp Hellenic outline. must be slowly assimilated.ART AND 1NSP1KATIOX brought the process ot development to its proper term. a spirit of reverent regard the Old material must be used up new ideas. It must for : maintain past. without the rude snapping of any links which bind the present itself in to the past. literature is The evolve whole effort of Greek to unbroken sequence. from the type within well-defined Each branch its of literature Its obeyed a stringent code of own. political history we meet with artistic revolutionary violence. with no premature rejection of existing elements. governing traditions answered to an artistic sense that art to be progressive must also be conservative. When it once any particular type was created. in literary as in development there is growth and orderly advance. Yet the persistent force of tradition did not . no confusion of kinds was permissible. No fell blurred image. Any deviation limits. whether of native origin or due to the absorption of foreign If in influences.

' Great and ' precious origination. can of a wide massive uniformity. The In more rigorous the rules. mastery consist ? their are already a familiar 1 They use words which medium of understandxiii. then and then only can the greatest For in what does matters of language arise.132 HARVARD LECTURES free iv check the play of individual genius. Poet. the greater the triumph effort. of genius in obeying them without tragedy the poets at first ranged at 1 will over the whole of field of legendary story. the literary art was not hardened into mere formalism. When a multitude of men have learned to use the same language in speech and writing. . The domain restricted. With the observance of a strict artistic code and the accepted conventions of a school.' says only exist on condition George Eliot. in The inventive found ample scope re-interpreting the known cycle of legends with subtle and significant divergence in detail. the drama was by degrees But the narrower limits within which freedom was henceforth possible stimulated rather than checked dramatic faculty originality. Arist. 15.

JV

ART AND INSPIRATION
sympathy
the
in

ing and
to

such

a

way

as

greatly

enlarge
is

understanding and sympathy.'
first

This that
in its

said in the

instance of style,

is

measure also true of the handling of the

subject-matter.

The

creative act of genius does

not consist

in

bringing something out of nothing,

but
in

in

taking possession of material that exists,
it,

appropriating

interpreting

it

anew.
all

The
rude
in

original force of the

Greek poet stamps
the race
'

material with the
Greece.'

mark of

made
drama

The treatment

of the Chorus in the

is

perhaps the most signal instance of the power
of the poet to turn to account a consecrated
tradition.

Here was an undramatic element,

that

was yet an indispensable part of every
a religious survival from an early stage

play
of
the

undeveloped

art.

The chorus was

a

collective personage,

with a character shifting

and

ill-defined,

an awkward presence on the

stage and often out of keeping with the poetic
illusion.

In Aeschylus

it is

generally what Aris-

totle in the Poetics (ch. xviii. 7) says the chorus

ought to be

'

one of the actors

'

;

in

Sophocles

134

HARVARD LECTURES
it

iv

more often

fulfils

the function assigned to
;

it

in Aristotle's

Problems (xix. 48)

it is

a /cr/Sefrr^
is

aTrpaKTos,

one who does not act but who

in

intimate or friendly relation with
actors;

some

of the

an
1

interested

spectator or

a kindly

would have thought that an element apparently so inartistic could have
sympathiser.

Who

anything but on the action clog
Euripides
tion
?

been

a
as

mere

encumbrance,
it

a
in

indeed
flaw in

became

a structural

the

composi-

Yet
part
the

this
It

ambiguous personage plays a great
forms
a

connecting

link

"between
its
it

actors

and the audience.

Whatever
in

sympathies

may have

been

the

piece,

generally manages in the end to place itself in
the attitude of an impartial witness.
it

In

comedy
that

pronounces the verdict on the dycov

pitched battle
is

between the combatants

which
In

distinctive of this
it

branch of the drama.

tragedy

seldom

fails

to utter the last word.

At

certain

moments of

the play

it

provides a

contemplative pause, an interlude for moralising
1

fvvotai'

yap

fj.ji>ov

ira^exeTat

o.s

iraptdTiv.

iv

ART AND INSPIRATION
In Aeschylus,
it

135

reflection.

becomes the vehicle
;

of the poet's profoundest theological thought
in

Sophocles, more frequently it interprets the course of the action and sums up the emotions awakened in the spectator's mind. In either
case, the choral odes, apart altogether
intrinsic

from their

beauty as forms of lyrical

and musical
life

utterance, gather

up

for

us

the lessons of

and and

clarify our

human

experience.
in

eternal

commonplaces

Those great which Greek

poetry delights, with their
their

measured cadence,

serene

and condensed wisdom, have a

strange power of solemnising and subduing the

emotions.

They come home
with

to

us in

all

the

fulness of their original meaning, as

familiar

truths

fraught

new

significance.
is

The
when

tension of overwrought feeling

relaxed

the fret and

stir

of the

moment, and the accidents
in

of the individual existence, are placed
larger perspective of

the

some
of

universal
literature

law.

In

almost

every

branch

we have
by

similar achievements.

The

great

writers,

the

very

force

of
that

their
is

individuality,

accept

with ease

much

conventional, while thev

136

HARVARD LECTURES
what
is

reject

merely

artificial.

1

The more

closely

we examine

the masterpieces of Greek

literature, the

greater appears to be the place
artistic

occupied by

tradition

and convention.
in

Thus

Greece presents a

phenomenon unique
code of

literary history

namely, the creation of fixed

types, governed

by a

rigid

rules,

yet

working

in

harmony with the spontaneous play
of

of native faculty.

This continuity
literature involved

movement

in

art

and

some

self-suppression on the

part of the
1

individual.

While the

collective
examples.

The

history of sculpture affords

many analogous

See the remarks on the Metopes and Frieze of the Parthenon in a recent volume, Greek Sculpture, by E. von Mach, Boston (Ginn and Co.), 1903, p. 216 ff. compare also pp. 156-160.
;

Similarly

in

vase-painting,

the restrictions of space and the

conditions of decorative art force the artist to recognise that the

human body

is

not a

human body

only, but also a thing that

is

capable of being rendered as a beautiful pattern.
therefore, are not

The

figures,

thrown vaguely into a given space, but are And closely tied up and related to the parts they do not fill. the notable result is that these figures, by mutual adaptations

and concessions, gain a heightened beauty through forming The feet of the dancing Maenads on part of a decorative design.
Hieron's cup
masters
artists
is

a case in point.

It

is,

of course, only the great

who can

so employ the limitations imposed.

Lesser

cramp

their figures in obedience to physical necessity.

A A' T

AND 1NSP1RA 7 'ION
is

personality of the race
the products of the

indelibly

stamped on
on their art
science
the

Greek mind
on
their

and

literature,

even

personality of the individual, though seldom to

be mistaken

in

the realm, at least, of imaginative

creation, does not

appear

in

an obtrusive form.
outline

The

plastic

clearness

of

which

is
is

characteristic of the classical

Greek manner

mainly due to two causes

:

on the one hand,

to the omission of accidental detail, on the other
to the

absence of a disturbing atmosphere.

In
is

the romantic handling of a theme the image

apt to be seen through a sensitive
ing medium, through a coloured

and

vibratin

light,

the

'halo' of romance; and the 'halo,' the atmosphere,
is

often caused in part

by the excited
fire

personality of the writer.
his

He

catches

from

own
his

creation, he projects his personal trouble
art,

into

and the contagion spreads
great
;

to the

reader.

The

classical

writer

remains

more detached
at

he holds the image, so to speak,

arm's

length.
its

The

spectacle

he

presents
;

impresses us by
is

own moving

quality
;

there

no personal or turbid atmosphere

no per-

iii. 168 p." Cic. interposed between our eye and are still We within the domain of the universal reason. /cat iepov Trvei'/j-aTOS. dicit Plato.e." (pvfffws Xa^wv 0ea vi.<f>rj<. Rhet. Strom. Ka\a 80 'negnt enim sine furore Uemocritus quemquam poetam magnum esse posse. ourws ' ' ad init.' .138 HARVARD LECTURES is plexed light the object. a divine possession.er' lvdov(na. 38. 7. o /uev A^yUj/cpiros irepi 'Ofj. liii. is This theory of direct revelation first explicitly stated in prose for the 2 . It seems 19. like Plato in the Ion} "Tronjrijs d fitv acrira &v ypa. to accord better with Arist.<T^ov I.To Clem. 1408 b 2 Dio Chrys.rjpov (prffflv "Ow^pos iravroiuv. /j. the poet being but the channel .\ 6 Aij/uj/cpiTos 6/iot'ws (i. quod idem KdpTa iarlv. de divin. through which the god finds utterance he acts under a stimulus from without. period Greek The idea of the frenzied poet strikes us as having a strangely un-Greek 1 air. Or. 827 P KO. which robs him of his reason. it remains current to the latest literature. time by Democritus of Abdera it is applied by him to Homer of . owrijs eirfdiv Koff/jLOV TeKTT}va. Poetic inspiration was regarded as supernatural in its origin. Yet according to the popular view poetry 1 was a thing inspired it evOeov 77 iroirjcris: was a form of frenzy.

14 [13] eVepos ^ frtpov TO re TrctXcu TO re vvv. Kpdriffrov airav ' ' . ' as surpassing is the efforts of : Nature's gift is always is supreme where the god not. conscious perhaps of no high originality. The Greek poets themselves seem to have thought of their own aptitude more as the result of trained skill than of abnormal inspiration. It is remark'skill. Fr.fj. 'wisdom.' 1 He is the Some Aspects of the Greek Genius. or with 139 modern speculations the region out of about the subliminal self as which emerge both poetry and insanity. dwells with such con- viction on inborn power of genius art. it is true. We are not greatly surprised when a poet like Bacchylides. No all poet. ix.' 2 both now and of But the case of Pindar is more striking.' to selected where 1 by them we should denote the to poetic gift be disposed speak of genius.ART AND INSPIRATION Oriental notions.' is able how the word ao^ia. 3 Find. p. . 3 ' silence ever the better part of wisdom. TO de (pvq.ivov ov aKtuorep . 17. IOO \ ft.yai. cro<j>6s ' 2 Baccliyl. . 01. speaks of ' : poetry as so much his art traditional lore Poet from poet learns old. avev 5e 6eoL> aeai.

ix. . 3 Cp. the true <ro<f>ia is tf>uffis.' also exalts to the utmost the influence of His poetry its is a subtle science. Truly. 01. transmitted by the masters of the craft.ei> ijyr)fj. his daring novelty of treatment I To many have Yet he art. and research has brought into the fashioning of a special vocabulary . TToXXotcri 5' vfJLVov /j. it has analysed the elaborate structure of a Pindaric ode.s ere'pots. 88 red/Jibs 4 115 ffo<j>icu alweivai. 86 ffO(f>os 6 TTO\\O. - Pylh.e.' his l Proudly he own ' : originality. and in shown not only the trained skill implied the poetic handling of the myths. ii. steep are the heights of the poetic art and although they cannot be scaled without the inborn gift. yet nowhere more surely than in 1 01. et'Sws <f>vq. and adapt to the intricate choral dance. 247 vii. as Pindar ' says. And modern marked prominence the long development of the lyrical art. ' them 4 . Ol. fixed rules or ordinances.1 40 HARVARD LECTURES whom avx)ws IV skilled poet to nature has taught much.ai ' <ro<t>ia. : i. shown the ways of 2 song. iv. but the science needed to combine the complex resources of metre and music. which obeys laws of 3 own.

Troiefs dXX' OVK eldwi ye. The mystery for of the poetic gift could best be accounted by suppos- ing that the poet was the inspired interpreter of the Muse as the Pythian priestess was of the Delphic deity. 3 In con- nexion with records ' this bit of literary gossip Athenaeus Sophocles thing. Fr.ART AND INSPIRA 770 N Greek of art. 39 p. dtofTO. 2 3 4 160 Find. % do 4 the It R. . Aeschylus.Tevffw 5' tyu. 22 A and x. ft". C. Growth and Influence of Classical Poetry. in its most familiar form of mantic or oracular utterances. 127 [118] /xairei/eo Mcucra.' 1 just this Jebb. was conveyed in metrical language. Athen. and I will be thy mouthpiece. Pindar himself appropriates ' : the mythological phrases Utter thy oracles. cp. 33 p.'' It was but a coarse form of the inspiration theory which credited Aeschylus with composing his tragedies in a state of intoxication. 428 F. On Pindar as an artist p. ei i. ' : the saying attributed to You. 2 O Muse. right is but OVK without knowing why. 1 1 4 1 lyric song did nature need the assistance The popular theory of poetry as a divine possession perhaps owed its origin to the fact that direct revelation. Trpo<pa. Kal TO.

adopting the current theory of inspiration. thought to flow and. he is often compelled to represent men under opposite circumstances. p. 2 Laws iv.that in Plato accentuates in various passages. that They showed me in an instant not by wisdom do men write poetry but sort of genius by a and inspiration . 719 c. them the most incompetent of ' they can give no rational account of what they have written. and soothsayers who say many but do not understand the meaning 1 Plat.the ' not ' knowing . Apol. they are like diviners fine things.' he says. his art being imitative. 1 when he is sits down on his the tripod of the Muses not in right mind. 22 A. and thus to .' So the Apology? when Socrates goes to the poets and asks them the meaning of their finds own works. of Like a fountain he allows the stream freely.142 HARVARD LECTURES ' iv eiScos - . he all critics . The poet. he speaks ' in severe disparagement ' of poetry. say two different things neither could he in either of tell whether there in is any truth in them or in one more than the other. . p. which.

of which the p. Cp. 682 A. . who can inspired compose nothing leads poetic case. the kinship between them of is marked by another and nobler view poetry as a revelation to sense of eternal ideas.' when possessed by a passionate yearning after truth a divine enthusiasm it it recalls the celestial world whence came and catches a glimpse of the invisible or ideal 1 beauty. so long as he is in his senses. destitute of art.iv ART AND INSPIRATION them. If the popular point of view merely brings the poet and the philosopher into sharp antithesis. But there this is is another side to the and developed by him in the Phaedrus. At he falls attains to opinion. the soul is state of 'ecstasy. each alike In this is lifted out of himself. l then. even when he speaks inspired truth of the has no clear knowledge beliefs . The popular conception of the poet as an madman. which. far short of knowledge. grounds of inspired right his he the may best also speak falsehood. Poet and philosopher.' 143 of The poet. Plato to a slighting appreciation of the gift. Laws iii. however.

Plato own age and if at prefigures an art which has been realised. stage it in is the upward of soul the servant philosophy whose forth. The faculty of reminiscence which makes this beatific vision possible is for Plato the common The poet principle of is philosophy and poetry. all. poet. truths it dimly shadows it When fully perfected is absorbed in a philosophy which through the manifold things of sense ascends to that highest sphere. the visions of the poetic imagina- and a devotion to beauty and goodness. as for the philosopher. Poetry progress of is a .144 HARVARD LECTURES For the Eleusinian mysteries are a faint type. in whom the speculations of philosophy. in Dante. It is a world whose secrets can be unlocked . possessed is by an imaginative enthusiasm that thus the akin to the speculative enthusiasm of the philosopher. the highest inspiration in comes from the spiritual insight gained this moment of rapture. are blended together in one mystical passion. where truth and beauty are one with In the Phaedrus and the Symposium passes beyond the poetry of his virtue. tion.

Plato's account of inspiration ideas. It achieves in a moment of insight what no effort of conscious thought can is accomplish. not a direct revelation. Poetic init. breaking in upon the monotony of common life. The reason . inexplicable. unfamiliar. With him the inspiration is of whether poetic or philosophic. the true and highest is self in which the lower one merged. but one of the modes in which the soul in puts forth certain divine powers inherent nature. operating as an influence from without. her are These natural gifts. no longer the . new and rapturous energy springs up. to disguise his true meangenius. spiration even on this lofty view of does not . however. agrees in essentials with in modern his The metaphors in the which he clothes thought Phaednts must not be allowed ing. not overpowered or is the personality lost but the man's self It is raised above the normal self of the it level.ART AND INSPIRATION only by those 145 who like Plato and Dante are at once poets and prophets. A quickened and kindled to higher activity. working-day existence it is nor again is an alien self.

how- matter of inspiration a difference of degree which almost amounts to a difference of kind . a conscious and shaping process needed to give it complete embodiment. even after the creative idea has flashed is upon the mind. In the one case a man can take the is lifted mould of any 1 character. H. in the The more is less. in the other he J out of his proper Poet.VIKOU- TOISTUV yap ol but one have ^v fvirXacrroL : ol dt ^KffTariKoi daiv. All MSS. .Kol but see S. no one can be admitted into the higher ranks of poetry who or is devoid of the inspired faculty. iv dispense with conscious art for the inspired moment often is but the sudden consummation .' The poet ij of the $ first 2 616 ei><f>vovs TroirjTtKri fcrriv /J. Aristotle incidentally notes the ' : difference between the two orders of poets plies either a Poetry im- happy gift of nature or a strain of madness. ever. i^fraari. On the other hand.O. of a long period of mental travail and. third ed. more- over. and we commonly apply the term in- spired only to those in whom the impression of spontaneous genius overmasters the impression of art. self. xvii. Aristotle's Theory of Poetry and Fine Art.146 HARVARD LECTURES . Butcher.

