# 1

Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 1]
2.1 Buck converter
2.1.1 Operation modes
2.1.2 Voltage transfer function
2.1.3 Current modes (CCM, DCM)
2.1.4 Capacitor current
2.2 Boost converter
2.2.1 Operation modes
2.2.2 Voltage transfer function
2.3 Buck-Boost converter
2.4 Comparison between topologies
2.5 Simulation of SMPS
2.5.1 The simulations problem
2.5.2 Basics of average model of SMPS
2.5.3 Example: Boost average model simulations
BUCK, BOOST, BUCK-BOOST, DCM
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 2]
Buck Converter Constant Switching
Frequency
t
ON ON ON
t
ON ON ON
control
switch
t
on
t
off
T
S
s
s
T
1
f =
D or D
T
t
on
s
on
→ =
D 1 D
T
t
off
s
off
− → =
Switch frequency:
Duty Cycle:
S
V
in D
L
C
R
control
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 3]
Operation modes
On
Off
a
=I
b
S
V
in D
L
C
R
S
V
in D
L
C
R
V
L
I
L
t
s
t
V
in
-V
o
-V
o
I
a
I
b
t
Self commutation
V
L
I
L
t
s
t
V
in
-V
o
I
a
t
Commutation
2
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 4]
In this case
Inductor current waveform at steady state
L
V V
o in

t
on
t
I
L
t
off
L
V
o

I ∆
S
V
in
D
C
R
t
on
t
off
Buck
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 5]
Voltage transfer function
The ∆I method
Left triangle
on
o in
t
L
V V
I ⋅

= ∆
Right triangle
off
o
t
L
V
I ⋅ = ∆
off
o
on
o in
t
L
V
t
L
V V
=
|
.
|

\
| −
on
s
on
off on
on
in
o
D
T
t
t t
t
V
V
= =
+
= Independent of L !
L
V V
o in

t
on
t
I
L
t
off
L
V
o

I ∆
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 6]
-V
o
V
L
t
off
t
V
in
-V
o
t
on
T
s
+
-
At steady state, over one switching cycle:
; 0 V
L
=
on
in
o
D
V
V
0 S S = ⇒ = +
− +
; t ) V V ( S
on o in
⋅ − =
+
; t ) V ( S
off o
⋅ − =

S
V
in
D
C
R
t
on
t
off
V
o
V
L
Voltage transfer function
The average voltage method
3
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 7]
t
on
t
I
L
t
off
T
s
How will I
L
change if R is getting smaller?
S
V
in D
L
C
R
control
V
o
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 8]
t
on
t
I
L
t
off
T
s
R
2
R
1
R
3
L
V V
o in

L
V
o

CCM - Continues Conductor Current Mode
DCM - Discontinues Conductor Current Mode
3 2 1
R R R < <
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 9]
Discontinuous Inductor Current Mode (DCM)
S
V
in
D
L
C
R
V
x
V
o
control
z Different voltage transfer ratio ≠ D
on
z Higher ripple current
t
I
L
T
s
R
4
R
3
t'
off
t
off
t
on
R
4
>R
3
4
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 10]
t
on
t
I
L
t
'
off
T
s
I
pk
Voltage transfer function (DCM)
The ∆I method
off
o
on
o in
pk
t
L
V
t
L
V V
I ′ =

=
out
on out in
off
V
D ) V V (
D

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ ⋅

= ) D D ( T T
L
V V
2
1
T
1
I
off on S on
o in
S
AV
R
V
I
o
AV
=
)
V
V V
1 ( D T
L
V V
2
1
I
o
o in
on on
o in
AV

+ ⋅

=
2
o in S
2
on o in
LV 2 V T D ) V V ( R = −
|
|
.
|

\
|
− + = 1
T D R
L 8
1
L 4
T D R
V
V
s
2
on
s
2
on
in
o
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 11]
Boundary of CCM and DCM
t
on
t
t
off
Ts
L
V
o

