Issue 4 M ay 2006 | Blnde rart e

CH AR ACTE R M O D E LNG !! I
blnde r larning m ade e asy e e

Ch aracte r M ode l ing at Pl ife ros !! um M ode l a Butte rfl ing y Rapid Prototyping in Blnde r e Blnde r2Pov e Ch aracte r De sign 2d sk e tch to 3d Re sPow e r Supe r/Farm M ak e H um an

CONTENTS
EDITOR/DESIGNER GauravNaw ani gaurav@ blnde rart.org e M ANAGING EDITOR Sandra Gil rt sandra@ blnde rart.org be e W EBSITE Nam Ph am nam @ blnde rart.org e PROOFER K e nron Dil l on W RITERS Ch ristian Guck e l rge r sbe M anue l re z Pe Cl audio Andaur J M auricio Rodas R. osé Cl Eick e K uh ne n aas Rogério Pe rdiz M anue l Bastioni Alssandro Progl e io Antonio Di Ce cca Giov anni L a M artin anz Ed Cick a COPYRIGH T© ‘ e nde rart M agaz ine ’ ‘ e nde rart’and Bl , bl blnde rart l are copyrigh t Gaurav e ogo Naw ani.‘ Blntuu’and ‘ e ntuu l Ask e bl ogo’ are copyrigh t Sandra Gil rt. be Alproducts and com pany nam e s fe ature d l in th e publ ication are trade m ark or re giste re d trade m ark of th e ir re spe ctiv e ow ne rs.

Issue 4 M ay 2006

Ne w s F a s h l 3 d W o rk s h o p
Ch aracte r m ode l at Pl ife ros ing um M ode l a natural Butte rfl ing istic y Rapid Prototyping w ith Blnde r e Re nde ring w ith Blnd2Pov e Ch aracte r De sign 2d sk e tch to 3d

- Pg5

-

Pg8 Pg12 Pg23 Pg27 Pg34

In s i d e rVi e w
M ak e H um an Spl it/Fram e re nde ring on Re sPow e r Supe r/Farm - Pg40 - Pg47

R e ve w s i
3d Cre ature w ork sh op 3d Ph otore al toolit ism k - Pg52 - Pg53 - Pg54 - Pg9 1 - Pg9 2

G al ria l e Cre dit s D is cl e r aim

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EDI AL TORI

Issue 4 M ay 2006

Sandra Gil rt be M anaging Editor

Ch aracte r m ode l h as got to be one of ing m y fav orite th ings to do in Blnde r. e Th e re is noth ing l e starting w ith a ik bl scre e n and e nding up w ith l ing, ank iv m ov ch aracte rs.Now grante d, not al ing l m y ch aracte rs turn out as good as I w oul l e , but th at j k e e ps m e d ik ust trying.And th e re are so m any th ings to try. One of th e be st th ings about ch aracte r m ode l is th at a ch aracte r can be ing anyth ing.Th e m ost com m on one s are anim al al ns, robots and h um anoids, s, ie but th ose k inds of ch aracte rs are but a sm alse lction of w h at is possibl.W ith l e e a l e w ork and im agination, you can ittl turn any e v ryday obj ct into a e e ch aracte r.As soon as it starts m ov ing and sh ow ing pe rsonal it be com e s a ity, ch aracte r.Te lv e ision com m e rcial are s fulof such am using ch aracte rs. l As m uch fun as ch aracte r m ode l can ing be , it can al be frustrating at tim e s. so

Ach ie v a good m ode l at pose s w e l ing th l and conv ys a se nse of l and e ife pe rsonal can be an e l e goal ity usiv . L ting and te xturing ofte n pl a big igh ay rol in h e l e ping bring a ch aracte r to l , ife as w e las a good unde rstanding of h ow l a ch aracte r sh oul m ov and th e tim ing d e inv v d for be l v e m ov m e nt. ole ie abl e In th is issue , w e w ilbe l ing at a l ook coupl of ch aracte rs for you to m ode l e and pl w ith , as w e las a v ry ay l e inform ativ articl on h ow to tak e your e e m ode l from th e com pute r scre e n to a re alw orl ph ysical statue ! d 3D (W oul t I j l e to h av one of dn’ ust ov e th ose m ach ine s at m y h ouse . J ) Additional M alfico Andaue r giv s us l y, e e a be h ind- th e - sce ne s l at som e of th e ook de cisions m ade for th e Pl ife ros um Ch aracte rs. So sit back , grab a cup of coffe e and re ad alabout it l - sandra@ blnde rart.org e