Beaumont and The contrast Fletcher. and indeed the idea 1 is at the very basis of that Cp. drawn by cise Aristotle in is not expressed in such pre- form any previous writer. Arnold and Blake. enter Contrasted fine with him is the poet who ' is touched with a frenzy. . possessed in virtue of lifted by an is inspiration or enthusiasm ecstatic ' . which he he is readily out of himself and loses his ev(f)vr)s own personality. and dramatically into another's feelings. one might suggest Sophocles and Aeschylus. with delicate power of seeing resemblances. Dryden and Marlowe. but the distinc- tion was constantly present to the mind of Plato it is developed and illustrated from many .ART AND INSPIRATION class is 147 a man of flexible genius. flvai) xxii.oiov Gewpeiv. Bacchylides and Pindar. is 9 where command . M. with keen and a is versatile intelligence. Poet. fjLfTa<popi. {JLCLVLKOS The by here is marked off from the a more conscious critical faculty. 1 He quick to receive the to impress of another personality. As examples of the two contrasted types.Kbi> eufivias ffrj/uLelov of metaphor (TO and the making of good metaphors is TO TO 6/j. points of view in the treatise On tJie Sublime .

5 ^eoTTj/cores 7rp6y . God light.' Let there be light is : and there was as Demosthenes emotional ease.H8 treatise. such as that the oath in the speech On Crown /xa roi/9 ev yiapaOwvt TrpoKivSvvevcravTas. HARVARD LECTURES The supreme excellence which iv the author means to convey by the term u-^-o?. cited the master lack of such fluent effects. d\X* OVK i-K<TTa(riv &yti ra vwfp<pi'd. i. a grandeur of style.' or Sappho's great ode (ftaiverai poi icfjvos. ' and the words said. a glow of imagination. the the 1 Longinus De Snbl. He may c. and produces on his hearers the suasion but of ' ' effect not of per1 transport (e/eo-Taa-69). Destroy us but destroy us in the light. including not only sublimity in our sense. but elevation of tone. is the distinguishing mark of the inspired writer. ei's 4 01' yap eiy iretBu roi'S Ajcpouftitrovt iii. The examples in the poets. given are not only passages in such as the prayer of Ajax <f)dei the Iliad ev Be KOL ' oXecrcrov. but passages from containing the Demofamous sthenes. Cp. He is raised into a higher plane under the influence of noble emotion. of the Book of Genesis.

vi}<$>fi.yKO. Kal KarcKpeyyei TOV? air aluvos pijropas K.ra.' Here we have the true Hellenic which ' note.T. fire Speeches are alive with the of passion have been laboriously prepared in the closet.ftpovra. 4 wffTrepel Ka.a.' final Yet the lesson to be gathered from the eloquence is. is pure reasoning (Trans. 4 SiddffKwv OTL KO.iov. xxxiv. Ilavell. H. map out a speech into parts and say here feeling 1 . L.\. but his 'heaven-sent gifts' (OeoTre/j^Trra all rivals ' : &w pi] par a) he silences lightnings leave him supreme above thunders and by his blinds by his the orators of every age. . xvi. c.K\fVff. Macmillan and Co. with orators. One could sooner face with unflinching eyes a descending thunder- bolt than meet with steady gaze his 1 bursts of passion in their swift succession. that even in the revels of the imagination sobriety 2 is required.V fta. of Demosthenes ' as Longinus observes. an appeal to for here c. thought is De Subl. We never lose the impression of In his highest still severe and disciplined strength. .v dva.ART AND INSPIRATION 149 urbane and piquant charm of Ilypereides.) - Ib. outbursts of eloquence Demosthenes the owns sway of as reason.ff(. lesser ' It is not possible with to is him.

their vision is undis- They judgment unclouded. also the cool thinker The inspired orator and the consummate meets us in artist. their . When we literature we must beare dealing with Greek ware not to separate too sharply thought and emotion. In the the very height of tragic suffering the actors are masters of themselves turbed. What intense fuses all into unity the force of an personality.150 HARVARD LECTURES . Out the depth of their anguish they seem to force.' is l intellect without kindling of Demosthenes The eloquence is the eloquence of impassioned reason. H. Aristotle's distinction between the inspired poet and the finely gifted artist admits of rarer. . reason and inspiration. They place themselves "of in the attitude of criticism. illustration from Greek 1 S. Demosthenes. p. Butcher. which cannot convince the the emotions. a gain a heightened intellectual more penetrating insight. A somewhat analogous fact Sophoclean drama. 159. or at least less striking. iv everywhere interpenetrated with feeling is itself is reason passionate. reason and reflect on what they have done.

We . poetic once suggests and truly suggests to our minds a welling up of thought and feeling. the Greek perfection lead moderns. of original genius.AR T AND INSPIRA TlON than from modern creations of the literature. an effortless and spontaneous energy. a sudden inrush . of form may who are imbued with the spirit of romantic literature. 1 5 1 The imaginative unite in modern world seldom equal proportions inspiration. power which underlies such inspiration. itself the very limitations Again. at Genius. to under- rate the original art. take account of the conventional also the narrow . elements we note range in of poetic subject-matter and we are lies its danger creating of forgetting that genius often in much which out of little . that it wins most signal within triumphs it from works. anything elements like the In twofold Greekin of art and poetry these qualities are not often present so disparate a form as to affect the general sense Sometimes indeed the impression of inspired faculty. in Greek of harmony. poetry is a little obscured by the other impres- sion of poetic art obeying the strict rules of a code.

152

HARVARD LECTURES
new emotion

iv

of

as the creative idea rises into

consciousness.

Aeschylus,

we

readily
in

say,

is

an inspired poet, one who thinks

images,

who

sees

intuitively

where another reasons.

We

recognise in him the fervour of the prophet,
instinct with passion, struggle to

whose words,

express thoughts which transcend the expressive
capacity
utterance
of
is

speech.

No wonder
and

that

the

often rugged

inartistic.

We

are fain to believe that

we

see the workings of

whose processes are higher than those of our normal intelligence, and whose swift
a hidden
self,

insight discerns the

way

to

its

artistic

result

without employing the
thought.

common

logical links of

The Baying
'

ascribed to

Sophocles,

which has been already quoted, returns to our

mind
it

:

You do

the right thing, but you do

without knowing why.'

Yet

this is a one-sided
is

judgment.

Aeschylus
a great

the inspired thinker
artist.

at the

same time

artist

is
is

And, similarly, Sophocles the conscious none the less an inspired poet. If

there

more of grandeur and mystery, a

larger

output of imaginative ideas in Aeschylus, there

iv

ART AND INSPIRATION
more of a beauty which
Sophocles.
It is
is

153

is

itself

an inspiration

in

a beauty of the distinctively
results not

Greek
effects

order, which

from any sum of
effects,

but from a harmony of
of
delicate

from a
the

network

relationships,

from

subordination of the parts, and their convergence
It is a quiet unobtrusive on a single end. in which the total impression is one of beauty,

simplicity so perfect that

it

must needs be the
But a modern
with
a

product

of

consummate
first

art.

reader on

acquaintance
well
fail
is

play
that

of
the

Sophocles

may

to

realise

constructive power which

capable of fashion-

ing such a whole itself implies inspired insight,

imaginative vision of the highest order.

\Ve

are perhaps inclined to rate too low the genius

which
an

is

displayed

in

the general structure of
set
it

artistic

work

;

we

hard-won

result of labour,

down merely as the and we find inspirapower of poetic

tion only in isolated splendours, in the lightning
flash of passion, in the revealing

imagery.

The study

of Greek literature leads

us not indeed to undervalue these manifestations

of genius, but to view

all

partial

beauties

in

154

HARVARD LECTURES
The supreme
is

iv

their relation to the whole.

result

which Greek thought and imagination achieve

by

their

harmonious co-operation

the organic

union of the parts.
of seeing things

In the East the poetical
is

that of way The East knows nothing of The workings of the mind.

direct intuition.

the

dialectical

service

Greece

rendered lay

in establishing the

balance between
intellectual

these faculties.
fields

The emotional and
kept apart.
alliance.

are no longer

Reason and
Greek
artists

intuition enter

on a new

and

poets

have not indeed,
left

like

Mozart or

Wordsworth,

us any psychological account

of the processes of their

own

creative activity

;

and indeed the detailed working of these processes
is

generally hidden from
In

the

man

of

genius himself.

bold

critic

any case, it would be a who would attempt to define in any
element on the

great imaginative composition the part played

by an

instinctive or emotional

one hand, and by logical thought on the other.

But though we cannot say precisely how the synthesis is effected in the mind of the creative
artist,

we may

safely apply a critical analysis to

iv

ART AND INSPIRATION
completed work of
idea, to
art.

155

the

It

matters

not

whether some

which the

critic

has been

guided only by a chain of reasoning, was flashed
instantaneously on the artistic vision.
terest of the analysis in the case of

The
art

in-

Greek

and

literature

is

this

that the parts arc discovered

to

be

bound

together

by

an

inward,

and

assuredly not an unconscious, logic.
in architecture

Especially

and the drama we can trace the

subordination of ideas.
for caprice

There

is

no room here

happy accident. The elements of thought and feeling, of reason and imagior

nation

have been fused together not

in

any

dim-lit region of sub-conscious thought.
unified

The
in the

and
air
' ;

artistic
it

whole has been born

upper

follows the laws of the universal
is

reason.
if

There

not a not
to
at

single
least

effect

which
1

not

reasoned

is

reasonable.'

Moderns are prone
of poetic genius
is

believe that the action

purely instinctive or intuitive,
its

and that genius abdicates
Greek
1

rights

and descends
it

to the lower level of talent

when

begins to

reason.

literature decisively refutes such
p.

I.e

Parthhion, E. Boutmy,

201.

156

HARVARD LECTURES
notion.
It

a

exhibits

the critical

faculty as

a great underlying element in creative power.

The
to

analytic spirit of Aristotle's Poetics
solely

is

not

be explained
in

by a

certain

prosaic

vein

the

distinctive

mind of the philosopher. It is of a race whose highest flights of

imagination are controlled by reasoned principles
of
art,

and whose creative work cannot be

dis-

joined from the dialectic effort of thought.

The union

of contrasted qualities which
in
is

we

have been considering
imaginative production
characteristic,

the special field of

but one example of a

which

more eminently perhaps
in

than any other, constitutes the originality of
Greece.

We

trace

it

Greek

life

as well as in

Greek

literature, in the impressive personalities

who

stand

out

not only as actors in Greek

history, but also as writers

and
is

thinkers.

In

the history of
the

Rome

the

man

often sunk in

Roman

;

his features are in

low

relief

;

we
In

are led to forget the individual in the type.

Greece great personalities, with an ineffaceable

stamp of

their

own, are

far

more numerous-

men

not only great in the things which they

ART A A Z> . in the beginning of the sixth century of Greek philosophers. Greek Thinkers.. . the sixth to the fifth century B. in endowments of mind and the union of force of character. INSPIRA TION in 1 57 accomplished..C. periods I will confine myself to a rapid glance at that early period. are. before poetry was severed science . a the earliest man of science. might be drawn from all all branches of Greek literature and from . also obscured the in wonderful variety of powers residing 1 the gifted individual of the Hellenic race. brilliantly handled by (Trans. Gomperz.C. from philosophy or philosophy from when thought and action were not yet divorced when specialised knowledge and pursuits had not limited. others.). it may be. and in . limiting. but interesting- themselves. a mathe- matician. among vol i. in many outwardly discordant gifts idiosyncrasies. whose names are here selected for pur- poses of illustration. an astronomer who predicted the total eclipse of the sun which occurred in the war 1 The philosophers. We recall first Thales of Miletus. but the idiosynIllustrations crasies of genius. one of the founders of the deductive Greek geometry. B.

C. ' and for nearly his threescore verses. the founder of the Eleatic school of philosophy. Plat. * . down Herod. 65 p. again. who turning is 3 . 74 2 . 2 into a well while gazing at the traveller. II.158 HARVARD LECTURES May first l - iv between Lydia and Media on 28. 354 r. 170. thoughts up and i. five who his at the age of twenty- was driven from invasion.' Pol. Ionian home by own the Persian years. if of singular insight. circ. 174 A. Theaet. by the testimony of his 1 tossed troubled i. 4 form a federal state with as at Teos a protection against Or. shrewd man the over. 585 B. to account his meteorological researches ' said to have made more- first corner ' in oil a politician. of Colophon 545 B.). Laert. 1259 a 6 Herod. 26. i.C. Strom. i. we may its believe Herodotus. Clem. the of the kind one whom European history tradition remembered as the typical philosopher recorded in who tumbled stars. a memorable prediction. i. Diog. a But he was also a of business. take Xenophanes (flor. advised his Ionian fellowto countrymen capital Persia. who. 3 Arist. .

ART
1

AND

INSPIRA T1ON

1

59

Hellas';

a rhapsodist and a wandering philo-

sopher, attended
cithara.

by a slave who carried

his

In the course of his travels he
scientific

made
the

valuable
first

observations.
fossil

He was

who

pointed to the

remains of plants

and animals as proofs of the great changes that the earth must have undergone in the remote
past

He

broke sharply with

the
is

traditions

and

beliefs of his people.

He

a satirist

who

does not spare any of the institutions of Hellas
the athletic
the

games of Olympia any more than
of the

unimproving conversation
But
it

dinner

table.

is

as a religious reformer that

he utters his deepest convictions.
scathing
theism.
first

He
of

passes

criticism

upon

the

beliefs

poly-

His passionate verses, introducing the
polytheism and

note of discord between
in

philosophy, echoed

the ears of the Greeks

throughout their history, and are again overheard
1

in

the
Fr. 24
5'

final

conflict

between

the

de-

Xenoph.
fjS-r}

:

firrd T' Haffi

KO.I

e^Kovr' eviavrol
dv'

/SXrjcrrptfoj'res

e^v

(frpovriS'

'EXXdSa

yrjv.

The word

/SXijcrrpt'fw is

used in Hippocrates for tossing on a

lied

of sickness.

160

HARVARD LECTURES

iv

fenders of expiring paganism and the Christian
apologists.

Let us pass to another

man

even more

re-

markable, a poet-philosopher of brilliant genius,

Empedocles of Agrigentum, of Dorian not Ionian race, some features of whose character
are singularly un-Hellenic, though none but a

pure

Hellene

could

have written
five

the

noble

hexameters of which some
extant.

hundred are

His poem On Nature was one of the

books which inspired Lucretius, whose magnificent

eulogy every one

will

remember.

1

As

poet and physicist, with a wide outlook into the
universal
life

of things, Empedocles traced a
all

unity running through
processes.

natural and spiritual

He made

original observations on
illustrating

physiology, ingenious experiments
;

some laws of physics he threw out hints of the doctrine now known as natural selection,
and
anticipated

some
2

great

discoveries

of

modern

chemistry.

He

was

a

practical

physician and

sanitary engineer as well as a
1

Lucret.
i.

i.

716

ff.

2

Gomperz,

230 (Trans.).

ART

AND

INSPIKA T1ON

1

6

1

biologist,

and by draining the marshes
of a pestilence.

rid the

city

of Selinus

No

ancient

philosopher of
ing part
in

whom we
life;

read took such a lead-

public

he was the eloquent
offered

champion of the democracy and was
1

and refused the kingship. Aristotle tells us that he was also the founder of the art of
rhetoric
;

and Gorgias of Leontini was said
his pupils.
2

to

be

among

But there was also another side

to him.

He

was a

seer, a mystic, a healer of the maladies of

the soul as well as of the body, the author of
purificatory chants of which fragments survive.

In outward

demeanour he resembled the wonder-

worker from the East rather than the sober
Hellene.

Clad

in

purple robe, with a Delphic
circlet

wreath on his head and a golden
his brows, his long hair flung
set features

about

loose,

with grave
Sicily,

he was borne

in

pomp through
3

the children flocking to his car,

and the towns-

people

greeting him in his progress.
1

He

is

Diog. Laert.

viii.

63.
viii.

'-'

Arist. ap. Diog. Laert.
3

57.

Diog. Laert.

viii.

73.

M

162

HARVARD LECTURES
his

iv

by

own

description a spirit in exile,

1

one

of those heavenly beings,
in

who
'

for

crime done

another
ten

life

are

doomed
years

to

wander

for

thrice

thousand

away from

the

Blessed,' tossed from sea to sky, from earth to
sea,

and who returns meadow of calamity, This uncongenial place, this human

Back

to this

2
life,

the

'unlovely

land,'

'the

unfamiliar

region.'

Nor can the
right

disinherited spirit regain his birth-

except by long and rigorous discipline
senses.

and suppression of the
Greek

But

I

cannot
in

linger over this strange, this unique figure

speculation,

in

whom

mysticism

and

science, intuition

and

logic, religious

exaltation

and

practical capacity, the humility of a sin-

laden spirit and the boundless pretensions of a
charlatan

were united to form so baffling a

compound. memorable
guard
the

To
city,

this

day

in

Girgenti,

that

where rows of ruined temples
slopes
sea,

southern

of the acropolis,

stretching
1

towards the

Empedocles
/ecu

is

a

KaOapnoi,
2

line 12, <f>vyas Oebdev

a\rtnr]s.

Matthew Arnold, Emptdoclcs on Aetna.

ART AND INSPIRATION
name
of power
; ;

163

he

is

the idol of his fellowstill

countrymen round him.
I

legend

and history

cluster

will

but remind you of one other

name-

the founder of the famous Pythagorean brother-

hood,

which

formed a close intellectual and

spiritual

partnership whose
life,

aim was the
public and

en-

nobling of the whole
of
its

private,

members.