L
V V
o in

I
L
L
2
L
min
I
av
z For CCM L > L
min
z In Buck
av pk off
min
o
I 2 I t
L
V
= =
s
off
s av
off o
min
f 2
D R
f I 2
D V
L = =
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 12]
Example
A BUCK converter has a following characteristics:
Output voltage: Output current:
Input voltage: Frequency:
Current mode: CCM
Find:
V 5 V
o
= A 10 I I
av out
= =
V 10 V
in
= kHz 100 f
s
=
min
L
H 2 . 1
10 10 2
5 . 0 5
f I 2
D V
L
5 . 0 D 1 D
CCM
5 . 0 D
V
V
5
s av
off o
min
on off on
in
o
µ =
⋅ ⋅

= =
= − = ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷ = =
5
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 13]
I
L
t
I
av
t
I
av
I
R
I
C
t
AC
DC
Capacitor current
Capacitor current
S
V
in
D
L
C
R
I
L
I
C I
R
control
V
o
R L C
I I I − =
z Assumption:
V
0
has small ripple
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 14]
BOOST Step-Up
z V
o
> V
in
Why ??
S V
in
D
L
C
R
V
X
V
o
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 15]
ON V
L
=V
in
OFF V
L
=V
in
-V
o
V
in
L
C
R
V
o
V
in
L
C
R
V
o
Operation modes
V
L
I
L
t
s
t
V
in
I
a
t
V
L
I
L
t
s
t
V
in
V
in
-V
o
I
a
I
b
t
Boost
6
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 16]
t
off
T
S
V
o
V
x
t
off in
o
off o in
D
1
V
V
D V V = → =
S V
in
D L
C
R
V
X
V
o
The average voltage method
; D V
T
t V
V
; V V
; V V ; 0 V V ; 0 V
off o
s
off o
x
in
in
x in x in L
= =
=
= = − =
Voltage transfer function
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 17]
Voltage transfer function
The ∆I method
t
on
I
L
t
off
T
s
t
L
V V
in o

L
V
in
I ∆
off
in o
on
in
t
L
V V
t
L
V

= ⋅
off o off on in
t V ) t t ( V ⋅ = + ⋅
off in
o
D
1
V
V
=
S V
in
D L
C
R
V
X
V
o
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 18]
BUCK-BOOST
Step-Up Step-Down
z Find V
o
/V
in
Hint: Average of V
x
?
S
V
in
D
L
C R
V
o
V
X
7
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 19]
Comparison between basic topologies CCM
S
V
in
D L
C
R
V
o
S
V
in
D
L
C
R
V
o
S
V
in
D
L
C
R
V
o
S
D L
Basic Cell
L
a
b
c
Switched inductor
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 20]
I
in
t
I
in
t
I
in
t
I
o
t
I
o
t
I
o
t
Buck
Boost
Buck Boost
Continues current -> Low ripple component
Discontinues current -> High ripple component
Input and Output Currents
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 21]
Modulator Control
e
V
D
in
V
Assembly
Switched
o
V
+

The simulation problem
8
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 22]
•The problematic part : Switched Assembly
• Rest of the circuit continuous - SPICE compatible
• Only possible simulation :
Time domain (cycle-by-cycle) -Transient
• The objective : translate the
Switched Assembly into an equivalent
circuit which is SPICE compatible
Modulator Control
e
V D
in
V
Assembly
Switched
o
V
+

The simulation problem
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 23]
+

+

b d c
a
f
C
R
out
V
in
V
L
I
b
I
C
I
out
V
out
V
R
R
f
C
f
C
L
a d c
b
C
I
L
I
b
I
in
V
in
V
b
on
T
L
b
I
L
I
C
I
d
c
L
Buck Boost
Boost Buck −
on
T
+

Average Simulation of PWM Converters
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 24]
T
on
- switch conduction time
T
off
- diode conduction time
T
DCM
- no current time (in DCM)
L
a b
c
b on
T
DCM
T
off
T
L
c
a
The Switched Inductor Model
9
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 25]
The concept of average signals
t
t
t
a
I
b
I
c
I
b
I
a
I
c
I
b
c
a
L
on
T
off
T
a
I
b
I
c
I
The Switched Inductor Model (SIM) (CCM)
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 26]

b
c
a
?
a
I
c
I
b
I
b
c
a
L
on
T
off
T
a
I
b
I
c
I
The SIM
Objective : To replace the switched part
by a continuous network
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 27]
I
b
I
L
I
b
I
ON
T
S
T
on L
S
on L
b
D I
T
T I
I = =
S
ON
on
T
T
D =
off L
S
off L
c
D I
T
T I
I = =
L a
I I =
Similarly :
b
c
a
L
on
T
off
T
a
I
b
I
c
I
Average current
10
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 28]
b
c
b
I
c
I
a
a
G
b
G
c
G
a
I
b
c
a
L a
I I =
on L b
D I I ⋅ =
off L c
D I I ⋅ =