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I z y k now s... z
• W h at k ind of ch aracte r?Fantasy, M e ch anicalAnim alH um anoid, e tc… , , • Appe arance : H ow m any arm s, lgs, e e ye s, e ars, e tc… doe s it h av any at al e l ? • H ow w ilyour ch aracte r inte ract w ith l it’ e nv s ironm e nt?Doe s it h av /ne e d e cl e s? oth • H ow doe s it m ov ? e • H ow do you pl on using your an ch aracte r?Stilim age , gam e ch aracte r, l anim ation, e tc… • W ilit spe ak , m ak e noise , bare it’ l s te e th ?(i. .w ilit ne e d a fulm outh e l l se tup or can you m ode l cl d? it ose )

Issue 4 M ay 2006

You h av your re fe re nce im age s l d e oade into blnde r, now w h at?W e l now you e l , start m ode l Th e re are v ing. arious te ch niq ue s av abl to com plte your ail e e m ode lCh oose th e one th at be st fits . your w ork fl and giv s th e be st re sul ow e ts for your m ode lI pe rsonal pre fe r box . l y m ode l but I h av be e n k now n to use ing, e a v ty of m e th ods to ge t m y m ode l arie to l j h ow I w ant. ook ust

W h e n m ode l your ch aracte r, you w il ing l ne e d to de cide h ow m uch de tail you Ch aract r M ode l & e ing w ant to m ode l s.h ow m uch of it can be v D e s ign: A sh ortrun- dow n ofth ings to adde d l r w ith te xture s.Ev n if you ate e conside r be fore you start. Once you h av de cide d on w h at you e de cide th at a l of th e de tail can be ot s w ant your ch aracte r to l l e , it is ook ik adde d l r, you w ilstilne e d to m ak e ate l l J w h e re and h ow do you start ust tim e to ge t re fe re nce m ate rialIf you . sure th at you h av adde d e nough de tail e de signing a ch aracte r?Of course , th e re draw w e l you can sk e tch out front and for prope r posing/anim ation.Th e m ost l , is al ays th e “ j j p righ t in and do side v w s of your ch aracte r to l into com m on are as th at ne e d adde d de tail w ust um ie oad it” m e th od.W h ich som e tim e s w ork s blnde r for re fe re nce .If you don’ draw are th e j e t oint are as.If you don’ add t w onde rful but altoo ofte n w ilcause w e l you sh oul l for im age s th at l y, l l l , d ook e nough de tailth e j , oints w on’ de form t future problm s de pe nding on w h at you cl l re se m bl w h at you are going for. prope rl and your m ode l on’ be se e n e ose y e y w t h ad pl d to do w ith your ch aracte r. Th e inte rne t is a gre at re source for anne in it’ be st l t. s igh Be fore you ope n Blnde r, it is al ays a e w re fe re nce im age s.Anoth e r option, (one I good ide a to sit dow n and th ink about use a l is tak ing a trip to m y l ot), ocal Th is w raps up our run- dow n of th ings to your ch aracte r.H e re is a l of q ue stions de partm e nt store and h e ading straigh t conside r be fore starting your ch aracte r. ist you m igh t w ant to conside r be fore you for th e toy aisl.Ch il n’ toys m ak e e dre s Now fire up Blnde r and ge t m ode l e ing! actual start m ode l l y ing: gre at re fe re nce obj cts for m ode l e ing. Your ch aracte rs are w aiting to m ak e Th e y are h igh l de taild and com e in y e th e ir big de but! • W h at styl of ch aracte r are you going e e v ry type im aginabl. e e for?Re al istic, Se m i- re al istic, Toon.

- Iz z y

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NEW S FL ASH
Artw ork for th e DV disc and D pack age sle v h as be e n e e final e d and J ri h as be e n iz oe h ard at w ork ge tting e v ryth ing re ady for DV e D production. As of April 24th , th e m aste rs h av be e n e finish e d and alfils se nt to l e th e re production com pany.