Pythagoras

himself was

a

mystical theologian and at the
original

same time an

mathematician

;

an

astronomer
;

who

showed that the earth

is

spherical

a musician

who made
sound
l
;

a brilliant discovery in the theory of

a

man

of genius who, like Socrates,

committed nothing to writing

from mistrust,
;

it

would seem, of the written word

but whose

personal influence so lived in the school as to
leave an abiding

mark on

speculative thought
itself

long

after

the

brotherhood

had

been

dissolved by the violence of political faction.

What
original

is it

that constitutes the striking and

quality

of such
also a
i.

characters
;

of

the

physicist

who
1

is

merchant

the religious

Gomperz,

102 (Trans.).

or other not widely dissimilar combinations. Again. stamp upon the intellectual We see in them the con- junction of a rich. fearless of consequences. philo- conceptions unity and plurality.164 HARVARD LECTURES who is reformer. visible sentence and sophical form of the thought. Such contrasts are not indeed con. wonder- questioning all spirit.g. a restless. the engineer who has the soul of a mystic is the mathematician the head of a semi -religious order? secret lies in the harmonious blending of opposites. fined to Greece but elsewhere they are rare phenomena normal : in Greece these. We see also a generalising power. critical faculty. poet. and practical . an inexhaustible imagination with a keen ing. we in observe the love of pointed the very structure of the in antithesis. (e. are part of the psychology left their of those original minds that have life of Europe. but apt to be over-hasty. . balanced however and corrected by a faculty of subtle analysis and a delicate eye for differences in detail. at once minstrel. bringing things to the test of reason. constructive and masterly. man who The of science .

6fj.evov dia(f>fpofj. Fr. identity difference.evoi> eui'Tip . each passes imperceptibly into ' the other. laid down of the law of in the harmony of con- traries. anticipating a fruitful idea of modern philosophy.). xai e'/c rCov dia(f>epoi>TCiji/ Ka\\[ffTTji> apfj.evov. 46 avrl^ow <rvfj. but rather presuppose one another nay.(j>epov.' The invisible harmony which ' lies behind the contradictions of sense is better 1 Heracl.). in rest and motion. Cp. avvalSov SLaloov. the balanced and con- trasted groups of character within the drama. exclude.ART AND INSPIRATION finite 165 and infinite. Greeks to dis- cern antagonisms it the world the of nature effort or of man. 1 ' The dissonant is in harmony with ' itself.C. Contraries do not . and so series by to a finely graduated of transitions restore the broken unity.o\oyeei.fpepofj. 59 [8] TO [10] ffvfj. quick as were in the. Yet. reconcile the discordant to build travel the bridge by which thought might across the gulf. was also to conscious of Greek philosophy principles. Being and not Being. Heraclitus of Ephesus (born probably about 540 B. 45 [51] ou ^vviaai OKOJS 5ia<pep6/J.oviav. etc.

o-pftovii] 1 1 ff. of contrasted elements in the drama. iii. evolved the harmony drama of of the whole. 1 iii. Plotinus (born 204 A. that the struggle ' of opposing ' forces is his meta- phorical warfare (7roXe//-o<?) the condition of progress. a<pa.vT)s Qavepris /c/seicrcraH'. illustrate in applying the same the harmony art.' is 2 a work of ' and especially The of rational principle of the ' drama a unity ' action. and that this holds good in society human of no less than in the evolution the cosmic order. Ib.D. 2. the universal reason. Fr. This profound philosophic truth the Greeks applied instinctively in prac1 Heracl. joins hands with principle to Heraclitus. is where the soul the actor. presiding over the struggle.' l iv than the It is interesting to reflect that one of the last of the Greek philosophers. resolves in the dissonance and discord a final harmony. Heraclitus had already grasped the truth of Western civilisation.' is and out of the in play of contraries too. 47 [54] Plotin. life he argues.a. 2. containing this in it many So 3 collisions.166 HARVARD LECTURES visible. 6 Spd/j.). 2 3 Enn.TOS \6yos els HXM ev avrf TroXXds .

balance. They are the creation of the Western mind.iv AK T AND L\SP1RA T1ON In politics they never fell 1 67 tical life. Here too they sought to discover the sites. process. not aristocracy. were not left. involved in out in social and of political organisation. if hostile isolation. harmony for of oppo- The friction and play of contending forces felt. compromise. Greece exhibit her versatile power of reconciling things not previously struck combined. The contra- not solved. in Nowhere more than those her colonial life. a kind mediatorial They were the product of a spirit of adjustment. not democracy. Order and Progress. The temperament is of the people as a whole gifts a compound as remarkable as are the . were at least softened. Necessity and Freedom these permanent antagonisms of thought. under the not fanatical sway of any single principle royalty. alike stability and The State and the Individual. in art. they development. in busy and did rival centres of intellect and commerce. were needed. to confront one another dictions. as they in were in the East. The new experiments philosophy.

and utters in its its appeal turn. its every race and generation of Hence comes recuperative adaptation. ready to laugh over own pantheon slaves to party spirit yet gifted with a singular faculty of political a compromise of heart. wealth its suggestion. The diverse and seemingly opposite qualities which mark the Greek mind are one secret of its matchless force. proverbial gaiety however. with a sadness sometimes bordering on pessimism. . practical and speculative. influences yet hospitable to foreigners intolerant of their unorthodoxy yet . energy. people shrewdly practical yet sternly idealistic jealous of alien .168 HARVARD LECTURES in iv united the great men of the race a . endowed with which blends. and the cause of its success in so many fields of human activity. They constitute the chief reason why Greek literature speaks to in so many its voices. power of perpetual .

is. 169 .) have had in mind the fact that Professor Saintsbury's History of Criticism (Blackwood and Sons) has the hands of English now placed in of the readers a systematic treatment whole subject. and I VI. confined myself to following fall is out a few trains of thought which seemed to in with the for general scheme of this volume. to a few authors 1 propose to myself interest. tion contained in Professor Saintsbury's chapter (vol. so lightly over ' Longinus On the Sublime (vrepi a critical essay of unique value and interest.V GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM extends carries a IN devoting two lectures to a subject which over seven or fifth eight centuries far and into us from the I century RC. restrict the Christian era. to The truth it would not be easy and to the add much to the admirable appreciai. therefore. Some ' excuse needed passing ii\j/ovs). Rhys Roberts in his edition (Cambridge University Press). pp. 152- 173) handling of the treatise by Professor W. I have. and a few points of In preparing these somewhat desultory discourses (V.

the are literary of a particular author. latter Literary criticism in Greece as a distinct late in its and conscious art was appearing. not the time of Aristotle that we find any ture. systematised discussion on works of literaor on the principles that govern the write literary art. Prose. when the Greek had been shifted. and Hellenism . post-classical civilisation a product centre of age. true. may be convenient so far to follow the historical But it lines of development as to include survey the in the first part of our in mainly part.HARVARD LECTURES The treatment will necessarily be discursive and the order not always chronological. is But these till rare exceptions. the monograph. a in period also of varied critical art reflection both and literature . it is The period of creative activity was. Professed critics men who still books on other books were unknown. and here and there we genius come were across critics writers of original who of their own are craft or of that of It others. the the criticism criticism of of Poetry. study of the The essay.

types 1 were De epic.). l Here we have the law of of the ' artistic parsimony. not with the sack. Athen. pp. p. in it hand.' principle reserve. created Literary forms or lyric. as Criticism was as yet from within we might studio.7) Glor. fj. rife for centuries before Periclean a Between and prac- master oral tice and pupil there was constant interchange of ideas. c. truth half expressed is by the Greek proverb. say.' In such atmosphere of teaching and learning poetry grew up. For other examples see W. Theory and went hand . With the reviewer ' the modern sense the Greek world never became acquainted. The an greater than the whole. the advice given to Pindar by Corinna. is workshop or the ' : Such. Seiv Plut. the criticism of the for instance.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM had found a nc\v abode first 171 at Alexandria. d\\a . Lectures on Classical Subjects (Macmillan and Co. dramatic. was. ' and afterwards in at Rome. R. 347 rfj %fipi ffireipav 6Xy T OvXaKifi. the Boeotian poetess Sow the with the hand. Ilardie. iv. 266-269. In the poetical schools of Greece reflection had been at work the and discussion era.

Behind the critical activity of creative genius effort a ceaseless ling was at work. marvellous old of To make things familiar. The fine gift of discrimination. and the tradition with great problem of reconciling in freedom of development was process of solution. The poets followed close the race upon the movements of Their ' and the people. the power of seizing in their own . seem critical Viewed in this light the faculty of the Greeks stood nearer to the creative imagination than moderns can easily realise. Standards of writing were formed. invention. Meanwhile the variations of literary type answered to the living forces operating in society. in the legends in the light of the re-creating history and ever renewing the the past. in old material. the instinct of omission and rejection. consisted chiefly in vitalising interpreting present. control- and inspiring poetic invention. new and new things seem was one main function of their art.' their originality.172 HARVARD LECTURES which have stood the test of v elegiac time and become the accepted models of the Western world. canons of taste laid down.

But what form ? did dramatic as yet criticism take Professional : critics there were none but we must not infer that there was no effective criticism.and probably acted same number for the tragic contests in under solemn oath as a court of law r . or fulfilled re- creative. a public opinion. . At Athens the dramatic competitions were held twice a year. The Athenians were nothing ' if not critical ' . and never probably at any epoch of history were literary productions brought so directly to the bar of public opinion too. They These were appointed with elaborately devised precautions to secure an impartial verdict. that was in a sense the verdict of the judgments were not passed daily or weekly. If literary authoritative when it came. five in The judges the number for comedy. the decision was but the more State. . In the Periclean age this creative.GREEK LITER A R Y mythology the facts CR1 7 1CISM 173 which had all this in them the kernel of poetic truths formed part of the poetic equipment of the race. at the two great festivals of Dionysus. function of poetry was more especially by the tragic drama.

We read indeed of . who exhibited 108 comedies. the nephew of Aeschylus. moreover.174 HARVARD LECTURES v anonymous umpires were chosen by ballot from a select list. and if. of the Oedipus Tyrannus of Sophocles (the play which Aristotle regarded as the model of dramatic construction) by an obscure poet Philocles. some strange results in these competitions the defeat. actions : In our libel own day we have seen against dramatic better informed as to for brought critics we should like to be how a similar prosecution was conducted at Athens. we in could estimate the other factors which both Tragedy and the Old Comedy . but was only eight times victorious. tion A defeated competitor might ques- the fairness of their award by instituting the a prosecution. Yet in most instances if our surprise would probably be lessened we were in possession of all the facts if the com- peting plays were extant for comparison. for instance. and their names divulged only after the award. and tried case would then be before a popular tribunal. Still more unaccountable in the next century was the poor success that attended Menander.

is to wait years before he so. faculty. won his success but having to done end kind . In Greece at large the to have- Athenian judgment on tragedy seems been accepted as final. irepi (pvcreis 3 TroL~qrijiv. retained his supremacy on the and then death poetic privileges. The Athenians passed a special decree permitting his at the 6'rt tragedies : to compete Dionysia after his death 17 . of a unique. hear of but We few protests against the verdict of the judges. 3 Sophocles. 1 like manner but without pre- Laches 183 A-B. To Athens .GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM counted ing. the danc- and the choral equipment. The testimony of Plato on this head l agrees with the Frogs. 2 Frogs 809-810 : \rjpov re T&\\' riyelro rov yv&vai. Schol. on Frogs. the view ascribed to Aeschylus that ' in the rest ' of the world.' fifteen He he at himself. 868 . in 175 the award the singing. them were mere trash " judging the poetic true. in were conferred him. the trage- dian looked for his credentials it lay with her to set the seal of her approval on his art.' at it compared with had .

held an almost undisputed sway. which at first had been somewhat underrated.176 HARVARD LECTURES during a literary v liminary failures. less well at Euripides fared his the hands of his in all countrymen only to five victories amounting we must remember that he generally competed against Sophocles. the critical . we may suspect. the audience a vast one. though the If men of culture formed but a small minority. career of about sixty years. his After a great . death the balance was redressed for . lift their hearers to their They were able own high plane It to of thought and imagination. it comprised every grade of culture and ignorance. was an unparalThe themes handled were such as demanded and received ideal treatment. Be that as it may. And yet there is no trace of either of his these great masters ever having lowered art to satisfy a vulgar taste. not less to the love of rhetoric which had overspread the Greek world than to his genius. The theatre was of colossal size . far outnumbering the gatherings of the assembly or the law-courts . and growing enthusiasm him set in due. leled achievement.

I Kpivovcrtv TTOi^TUJV' I &/jLLVOV OL TToXXoi KO. esp. 1281 a 42 ff.r. of any individual. is often reversed by posterity examples are afforded by the But have to literary history of almost every nation. his has not only ratified in particular claim.) 7. Cp. is Time. iii. 6 Se <popTUcbs K. has endorsed the verAristotle had good grounds dict of Athens. 1282 a -2 1.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM instinct of the public literary 177 and the sureness of the fifth their is perceptions a fact in century it on the whole as certain as is signi- ficant A contemporary judgment . 1342 a 18-22 eirei KO. on the mixed While laying emphasis elements of refinement and is 2 vulgarity of which an audience composed. (viii.I TO. d' 2 Pol. 1281 fJLOVfflKrjS b 8-10 5(6 KO.X. and N . v.6piov..evos. but well-nigh every department of poetry. T7JS tpyCL ATCU TO. judgment viii.ei> eXevOepos 3 TreTrcuSev/j. to which Aeschylus 1 said dedicated his tragedies. II. 6 /j. irdvTa d iravrfs. TU1V dXXot yap #XXo n fj. he still maintains that the collective judgment of the to 1 many in aesthetic matters single is superior 3 the Athen. Ib. 39 \pjvip ras rpayydias dvariQevai.I 6 dearris SITTOS. for the opinion he held as to the critical value of popular taste.

2 16. 1286 a 30 5i6 KO..178 HARVARD LECJURES v And we can to-day observe that what often the that verdict distinguishes of an intelligent critic. is public swift from of the expert a and immediate impression which emthe braces the whole instead of accentuating parts. the pleasure afforded to the one man l who pre-eminent in virtue and education. dominion of the audience and he coins the Instead word OearpoKparLa crowd. Plato would not have agreed with Aristotle's view.' his He The contrasts judges. iii.<f>epovra. iii. of instructors they have become the pupils of the They have : yielded to the clamour of in turn. to denote this idea. rbv dperjj re KO! 659 A c. he holds.I 6x^os iro\\a ^ eft OffTlffOVV.eivoi> 15. The supreme is test of artistic excellence ' is. 700 c 701 A. own age with earlier times. . It indeed probable that popular taste underwent the fourth century. 1 Laws ii. are obliged to is humour a de- generate public. TraiSfig. 8ia. he says. ii. some weakening in But the contrast as drawn uplvti &/j. 659 A Zva. infected the theatre and the poets 2 by their corruption. have now fallen under the .

no one dies. influence struction of the theatre exert 2 which the audience. The Development of the Drama (New This volume traces in a very interesting way the p. 6-8. where the hand in hand at the ' ' no one slays or is slain or. ending. 1 York). Aristotle 's Theory of Poetry ff. See Butcher. Brander Matthews.' But even . The drama has has been a been truly called the most democratic of the arts and in every age when it living force. as he thinks. as Goethe says.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM by Plato l . \Ye cannot doubt that as in the fourth century the voice of the people must often have decisively affected the award of the judges. the other kind being. and Fine Art (third ed. 33. The is is influence of the audience on the poet one of the points of dramatic criticism which touched on in the Poetics? The question as to the proper ending of tragedy seems to have been debated at the time in literary circles. 305 . every one is married. and the size and conon the form of the drama. xiii. Aristotle pronounces in favour of the unhappy bitterest close.). the influence of the audience has been powerfully in the fifth felt. 179 is surely overstated. the actors. appropriate only to enemies walk off ' comedy. Poet. p.