G
a
, G
b
,C
c
- current
dependent sources
off L c
on L b
L a
D I G
D I G
I G
⋅ ≡
⋅ ≡

Toward a continuous model
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 29]
L
I Deriving
L
V
t
L
I
L
I
V
L
V
L
V
L
I
L
I
L
V
dt
I d
L
V
dt
dI
L
L
L L
= ⇒ =
Average inductor current
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 30]
b
c
a
L
) b , a ( V
) c , a ( V
L
V
( ) b , a V
( ) c , a V
on
T
off
T
s
T
off on
S
off on
L
D ) c , a ( V D ) b , a ( V
T
T ) c , a ( V T ) b , a ( V
V
⋅ + ⋅ =
=
⋅ + ⋅
=
Average inductor current
11
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 31]
b
c
a
a
G
b
G
c
G
L
L
r
L
I
L
E L V
Topology independent !
off on L
D ) c , a ( V D ) b , a ( V E ⋅ + ⋅ =
off L c
D I G ⋅ =
on L b
D I G ⋅ =
L a
I G =
b
c
a
L
on
T
off
T
The Generalized Switched Inductor Model
(GSIM)
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 32]
1. The formal approach
b
c
a
a
G
b
G
c
G
o
R
o
C
in
V
o
V
L
E
L
I
L
) b , a ( V
) c , a ( V
L
r
off 0 on in 0 L
D ] V 0 [ D ] V V [ E ⋅ − + ⋅ − =
off c on b a
D ) L ( I G D ) L ( I G ) L ( I G ⋅ = ⋅ = =
Example Implementation in Buck Topology
S
V
in
D
L
V
o
R
o
C
o
b
c
a
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 33]
2. The intuitive approach - by inspection
L
o
C
o
R in
V
o
V
L
I
in
E
b
G
S
L
o
C o
R
in
V
D
o
V
Polarity: (voltage and current
sources) selected by inspection
L o in
V V E → −
on in in
D V E ⋅ =
on L b
D I G ⋅ =
Implementation in Buck Topology
12
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 34]
S
L
o
C o
R
in
V
D
o
V
L
o
C
o
R
in
V
o
V
o off
V D ⋅
off L
D I ⋅
• Emulate average voltage on inductor
• sources current dependent I Create
L
Boost
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 35]
L o
C o
R
in
V
D
o
V
L
o
C
o
R in
V
o
V
o off on in
V D D V ⋅ + ⋅
off L
D I ⋅
on L
D I ⋅
Buck-Boost
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 36]
L
o
C
o
R
in
V
o
V
L
r
c
r
dson
R
b
c
a
SIM
Partially accounting for parasitics
13
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 37]
in
V
dson
R
b
c
a
G
b
G
c
G
o
C
o
R
c
r
a
L
L
r
L
I
L
E L V
off c a on b a L
D ) V V ( D ) V V ( E ⋅ − + ⋅ − =
off L c
D I G ⋅ =
on L b
D I G ⋅ =
L a
I G =
Modified Average Model
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 38]
I
L
and D
on
are time dependent variables {I
L
(t), D
on
(t) }
D
on
is not an electrical variable
on
D
L
I
b
G
L L
I
Making the model SPICE compatible
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 39]

D
on
is coded into voltage
+

Source
on
D
" D " : node of Name
on
) L ( I ) D ( V
on
∗ L
Gvalue
In SPICE environment
14
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 40]
Running SPICE simulation
DC (steady state points) - as is
TRAN (time domain) - as is
AC ( small signal) - as is
* Linearization is done by simulator !
Simulation
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 41]
L
I
b
c
a
L
on
T
off
T
on
T
off
T
off
T
s
T
t
pk L
I L
I
on
s
on s
off
D 1
T
T T
' D − =