Issue 4 M ay 2006

G oogl sum m e r ofcode 20 0 6 e
Once again, Blnde r h as e be e n inv d to tak e part in ite th e Googl Sum m e r of Code . e Googl Sum m e r of Code is a e program sponsore d by Googl for stude nts to appl e y for a sum m e r coding grant.
Tak e n f rom a ne w s it m e pos t d b y Ton: e

Proj ct O range e
Th e l aw aite d ong “ Elph ant’ D re am ” w as e s pre m ie re d M arch 24th at Cine m a K e te luis, h Am ste rdam .By alaccounts, l it w as a re sounding succe ss. Th is fil m ark s an im portant m ach ie v m e nt in Blnde r and e e ope n source h istory.

dire ctions for Blnde r. e Coordination of th e Blnde r e SoC proj cts is again done e by Ch ris W ant. Stude nts inte re ste d to w ork on a Blnde r proj ct during e e J y/August can find th e ul inform ation in th e l s ink be l .Proj ct appl ow e ications w ilstart on M ay 1 and w il l l e nd M ay 8 by 17:00 Pacific Dayl t Tim e igh
inf orm at ion:

Th e DV w ilincl not D l ude onl th e fil , but alproj ct y m l e fils and a docum e ntary for e us to drool e r and tak e ov apart for our ow n e ducation. By tim e th is articl com e s e out, m ost of us sh oul h av d e re ce iv d our purch ase d DV e Ds and th ose w h o didn’ t Afte r th e pre m ie r and purch ase it can l forw ard ook w ork sh ops h e l th at w e e k e nd to dow nl d oading th e fils e at M onte v o (K e iz e rsgrach t sh ortl th e re afte r. ide y 264, Am ste rdam ), th e Proj ct e Orange te am finish e d up l ast A h uge round of appl ause is m inute w ork and h e ade d for due for th e Orange te am and h om e .But th e proj ct stil e l alth e y h av accom pl e d. l e ish h ad a l to accom pl , ot ish Th e ir h ard w ork h as be e n an nam e l th e production of th e inspiration for us al y, l prom ise d DV D.

L ye ar ov r 400 stude nt ast e proj cts w e re grante d (10 e for Blnde r), and Googl e e e xpe cts to approv th is ye ar e e v n m ore . e Blnde r SoC e Al ough w e 'v cre ate d a th e l of ide as for proj cts, w e ist e e spe cial inv stude nts to l ite y subm it proj cts base d on e past e xpe rie nce and com pe te nce s, or base d on th e ir curre nt re se arch , so th at th e y can e fficie ntl y bring in ne w de v l e nt e opm

h ttp://m e diaw ik i. e nde r. bl or g/inde x. p/Blnde rDe v ph e /S OC_ 2006_ ide as
Googl SoC inf e orm at ion:

h ttp://code . googl. e com /su m m e rofcode . tm l h

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New s Fl ash
Sh arp Construct 0 .12
Sh arpConstruct is an 3D m ode l ing appl ication th at al s you to w ork out l ow on de tail of your pre v s iousl cre ate d 3d y m ode lYou can e v n cre ate th e m ode l . e s e ntire l in it as w e l It al s you to y l . l ow w ork on an 3d m ode l if you are as w ork ing on cl push ing and pul th e ay l ing surface into pl to cre ate sh ape s.Th e ace v ariations in brush e s incre ase th e lv l e e of ope ratibil for th e use r.On th e fl ity y w ork ing on Sub- divsurface s m ak e s it an e xce l nt toolth e re sponsiv ne ss lv l l e , e e e s at de ce nt e nough de nse m e sh e s m ak e s w ork ing in it q uite plasurabl. e e Sh arp construct h av be e n in ne w s e l l ow ing to its spe e dy de v l e nt, ate y e opm it h as be com e m uch stabl and usabl e e w ith th e re lase of v rsion . e e 12x.Due to its nice e nough inte rope rabil be tw e e n ity Blnde r it m ak e for an pre tty use ful e tool for Blnde r- h e ads, al ough Blnde r e th e h av it sh are of tool th at m im ic e s functional of Sh arpConstruct but ity none is m ore fe ature rich th an

Issue 4 M ay 2006

Sh arpConstruct. Sh arpConstruct com e s in th e ge nre of Z brush .Al ough it is no w ay as th adv ance as Z brush itse lbut giv n th at f e it is v ry young proj ct and h as sh ow n a e e l of pote ntial tilnow , w e can ot up l e xpe ct it to be com e one of th e m ost pow e rful s Ope n- source h as to offe r. tool It is av abl for both W indow s and ail e L inux ath ttp://sh arp3d. source forge . t ne

