Experimenting with Molded Chocolate.

Supplies: Chocolate Buy commercial chocolate bars different types (semi-sweet, dark chocolate (Higher % cocoa), milk chocolate) Beakers of varying sizes, one to fit into larger beaker Water Beaker holder/stand Bunsen burner/striker Beaker tongs Thermometer Stirring rod or spoon Chocolate mold Sample dishes and spoons Procedure: Assign Groups different temperatures for various chocolates semi-sweet, dark, and milk chocolate. Group 1 115F-120 F will give off flavors and coarse texture Group 2 85-87 F will form the best tempered chocolate (beta crystal formation) with smooth texture Group 3 75-80 F will melt chocolate but not form beta crystals with a lighter color Using larger beaker fill half way with water, place on stand above flame to heat. Then place chocolate in smaller beaker and place into larger beaker. Do not over fill larger beaker because water may spill. Next stir the chocolate until it melts using a thermometer to record the temperature. NOTE: Above 125 F is burning. Do not allow students to burn chocolate. Lower temperatures may require to first heat the beaker then remove beaker from heat then place beaker in hot water again to remain at that temperature. This can be done with beaker tongs or an oven mitt and a place to put the beaker. Once the chocolates are melted, they can be poured into molds and allowed to cool, either overnight or placing in the refrigerator. Observations can be made when the chocolate is melted, a spoonful can be spread on a plate to observe color, shiny surface, texture, taste, smell, etc. Evaluation/Results: Measure Color from Light to Dark Heating at 75-80 F should have a lighter brown color than 85-87 and 115-120

Measure Surface from Shiny to Not Shiny or Hazy (explain bloom) You can provide samples of chocolate that are shiny versus hazy by purchasing samples, as chocolate ages it becomes hazy. The term is referred to as “bloom”. The white haziness on the surface of the chocolate is not desirable and caused by sugar crystallization. Measure Texture from Smooth to Grainy/Coarse The chocolate can be spread on a plate or tasted by pulling tongue along roof of mouth to observe texture. Measure Taste as Sweet, Bitter, Salty, Sour Sweet and Bitter should vary with type of chocolate. More cocoa the more bitter. Some regional chocolates are fruity, others have different flavors of chocolate. Measure Smell by any similar smell The answers are up to the perception of the student. Allow students to write down observations and report results. Comments may be made about samples if any discussion needs to happen. Table 1: Semi-sweet chocolate characteristics when melted at various temperatures. Attribute 75-80 F 85-87 F 115-120 F Color Surface Texture Taste Smell

Table 2: Dark chocolate characteristics when melted at various temperatures. Attribute 75-80 F 85-87 F 115-120 F Color Surface Texture Taste Smell

Table 3: Milk chocolate characteristics when melted at various temperatures. Attribute 75-80 F 85-87 F 115-120 F Color Surface Texture Taste Smell

Students may use previous lecture on fat crystallization, tempering chocolate, chocolate as amphorous solid to draw conclusions.

Chocolate can be held over time to allow observations on the stability of the chocolate.

Additional Resources: Types of Chocolate Semi-sweet (Bittersweet) Chocolate Chocolate liquor to which sweeteners and cocoa butter have been added. According to government standards, it must contain at least 35 percent chocolate liquor. Its fat content averages 27 percent. Milk Chocolate Cocoa butter, milk, sweeteners and flavorings are added to chocolate liquor. Lends itself to good use for garnishes and candy coatings. All milk chocolate made in the U.S. contains at least 10 percent chocolate liquor and 12 percent whole milk. White Chocolate White chocolate contains cocoa butter but no non-fat cocoa solids. Mostly used as a coating, it contains sugar, cocoa butter, milk solids and flavorings. Characteristics of Chocolate The Higher the Cacao Percentage, the Greater the Flavor Intensity In general, a higher ‘% cacao’ means a more intense chocolate flavor. White chocolate has a very different flavor profile because it is derived only from cocoa butter. Higher Percentage Equals Less Sweetness A higher ‘% cacao’ means less added sugar. For example, a 72% cacao dark chocolate has less sugar than a 60% cacao dark chocolate. Unsweetened baking chocolate is a 100% cacao product with no sugar. Videos/Free Samples are given by Hershey: To learn about how chocolate is made go to: http://www.hersheys.com/discover/chocolate.asp

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