=
on s off
T T ' T − =
Discontinuous Model (DCM)
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 42]
1.The average inductor current in DCM
L
V
) b , a ( V
) c , a ( V
s
T
on
T
off
T
off
' T
t
b
c
a
L
) b , a ( V
) c , a ( V
on
T
CCM in as D ) c , a ( V D ) b , a ( V V
off on L
+ =
Combining CCM / DCM
15
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 43]
b
c
a
a
G
b
G
c
G
a
I
b
I
c
I
t
on
T
off
T
LS
I
L
I
s
T
L
I
off on
L
off on
s L
Ls
D D
I
T T
T I
I
+
=
+
=
L a
I is I ∗
Ls c b
I sampling are I is I ∗
off c
T during sampled is I ∗
on b
T during sampled is I ∗
Combining CCM / DCM
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 44]
b
c
a
a
G
b
G
c
G
a
I
b
I
c
I
L a
I G =
off on
on L
b
D D
D I
G
+
=
off on
off L
c
D D
D I
G
+
=
1 ) D D ( : CCM in
off on
= +
t
on
T
off
T
LS
I
L
I
s
T
L
I
Combining CCM / DCM
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 45]
on
T
off
T
L
I
off
' T
L
V
ab
t
L
V
ac
pk
I
L
I
L
T ) b , a ( V
I
on
pk
=
S
off on on
L
T
) T T (
L
T ) b , a ( V
2
1
I
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
) D D (
Lf 2
D ) b , a ( V
I
off on
s
on
L
+ =
on
on
s L
off
D
D ) b , a ( V
Lf I 2
D − =
on off
D 1 D − = ′
on off
D 1 D − ≤
Doff in DCM
16
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 46]
b
c
a
L
b
c
a
a
G
b
G
c
G
L a
I G ≡
off on
on L
b
D D
D I
G
+

off on
off L
c
D D
D I
G
+

off on L
D ) c , a ( V D ) b , a ( V E ⋅ + ⋅ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
− − =
on
on
s L
on off
D
D ) b , a ( V
Lf I 2
), D 1 ( min D
L
L
r
L
I
L
E L V
The combined DCM / CCM mode
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 47]
Example: Boost average model simulation
Rsw
{Rsw}
EDoff
min(2*I(Lmain)*Lmain/(Ts*v(a,b)*V(Don))-V(Don),1-V(Don))
etable
OUT+
OUT-
IN+
IN-
Resr
{Resr}
Gc
V(Doff)*I(Lmain)/(V(Don)+V(Doff))
GVALUE
OUT+
OUT-
IN+
IN-
PARAMETERS:
LMAIN = 75u
COUT = 220u
Doff
Gb
V(Don)*I(Lmain)/(V(Don)+V(Doff))
GVALUE
OUT+
OUT-
IN+
IN-
0
Lmain
{Lmain}
Dbreak
Dmain
VDon
{VDon}
+
-
Rinductor
{Rinductor}
EL
(V(Don)*V(a,b)+V(Doff)*V(a,c))
EVALUE
OUT+
OUT-
IN+
IN-
1
0
PARAMETERS:
FS = 100k
TS = {1/fs}
b
Vin_DC
{Vin_DC}
+
-
a
Cout
{Cout}
PARAMETERS:
RESR = 0.07
RINDUCTOR = 0.1
RSW = 0.1
PARAMETERS:
VIN_DC = 10v
VDON = 0.5
out
c
Ga
I(Lmain)
GVALUE
OUT+
OUT-
IN+
IN-
Don
S
L
o
C o
R
in
V
D
o
V
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 48]
Example: Boost average model simulation
17
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 49]
Example: Boost average model simulation
S
L
o
C o
R
in
V
D
o
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Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 50]
Example: Boost average model simulation
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Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 51]
Boost: Response to step of input voltage
Ti me
30ms 35ms 40ms 45ms 50ms
V( out )
18V
19V
20V
21V
SEL>>
V( a )
9V
10V
11V
12V
(average model simulation)
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Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 52]
Boost: Response to step of duty cycle
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V
out
Ti me
30ms 35ms 40ms 45ms 50ms
V( OUT)
25. 0V
37. 5V
50. 0V
10. 0V
SEL>>
V( Don)
400mV
600mV
800mV
Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov , DC-DC Converters [2- 53]
VDon
0V 0. 1V 0. 2 V 0. 3 V 0. 4V 0. 5V 0 . 6V 0 . 7V 0 . 8V 0. 9V 1. 0V
V( OUT) / V( a ) V( i de a l )
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Boost transfer function (CCM)
on in
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=
DC Sweep simulation
ideal case
real case
Parasitic resistances are taken
into account