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New s Fl ash
Expre sso 1.1.1 Re lase e
Blnde r h as fe ature s e th at are sim il to ar Sh arpConstruct, and in th e form of tw o scripts. One com e s w ith Blnde r 2. and e 41 anoth e r m ore m ature script, cal d Expre sso. l e It is an e xce l nt l e pyth on script w ritte n by M ich ae l ardt.It Sch w ork s in re altim e w ith in Blnde r. e It's inte rface is pre se nte d ne atl y w ith in Blnde r's 3d e w indow .Expre sso h as th e m ost intuitiv l de signe d pyth on script e y for Blnde r, e v r. e e

Issue 4 M ay 2006

Fe stiv de V o- Portugal al ide SECOND SINTRA V IDEO FESTIV AL Afte r th e succe ss of th e first e dition, th e Sintra City Council th e "L t's M ak e and e Te lv e ision" program m e , are once again organiz ing th e Sintra V o Fe stiv . ide al "Adv rtising" is th e th e m e of th is ye ar's e fe stiv , w h ich is aim e d at alyoung pe opl al l e unde r 30, re siding in any part of th e country. W ork s m ay be subm itte d in th e form of spot adv rtising, docum e ntary, or v o. e ide Th e priz e - giv ce re m ony w iltak e pl ing l ace on April and w ildistinguish th e be st 22, l fil , th e be st ide a, th e be st fil of Sintra m m are a, th e be st actor/actre ss, and th e be st dire ctor. Ruls and appl e ications are av abl from ail e w w w 2. - sintra. cm pt Plase note th at th e w e b site is onl in e y Portugue se L anguage

Expre sso1.1.1 inte rface constant annoyance w ith pyth on scripts

Th e curre nt v rsion1. 1 w ork e d e 1. w ith out any problm s in Blnde r e e 2. for W indow s but on Fe dora Core You can find it h e re at 41 t f unecit de/pyt et y. abl / 5, it crash e d e v n be fore it starte d, a h t p://m em bers.ort e

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3d W ORKSH OP
Anim al ane t Pl Th e Art De partm e nt not onl m ade y by drafts of th e v w s ne e de d to m ode l e ie th M anue l Picasus” Pe re z and “ ch aracte r, th e y al m ade drafts of th e so ch aracte r's e xpre ssions and m ov m e nts. e Cl audio “ m alfico” Andaur e It's v ry im portant to pay atte ntion to e M ode l a ch aracte r is al ays ing w th e se sk e tch e s since th e y w ilbe th e l ch al nging be cause it's al ays difficul k e ystone for m e sh topol l e w t ogy. to ge t a good topol in orde r to ge t ogy W h e n th is m ate rial ts to us m ode lrs, ge e nice de form ations and e xpre ssions.For w e draw ale dge l l oops on top of th e m . our fil proj ct “ Pl ife ros” , w e h ad to Th e n w e use diffe re nt m ode l m e um ing m ode l v ral aracte rs am ong se e ch h um ans, cats, diffe re nt type s of birds and e v n a bat! Since th e y h av e e com plte l diffe re nt sh ape s and e y anatom ie s, w e h ad to study e ach case se parate l y. At M anos Digitals Anim ation Studio, w e e w ork our m ode l starting from a v ry s e sol ch aracte r anal m ade in id ysis col l aboration w ith th e Art De partm e nt. De signe rs h av l h our talings w ith e ongk th e Dire ctor until l th at re flcts th e a ook e ch aracte r's pe rsonal is ach ie v d. ity e H ow e v r, som e tim e s a l th at is e ook appe al for de signe rs w ilnot w ork in ing l 3D or it w iltak e too m uch tim e to l sk in/de form corre ctl In th e se case s, y. w e sugge st m odifications according to

Issue 4 M ay 2006

Ch aracte r M ode l ing at Pl if ros um e

our ow n e xpe rie nce .

te ch niq ue s.Som e of us pre fe r th e face to- face (or pol y2pol approach w h e re y) w e cre ate th e face s of th e m ain e dge l oops first, and th e n j th e m . oin And, som e of us use subdiv ision m ode l (or box m ode l w h ich is ing ing) starting from a cube and subdiv iding and conform ing th e m e sh .In any case , w e start our w ork as if th e ch aracte rs w e re com plte l sym m e trical e y .