' as some one has said. . reflected the spirit of the local .i8o HARVARD LECTURES tragedy. in time through Unlike tragedy. the v in is happy ending weakness commonly ' preferred ' owing to the of the audience (Bia rrjv Oedrpwv to dcrdeveiav).' the morbidly moral make things come right on the stage.C. ' a secret pencJiant ' for false sentiment. Criticism direct in the form of public it opinion. first Literary criti- cism proper spoke for the the lips of comedy. politics. ' judgment yields to the liking for meloWe have all. literature. People are not robust painful better enough the endure the conclusion . is and effective as was at Athens. the fifth it century had its life in . comedy B.' The craving for desire to all poetic justice. so poet against his drama. Aristotle observes. amiable but prosaic. not strictness literary criticism. to which the play-going public is always in liable. is are so apt to wrong only one example of an instinct. The comic poet ballet- was not only author. go the more because they in life. stage -manager. day allusions were its topics were current events. the its present .

are placed upon the stage. and the criti- Comic Opera. scathing as a critic he must himself be a master of the poetic to and able hold his own In beside the the great of tragedians themselves. as for the rival candidates throne of poetry. catures Each argues his own cause and the manner of his opponent. for the comic poet to be witty of poetry art. while in utterance. in but wielded an office which combined some degree functions similar to those exercised by Punch. Aeschylus and Euripides. Frogs Aristophanes. In this as his in other plays Aristocritic phanes vindicates proving claim to be a by in himself a consummate craftsman every style of poetic lyrical composition notes are . instance cariIt is the earliest we possess of literary criticism in the form of parody. cism the As an organ of literary dealt Aristophanic comedy mainly with the productions of the tragic stage. his among the .GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM master. 181 musician. the old Saturday Rein'eiv. and sometimes actor. and probably all the most brilliant example of the kind in literature. Nor was or it enough .

to which the Greeks were always addicted. from any Greek We flections cannot here discuss the justice of the Aristophanic criticism or the value of his re- on the art of poetry. and which. in vations may be made in passing. Aristophanes of the early Greek "didactic at the standpoint world . counter-quibbling. Argufying and debating. is still Secondly. community. the genius of the race was exin ended the arid disputations of Byzantine schoolmen.i8a HARVARD LECTURES V purest and most melodious that have flowed singer. he assumes that poetry has a the aim . the linguistic attacks made on Euripides he touches with playful irony that love of verbal subtlety. poet is the moral teacher of the . when hausted. of fine-drawn distinctions. the Quibbling. is a master for manhood and youth. prating. . the educator of grown men he that inspires them with courage and loyalty : it is civic The bard Children and boys have a teacher assigned them. But two obserFirst.

1 These words are put into the mouth of Aeschylus./3<2cri di5d<rKO\os SCTTIS <f>pdei.T.as. though. Se^toTTjros Ka. it ' the duty of good counsel (y^pr/crra ^prjcrTa SiSda~Kiv^).OL. AIS. of Frogs 1054-1056 rois fiiv fcrri yap TraiSa. Frere's Trans.V . of Frogs 1008-1010 6.i /J. OTL /SeAruws re TTOLOV/J. ' merely insisting that the language of should be conveyed in men (dv0pw7rei(t)<.\.1 rovs avOpuirovs ev ra?s irb\fffiv K. : couched in the grandiloquent style of his to Already the question had been put Tell him me then what are the principal merits ? Entitling a poet to praise and renown and he had replied The improvement : When Can of morals. the progress of mind. (j>pdeiv). . But they are tacitly accepted by who admits Xeyeif. : Frere's Trans.wi)Kpi. a poet by skill and invention " render his audience virtuous and wise. %pr. Euripides. T0?<nv Sr) Troiyrat. Bav/Jidfeiv livSpa TroiTjTrjv vovdeffias.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM Bound to instruct 183 them in virtue and truth. ET.va. not rival. rlvos ovveKO.ju.pioLffLi> 5' ?. By 1 Euripides' it own ' confession it is the glory of ' poetry that makes men : better . Trdvv 2 5e? xp^crra \tyeiv r. Beholden and bound.

adverse sentence was too often passed upon them. This attitude of mind was at once the strength and the weakness of Greek poetical its criticism : strength because it kept alive the idea that art and poetry are not . The vein of the Aristophanic parody which runs through drama and appears to have been a marked feature of the Old Comedy. same meaning the citizens. and he himself does not dissent. have been ' debased by him. merely the private delight of the individual they belong to the expression a source.1 84 HARVARD LECTURES v doubtless. inasmuch as the poets came to be thought of as moralists. death of Aristophanes comedy was a frequent . community moral and . to him And if once good ' men and true. the phrase would not bear quite the as to Aeschylus. says. of weakness. They were expected . they are life the : of its spiritual again. to yield edifying lessons outside their art if and their utterances could not be wrested to the desired end. Dionysus to die . he deserves. was imitated and developed in the next generFor sixty or seventy years after the ation.

where fiifi\lov seems to be the libretto or book of the words. . Frogs 1109-1118: j3ij3\iov T' esp. (surely combined with half ironical) certain comto pliments addressed the audience by the comic poets. has led scholars to infer some large the existence in of a fifth reading public at Athens 1 the and fourth centuries B. But there 1114: ra a great 1 E. critical less in in their suggestive value than the acquaintance they of the seem to imply on the part audience with the poetical literature of Greece. through literary The popular of parody. far from supporting doubtless. Actual is illiter- ates. however. is The evidence. 185 vehicle The interest.v GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM of indirect literary criticism.g. ticular The manner of par- authors was reproduced. rare.avt)dvei ' ' (5eia. all Trage- came under con- Whole scenes from tragedy were or diction travestied. dians and lyrical writers tribution. however.C. so far as we can judge from lies the surviving or fragments. were strewn Quotations broadcast love and reminiscences the plays. txiav eKctcrros /j. were this view. of these later jeux d'esprit.

' l the audience were it acquainted with tragic poetry. And not only was there no diffused literary culture in the stricter sense. not through reading. When Gorgias made Poet. in There which is a startling sentence too explicit to be are set the aside : Poetics ' is The known legends So far as known only to a few.1 86 HARVARD LECTURES to v array of facts show little that the bulk of the people can have had or no direct acquaint- ance with books. 8 t-n-tl yvwpi/j. ix. which has been cultivated by listening to oral literature. how- book learning. is merely deadened or impaired by In any case. sentation. .d terriv dXX' 8/xws ev<ppaivei iravras. but the mass of the audience at the theatre were not even familiar with their own mythology. Kal TO. for may have and been the range of their an exquisite feeling of the people had words appreciation the musical capacities 1 of speech. was from stage repreYet we cannot literary on that account assume any lack of a sense. Indeed. it is probably true that under instinctive certain conditions. ever narrow culture. an good taste. at Athens.a 6X17015 yvuptfJ.

we are told that the striking novelty of his diction came with a pleasurable shock on the sensitive cars of the audience.' hence a booby.v TVX&VTOS UJTOI d/co?7S fXeyovro.r-r\v The word meant 'horned owl.ov virb 'd.' .\OIVTO oi irdffxovTes. 60 ^airaTi!}fj. and the explanation 1687. irpoatpvtffTepov 5e dirfpifpyws KCU literally a &TOI KO. die pg. 53 Ka ' r <? i-evlovri cpi\o\oyovs. unversed in books. 1 the In political debate and of justice this in administration aesthetic sensibility was a danger of which the Athenians were aware . and which No people justified Demosthenes in declaring ' : 1 Diodor.evoi. 1522.e TOI)S 'ABijvaiovs 6vras 2 evcfivels /cat " See Eustath. to become a capable critic even of the higher poetry. themselves and it would seem for persons that there was a special nickname who were ear.vo. ' /JLOVTJS ave^erdffTws o. 2 thus fooled by the pleasure of the a fine But and trained instinct for language was the very condition which made it possible for the average Athenian.GREEK LITER A R his first ' \ CRITICISM \ 87 appearance among them. 26 &TOI ruv 'EAX^cw!' oi " (a quotaTOV tion from comedy). a Add to this a marvellous or seeing an power allusion. xii. which of catching a point is vouched for by the most various testimony. Si /ULOVOI TTJS Xeews fe'-7rX??i. alertness of mind.

f6a.1 88 HARVARD LECTURES so ' v is quick at taking a speaker's mean- ing. iii. .fj. rbv 8 vovv ffKOTrov/j.ci.' With by the such art intellectual gifts. ov yap TO 5p8. He K : counted. aided also of the actor his gestures and declamation at the regular theatre-goer would once recognise on the comic stage the tone familiar and diction of tragedy. aimed only at 1 a broad Ol. 2 Even the that were travestied might not to the ordinary hearer suggest the originals. and one speaker Tr66ev tcrrl asks. and would It flatter himself if on his own discovery. 15 yvuvai TT&VTUV ii. 73 some lines are quoted from Euripides. mattered not lines that only a few could identify the were quoted or adapted. the of its manner dialogue or choral songs. SI croi fd\ei .. The other replies. effect. where the play from which the was drawn had been after all. and assign their them scenes to proper sources. recently ex- The comedian. ravra ri irpbs 0euv . p-rjOtvra. Diphilus Fr. and not in o^vraroi TO. except in those rare instances to us some of which are known parody hibited. u/xe?j 2 Cp.

on a general and keen It appreciation for of the literary style. to arrive at the innermost laws literary of the Yet Plato seldom speaks of in productions except distrust. if it and adjustment. human and seeks art. he was apt to think of the written word as dead. 275 D-E. is literary criticism of the kind.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM vain. Litera- wanting ture. mechanical. a tone of apology and artist in Himself the greatest prose that has ever lived. irresponsive. 1 any worth at all. standing before you with the cold beauty of a graven image. the philosophic criticism which views literature as one of the ideal expressions of the spirit. however. but in flexibility is helpless for self-defence. was enough took him main if mass of the audience the circle point. . associations which parody called All indirect in its this. very indirectness and In Plato we have the first beginnings of the large. though characteristically Attic allusiveness. to be of 1 must be Phaedr. There was always an inner delight in who would phrase the subtler turns the of and the up.

ought himself to be 1 Phaedr.ev yt tfcrws elvai rpayifSiav TTJV . come to our memory hope ' : He who would not be frustrate of his to write well hereafter in laudable things. 5 <f>afJ.HARVARD LECTURES the image of the animated word. the relation in which literature stands to To do eyes a things worthy dignity to be written was in his higher than to write things worthy to be read.iv fiWo-TTj/ce r/fj. 2 Laws 8 817 B rifiels fff^v rpayijidias avrol Kal apiaries' Tracra. etdkiXov &v ri X^yotro St/ccu'ws. not as a doctrine but as a quickening influence. o3 6 vii.-r)<ris TOV Ka\\i<rTov Kal dplcrrov piov.a oZv Tjfj. A noble artist life is the noblest us drama : the maker or who can teach to build 2 up such a life is the best of poets. The words of Milton.fj.tfj.fis fj. The This (f)i\o\oyo<.fros e/56ros \6yov \tyeis ^Civra.fj. it must himself be <f>i\6(To(j>os. was that determined Plato's view of life. 1 engendering it life and moulding it character. Kal <-fj. 276 A rbv rov ye-fpa. iroirjTal Kara i) Svvafuv iroXiTfia 5ij TL Ka\\lffrr]s a/j. a living force. at once Hellenist and Hebraist.\{/vxov. whence to other souls can be transmitted a fruitful must come and immortal seed of thought. It in the spirit and power of philosophy. in This can only be if is planted a congenial soul.

for the is that it shall express reality. In root of The good writing lies sincerity of conviction.' but has tried to hunt out what other people think about Hence the uselessness of ' mere mechanical rules.GREEK LITER A R Y CRITICISM a true poem. All the ' ologies and technical terms of the rhetoricians will not teach you to speak or write well. Two the first other place. When - once a true c.' Of the great ideas which Plato has contri- buted to literary criticism the greatest are to be found in the Phaedrus. 1 9 1 a composition and pattern of the best and honourablest things. 2 it. 143 ff. We ideas at have already alluded to the theory there set forth of poetic 1 inspiration.' As against this writer ' : A we may set the remark of a modern fine book is the end for which the world was made. Supr. writer must have something to say. may the here be all noted. 262 . and must say it at first-hand. Where there is nothing to express there can be no essence of the literary art ' artistic beauty. Phaedr. that is. It is no genuine art of words that he will have who does not know the truth of things. p.

then a discovery. implying all mutual interdependence of that if 1 the parts. 264 is displaced or removed a the B. observe. such one part Phaedr. 264 c. with head. ness of a sand-heap. Ib. the parts being adapted to one another and to the there whole. not the homogeneous samemechanical unity . Laws x. must be a middle and extremities. feet. and for the of internal first time. closely related to is the first. 3 The thought was taken up his reason- by Aristotle and became the basis of Organic as distinct from ing on the drama. (Koyo^pa^iKrj avdyKij) The second is ' principle.' 2 Here.192 HARVARD LECTURES is v idea strongly conceived. but a unity combined with variety. the ' ' irresistible l law will of right utterance follow. must in its structure be like a living thing. where all the parts are said to be ordered with a view to the excellence of the . a unity vital and structural. that an artistic composition It an organic whole. and body . 903 B-c. the law unity is enunciated as a primary condition of literary art now a commonplace. 3 Plato applies this principle of organic unity to the moral in the government of the world whole.

their independence. But every people ' has ode. Leaf his introduction Versions from Hafiz). cp.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM whole is 193 dislocated Poetics.' not shared says this view. a whole in itself. viii. xxiii. is the threading of pearls is the couplet the pearl.' This is very unlike the law of unity as under1 Poet. Eastern poets are never tired of telling the making of an ode upon a string . animating and controlling principle. and not of necessity owing anything to that which comes before or after. is . To . the Greeks and so So said we say. (in ' In the Persian to Mr. the metre is but the thread which binds them all together. us. . round and smooth and perfect in itself.'' that is the leading critical this idea of the From point of view the unity and artistic beauty of a literary composition are a found to reside in a pervasive a single harmony. 4 . the Persian each couplet . sufficiently beautiful if it be adequately expressed. we find a succession of couplets often startling in . dominant impression. . I. It is from the alone common metre and common rhyme As that the ode gains a formal unity. .

while accepting the Greek principle of unity as a primary requirement of art. both in prose and poetry.194 HARVARD LECTURES To them v stood by the Greeks. however. all while in antiquity captious 1 critics 3 discovered Poet. 4. xviii. Within the spacious compass of the Epic. xxiv. the feeling of the whole. but another unity than that which satisfied the Greeks. they shrank from admitting actual speeches. . And it may xxiii. as ampler episodes may be admitted and a more discursive freedom allowed Aristotle pointed out. be observed that. in seemed so indis- pensable that even historical composition records. 4 . They often fail to take account of the varying degrees of unity appropriate to the different forms of literature. treaties. letters. or the like anything which even narrative texture. have not in their judgments on it Greek literature always accepted in the Greek sense. Unity they demand. . the dominant impression of oneness. in style might seem it to mar the by crossing with a thing of alien Moderns. 1 than is possible in the close and serried sequence of the drama.

Poet. do we come to see how delicate are the links which bind a single Platonic dialogue into a 1 Poet. is Indeed. or rhetoric which is treated later. the very dialogue unity reside ? in which the stringent law of is prescribed where the real does the unit}- What Is it is subject in of the dialogue? love. what is its So too in theme ? The dialogue Only by degrees reaches beyond the nature of Justice. according to Aristotle. the unity of these poems that constitutes their pre-eminent excellence. each in the highest degree action. an imitation of a single The Platonic dialogues are another case in point. viii. as perfect as possible .GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM manner of flaws in I 195 lomcr. as treated the earlier part. one defect alone they never discovered Iliad a want of unity in the or the it Odyssey. 2 1-3. a unity derived not from the hero being one but from the action being one. 1 ' In structure they arc is. . xxvi. 6. or the constitution of the ideal State.' 2 attainable. Several strands of thought arc In the PJiaedrus here subtly interwoven. or some? thing larger than either of these the Republic.

such wealth of suggestion. is no want of art. No ancient treatise. poetical . has so philosophic an outlook on literature. in a sense.196 HARVARD LECTURES v and how the apparently disconnected Here topics may be merged in *a higher unity. unimaginative of philosophers should have seen more deeply into the inner nature of poetry than Plato. who of all philosophers was most Poetics. however.' We pass now to the Poetics of Aristotle. fragmentary respects and tentative is which many the spirit of prose incarnate. A strange irony seems that the most severely logical and. elude our rough and It often mechanical tests. so many remarks far-reaching in their scope and . the only piece of systematic criticism unsystematic that has and yet how to us from it come down the classical age of Greece. but an art so finished as to whole. should serve as a warning to certain modern critics to whom ' ancient masterpieces appear to be the work of a committee with power to add to their numbers. should have permanently affected the poetical theories of Europe. such precision in detail. a in and that the treatise.

that he had taken to heart the words of Plato ' : Whoso knocks at the doors of Poesy untouched by the Muses' frenzy.r7js dreXTj? avros <rit}(j}povovvTos re nal 'r\ Troirjffis TUV fj. 146. wfiffOeis en rex^s VTTO ikavo^ T?)S 7roi?. Thompson. W.instructed expositors. indeed. the appear. but are destined eclipsed all their cold propriety of to be by J ' the effusions the inspired entirely madman. 77 d(f>iKr)Tat. . to discard the glosses of the half. more profound does teaching We could wish.cuvofJ. light and to read book in the of Aristotle's his own system. we are able to rid ourselves of old misapprehensions. of tells in 1 whom Plato the Pliaedrus and the Ion.ai>ias ^lovffwv (TTL TTO^TLKCLS 6<rd- Qi'pas /xei/os. (Trans. II. neither he nor ever attain his perfection. 2^ A 5s 5' av avev us apa fj. p. fondly persuading himself that art alone will make him works will for a thorough poet.) Supr.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM dropped with such In proportion as careless 197 and lavish ease.ei'UH' TOU 2 ^rpavicfOTf}.' ignore That Aristotle ' did in not the ecstatic element poetry we have already seen. 2 But while aware of the existence of the inspired poet. he writes of Phaedr.

the poetic art culminated epic even the being treated by him it as imperfectly in developed drama. that lyrical poetry interested as a rudimentary art him only uttering itself the form of improvised chants and dithy- rambic hymns which marked a stage ? in the development of the drama for in the drama. as if its emotional effects could be attained by following rules of dramatic construction. of Sappho. the treatise but there are good grounds for fact. May not also be that in the personal outbursts of lyrical song. the rush of feeling of Sappho . whom does he is make even a fragment True. he held. thinking that this does not account for the Was in it. the self-abandonment. We . . could wish. Simonides. by orderly arrangement again. perhaps.HARVARD LECTURES poetry in too coldly logical a manner. more appreciation of the grandeur of Aeschylus of the humour and unquenchable laughter of Aristophanes that he had he had shown . . Pindar. not passed it over with deliberate to be) the great neglect (for lyrical such would seem poetry of Greece Alcaeus. to none faint allusion. that and analysis.

throughout the inquiry. moreover. literature of wonderful range and originality presiding that the laws over its creation were not the arbitrary rules of a school. notes as a mark of the true . And. In any we have here sensibility. when all deductions have been made. but. Still. have been but susceptible to the magic of words Vet all charm of musical speech ? and this the docs not explain his omission of Pindar. Aristotle had before him a .GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM 199 or Alcaeus. certain limitations of his striking poetic and of a kind so that they should not pass unnoticed. the artistic laws of the we may almost human mind and . Its strength lies in this. the permanent value of the book increases the more that it is studied. that he arrives at his principles by a penetrating power of observation and analysis. say. in one of his physical critical writings. he maintains that attitude of judicial impartiality which he himself. who little appears. case. and a wide induction drawn from the practice of the great writers. he missed the characteristic Hellenic self-restraint this unimpassioned to critic.