S+ + S− = 0 ⇒ S − = ( − Vo ) ⋅ t off . Vo = Don Vin . Ben-Yaakov . Ben-Yaakov .6] Voltage transfer function The average voltage method ton S Vin toff D VL C Vo R VL + ton Vin-Vo Ts toff t -Vo At steady state.5] Voltage transfer function The ∆I method Left triangle IL Vin − Vo L ∆I − ∆I = Vin − Vo ⋅ t on L Vo L t Right triangle ∆I = Vo ⋅ t off L ton V  Vin − Vo  t on = o t off  L  L  Vo t on t = = on = Don Vin t on + t off Ts toff Independent of L ! Prof.Prof. Ben-Yaakov . S + = ( Vin − Vo ) ⋅ t on . DC-DC Converters [2. S. over one switching cycle: VL = 0. S.4] Buck In this case Vin ton S toff D C R Inductor current waveform at steady state IL Vin − Vo L − Vo L ∆I t ton toff Prof. DC-DC Converters [2. S. DC-DC Converters [2.

8] IL Vin − Vo L Load Change − Vo L R1 R2 R3 ton Ts toff t R1 < R 2 < R 3 CCM .Discontinues Conductor Current Mode Prof. Ben-Yaakov . DC-DC Converters [2. DC-DC Converters [2. Ben-Yaakov .Prof.7] Load Change with Fixed D S Vin control D L C R Vo IL t ton Ts toff How will IL change if R is getting smaller? Prof. S.9] Discontinuous Inductor Current Mode (DCM) S Vx D L C Vo R IL R4>R3 R4 ton Ts t'off toff R3 t Vin control Different voltage transfer ratio ≠ Don Higher ripple current . S. Ben-Yaakov . DC-DC Converters [2. S.Continues Conductor Current Mode DCM .

12] Example A BUCK converter has a following characteristics: Output voltage: Vo = 5 V Input voltage: Vin = 10 V Current mode: CCM Find: L min Output current: Iout = Iav = 10 A Frequency: fs = 100 kHz Vo = Don = 0.5 VoDoff 5 ⋅ 0 . S. Ben-Yaakov . DC-DC Converters [2.5 = = 1. S. DC-DC Converters [2.11] Boundary of CCM and DCM IL Vin − Vo L L min L2 − Vo L Iav t t on Ts toff For CCM In Buck L > Lmin Vo t off = Ipk = 2 Iav L min L min = VoDoff R Doff = 2 Iav fs 2fs Prof.10] IL Voltage transfer function (DCM) Ipk The ∆I method Ipk = Vin − Vo V t on = o t′ off L L ton Ts t'off t IAV = Doff = ( Vin − Vout )Don Vout 1  1 Vin − Vo  Ton ⋅ TS (Don + Doff )   TS  2 L  IAV = IAV 1 Vin − Vo V − Vo Ton ⋅ Don (1 + in ) 2 L Vo Vo = R 2 R( Vin − Vo ) Don TS Vin = 2LVo2 2  Vo R Don Ts  8L  1+ = − 1 2   Vin 4L  R Don Ts  Prof. Ben-Yaakov . Ben-Yaakov . DC-DC Converters [2.5 Vin L min = CCM   →  Doff = 1 − Don = 0.2 µH 2 Iav fs 2 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 10 5 .Prof. S.

Ben-Yaakov . DC-DC Converters [2. S.15] Operation modes Boost ON VL=Vin L Vin C Vo R VL Vin t IL Ia ts t OFF VL=Vin-Vo L Vin C Vo R VL Vin Vin-Vo Ib ts t IL Ia t . Ben-Yaakov . S. S.13] Capacitor current S Vin control L D IL IC C Vo R IR IL Iav t IR Assumption: V0 has small ripple Iav DC t IC = IL − IR IC Capacitor current AC t Prof. DC-DC Converters [2. DC-DC Converters [2.Prof. Ben-Yaakov .14] BOOST L Vin S Step-Up VX D C Vo R Vo > Vin Why ?? Prof.