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3d W ORKSH OP
Th is spe e ds up th e proce ss.W e m ode l onl one h alusing a “ M irror M odifie r” y f to ge t th e w h ol picture as m ost pe opl e e do.W h e n th e m ode l finish e d, th e se is m odifie rs are “ bak e d” and nonsym m e trical tail are adde d. de s w ith th is in m ind m ade it e asy to im agine .W h e n be ak s are too l w e ong, ch ange topol and k e e p th e usual ogy l oops ne ar th e h e ad. De ntal parts of non- bird ch aracte rs are m ode ld as se parate obj cts and th e n e e

Issue 4 M ay 2006

m e aning ch aracte rs m ade out of diffe re nt m e sh obj cts w ork ing e toge th e r, but ne v r j e oine d.Th is approach h as th e fol ing adv l ow antage s: * W e can h ave m ore th an 16 m ate rial pe r s ch aracte r. * W e can re use som e parts (w e igh tpainting and sh ape k e ys incl d) for oth e r ch aracte rs. ude * From an inte rface point- of- vie w , w e can ge t diffe re ntdraw m ode s for diffe re ntparts ofa ch aracte r, spe e ding up th e anim ation proce ss w ith outsacrificing de tail . * M osttool w ork be tte r w ith lss ve rtice s or s e m e sh se ctors, l e m irroring. ik * It's m ore suitabl for te am w ork . e * W e can ch ange parts ofth e ch aracte r for diffe re ntsce ne s e asil (e ve r trie d to join tw o y m e sh e s w ith sh ape k e ys? e g: dre ss ch ange s ). Th e onl draw back s of such a de cision is y th e m ore com pl d sk inning icate w ork fl (you ne e d to sk in e v ry part ow e se parate l and th e n “ stitch ” th e parts in y som e w ay).For alth e se draw back s, l Pyth on cam e to re scue .Th e re is a v ry e h andy pyth on script, w ritte n by Cam pbe lBarton, th at w e use d a l l ot: M e sh W e igh t Copy.

Ilustration 3: Th ree ch aracters w ith differentanatom y: H um an, Pigeon, Bat.Edgel are pretty sim il in th e end. l oops ar One of th e first problm s w e h ad w as to e figure out h ow to de al ith th e bird w ch aracte r's m outh , since birds h av no e l nor nose .Afte r som e e xpe rim e nts, it ips w as clar th at th e bird's be ak coul be e d tre ate d j as if it w as a “ com bo” of ust m outh and nose .Cre ating e dge l oops j oine d to th e re st of th e inne r parts of th e m outh . Ch aract rs are m ade of part e s Ch aracte rs are usual m ade of a uniq ue l y continuous m e sh .W e de cide d to use m ul m e sh ch aracte rs for Pl ife ros, tium

Ch aracte r m ode l atPl ife ros ing um

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3d W ORKSH OP
L ord of t e W ings h For our bird ch aracte rs, w e de cide d to m ode l “ basic w ing” m e sh and from a th at, buil th e w ings for alch aracte rs d l w ith onl m inor m e sh e diting.Since w e y are using m ul m e sh ch aracte rs, w e ticoul add w ings at any tim e w h il d e anim ators are w ork ing on corporal or facial xpre ssion.For th is basic w ing to e pe rfe ctl fit oth e r ch aracte rs, w e h ad to y de sign a prope r “ w ing- body” inte rface th at w oul w ork for alch aracte rs. d l body.Th e se fe ath e rs w ilbe l anim ate d, for instance , w h e n th e ch aracte r spre ads its w ings or sh uts th e m . Th e w ing fe ath e rs patte rn is a v ry e com plx and e im portant de tail .