' It has been sometimes said that Aristotle the artistic thinks only of the form formappears not of the content of poetry. . It tells 2 of what . Set avriSiKovs elvai.' The subject-matter of poetry is the universal in that which abiding and structural all humanity.' being con- cerned with the universal not with the particular. ix. some 1 1 abnormal 5tatr?. man of the as does or may do in given circumstances of human nature distinct permanent possibilities from the acts Alcibiades did is of the individual 'what or suffered. which appeals to every age.ras dXX" oi'/c fact De IO. interested or in 279 b chiefly the rare" and of unique 1 case. as some modern only writers would have us in believe. original But this Perhaps the most and pregnant saying in the Poetics is that which declares poetry to be a more philo' sophic and higher thing than history. men and is finds a response in Poetry not. to be a misapprehension.HARVARD LECTURES ' spirit : We l should be umpires and not litigants. 2 Poet. Caelo i. 3 616 /cat (juXoffo^direpov /cat cnrovdaiorfpov Tr iffropias iar'iv.

ix. .' The one depends on the the subject-matter perfected. where cause and fuller is and freer play the realm of art which a realm of design. I No other ancient writer. via. and the opening words mark the connexion. with universalised subject-matter. more intelligible than the world of experience. is other. is the transient and perishable part the eliminated . of pathology.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM psychology. .vepw ds e/c TUV eip^/xeVcoi'. is just because the subject-matter the universal. chap. the unity For in the process of universalising. so far as know. brought by Aristotle into immediate and even necessary connexion with universality of content. artistic has hinted at this close relation between 1 Chap. unreason of chance to is expelled we arc admitted observe the into working of human have motive in a world which pure accident effect hardly intrudes. the world of true poetry and this is pre-eminently of dramatic poetry is a world more unified. of the Poetics deals with artistic unity. <pa. I But here comes the point Unity of form is desire to emphasise. In short. In proportion as is universalised. we should perhaps say. or rather.

To separate them all in literature is the direct negation of tion implies.HARVARD LECTURES unity critics and universality of content. Let us take a single point by It way of illustration. is necessary to make the the concrete object. that the union of form and matter. on the life. other. or. The is principle of his philosophic system of real. and to lay emphasis on one to the neglect of the other. To separate them in philo- sophy is to reduce philosophic thought to mere abstractions. devoid of reality. et8o<? and v\rj. out of touch with Aristotle's remarks often contain an implicit urged by reply to objections which had been Plato. that artistic produc- Literature becomes either. Lesser have been always disposed to think of form and subject - matter apart. on the one hand. the . But able in Aristotle the two things are as insepar- in the higher kinds his of imaginative literature as they are in first philosophy. formless and chaotic. Plato in his dialogues of wavers ' between his awe and love Homer. touches a problem which vexed the its mind and conscience of Greece throughout history.

He weeping heroes in all the luxury of woe.' his ideal republic.)i !> i"i . :.' 1 tells and lies too that are His gods and men do things which ought neither to be done nor heard of.d\Lcrra "0//?. ii.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM wisest of our poets. 4 x. 5 Poet. he has taught them the art of beautiful fiction. x. A-I>. Homer immoral. and makes anarchy in the soul.' ' ' the captain and teacher ~ of that charming tragic company. away our Homer by his potent spells He sets before us hearts. feeds emotions which ought to be starved. 4 To which Aristotle's answer on the lines of the Poetics ' would be to this effect is First. '-' Rep.pos KCU roi's aXXoi's \{yeii> u>s \//f vdrj dti. xxiv. 377 >-K. And whereas the aim of poetry should be to teach us to be good and brave and steals true.' and a still more passionate though he is love of truth. Rep. Fascinated by Homer's genius he cannot ' admit him to lies. 595 606 c. poet's lie is not the f< lie of Laws Rep. 776 i K. 1 But the vi.' tell Homer He has as shown other poets ' how to lies they ought'. See Aristotle's Theory of Poetry and Fi Heff- Art (third ed. as to the ' lies.' the great master of the art of all lying. 9 Seotoa^ej' oe fj.

compact with him . by a touch to his can once of throw open the epic world fabulous adventure and romance. 10. remote from the world of experience. the ' improbable in fiction which people defend by saying. xxiv. v common far even as the truth of poetry stands apart the from the truth of fact The poet asks you to grant him certain which are the necessary conditions assumptions at outset of imaginative creation. In that world 'probable impossibilities' (aBvvara etKora) abilities ' are preferred to 1 ' possible improb- (Svvara cnriOava). if The things that never were or will be.204 HARVARD LECTURES life. xxv. . You make your his tacit . 17.' And wand. Oh. skill but the poet has the air to lend them the of likelihood. but the thing happened. you accept premisses and forthwith he transports you into an ideal world. the yes. whole through the at this emancipating as word of of us in Aristotle's poet. are better 'truer' in a poetic sense than the anomalies possibilities.' ' of experience. colour and the form of truth. not 1 only the wonders of the Poet.

or philosophy. cannot be taken the test is of Tightness in the domain of art. but also the fairyland of the Arabian Nights. trivial. for the ' lies.' Do you ? not mistake the true end of poetry when you demand The aim and that it should directly teach morals is of poetry pleasure. nobility of character 1 necessary to awaken the Poet. Yet though moral and it aesthetic laws are not interchangeable.' ' -Aristotle would con- Then as to the immorality. not edification or moral instruction. too hideous.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM 205 Odyssey. let not be thought from that poetry is thereby severed differ entirely in morality. the more elevated. which the is will be the pleasure. The pleasure the aim of art cannot be produced by of the representation morally ignoble or too depraved. 1 more than is science. For pleasures in kind in quality as well as degree and the higher the poetry. Some things are unfit for art squalid. . 3. xxv. Ethical principles. Poetry it not morals or politics any history. So much tinue. the more moral. pure as simple. too is In tragedy.

It is though thwarted in her movement. but with the ideally better that ' better part ' (TO /3eA. it yet incidentally 1 will in a sense instruct and 2 Poet. and therefore can be ludicrous. therefore. v blended emotions of pity and ness is Wicked- 'admissible only when demanded by an 1 inner necessity in the evolution of the action. * See Theory of Poetry and Art. but to correct nature's failures. \. Even the bad persons permitted in comedy are not absolutely bad. Degraded lives there are in nature.206 HARVARD LECTURES fear. is as For art has to do not with the ideally worse. 19. 151 ff. . to carry them to a more perfect completion. i. but that no reason for reproducing them simply degraded in art. 3 not the function of art to exhibit selected specimens of disease or decay.Ttoi>) to which nature moves. xxv. While art. Aristotle's Poet. business being to yield pleasure. p. its must not be asked to teach morals. Their badness consists in is 2 an ugliness or deformity of character which painless. to create such things as nature strives to produce. by the cogent requirement of dramatic motive.

still a youth. but how it fits into the general framework what is the dominant impression of the poem in itself .ITERARY CRITICISM edify 207 by the its nobility of the pleasure is arising from this ideal creations. It is purely individual a pleasure which must be tested by reference organism . a sensation. In an imaginary conversation by a Greek writer of the empire. Judge Homer's morality by this standard. in a word.CREEK f. to the social it is. Alexander the Great. emotional delight at which poetry aims. is asked by . the higher and enduring pleasure of the community. left ? Is ? the resultant pleasure low or is it elevated spirit Does Homer indeed enfeeble the fibre ? and relax the moral the ? or does he brace action mind to all strenuous and noble The answer which Aristotle would have given to this question accords with the popular conviction of Greece. or of that refined portion of aesthetic it which may be taken as the representative of the whole. a conviction which sur- vived into the Christian era. is Ask not whether this or that action good or bad. Nor this pleasure.

ii. Or. that fitting for a king and the poetry of Homer is the only poetry that I see to be truly noble and splendid and royal. when his formation proved incorrect. the in- special arts and Then.' Had criticism the principles of Poetics been grasped by the successors of Aristotle. there were ' critics who the said that he told lies. every kind of dress.ao8 HARVARD LECTURES father. from facts He was also the whom could be learned the all of history and geography and sciences. and fit l for one who will some day the rule over men. ad init. But ancient paid the Homer penalty of his greatness. v his why he all reads only Homer to is : the 'It neglect of is other poets. He had long been regarded as the inspired bard. prejudice was too strong. Odyssey continued to own as popular manuals of conduct and it was pre- cisely in his capacity of educator of 1 youth that Dio Chrys. Homeric and the criticism of poetry generally might have run another course. universal sage. just as is is not .' Yet the Iliad and hold their . and his reply it not every kind of poetry. .

ation Various efforts at reconcili- were made.' said a Stoic A.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM Homer was most test sharply attacked. meanings may His stories arc symbolical either truths of ' moral or of physical phenomena. to be the well- meaning but was bane it of criticism for centuries to come. vitality of the heresy on which in it rests. philosopher of the century 'would certainly be impious he were not allegorical. the traditional criticism interpretation Biblical to a recent date has been marked by many of the faults with which we are familiar in the interpretation of Homer the violence done to the language. the pro- dating back to the sixth century B.' The and the influence of this vicious critical method. He be spoke Beneath the outward (yirovoiai) narrative hidden discovered. One such was destined attempt. the neglect of the context. The philo- sophers protested against his theology. futile. the . nor was the feud between philosophy and poetry ever quite healed. in Homer.. first if Homer. literally. must not be interpreted dark sayings. . may up be seen at their worst of Scripture.C.D. said.

to the thought of the age and the circum- stances of the writers. mischievous in application. doubly pernicious when extended religion. the doctrine of the hidden meaning . met these difficulties by resorting which their to the allegorical solution.HARVARD LECTURES explaining away of contradictions. the indifference to time and place. are working 'on the lines of the old apologists Homeric whose theories had long ago been disThere is credited both by Plato and Aristotle.D.). and the form in arguments are couched betray the school of The writers criticism whence they are derived. from the secular sphere into that of . Philo (first Jews century A. no more curious example of the persistent influits first ence of a faulty method. The moral Old Testament scriptures presented those difficulties analogous to which had like offended the Greek philosophers. who were versed in Greek learning. and Christian writers Origen such as Clement of Alexandria and (both of the third century). the far- fetched symbolism. These defects do not merely mark the outbreak of a recurrent disease to which the human intellect is liable.

The rules of etiquette observed in the court of the Ptolemies presumably hold interior of the good in for the xv.' ambush and ' shut the These ' lines.' will is give some one thing A note here appended. Trojan horse. Odyssey xi. and none us shall send us away empty. Again. 524 Odysseus narrates the story of the Trojan horse within which he and his comrades were concealed ' : The charge of all was laid on me both to open to the door of our close same.C. which vogue the third and second centuries in ' The predecessors of Aristarchus the school of ' Alexandria loved to discover some impropriety (aTTjOeTre's) in the poet. 82 Menelaus promises to speed his Odyssey guest his Telemachus on way ' : I too will go with thee and lead thee to the towns of men. take note of another and equally misguided line of Homeric in criticism. The Homeric In scholia abound in examples. must be ' deleted as unseemly (o><? ' aTrpeTrrf} : that is the work of a hall-porter (Ovpwpov jap epyov}. probably from the hand of Aristo- . says the scholiast.GREEK LITER AR V CRITICISM Reverting for a moment to Homer we may was already in B. but at least.

iii. Homeric and Attic usages of words must be distinguished. that to be a mendicant. it is also ' ' unseemly (//. 170 B. The Epic language was in it must be studied detail . Aristarchus.). 'A menial and most trivial conception (8oiAo' Athene to bear a Tr/jeTre? ical \iav eureXe? TO find T?}? Siavotas} is the comment we on the latter passage. xix. 200 ' B. the manners and the customs. for Aphrodite to set a chair for Helen 422). Again.C. was that Homer must be explained by himself. the civilisation of other times must not be imported into the Homeric age. 34). The the Homeric mythology.C.' No wonder.HARVARD LECTURES phanes of Byzantium it (circ. and for lamp to light the way for Odysseus and Telemachus (Od. the great critic of Alexandria (circ. brought genius and the common sense to bear on guiding principle His Homeric poems. a thing apart .) : Again teach is unseemly that Menelaus should Telemachus then. method of allegory should not be applied to The legends must be literal accepted in their sense as belonging to . almost alone among the learned men of that day.

frankly accept vi. the is critic's sound principles fail him that not . responsible their Full justice has always critic been done to Aristarchus as a verbal of Homer. 311) Alcinous exclaims Would that so goodly a man as thou art and like-minded with me. the simplicity of Homeric first In Odyssey 244 Nausicaa. at times into the same error. here abiding Again . The atmosphere of Alexandria clings to him. vii. He cannot keep himself at the true angle of vision and life. A little ' : later (Od. dwelling here. unfortunately.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM the childhood of the for race. on Odysseus. But he deserves no he less credit for the vigorous war waged against absurdities such as those which have been quoted. thou daughter and be called ' ! wouldest wed my my how son-in-law. and that might please him here to abide ' ! To Aristarchus the wish appeared indecorous and unmaidenly. without truth making or their Homer morality. meeting with the shipwrecked ' : utters the wish Would that such a one might be called it my husband. he himself falls Yet.

' would have been poet had written. The still he admits. (Siard^ei) against offer and places the six mark of doubt that tell lines of Alcinous' of marriage. where the in ' from Agamemnon ' took a meal the tent of Achilles. 1 77) It before leaving the tent of Agamemnon. and who moreover asked for had not even spirit her to hand the 1 ? In a similar of deference is usages of polite society Aristarchus offended by the envoys passage in Iliad ix. if the ' again tasted food (cn/r eVa- making them take merely a light refec(de See also Plutarch's guarded comments on the incident Poet. cravro} 1 better.' though they had already drunk as much as their heart desired ' ' (ix. 322. said Aristarchus. lines. 23). ' and put away the desire (e^ epov eWo) of meat and drink. . But he has some misgivings. the court of the He his therefore : rejects s (aderel) the verses containing Nausicaa unmaidenly wish.214 HARVARD LECTURES made in v marriages were Ptolemies. they can hardly be genuine for who would think of engaging his daughter to a stranger of whom he knew nothing. Aud. have a Homeric flavour . p. viii. . ch.

Here we may take a rapid glance backwards and observe the contrast between Alexandria of the second century fifth B. result literary I speak now only literary of the on taste and criticism for no one could think slightingly of the services rendered us by that encyclopaedic industry. with corporate rights and large endowments.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM tion out of 215 compliment to their host. and to a standard of taste. five There or six two libraries hundred thousand volumes.C.C. The accumulated containing some treasures of Greek are literature have here found a home. above all by the . functions it Among other aspires to maintain to arrest the purity of Greek idiom. and Athens of the century B. Still from he excessive caution (UTTO Trepi-rr^ ev\aj3eia<?} did not change the reading. In Alexandria \ve have the famous Museum. to its a royal foundation. resort from all To this city erudite men parts of the world. the encroachments fix of other tongues. specially designed en- courage learning and research. of learning . A vast apparatus ? and with what effect .