Vin = V in . DC-DC Converters [2. DC-DC Converters [2. Ben-Yaakov . V in = V x . DC-DC Converters [2. TS Vo t off = VoDoff . S. Ben-Yaakov .Prof.16] Voltage transfer function The average voltage method L Vin S VX D C Vo R Vx Vo t toff VL = 0. Ben-Yaakov . Ts Vin = VoDoff → Vo 1 = Vin Doff Prof. S. Vx = V in − V x = 0 . S.17] Voltage transfer function The ∆I method Vo C R L Vin S VX D IL Vin L − Vo − Vin L ∆I V − Vin Vin ⋅ t on = o ⋅ t off L L Vin ⋅ ( t on + t off ) = Vo ⋅ t off Vo 1 = Vin Doff t ton Ts toff Prof.18] BUCK-BOOST Step-Up Step-Down S Vin VX L D C R Vo Find Vo/Vin Hint: Average of Vx ? .

S. S. Ben-Yaakov .20] Iin Input and Output Currents Source current Load current I o Buck t Iin Io t Boost t Iin Io t Buck Boost t t Continues current -> Low ripple component Discontinues current -> High ripple component Prof.21] The simulation problem Switched Assembly Vin + − Vo D Modulator Ve Control . DC-DC Converters [2.Prof. Ben-Yaakov . S. DC-DC Converters [2. Ben-Yaakov .19] Comparison between basic topologies CCM L Vin S D Vo C R Vin S D L C Vo R Basic Cell Vin S L D Vo C R L S D a Switched inductor L b c Prof. DC-DC Converters [2.

23] Average Simulation of PWM Converters b + − Ton Ib d L IL Cf Vout RLoad + − a L IL d c Vout RLoad Vin Buck c IC Vin Ib b IC Cf Boost b Ton Ib d c L Vout RLoad Vin + − IL IC Cf a Buck − Boost Prof.Prof.switch conduction time Toff .SPICE compatible • Only possible simulation : Time domain (cycle-by-cycle) -Transient • The objective : translate the Switched Assembly into an equivalent circuit which is SPICE compatible Prof. Ben-Yaakov . Ben-Yaakov . S. DC-DC Converters [2. DC-DC Converters [2.24] The Switched Inductor Model b L a b Ton TDCM Toff c L a c Ton .no current time (in DCM) .diode conduction time TDCM . Ben-Yaakov .22] The simulation problem Switched Assembly Vin + − Vo D Modulator Ve Control •The problematic part : Switched Assembly • Rest of the circuit continuous . DC-DC Converters [2. S. S.

Ben-Yaakov .26] The SIM Objective : To replace the switched part by a continuous network Ia a L Ton Toff b Ib c Ic ⇓ Ia a b Ib ? c Ic Prof.27] Average current Ia a L Ton Toff b Ib Ib = IL Ton TS = ILDon c Ic I a = IL Similarly : D on = Ib TON TS IL I Ic = IL Toff TS = ILDoff Ib TON TS . S. DC-DC Converters [2.Prof.25] The Switched Inductor Model (SIM) (CCM) The concept of average signals Ia a L Ton b Ib Toff c Ic Ia Ib Ic Ia t Ib Ic t t Prof. Ben-Yaakov . DC-DC Converters [2. S. S. Ben-Yaakov . DC-DC Converters [2.

b) ⋅ Ton + V(a. Ben-Yaakov . DC-DC Converters [2. S.current dependent sources Ia a Ga Ic Ga ≡ I L G b ≡ IL ⋅ Don Gc c Gc ≡ IL ⋅ Doff Prof. c ) ⋅ Doff .29] Average inductor current Deriving I L dIL VL = dt L ⇒ d IL VL = dt L VL VL IL IL IL IL V t VL Prof.30] Average inductor current VL V(a. S. b) ⋅ Don + V(a. S. DC-DC Converters [2. c ) Ton Ts Toff V L= V(a.b ) a L V(a. b) V (a. c ) b c V (a. DC-DC Converters [2. Ben-Yaakov . Ben-Yaakov . Gb.28] Toward a continuous model I a = IL a b I b = I L ⋅ D on c I c = I L ⋅ Doff ⇓ Gb b Ib Ga.Cc . c ) ⋅ Toff = TS = V(a.Prof.