Issue 4 M ay 2006

Im g4 fe ath e rs in th e w ing.Alof th e se l fe ath e rs w e re j oine d into one m e sh . Be side s th e se “ functional fe ath e rs ” m e sh e s, anoth e r m e sh re pre se nting th e m ain part of th e w ing w as m ode ld.In e th is m e sh , e dge l oops w e re im portant since th is part w oul act l e a re al ing, d ik w and w oul be de form e d h e av y. d il

W e use d se v ral e re fe re nce s from al l k ind of source s incl uding v os ide Il l ustration 5: "Basic w ing" for albird ch aracte rs l fil e d by ourse le s. m v Fe ath e rs w e re m ode ld and pl d by e ace h and as se parate d obj cts.Diffe re nt e W h e n re fe rring to fe ath e rs, I m e an th e ain our s ie m ain fe ath e rs th at are use d in th e bird's pl col m ate rial w e re appl d in orde r to be tte r ide ntify th e type s of fl t, not th e fe ath e rs cov ring th e igh e

Ch aracte r m ode l atPl ife ros ing um

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3d W ORKSH OP
Th e bat ch aracte r re q uire d a com plte l e y diffe re nt approach .Parts of th e w ing sh oul be h av com plte l e l d e e y astic al ing th e ch aracte r to e xpand it or l ow com pre ss it al ost l e cl , and oth e r m ik oth parts sh oul l flxibl l e th e rays of d ook e e ik an um bre l For th e m e m brane parts, l a. w e trie d to stay on th e bare m inim um v rte x count, trying al to k e e p clan e so e l s of de form ation to av artifacts on ine oid w ing be nding. M ode l and R igging ing Once th e basic l and fe e l a ook of ch aracte r is ach ie v d, th e m e sh suffe rs e furth e r m odifications in th e sk inning/rigging proce ss.H e re al l topol problm s, th at w e re n't ogy e fore se e n, sh ow up in a sort of painful w ay.Th e w orst part is th at th e m e sh ne e ds to be corre cte d w ith out ch anging its e xte rnal ape .So, as a re fe re nce , w e sh use d orth ogonal nde rs of th e original re m e sh e s. If a m e sh de form s poorl it coul be y, d cause d by poor rigging, bad sk inning, or bad topol Ev n w h e n alth e se ogy. e l

Issue 4 M ay 2006

conditions are OK , som e tim e s a m e sh j h as a l of e dge l ust ack oops.Som e tim e s m ode lrs, se e k ing a m inim al ount of e am v rtice s, forge t to add e nough e dge l e oops to guarante e prope r de form ations. W e te st th e m e sh e s in diffe re nt actions and se e h ow th e y be h av .In th is stage e of th e proce ss, w e use d to m ode l oth cl w rink ls, or ch ange e dge l e oops dire ctions until e got th e nice w de form ation w e w ante d.For th is k ind of j w e e dit th e m e sh in its “ re st” state , ob, or if ne e de d, use th e arm ature 's de form ate d state (th e so- cal d l e “ Craz y Space ” ). Final ords W I w ish w e h ad m ore spare tim e to w rite a m ore de taild articl but, our e e production sch e dul is v ry tigh t.:( e e W e w oul l e to say Th ank You to al d ik l th e Blnde rh e ads around th e gl e obe w h o are supporting our proj ct and e h el ping us in m any w ays, to Ton and th e Orange Te am for th e ir inv uabl al e w ork , and to alcode rs w h o are l m ak ing Blnde r bigge r and bigge r e h ttp://w w w . um ife ros. pl com /

Ch aracte r m ode l atPl ife ros ing um

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3d W ORKSH OP
M ode l a natural ing istic butte rfy l
by Ch ristian Guck e l rge r sbe L v lInte rm e diate e e : de taild, but not too de taild be cause of e e th e l anim ation re nde ring tim e s.You ong w ilne e d to trade off th e de tail your l of m ode l yourse l w atch ing it's final for f, de stination. Pre parat ions I de cide d to m ode l natural a istic butte rfl Be cause I h ad not re al h ad y. l y any cl about th is sort of anim al al I ue at l , succe ssful re nte d a sh ow case and a l y book about butte rfl s from sch ool ie . Trust m e , th e book did a good j afte r ob al th e butte rfl s in th e sh ow case w e re l , ie too sm alto use th e m as a m ode l l ing re fe re nce .So be fore starting, you sh oul d h av a re fe re nce , tak e a l into th e e ook l ibrary or th e Inte rne t.(Fig.1 and 2) sh ow th e re fe re nce s th at I use d.Th e re is

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a side pe rspe ctiv as w e las a e l pe rspe ctiv of th e h al front h e ad. e fL t s t . Th e abdom e n. e 's art As you sh oul do w ith al ost e v ry d m e