Even from the of savants. or discover the too rare relics and jottings of Aristotelian tradition. writer's a faculty for apprehending a critical is inmost meaning. work.216 HARVARD LECTURES v laborious collection texts . at least in . Few word. and comparison of Greek to those scholars we largely owe But it that we have a Greek literature to-day. the right or the left. most of their the domain of poetry. unilluminating save where we meet with the sane and vigorous intelligence of Aristarchus. an oral literature. books. a diffused intellectual atmosphere. if criticism implies some intuition and sympathy. amuse itself impossible to answer in Why did Nausicaa wash her garments than in the river ? sea-water rather how could Poseidon have had ? so ugly a son as the Cyclops on which hand. We read of literary symposia where erudite with questions garrulity loved to trivial to ask. the sway of the living . lighter recreations of this society we learn something of their quality. was Aphrodite wounded by Diomede ? Now turn from the cosmopolitan city of learning to Athens of the Periclean age.

v GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM keen but unformulated. carried on within closed walls . literature 217 criticism There. finished. The links in were broken which to the bound the present historic sympathy . Nor with the the waning of the creative as it impulse did critical faculty awaken to has done at some the periods of history prepare way for another forward movement. The critics pored over their classic books. stirring No current of national its was to vivify failing force. ingenious. for one brief moment. but of no the longer the spontaneous expression mind of the life community. but as erudite men. and call art responded with prompt impression to the of patriotism and its religion . not not as lovers of literature TroXu/zatfet? 0tXoXo7ot. sometimes even tender and beautiful . what was it ? Literature at Alexandria change was divorced from life it had become the craft the . assembled citizens and by a rare and happy fortune the verdict of the few coincided with the instinct of The secret of the surprising many. of a coterie. industrious. each new product of genius made to a concourse of immediate appeal .

v past and many generations were destined to elapse before it was discovered that the task of criticism ness of demands not only vision. some sense learning but directof perspective. and an effort of imaginative reconstruction. .21 8 HARVARD LECTURES .

' said ' Goethe. ? Must we exclude history. from the Greek point of view. The smallest part of what has is been done and spoken recorded. literature But where does begin or end science. survived is the smallest part of what has ' literature is ? The modern world in is judging prose literature often undecided as to what is and what not.VI GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM ' LITERATURE.' recorded has May we ' not add. is the fragment of fragments. When 219 the early glamour the sense of mystery and almost of magic . at least almost all much most the fiction ? On one never or two points Greeks wavered. and the smallest part of what has been survived. We are all agreed that we cannot include in literature every form of written or printed matter.

Nauck Mjdijs : rrjs "ye <j>apfji. see Fr. Euripides notes accurately the early use of writing for letters or practical purposes messages.6t>os &(f>uva. 1 So far.ar' elSe'vai.s elireiv./j.s inrtp TrXa/cos OIKOVS iravr ('iriffracrdai ra/cet /car' Traiffiv /faXws. as ends. and In in order to enter into domain of 1 art.K opffiixras /j. life it to serve purely material it was designed formed part lacked the the of the prosaic order of dignity of art. however. (' 163 oOev Kal TOI)S ') xP e v ^ a^Hjs purely practical needs tirl evpecnv e'XOe'iv. viii.i> tivOpwrroi. contracts. rbv \a[36vra & 5' els tpiv Trlirrovffi. oblivion saved from the its inspirations of the Muse. Outside poetry : early uses were of the practical kind tering treaties was employed for regisand contracts and for keeping it accounts. order to become literature. <t>uvr/evra. cri. wills. (Palamedes) 578 TO. etc. . irt \f/evSrj Sf\ros Staipei. war' oi> rrap6vra trovrio. writing was at chiefly thought of It as a mechanical aid to memory.HARVARD LECTURES attaching to the discovery of writing had first passed away. rrjs on Odyss. virt> schol.XXa/3ds nOeis f^7]upov dvdpuiroicri ypd/j. . re rbv OvriffKOvra xpwarwi' 5' et ypd'fiavTa.a. KOVK a Xtye Cp.

that lifeless prose to be figures more than a . Even the scientific writers of . the conviction is slowly took shape. is submit itself to the law of beaut}-. expression of bare cold . record of facts and force in civic . verse. long been instinct- As soon as Greek reflection applied itself to the difficult problem of how to write if prose. if it is to exert its full life as an instrument of persuasion as if it is to be of enduring value truth.vi GREEK LITE RA R ' } CRITICISM itself the written word a must needs invest First. like Style . These principles ively recognised in had poetry. it with new character. or be coloured by the collective experirace. infirmity it is demand and through itself art in alone can the perishable word clothe lasting form. ence of the form must be impressed upon a beauty that should be tested by the ear as well as by the mind. it a vehicle of discovered must. some beauty of it writer. human thought must pass The fact it through a human medium must take the personality of the Secondly. must become an or emotion. to no mere concession the imperious human of art .

^ 5 TJ rex*"? f^Kp-q. of producing an effect strong and immediate. those who feel the need of artificial : making prose artistic. not. With what to-day ! de- lighted surprise we should greet a medical treatise with such an opening In our jected to own day two the style of prose is sub- different and even opposing influences. 1 Hippocr. i 6 /ftos ppaxfa. who is an prose . Aphor. is literature as well as science. you say. Si Kpicris x a ^ e7r77- .\fpri. is far-fetched. 5e Trtlpa ff<f>a. recondite. some grace wise of style. could they pass outside the narrow of circle of specialists.' At once you hear artist in the tones of one this. who feel the need of making prose practical. i) i. upon works which otherfelt. 6 5^ Kcupbs o^vs. The great treatise Hippocrates on medicine begins with the ' : words Life is short : Art is long : Opportunity : fleeting : Experiment l hazardous Judgment difficult. easily become more . on the other hand. Those. they rely on the suggestive than on the expressive force of words they adopt a manner of writing which allusive.222 HARVARD LECTURES vi Greece sought to stamp the impress of art. On the one hand.

But the great prose writers ful move us by their power- simplicity.GKF. and a hurry. Style becomes in the in the other. Hurry comes of the devil. the hope that people thing. but also of the power of simplicity. may be convinced that we mean some- But by degrees we become conscious not only of the charm. in saying rather more than we mean. are is more congenial and modern We to accustomed sonorous periphrases. to pathetic emotional appeals. the pomp to of phrase to aristocratic taste. slowness of God. their quiet strength.' No more wholesome corrective of any false be found than the ideals of prose writing can study of Attic prose masterpieces. ' They recall Eastern proverb.EK LITERARY CRITICISM fall into exaggeration in the desire to be emis phatic. Rome. At fijst perhaps they strike us as cold. their sense of measure and proportion. The of rhetorical manner. In either case the language strained. even by what has been called their ' ' grand the leisureliness of manner. is We see to that an exaggerated ignorance of phrase often due mere . breathless one instance in affected .

It would. felt not. Monotonous splendour soon wearies Aristotle's and we confess the truth of 'a remark.224 HARVARD LECTURES ' vi the ' proper word. TO. us. of course. characteristics which mark the Attic and 1 lucid Poet. Overdone ornament did adorn but deface. The broad contrasts between . rather than in isolated phrases or passages. and proper values of each given by contrast and this arrangement was their chief concern. 1460 b 4 airoKpvirTd yap /ecu TrdXiv T] Xtac Xafiirpa X^ts re ^drf rds oiapotas. But there are certain common manner.e one another. xxiv. The beauty of prose was to lie in the texture of the whole. the parts to being skilfully adjusted th. in their judgment. . sent an idea in its To pre- true proportions. them are numer- ous and striking the finer shades of difference are endlessly various. . Attic authors as if be misleading to speak of they all wrote in one style. direct of men who are accustomed to easy II.' The Athenians disliked phrase-making. that too brilliant dicof character and tion obscures the expression l thought. The speech is that of daily life.

too. the law of reserve try. moreover. Demetr.vi GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM 225 human intercourse without artificial barrier or restraint. who desire to understand. distinction. and to be understood of others. /cat a/aa . It has a certain well-bred elegance. Set /cat De Eloc. % avrov /cat crvvfh /xapri'j yap TO AXet0#<^ <roi> OVK dKpoarrjs dXXa yivfrcu. Theophrastus ap. hand of the sometimes. unobtrusive but un- a beauty or artist charm which conceals . that of this finely tempered instrument language has been forged or sharpened in the rhetorical schools. rather than the approxi- mately right word. is But the colloquial idiom It raised above the commonplace. a compactness of phrase the flowing grace of the Ionian writers which reminds us. dXX' frta KaTaXtTretV TO? aKpoary virb crwteVat crov \oyte(r6ai fj.6i>ov. which cannot be mistaken for pedanIt obeys. avoidance of provincialisms. It is a style scrupulous in the purity of in its diction. In the Cp. in the effort to hit the right. has an added touch of mistakable the . it : wins the goodwill of the reader by leaving his something to 1 own 1 intelligence. 222 ov iravra tw' /cat aKpifieloiS /naKpiriyopfiv. an quite unlike energy. perhaps too forcibly.

that is a beautiful verse meaning to ' : nothing superior a less beautiful verse meaning something still it was in that direc- .226 HARVARD LECTURES it vi region of feeling It is discreet and guarded. vibrations of the voice. the glow of feeling is at once. even in its im- passioned and imaginative modes of utterance Attic prose retains the sense of measure. It which is constitute this its character. essential the sobriety. that lends to Greek oratory its incomparable There was a moment in the force. the appeal the reason no less than to the emotions. emotion real where emotion wanting but where passion has to be expressed. of refuses to speak is in accents . when the the Athenians. the precision. just union of to passion and self-restraint.' and to aim at aesthetic expression apart from the meaning ' to be conveyed.C. They would hardly indeed have subscribed to Flaubert's saying. fifth century prose B. revealed in in the rising tone and in rhythms which we seem to overhear the very Still. ' were tempted to take up the cult of Art for Art's sake. shaping their influence under of the Sophists.

any other people to what was simple Thus they found it possible to mere phrase-making exquisite delight in beautiful and reconcile their disdain of with an harmonious words. Greek and Roman. saved them this alluring That the expression the ear. led them to find in the perfection of language keeping closer than and natural. y 6e [iiKpbv. words should be exactly adequate to 1 thought. fjiiKpov 4 r. power of direct vision. But the just literary instinct their people. sagacity and the vigour of from in their political evil. But that is of capital importance to remember in testing 1 beauty of form the Greeks submitted p. Lysias ap. combined with practical life. Cp. aj /^c TTO\V. wo\vs. . and should also charm the became art. Greg. yap yXcDrra vovv ovre waXu^ o&re ?x e '> ^ vous. their intolerance exaggeration. is. Cor.ut/cpjs. a familiar and it trite idea. the guiding principle of their literary dislike their The of the Athenians of for false ornament. as stated in general terms.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM tion 227 that the danger lay even in prose comof the position. The value attached to literary form by all antiquity. .

' that 2 very and peculiar light of the Chinese. c. 34). I i] TUV Kvpiuv KCL! neyaXowpeirCiv ovon&Ttav . . be suspected of some But the truth is that the power unreality. Beautiful words are the mind. c.KOVOVTO. 2 Longinus De Subl. 6vofji. The the as whose is language like of Greeks distinguished stress. and striking . 0uis yap T<J. . The lan- guage in which the Greek critics speak of the harmonies of prose composition might. Loci Critici.\a 6v6/j.a. Saints- bury. . iro\6/ji. /f\oyri 0cn'/m<rTtDs dyei KO. to the immediate judgment of later the ear. De Comp.S. the rhythm and music of the spoken word. Dionys. prose and verse alike. tvn fdiov TOV vov TO. was felt by the Greeks ' in a degree we cannot readily comprehend.' 1 ' There is a marvellous attracin appropriate and enthralling charm words. With harmonious in its arrangement of words comes Literature many tion kinds. . by the musical. K0. by a modern reader. of sound. . Verb.op<po$ xvi irapa dt ras T&V ap/j.ovlas 6 \6yos yiverai (Trans.ara. are said to be only modern people who are equally sensitive to the aesthetic 1 sound of words.228 HARVARD LECTURES vi the written word. opposed to the the accent. xxx.I KaTaKrj\fi TOVS O. p.T(av Hal.

. when re- peated only to the inward ear. -that Words have in the a double virtue which resides in if sense and miss to that which resides the sound. have been trained to work together correspondence. are but half alive on the printed page. The words. those with whom soul and in sense. The music of verse. not silently. is We made much of the charm the eye do duty also for the ear. happy union of music and meaning.GREEK LITER AR Y CRITICISM The dull art 229 of printing has done much to our literary perceptions. but aloud in company. comes prose as a faint But it is perhaps in that we have most to learn from the ancients of style. the adjust- ment of sounds would convey save to to the mood a or feeling they all this in manner impossible eye and ear. the prose rhythm. in respect They observed they felt the its movements of harmonies. and far into the days of the Roman empire to the third and fourth century of our era and the custom survived of reading both prose and verse. echo. bereft of their vocal force. It is perfect a fact but little known that throughout the Greek period.

' Epicurus. was built But the language of up by long and laborious ' * August. c.' his eye silently over page. To write and ' read comes by nature. while ' his voice and tongue were Various reasons are then suggested to account for so strange a departure from the common practice. 1 He there of the difficulty he had in getting access to his master leisure Ambrose. one of the few in ancient literature where tells silent reading is mentioned. held a like ' opinion writing. there is seems.230 HARVARD LECTURES is vi There a curious passage in Augustine's Con- fessions. 2 phrase being dvayiyvwa-Keiv Dionys.' said it Dogberry.' he said. vox autem is et lingua quiescebant.' In the Classical age dvayiyvdja-Kfiv full rarely used Trpbs of silent reading.' : no difficulty. Hal. whose in rare hours of were spent reading. et vi. cradle they had the prose 1 gift of song. Verb. Confess. 3 cum legebat oculi ducebantur per paginas. and who was one day observed to run the still. xxiv. De Comp. in 2 The Greeks on From the whole did not find it so. the eavrov. . cor intellectum rimabatur. Verse came to them almost as their their native speech.

avv- ol Trepl ~Ka.8fj. of foreign models. diction when .ovfj.ov Kal <$>epeKvdr] Kal '~EKO.IOV. TO 8e r/[j. 1 by they strove to set themselves free. 2 E. In time the practice TOMjrtK'Jj was Cp. Xvaavres TO typa.iffv . But they were haunted by Epic reminiscences.p9]\6ev rb /J-ecrov elra (KtlvrjV TO.fvoi. i. Strabo ei's 2. 16 WPUTKTTO. hexameter endings are not and in Herodotus we find a of beginnings and endings of number lines hexameter than in any slip later author. Ta\\a di= ^xAd^acres iroirjTiicd. TO /J.g. to was the degrees.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM discipline.v fj-frpov. tradition The only From poetry. fiapTvptei irapfovras dirftvai Trpr/ffTrip.ifj. first wrote prose had to create tradition they had no guide them.TO. These early especially writers easily into metre. yap Kal fvSoKifj.v TJ/JUITV yij. of the hexameter. by the rhythm and Even in the philo- sopher Heraclitus uncommon greater 2 .r]crev rj K fj. no tradition this. In Greece snatches of metre and other poetical orna- ments were at first sought out as an embellish- ment of 1 prose. the thought and is become elevated forcing its just as blank verse always way into English prose. Tra. by the old poetic roll diction. Those who it .\f/a.

good critics. the be rhythmical. yap eWcu. however.I Rhet.' must be kept within due What the due limits were. that of poetic prose. or will it be a poem 2 : the rhythm. rovro utrpov 5f 8t Zffrai /J. iii. av ptxp 1 T De SitbL c. ci/c/H/JtDs. While mitted prose rhythm was another not only per- but enjoined. 8. . iroirj/M. 810 B. became criticism. xli.232 HARVARD LECTURES condemned by all vi decisively Aristotle. v V- pvdfibv 5e ^UT. more open first Literary taste was at divided on the 1 point. it must not be over-exact limits. an accepted canon of Plato goes so far as to discover a moral danger in prose compositions which lack rhythm or harmony to his . 1408 b 30 Sib pvO/M>v Set ^x eit> r <> v ^yov. When 9. was to debate. question variously answered. mind they 3 indicate some disorder within the soul. who laid it down that the styles of 1 poetry and prose are distinct.TI. literature descended from KO. iii. was a . rule that prose should For the rest. and cognate question. I. 3. 1404 a 28 frtpa \6yov Troir/afus Xeis 2 Ib. See also an instructive passage 3 Laws vii. also insisted that ' prose should have rhythm but not metre.

times from the normal idiom. he proceeds. /care/3?/ /j. De 7] Pyth. and yet acquire perfection and ' precision./ uffTTfp 2 ! o~)(r)iJLa. elvai. that above the idiom of daily force style.) (Tre^o? \6<yo^. xxii.pe~ri ffafirj KCU /mr/ TawfiifTjv . and so they had a true presenti- ment of the felt capacities of Greek speech.TUV See Jebb Alt.' 1 by deviating someby adding some ' E.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM her chariot of poetry frequently employed affected the to use the metaphor so l by Greek writers she rather manner of 'high-stepping' prose than resign herself at once to march ' on foot' B. first Gorgias (fifth century was one of the 2 to invoke these graces his of poetry. ' to be clear without being ' mean 3 .' life. ingenuity. at the language their the spirit of artists and. 24 IffTopia. an excessive use wearisome forth. though zeal betrayed them into some of overwrought figures. Or. but. Plut.g.ev dirb TUIV /xeYpu. ff. Poet. still antithesis.' Yet he and in school worked . I. cxxiii. verbal assonances. 1456 a 18 Aeews 5<r a. to it They lifted that it was possible its impart to prose could be a nobility of own . i.C. Orac. ' It is the of says Aristotle.