32] Example Implementation in Buck Topology b S D c V(a.33] Implementation in Buck Topology 2. b) a L a Co 1. The formal approach Vo Ro Vin Vo Ro b Gb Ga Co EL IL L Vin Gc c V(a. S.Prof. The intuitive approach . DC-DC Converters [2.by inspection S L D C o Vo Ro Vin Ein = Vin ⋅ Don Gb = I L ⋅ Don Ein − Vo → VL L Vin Gb Ein Vo Co Ro IL Polarity: (voltage and current sources) selected by inspection . S. Ben-Yaakov .c) ⋅ Doff Prof.31] The Generalized Switched Inductor Model (GSIM) L Ton b c a Toff a Ga Gb b EL IL L VL rL Gc c Ga = I L Gb = I L ⋅ Don Gc = I L ⋅ Doff Topology independent ! E L = V(a. c ) rL Ga = I (L) Gb = I (L) ⋅ Don Gc = I (L) ⋅ Doff E L= [V0 − Vin ] ⋅ Don + [0 − V0 ] ⋅ Doff Prof. Ben-Yaakov .b) ⋅ Don + V(a. Ben-Yaakov . S. DC-DC Converters [2. DC-DC Converters [2.

DC-DC Converters [2. Ben-Yaakov .36] Partially accounting for parasitics R dson Vin b SIM L c rL a Co rc Vo Ro . Ben-Yaakov . S. S. DC-DC Converters [2. Ben-Yaakov . S.34] Boost L D Vo Co Vin S Ro L I L ⋅ Doff Co Vo Ro Vin Doff ⋅ Vo • Emulate average voltage on inductor • Create I L dependent current sources Prof. DC-DC Converters [2.Prof.35] Buck-Boost D Vo Co Ro Vin L I L ⋅ Don Vin I L ⋅ Doff Vo Co L Ro Vin ⋅ Don + Doff ⋅ Vo Prof.

DC-DC Converters [2. S. DC-DC Converters [2.38] Making the model SPICE compatible Gb IL Don L IL IL and Don are time dependent variables {IL(t). Ben-Yaakov . Ben-Yaakov .39] In SPICE environment ⇓ Gvalue V(Don ) ∗ I(L ) L + − Don Source Name of node : " Don " Don is coded into voltage . S.Prof. S. DC-DC Converters [2. Ben-Yaakov .37] Modified Average Model Rdson b Gb Vin Ga a Co rc Ro IL L Gc EL VL c rL Ga = I L Gb = I L ⋅ Don Gc = I L ⋅ Doff E L = ( Va − Vb ) ⋅ Don + (Va − Vc ) ⋅ Doff Prof. Don (t) } Don is not an electrical variable Prof.

40] Simulation Running SPICE simulation DC (steady state points) .41] Discontinuous Model (DCM) Ton Toff IL I L pk a L IL b c t Ton Ts Toff Toff T'off = Ts − Ton D'off = Ts − Ton = 1− Don Ts Prof.as is TRAN (time domain) . S.c)Doff as in CCM .as is * Linearization is done by simulator ! Prof.as is AC ( small signal) .b)Don +V(a. DC-DC Converters [2.42] Combining CCM / DCM 1. Ben-Yaakov . Ben-Yaakov . S. S.The average inductor current in DCM VL Ts Ton V(a. Ben-Yaakov . b) V(a. DC-DC Converters [2. DC-DC Converters [2. c ) VL = V(a. c ) V(a.Prof. b) t Toff T'off a Ton b c L V (a.