Int rodu ct ion Be cause of th e re l e l h igh ativ y com plxity of th e m ode l proce ss, I e ing de cide d to w rite th is tutorial th e for inte rm e diate blnde r artists.Th e re w il e l be passage s, w h e re you ne e d to continue w ork ing on yourse lon th e m ode l f until th e ne xt im portant ste p is be ing e xpl d.At al th is is not a ste p- byaine l , ste p instruction guide ;it is an atte m pt to sh ow you h ow to cre ate organic m ode l s base d on a butte rfl w ith h igh l ts on y igh th e m ost im portant parts of th e anim al . Do not forge t th at a m ode l proce ss is ing a proce ss of continuous de tail and ing re fining. W h at is th e m ode l ing m ade for? be I de cide d to m ak e a fil for a portfol m io pre se ntation, in w h ich th e butte rfl y pl th e rol of a guide .In th at case , ays e th e re w ilbe m any cl - up and l ose anim ation sh ots.Since th e sh ots w ilbe l cl , I m ade th e butte rfl re l e l ose y ativ y

Fig2 organic m ode lfirst m ak e a , sim pl construction out of e prim itiv s and re fine it l r.I e ate did not use a re fe re nce picture in th e back ground, but you can do so if you l e . ik Use V w >>Back ground ie Im age >>Im age to add an im age to your back ground.

Fig1

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Fine .L t's do th e th ing from th e back on e and start w ith th e abdom e n.I use d a cube from th e side pe rspe ctiv [Num 3] e and e xtrude d it 4 tim e s.Th e n, I inse rte d tw o v rte x row s by e nte ring [K ] in e dit e m ode [TAB], using a l cut.As an oop al rnativ , you can al use norm al te e so cuts [K ] or m ul ticuts [K ] or subdiv it tw ice ide or se v ral e s, but w ith th e l e tim ast m e th od, you w ilprobabl h av to de al l y e w ith unw ante d v rtice row s at th e e nd. e (Fig.3) sh ow s h ow th e e xtrude d cube l s afte r al ook igning it on th e sim pl e sh ape of th e butte rfl abdom e n. y Fig3 Fig4

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re fine th e back - e nd of th e inse ct. Now it is tim e to de fine th e diffe re nt sh e lse gm e nts th e first tim e .Se lct th e l e m iddl of th e 3 row s w h ich indicate a e sh e ldiv l ision and scal it a bit sm al r e l e [s] (Fig.6).You sh oul re pe at th is w ith d e v ry row , th e n continue w ith th e ne xt e ste p.

Now you w ilne e d to continue l e xtruding th e m e sh righ t to th e th orax part (Fig. Afte r al 4). igning th e prim itiv e m e sh to th e butte rfl sh ape from th e y side pe rspe ctiv , you w ilal h av to do e l so e th e sam e from th e top one [Num 7].Try to m ak e th e m ode l ooth and round. sm

Fig6 You can al al ady use Subsurfs so re (Editing>>M odifie rs>>Subsurf>>L v l e e s) to se e h ow th e m ode look s sm ooth e d. l (Fig.5) Pay atte ntion to th e h igh l te d igh v rte x row in (Fig.5).L r, it sh oul e ate d be com e th e borde r be tw e e n th e uppe rbody (inse ct sh e l and th e l e r body. l ) ow As you can se e in (Fig. too, I al 5) so al ady adde d 2 cuts to e v ry v rtical re e e one to indicate th e l r borde rs ate Ok ay, now w e w ilcontinue de fining th e l be tw e e n th e sh e lse gm e nts, as w e las to diffe re nt se gm e nts of th e abdom e n.To l l de fine th e uppe r sh e l use th e face l , se lct m ode and se lct alface s th at are e e l l e r th an th e borde r l be tw e e n th e ow ine sh e land th e l e r- body (Fig.7). l ow