234 HARVARD LECTURES ' vi element of novelty or will surprise.X.1.Ta- 4 Arsenius Praeclara Dicta Philosophoriun dff/Ji{vii)s ticnrep K <raTrpov Kal ptovros ffvvoiKiov airaXXdrTOimai.' the language 1 gain distinction ' (TO ^ i&iariicov).' happens that a few specimens are elsewhere also preserved of Gorgias' metaso phorical and ' poetical style. and on once It this account he 2 ' censured more than in the Rhetoric. At last Sleep ' begins to lay is me I beside his brother Death in one of is : his ' sayings extreme old age 4 3 : another take my departure as from a lodging ruinous and sayings. 2 Rhet.e 6 virvos tipxtrcu irapa. any taste. oi TroXXot airaiSefrruv 8' roi'S TOIOVTOVS K.T. 1404 a 25 vvv ri ff. Ib. 1458 b 2 9. iii. Gorgias exceeded the His prose ap- proper limits of such deviation. 3.Ka. 1} iii. rovro OVK laviv. Aelian V. 4. 4.i /ceiXXurra. proached too nearly to the poetical is manner. H. TTOIIJTIKT. I. ff. more than they do English But in both languages they belong rather to the order 1 Poet.' As isolated hardly offend Greek. 1406 b 9 ii. however. these could decayed. xxii. . Kal otovra. 35 ^5ij fj.\tyeffda. In his judgment. 3 5ia. irp&TT) eyevero Xeis. rdiv olov Topyiov.. ff.

KO. One in from the pen of Gorgias to reap in ruin. Aristotle's censure of the same writer for employing ornamental 1 Rhet.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM of poetry. iii. 4.' ' ' : You sowed shame. with him. fastidious modern would not carp But the word KaroTrrpov in its metaphorical sense must have had something far more daring and unaccustomed ' for a Greek than the word mirror ' has in English. and could not appropriately be used in prose except at rare moments.TO- TTTpOV. deserve mention. perhaps. 1406 b 9 <ri) 5e ravra cuVxpcDs (JLCV ecnreipas. iii. cites Of the in is metaphors which Aristotle and censures prose. 3.K&S 5 2 eWpttras. think we should concur ears the saying it Even to modern is high-flown in so antithetic a form. two. 4. need a very impassioned context to It is justify otherwise with the metaphor he quotes with disapproval from Alcidamas (one of the school of Gorgias) describing the Odyssey as fair ' a mirror of critic human life.' 2 The most at this. Too grand and is tragic/ says Aristotle l . Ib. and would it. 1406 b 12 KaXbv avOputrivov jSiov KO. 3. and familiar as I the metaphor of sowing and reaping. .

a critic and grammarian who 2 lived at Rome in the Augustan age. 1406 a 18 ov yap xpT/rcu dXX' u>s eS^r/mri rots 2 tiriOtroiS. On Dionysius as a literary critic see the valuable edition of The Three Literary Essays by W.). as it was felt by the Greeks even in prose literature. but of his fine perception of the harmonies of Greek speech we can entertain no reasonable doubt. and charm read even by scholars.' is levelled at a fault of taste into fell. 3. which the Greeks seldom Aristotle does not appear to have appreciated either the suggestive capacity of words or their musical value. he assumes that the ear demands nobility in literary expression as truly as the eye does in a picture or a statue (c. Many of his literary judgments are prejudiced and unprofitable. The most instructive com- mentary on the emotional power of sound. is to be found in Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Rhys Roberts (Cambridge Press 1901). pp. depends less on the apt choice i]dv<r/j.a. . x.Ti Rhet.236 HARVARD LECTURES ' vi epithets not as the sauce of the discourse but l as the dish. He holds that the magic of 1 style 3. In an essay entitled that is little On the Arrangement of Words. iii. 1-49.

-iv.). True to this principle of Dionysius. TJ. He : arranges the vowels in order of euphonic value a. i. may be observed. Among the consonants. never with the Greeks became an independent science. inquiries The made into the physiology of sound had all a bearing on the study of rhetoric. relies on the authority Aristoxenus. he examines the (c. cant or who can at will make Odysseus mendior warrior. and it lay within the domain of the musician rather than of the letters grammarian to classify the of the alphabet. mean Taking the alphabet letters itself mighty (c. xiv. Hence the link was a close one which united phonetics on the one hand with metric and music on the other .). ft>. the author of the famous treatise on music. Alter their arrangement and you destroy the total effect : for arrangement is like the Homeric Athene.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM r)} of words than on the manner in which they are disposed (a-vvOecrt^ within the sentence. v. sigma is . the object being simply to discover what sounds were beautiful or the reverse. in estimating the elemental sounds. from the euphonic point of view it Phonetics. ii.

' Some poets. 455 c. Hal. . composed whole z . inquiry are borrowed Eleusis ' : How from the mysteries of These things indeed are of the nature of mysteries and not to be divulged to the vulgar. TO el ir\eovdffeie f) <r<j)68pa \viret- dypiuSovs yap Kal d\oyov 2 3 fjui\\ov \ojLKrjs f<f>dirreffdai Soicei 6'Xas iirolovv.238 HARVARD LECTURES letter ' vi a without grace or sweetness. xiv. KOJ. odes read without a sigma and elsewhere we of a tour de force of the Pindar. elffl 8 of d<riy/j. and if too frequently employed becomes very painful. De Comp. c. appears as the hierophant of a hidden one who most is prepared to initiate us into the inner- secret of literature. The sibilant sound seems characteristic of the l voice of the brute rather than of rational man. 3 kind attributed to We his refer cannot here follow Dionysius style.ovs aJSds Athen. he adds. I in intricate distinctions of would he only to a single chapter in which art. 1 Dionys. Verb. a. x. He asks the question a prose work may resemble a beautiful The phrases with which he prefaces the poem.

O$K et's 7roXXoi>J old TrapaKa\oir]i>. therefore. be no impertinence should invite only the privileged few to be present holy close rites at the of literature. &<TT' OVK 6. SjSrj De Comf. Hal. et's Ovpas 5' eirlOeff6ai Zvioi rcus d/coa?s /3e/3?jXouj.i TO. .S reXeris rot''? rov \6~yov.' J make mockery of things most He prose.ioro. and the practice of the great 1 Dionys. bear traces elaboration of the rhetorical schools. But we cannot dismiss his general criticism as unsound or fanciful. poetical without being a poem. TJKew \eyoi/j.v firjv irl (popriKos. profane the gates in of their For a some there are who sheer ignorance serious. KO. Next he passages from Demosthenes. d W/tus tffrLv. and melodious selects without being a lyric. The whole history of the evolution of Greek prose. 5C aTreiplav. and bid the ears.I Verb. of the over- must be owned. ytXara yap <nrovoa. which he submits to a searching and minute analysis on the side of rhythm. metrical. it Some of his distinctions.TO. xxv /U'OT??/>/OIS ^v ovi> ZoiKev ravra. rt tffriv oTs tK(t>{pfff(iai. c.vi GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM 239 It I would. then expounds the doctrine of rhythmical working on the text supplied by Aristotle's Prose must be rhythmical but not Rhetoric.

its No its one can to catch its something of fall . such analysis. can never be more than partially successful. Recent critics following the to steps of Dionysius have attempted define more accurately the rules of rhythm and harmony But which govern the prose of Demosthenes. probably. and even two vowels in consecutive words were seldom allowed to collide. the stages the We can trace. The trained oratorical ear was acutely sensitive to euphonious combinations of sounds. No pains were spared that words might be linked together by easy and continuous articulation. manifold movelaws are as In ment. moreover. .240 HARVARD LECTURES art. come to be linked together in a larger rhythmical in structure. The Demosthenic to adjust rhythm itself fail in its infinite variety refuses to any rigid framework. Rough and clashing syllables were avoided. by which the ample movement of period oratorical was developed how the clauses that follow one another in logical sequence and subordination. great rise and but it free as the emotion to which responds. vi masters of the support his main contention.

Rhythmic symmetry of succeeds. only when we venture to write that we become aware how ugly is it it ourselves can be made. the Now and then. and wonder at the full harmonies that all can be drawn out by one who knows tones of the instrument. into artificial a kind it there surely in but the attempt to follow out minor details only by sections. cutting up the period without due regard to oral delivery or to the natural pauses of the voice. is . we are admitted to the confidence of a writer who has mastered the art. has grown dull to the read of We Greek and Roman is audiences being painfully affected by inharmonious combinations of sound. probably There no conceivable dissonance which to the would cause neuralgia of a British audience. by a rare chance. The modern world cadences of prose. unfastidious ears is itself English in truth It a most difficult language to render musical. There is an article by .GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM vain 241 we seek an exact rhythmic correspondence between the members of a period or of successive periods. too often.

ara /caXa atria elvai.242 HARVARD LECTURES ' vi R.' l which a pretty precise modern parallel to the specula- tions of Dionysius. as each phrase music consists of notes. c.ara. Contemp. 8 6vofj. sure. find it. it fired it you 2 in a whole broadside or find Cp. perhaps. denied again pass awhile to tantalize the ear at 1 . Stevenson on is Style in Literature. in is built of sounds. ' Each phrase literature. consonants only of incongruous relieved by ' the jaw-breaking hiatus. and whole phrases not to be articulated of man. find .druv <ri>XXa/3dj re KOI ypdfj. Stevenson. concordances is the final art in literature.' by the powers You may you follow the adventures of a letter through any passage that has particularly pleased . L. Rev. Dionys. manner of ment is curiously similar.' says Stevenson. De Comp. 1885.' will find 2 In bad writers 'you the rattle cacophony supreme.fj. demands and harmonizes with another and the art of rightly using these . .\Civ avdyKr) Ka\rii> fiev X^ftp fv 77 Ka\d iariv dvbp. we may be probably had treatin had never read Dionysius But his ' never heard of him. r]d(1di> Tf 8id\(Krov IK rwv T)8vvbvruv rrjv dxorjv yivfcrOai. One sound suggests. flvai Verb. xvi wore TTO\XTJ KO. echoes. Hal.

affair is any perfect passage how many it faculties. tracking ring letters. from in Shakespeare and Coleridge. whether of taste or pure reason.' Fascinating.' gives from Milton's Instances he then prose. and perfect pages rarer. ' each case the recur: And as to the rhythm. must be held upon the is stretch to it make . . We need not wonder then if perfect sentences are rare. . as are such disclosures of the inner mechanism of the craft. as to gratify is the sensual ear. judge. out of accented and unaccented syllables.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM into congenerous sounds. like an air or recitative in music. one liquid 243 or labial melting away into another. should afford so complete a pleasure. . may we analysis not is feel confident that the thing. method method of production of one and the another Milton and that neither Demosthenes nor nor Stevenson himself at his best - .' ' And of this the ear the sole : He ends a long inquiry by observing We begin to see now what an intricate . and why when it made. he writes Each phrase of each sentence. should be so artfully com- pounded out of longs and shorts. however. .

a light A spirit pamphleteer by and airy with an exuberant and poetic fancy. They had a pretty knack . whose business was to handle any theme effectively at short notice.244 HARVARD LECTURES vi were solicitous to count their longs and shorts. a sparkling irony. insincerity in literature as in and In an age of tasteless pedantry he stood out as a model of simplicity and unaffected good ' taste. and execute variations upon it in brilliant and acrobatic manner. who had many of the gifts of a great Lucian. or consciously played the game of hide-and- seek with the letters ? Let us now pass to the age of the Antonines the second century of our era at the work of the one and glance man : of literary genius whom critic that age produced also an original writer. manner was perhaps the chief He had a native dislike art. the Syrian. instinct. of Samosata. ' The literary artists of the day Sophists as they were called were as a rule it itinerant rhetoricians. a singular freshness of all his gifts his and delicacy of tone inimitable ease and naturalness of secret of his for falsehood life.

do not pause to think. in conveyed veiled for the . hollow imposture which is passed His own literary criticism occasional and unsystematic. even when they are nothing to the 1 purpose. Next.Trep TI TJ8vfffj. which must be freely sprinkled as a garnishing to your discourse. and some fifteen or twenty old Attic words. KOI Praec.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM of turning phrases . press forward.aTa eiKrj fTrtTroXctj'erw eiravdeirw .a e'Trtrarre avrQiv. Ka. the affectation. Thirdly and above 1 all a chorus of friends to Rhet.L % 1 8 ra 6\iya e/cVa 6vo/j. for art. pamphlet entitled TJie TeacJicr of Orators he lays down : certain rules which may be thus summarised First.06. . . bring to your subject ignorance and audacity. and poverty of against the Lucian set his face the pretentiousness. a stentorian voice. /caXa yap ecm /ecu Xfyoueva. 245 but their ingenious conceits concealed an inner unreality thought. KO. . most part parody or lightly less it irony but none the is original and genuine In the criticism. have 16 Do not trouble to put things in their proper order. They are always beautiful. ewlTrcuTTO. speak fluently. an exquisite toilette.

by persons ancient writers. 1 rocrovrov fi^v efffibv CLTOTTUV TO. 42). The 2 archaisms and the craze for novelty generally go together in decadent minds. We observe here the allusion to old Attic words. has now ' reappeared.vTiw<riv vvv.\. mad a dance ' (Saints- . v. &v TO. 1 Lexiph. think of the sense. The ' closing words 23-24) are to this effect : Give up first the quest for outlandish phrases .246 HARVARD LECTURES vi applaud you.eva iro6fv dvaffiruv K. the Lexi- Lucian administers to a drastic medical this treatment fantastic a patient . 2 Cp. * Words read the the were unearthed or whence. that quest after novelty in thought which leads our folk of to-day so bury. 6 then of the words. which has in the ( ring of real conviction.I Si 6vo/j. In another satire. p. suffering from disorder little and finally dismisses him with a homily it on literary education. avrbs tiroiTjffas. The love of archaic phrases. c. phanes. de KaTopwpvy/j.T.' no one knew who had never who opened none but taste for newest books. KO. Loci Critici.drwv. ' irepi 5 5i] (idXiffTa Kopv[3a. De Subl. and dug up. which had been one of the passing affectations of early prose. rb irepl ol rds poijcms naivoffirovdov.

withered as rhetoric critics gained turn ground to and even literary in came treat poetry from the point of . every walk of ' Indeed we find the word eloquentia the employed by term Roman for writers as comprehensive every form of literary verse.oycov). composition. Be not beguiled by the wind-flowers 'X. Rhetoric of the in was the educational discipline Roman ' empire and the passport to success life. of rhetoric The pervading influence more than any other one single cause brought about this anarchy of taste. One various of the evils he discerned was that the forms of literature were .GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM Follow the ancient models instead of moulding yourself on the poorest productions of the latest sophist.' In Lucian's literary criticisms there is always a tacit reference to the great traditions of the past. of speech (al ave^wvai rwv but nourish of youf literary sense on the fortifying food athletes. grave and gay. en- croaching each on another's sphere natural boundaries were being effaced and there was a confusion of kinds. prose and Poetry slowly .

248 HARVARD LECTURES till vi view of the rhetorical schools. Of all kinds of prose composition history this suffered ruption. 2 Hermog. to give an imaginative offer colouring to the digressions.D. the question was seriously raised by a Roman writer. Lucian De /JLV Hist. rhetoric . whether Virgil was an orator or a poet. same time menaced by It was the business of engaging falsehood. and to the weary 1 traveller pleasant resting-places by the Kal Cp.Tui> 8 djvoeiv eoiVaow fiXXat i<7rocrx^0"ets ol /cat TOLOVTOI Kavbvts 5e &\\oi. De Ideis p. art of rhetorical The full amplification would find scope in the fictitious speeches in which had become a fixed tradition at the 2 historical writing. of the second century A. Kal Conscr. 417. 28 irdi>Tws Set TOUS l<rTopioypd<f>ovs 4v rots irav-qyvpiKols Terdx#at. Annaeus Florus. The subject to be chosen must be one that was flattering to national vanity and that admitted of skilful embellishment. But history was the inroad of poetry. TroiT]/j.d. most from It its 1 subtle form to of cor- was held special be a province of of department was that panegyric. . to poetry to supply the adorn the legends..