DC-DC Converters [2. S.45] Doff in DCM Ipk = V(a.b) Ton Ipk Vab L 1  V(a.43] Combining CCM / DCM Ga Gb b Ib IL I LS IL Ia a ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ c I a is I L I b is sampledduring Ton I c is sampledduring Toff I b is I c are sampling I Ls Gc Ic t Ton Toff Ts I Ls = I L Ts IL = Ton + Toff Don + Doff Prof.b)Don D′ = 1− Don off Doff ≤ 1− Don IL Vac L IL t Toff T'off .Prof.44] Combining CCM / DCM Ia a Ga Gb b Ib IL I LS IL Gc c Ic Ton t Ga = I L Gb = Gc = I LDon Don + Doff Toff Ts I LDoff Don + Doff in CCM: (Don + Doff ) = 1 Prof.b)Don IL = (Don + Doff ) 2Lfs Ton 2 I LLfs Doff = − Don V(a. S. DC-DC Converters [2. Ben-Yaakov . Ben-Yaakov .b) Ton  (Ton + Toff ) L IL =   2 L TS  V(a. Ben-Yaakov . DC-DC Converters [2. S.

47] Example: Boost average model simulation L D Vo Co Vin PARAMETERS: VIN_DC = 10v VDON = 0.1 a Vin_DC {Vin_DC} GVALUE I(Lmain) IN+ OUT+ INOUT- b 1 Rsw {Rsw} Gb GVALUE INOUTIN+ OUT+ c Gc INOUTIN+ OUT+ Dmain Dbreak Cout {Cout} out + - Lmain {Lmain} RLoad Resr {Resr} {RLoad} Ga 0 Don GVALUE (V(Don)*V(a.Prof. S. S.07 RINDUCTOR = 0.48] Example: Boost average model simulation . DC-DC Converters [2.b)*V(Don))-V(Don).b) ⋅ Don + V(a. Ben-Yaakov .1-V(Don)) Prof. DC-DC Converters [2.   2 I LLfs    V(a.b)+V(Doff)*V(a.c)) V(Don)*I(Lmain)/(V(Don)+V(Doff)) EDoff Doff V(Doff)*I(Lmain)/(V(Don)+V(Doff)) VDon {VDon} + - IN+ OUT+ INOUT- etable 0 min(2*I(Lmain)*Lmain/(Ts*v(a. DC-DC Converters [2.46] The combined DCM / CCM mode L b Ga a c Gb b IL EL a L Gc VL rL c Ga ≡ I L Gb ≡ I L Don Don + Doff Gc ≡ I L Doff Don + Doff E L = V(a. S.b)D − Don     on Prof.c) ⋅ Doff  Doff = min(1− Don ). Ben-Yaakov .1 RSW = 0. Ben-Yaakov .5 PARAMETERS: LMAIN = 75u COUT = 220u RLOAD = 10 {Rinductor} Rinductor EL EVALUE IN+ OUT+ INOUT- S Ro PARAMETERS: FS = 100k TS = {1/fs} PARAMETERS: RESR = 0.

S. DC-DC Converters [2.Prof. Ben-Yaakov .50] Example: Boost average model simulation L D S Co Vo Vin Ro Prof.51] Boost: Response to step of input voltage (average model simulation) 12V 11V Vin 10V 9V V( a ) 21V 20V Vout 19V SEL>> 18V 3 0 ms V( o u t ) 3 5 ms 4 0 ms Ti me 4 5 ms 5 0 ms . Ben-Yaakov .49] Example: Boost average model simulation L D S Co Vo Vin Ro Prof. S. DC-DC Converters [2. Ben-Yaakov . S. DC-DC Converters [2.

0V . 6V 0. S. Ben-Yaakov . 0V 37. 5V Vout 25. 4V 0. DC-DC Converters [2. 0V 3 0 ms V( OUT) 3 5 ms 4 0 ms Ti me 4 5 ms 5 0 ms Prof. DC-DC Converters [2.Prof. Ben-Yaakov . 0V SEL>> 10. 7V 0. 5V VDo n 0. 1V V( OUT) / V( a ) 0.53] Boost transfer function (CCM) DC Sweep simulation 15 10 ideal case Vo 1 = Vin 1 − Don 5 real case Parasitic resistances are taken into account 0 0V 0. 3V 0. S.52] Boost: Response to step of duty cycle 8 0 0 mV Don 6 0 0 mV 4 0 0 mV V( Do n ) 50. 8V 0. 9V 1. 2V V( i d e a l ) 0.