TOV OaTepif) 'irtpov /j. No with less in does he condemn that jumble fine of styles which of writing ' is interspersed touches slang the buskin of tragedy other. arevi^ ry Kol 2 La.TTeix<-<rTai Il>. ffj. Cause r. : is fixed between history IffOp. de ffdv8a\ov .! Il>. In his pamphlet in How plea to write History Lucian sobriety .^ Stuipicrrcu anil panegyric) dyvoowres 17 01. rjv TLVO. in vigorous prime.iov.f3a. both Greek and Roman.Tov vipyXov eirififfBriKOTi. puts a for accuracy and he protests as also did Polybius 1 against ridicules turning the history into panegyric.' 2 on one foot. Tts Troiijrt/CTj yiyverai . 22 (bare TO TT Trpdyfjia eoiKOS eZVcu Tpaywdu. assailed historical writers. 249 Thus the danger which in their the Greeks surmounted began now. and a slipper on the the lawless ' He 3 disallows history poetic fancy by which ' becomes 1 a sort of prosaic poetry.' 7 ('a great gulf <1)S His own De Hist. 8 rj rj iffTOpia 5f. KoXaKeiav . laropLa Trpbs TO fyKu*/j. affect He with writers style ( who one a vulgarly picturesque or overloaded descriptive detail 19-20). TL d\\o Trejr.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM way.ev iroSa. lines when prose of poetry. to advance along the a new form.

fearless. The triple alliance of history. no sovereign. 41 50o/Jos. In recent years against what history. poetry. and rhetoric injuriously affected. ira.' 'owning no country.250 HARVARD LECTURES is conception of what a historian ought to be in marked contrast with the character of the day his servility. dXXa TOU ffi'iJ-iravTOs CUWPOS ffroxo-ff/j. Hist. ^05 Ib. Seeley pictorial . his straining dramatic effect. history becomes the pictorial .pbv /JLOVOV auTovo/j-os. p-rjffias . /3t/J\iois. . his disregard after ' historian of the of truth. urges. 2 no ' l . .ivos. incorruptible. . . dfiaffiXevros. foos SIKOOTT/S eflvoi/s diraffiv. Kal d\r)6eias fv rots $i\os. the historical tradition of Europe. through the course of centuries. irap. is a sharp reaction has set in called the literary influence in The Muse of history is exhorted to cast aside her literary trappings and assume her severest scientific. . the friend of truth. . Kal ajroXty. . king one who for writes not all for the praise of the hour but time to come. t\ei>6fpos. The historian should be a free man. aspect. point of view 1 is apt to overshadow the historical De . 2 61 fri] irpbs rb bpSiv ypd<j>t. Conscr. dd^Kacrros. She must make herself Under the aesthetic influence.

on the scenic mere externals accessories. B. Cambridge Press. 1 In the this Inaugural Lecture.vi GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM biographical interest is a is substituted for a political. and that invites literary Whereas many of the most important events are condull fessedly reading. will the suggestion that history should emancipate herself from literature. to quit her old and come out view of into a dis- place of freedom. . an is on its on all that personal and dramatic handling. J. Seeley himself fortun- ately possessed so fine a literary gift as to be unable to carry out his own theory. falsifies pomp or glitter. 1903. great political changes being brought about without the literary estimate tions of things. order to satisfy Few this deny the solid truth that underlies But we cannot lightly accept criticism. Attention of concentrated event. But the summons and in has again been addressed to history a more peremptory form associates 1 by the present holder of the chair at Cambridge. the true proporhistorian rejects The artistic in elements of serious interest the taste for the picturesque. Bury.

embraces other in groups of facts and its is more comprehensive is scope.252 HARVARD LECTURES is vi tinguished writer history limited to the not. . though within and in relation to the political scientific organism.' Yet a work may we must be not urge that the form of mainly determined by the ? nature of the subject-matter Human action cannot be told in just the terms applicable to cosmic processes.' To a clothe the story is of a human the society in literary dress no more the part of a historian than it as a historian. the institutions. also . Still ' for him too history a science ' not an art a science no less and no more . story History of is not merely the or is of in movements. story of men. mass of facts which form It the material of political science. A purely history could hardly touch the fringe . thinking acting as individuals. in close relation with ' the sciences which deal ' objectively with the facts of the universe. as for Seeley. doing. feeling. is part of an in astronomer as an an artistic astronomer to present shape the story of the stars. It of changes the order of society.

' says Edward FitzGerald. can certitude reduced its the of scientific or facts cannot be tested authenticated science by the methods which strict recognises. They need of imaginintelligible . but to relate them a manner adapted to the subject. ' that only Lying Histories are readable. Great deeds should told. some divining power.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM of the inward world of personality. of stirring that and dramatic is right the style should reflect the colour and movement be nobly of the time. again.' Would . There are other periods which silent carry within tions future. human motive and human its That world. call for In describing scenes interest it different kinds of writing. We are here within the proper region of literature. art of literary Different periods. some faculty ative interpretation to make them and such a faculty demands the expression. with never be truth : reactions to on the outer. them the shaping growth of still instituin or the It is of events the the part of the literary historian these less not to omit inspiring in pages of history. ' What a pity it is.

269 A TO.' for the writer of genius It remains to fuse and imagination and the the elements. fantastic. but the ' materials of history ' not tragedy. into the outward inward facts. the divorced vital from the literary art and omitting many be also to but non-scientific extent untrue ? facts a large History. History rightly told literature but it is not therefore rhetorical. . We do not ask the historian 2 to be ' the epic poet or ballad writer in verse. investigate the sources. It a very it human affair. irpb Tpay^dias d\X' ou rpayiKa. Introduction to Political Science. will and must be so told that men read it with sympathy and even with delight.. this story of the past. p. but the preliminaries of tragedy. an orderly whole. collate the manuscripts. classify facts : and collect the yet all this is not yet history. is and partly an art. - Seeley. in short.254 HARVARD LECTURES unreadable histories vi not. The antithesis is between history and literary history is surely a false one.' in Plato's l phrase. Phaedr. once a literary TO. Let us search the records. would seem to be partly a science. .' at We 1 do say that he should be Plat. unreal. 27. however.

they ideal. and delicately responsive the nature of the subject-matter. . were But. severed from literature Her and power in the world. The task of writing history becomes to indeed every day more difficult owing specialised learning. but should be literary sense . that that What to needed be not history should cease it literary. reject in some such history literary any case. When one considers how various that subject-matter is. and the stricter standard of truth. But the not on is. scientists I am not sure that if the historical would.GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM man and literary 255 a man of science. that is discovered loosens their precarious hold on life. will To ideal be a literary historian probably be a rare achievement should is in the that future. style should be more to and sensitive ready obediently follow the to thought. it will be seen that no literary demand could well be more exacting. fresh fact each productions become ephemeral loses her place . account be lowered. in a higher than the ordinary flexible the . the accumulation of materials. pressed.

But the province of criticism is one of observation and comparison.256 HARVARD LECTURES Looking back on the general course of Greek criticism we can see that not a few of its defects may be traced to the fact that the literature but their Greeks knew no the region own. In the critical appreciation of our . Even Aristotle in the Poetics failing . which besets a critic is that of attempt- ing to restrict the rights of genius by framing arbitrary canons of literary uniformity. It could have evolved itself on the same natural to lines and life in such close relation the organic of society. In of literary production they were probably the gainers for being thrown upon their own resources. The chief danger. perhaps. and a wider comparison enlarged would have brought with it an comprehension. Their literature must otherwise have lost some of that incomparable it freshness which distinguishes literatures from the other not of Europe. is not free from the questioned is and it may perhaps be whether the highest literary criticism possible without a knowledge of at least one foreign literature.

signs of this criticism vitality . . stirrings of political life were now again The History outlook too of Polybius was one result a wider world. Char- acteristics long familiar became significant only when light was first flashed on them from the even in study of antiquity. c. The felt. 1 civilisa- was the confluence of these two that led tions to the comparative study of literature in however rudimentary a form. The early experiments were not altogether felicitous. proem. a salutary influence on the Greece writers literary In the expiring days of larger Rome opened up who had horizons to in hitherto been brought up the seclusion of libraries or in rhetorical schools. 3. parative politics A lesson com- may have art. 1 De Antiq.vi GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM literature 257 own till no first-rate work was produced the study the way had been prepared by and Latin of Greek masterpieces. into Greek renewed taste in had showed of and the return to a sounder is the Augustan age noted by Dionysius of Halicarnassus as due to the invigorating contact of It Rome. Orat.

deff/jLodfrys. as He thinks of literature not merely a product of the individual mind.wi> "elirev 6 yrj. to by Plutarch's Parallel and None the less the method was a true one. in \. Herodotus. another to respect the same writer ap- proaches our modern point of view. Certain conditions are necessary to produce great thinking 1 and great speaking. ?u6ti$ TT? ypdij/as TUV . 9 .258 HARVARD LECTURES habit arose of drawing artificial vi A comparisons between Greek and answered Sallust Still Roman authors. one passage. not only from the Greek and Latin but also. c. to to Ennius to Homer. it fruitful judgment to become The first Greek critic who is employed the to any purpose the the author of treatise On Sublime. v6/J. 6e6s" 07?<n- ri . rctirr?? Kal 6 4v r&v 'lovdaiuv el<rj3o\ri ov\ 6 rvx&v dv/ip. and needed only riper knowledge in results." . classics. In 3). Livy more remote are the analogies suggested Lives. . 1 from the Jewish Scriptures (Gen. De Subl. Thucydides. He has the unique distinction of drawing his illustrations from three literatures. but as an expression of national life. Kal eyivero Kal eytvero. Afranius Menander. ix. . "yevtcrdu <pws.

Subl. ix. his a fitting social environment forth powers. ditions. 3 . Saintsbury). decay of ' liberty. We our in seem to have learnt from infancy that subis serviency the law of life. c. both them rooted the First. for What. being from tenderest years of thought its all but swaddled manners and customs. and having never fertile tasted that most beautiful and fountain of eloquence.' fjifjaXotypoa-vvris Next. (Trans. ib. e7re% De Ib. c. or that he should have been trained to emulate the great models of antiquity. Tocravrr) \6ywv KOff/juic/i T TOV fiiov d<f>opia 3 (Trans.' yet noble faculties may be starved he for want of are moral causes ' sustenance.GREEK LITER AR Y CRITICISM It is 259 not enough that the author should have the natural gift of beautiful speech. Freedom so that 3 we turn ' out the merely sublime 1 in 2 Courtiership. ? the the the decline of eloquence for great and world-wide dearth of high utterance that attends our of ' ' 2 age ? Two in causes social he con- assigns. c. xliv. Rhys Roberts). I v\f/os air-f}X'rllJLa~ 2 xliv. asks. is True as it that elevation of style 1 'the image reflected from nobility of soul. An is atmosphere to call is needed.

' of pleasure being the ignoblest of No previous Greek critic. the money causing meanness. It is foreshadowed in Bacon. the ideals of an age. who in sketching . critic. drown us body and love of may soul in the depths. The inadequate related to perception of the corresponis dence between a writer and his age closely what was perhaps the most persistent defect of ancient criticism a want of historic imagination. as we now understand his office. as a main factor creation the of noble works of literature. social in had noted the moral atmosphere. and the love all diseases. not even Aristotle. is interpreter between the present and the past he must be imbued with the historic no than with the literary spirit. of a faculty for apprehending the whole environment of a bygone time. The stress only other ancient writer who is lays any on this topic now so trite Tacitus in the remarkable dialogue De Oratoribus. as one us away into bondage.260 HARVARD LECTURES money and vi love of the love of pleasure carry or rather. say. less Yet it has taken centuries for this idea to be established. The an .

' Not until recent years has either in Greek or English Criticism literature been handled this spirit. the B. and the is aware that to the the ultimate appeal to 1 to Time ' many opinion not of the few. consentient c. S 2 . to Scient. ii. c. says that ' the writer should sort of spell evoke from the dead as by a l the literary genius of the age. Saintsbury).' however. (Trans. the decisions of that tribunal ' will admit of in- telligent exposition. vi r\ yap \6yui> Kpiffis TroXX?}? e<rrt Trei'pas Tf\vralov firiy^vvrjij. ' A judgment.' De Subl. iv. function.' He must is needs form a judgthis ment. ut genius illius temporis litterarius veluti incantatione - quadam rQiv a mortuis evocetur. He cannot renounce If there his original such a thing as a standard of excellence and a tribunal of criticism. Nor must we is ' forget that the critic's office not completely summed up in the word interpretation. DC Augm. on literature ' is once more to quote Lonaftergrowth critic is ginus 'the ' final of much en- deavour 2 .GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM the principles 261 on which a critical history of literature should be composed. so practised becomes an art of constructive imagination.a.

whattheir ever be the difference in their pursuits. we may those words as truly all noble and sublime which please always. for reflection than the words seem it. such a harmony of opposites . there can be here no true effect is sublimity. then we may be sure that In we have general lighted on the true regard Sublime. or language. manner of their life. and please For when the same book produces all the same impression on who read it. when the not sustained beyond the mere passage is act of perusal. . and if. nay.262 HARVARD LECTURES This principle in vi educated mankind. when it is hard. in But when a pregnant suggestion. impossible to distract the attention from it. the longer you read the you think of it. and when it takes a strong and lasting hold on the memory. their ages. of is Quod first : semper quod ubiqne literature enunciated ' in the treatise On the Sublime If then to mitted any work on being repeatedly subthe judgment of an acute and fails cultivated lofty ideas critic. their aspirations. to dispose his mind to if it does not leave in the mind more food to convey less .

GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM gives irresistible authority to verdict. 3-4 (Trans. H. the quality of style lies and there : the answer to the question so often asked Why can we not be content to read ? Greek literature in translations Style and thought perfectly blended it is thus that Pindar's saying comes true 1 ' : The word De Subl. Macmillan and Co. vii. c. L.' 2 What is here said of the lonians applies with literal truth to ' the gracious creations of Greek literature are and ageless for ever. In the Hymn : to the Dclian Apollo you may remember the description of the lonians assembled at their festival Whosoever should ' meet them at that gathering would deem that for ever. Havell.' l their favourable This consentient verdict of the ages Greece has gained. they were exempt from death and age beholding their gracious beauty and rejoicing in heart at the sight of the men and the deep- girdled women. 1890).' in writings deathless they are They embalmed all anti- which possess the greatest of . 2 Hymn to Delian Apollo. 151-154. . septic qualities.

he that. artist.TOV <f>uvaev fl ~ epirfi. may be the material in in however lowly which he works. pijfJM 6 : fpypArwv \povi(aTfpov : /Sioretfa.' the 1 VI lives longer And it is herein as precisely that Greeks stand literary spirit.' and the beautiful perplexity We seem to know the type. In Don Quixote we for read ' of a certain author who was renowned the brilliancy of his prose of his expression. Let the phrase be but beautiful and rhythmical. Prec. Nem. out the models of the true us that They show pursue the he who would worthily calling of letters should attempt to rise above a purely mechanical skill . Istk. II fvov <t>dcr/j. ' upon dew or ambrosia. TtS fZ eiTTTJ Tl. the spirit of the is not of side to There of course a weak literary aestheticism. Rhet. 58 TOVTO yap a6a.vo. must do so the artisan.' His home is not upon the Find.a opbaip T . if A ' literary aesthete was described by Lucian fed as a 2 strange phantom Him 1 too we know. iii. and it matters not words conceal emptiness beneath. musical the fine and flowing. Cp.264 HARVARD LECTURES than the deeds. iv.

being dead while yet lives it may have philosophic. a friend begged who was initiated it. but will it it may : have scientific merit. he loves and laments. get rid of the thought. they is and showed that beauty of the essence of literature. is will be superseded what in it of value its be incorporated with other works : sub- .GREEK LITERARY CRITICISM solid earth. form is essential. and you have beautiful and pure decay. do not know but in literature at means sure Think away the meaning. form. I Once at an exhibition of pictures I stood in wonder before a certain portrait. on the one hand. is The supreme merit of the Greeks felt that.' face and you have a residuum of pure this doctrine is Whether and to be accepted in painting. No. harmonious cult in and meaningless is is his song. He sings and soars. least it I more particularly in . he knows not what or why . The of the meaningless from time to time the ascendent. portrait-painting. but not form with- out substance. into the principles of the school to explain The reply was ' : Think away the head and the colour. and that a formless work of literature it is in truth : a misnomer.

for the literature of the future is. touched the springs of national Even the idiom of the people It is he so used as to ennoble the glory of it Greek literature that of all artistic literatures is at once the most and the most popular. that as the forth democratic enlarged movement intellectual extends and calls sympathies. CLARK. & R. sustenance from the soil of human He it. Greek example reminds us that beauty of form is not all. And our hope. life. the old Hellenic harmony may be and that re-established between that eternal love of beauty on which all art and literature rest. The Greek poet had some- thing to say. our best hope. whether in prose or verse. LIMITED. Edinburgh. and was not merely concerned how he realities. not a maker of fine phrases. Printed by R. On the other hand. is love of scientific truth which the dominant mark of our own age. . The is literary writer.266 HARVARD LECTURES is vi stance separable from its form. He was his in close contact with He drew nature. said it. a singer in the void.

"Popular at " THE GLOBE. and the graceful touch which gives life and movement and charm to all he has to say. that the public appreciates rapid sale of the first and second editions the boon which Professor Butcher has conferred upon them. Professor Matcher writes so fluently and brightly. that in reading these essays we are in danger of overlooking his solid attainments and accurate scholarship. WITH A CRITICAL TEXT AND TRANSLATION OF THE POETICS Professor Butcher's first edition appeared in place among the few really important contributions to classical learning which the last years of the nineteenth are glad to be able to infer from the century witnessed. as a whole. We OXFORD MAGAZINE. and one which will render the treatise PILOT. 7s." of graceful language not always given to ST. once . it 1895 at its . therefore. LTD. THE CLASSICAL REVIEW. Third Edition. i2s. Third Edition." By far the best translation of the Poetics that has yet appeared. command " lie is extremely lucid and he writes with a scholars. Crown 8i>o." .. thoroughly accessible in a reliable and most readable form to whether they are Greek scholars or not. in treatment and in style." THE JAMES'S GAZETTE. 8vo. ARISTOTLE'S THEORY OF POETRY AND FINE ART "When once took . bd. . first to attract and then to retain the attention of a large number of the public.. THE OXFORD MA 6V/Z//V\ fully fresh " The whole volume is delight- nor can any reader lay it down without a cordial appreciation of the style as well as the matter of the writer the real value of his judgments. . and his book. net.BY THE SAME AUTHOR. and calculated." literary students. LONDON.net. his criticism is eminently fair and candid. ." all MACMILLAN AND CO. Professor Butcher writes a clear and limpid style." and readable . is as informing and suggestive as it is readable.

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