Fig5

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borde r l anym ore .Use th e scal- tool ine e [S+ M M B] again and j scal th e l e r ust e ow part h oriz ontal th is tim e , until ach l y e v rtice appe ars unde r its ne igh bor e again.You can al use th e m ov - tool so e [G] for th is, but it de finite l w ilne e d y l m ore tim e be cause you w ilne e d to l m ov e v ry pair of v rtice s on th e ir e e e ow n. Th e Th orax + H e ad Proce e d e xtruding th e m e sh righ t to th e h e ad and al it to th e inse ct sh ape ign again.Do not forge t to al it al from ign so th e top pe rspe ctiv ! :) For th e h e ad, w e e can use a sim pl box subdiv d by th e e ide l s w e al ady got, so j e xtrude th e ine re ust th orax again a l e bit.L on (Fig.9 ) ittl ook to se e th e w h ol proce ss so far.You e Fig9

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Fig7 Now w e use [E] to e xtrude th e l e r ow part and inse rt one m ore row of face s and th e scal- tool to scal th e w h ol e [S] e e l e r part j a bit sm al r.L t's m ov ow ust l e e e th e w h ol th ing [G+ M M B] v rtical e e l y until both l s (th e uppe r l of th e ine ine se lcte d se gm e nt and th e sh e lborde r e l l ) ne arl cov r e ach oth e r (Fig.8). ine y e

h e ad sm ooth e r, m ak ing it l l e a ook ik l - de taild h al sph e re from th e side ow e fpe rspe ctiv .Use th e m ov - tool [G] to e e s ach ie v th is by e asil m ov th e e y ing v rtice s w h ich w e al ady got due to our e re form e r cuts (Fig.10).(Fig.11) sh ow s an im age of th e m ode l e got so far w ith w Subsurface turne d on (lv l e e 2). Fig10

Fig11

Fig8 As you can se e , th e v rtice s of th e uppe r sh oul al pay atte ntion to th e e d so row of th e se lcte d se gm e nt do not e re fine m e nt of th e back - e nd w h ich I stand dire ctl unde r th e one s of th e y al ady did.Now continue to m ak e th e re

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D e t s of t e h e ad ail h As you can se e , th e butte rfl on th e y re fe re nce picture h as got ante nnas on h is h e ad.Th e re are diffe re nt, bre e d- spe cific ante nnas but w e w iltry to im itate th e se l one s.Se lct tw o face s w h ich are l e arge e nough to be com e th e ante nnas on th e uppe r h e ad from th e top v w and ie e xtrude th e m by [E>>Indiv idual s] th e Face w ay it is sh ow n in (Fig.12).If you ne e d to se lct tw o or m ore face s on e ach side of e th e h e ad (e ach side sh oul be e q ualas d , m irrore d if you did e v ryth ing righ t so e far), you ne e d to e xtrude th e ante nnas se parate l y. th e h e ad [V] as you can se e in (Fig.12).I first did th e e xtrusion w ith one or tw o face s, th e n inse rte d som e m ore row s in it and scald th e m a bit e v rtical oriz ontal from th e top v w e l y/h l y ie to m ak e th e ante nnas a bit sm ooth e r, not th at cubic.Try to giv th e se parts of th e e body th e ir spe cific l by e xtruding ook straigh t, e xtruding and siz ing, e xtruding and siz ing again and th e n e xtruding straigh t again..al try to m ak e th e . so indiv idual gm e nts diffe re nt from e ach se oth e r to giv th e m ode l random l . e a ook

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Fig12

3]) to pre v nt an unw ante d sh ifting of th e e v rtice s.In both l Fig. I al ady be nt e ast , re th e ante nnas a bit to th e lft and righ t e (se e n from th e front) by se lcting som e of e th e uppe r v rtice s, turning Proportional e Edit Fal on [O], se lcting a giv n fal l off e e l off m e th od (h e re I use d a com bination of sm ooth and root fal and m ov th e l off) ing w h ol th ing w ith th e e m ov - tool e [G]. Probabl you w il y l ne e d to e xpe rim e nt a bit w ith th e righ t fal m e th od to l off As you can se e on th e re fe re nce im age , re ach satisfying th e ante nnas be com e l r at th e top, so arge re sul Try it on your ts. If you lt's do e ow n.If th e re are al so ne e d so, th e m as unw ante d v rtice s, e do it sh ow n in e . from th e g. w ith (Fig.13). ne igh bor ante nna one , You sh ifte d w ith , try to th e n sh oul d m ov th e oth e r e copy it al so ante nna far aw ay and al ays w w ith Proportional conne ct tak e a l ook Edit Fal off and l off th e on th e sh ift th e m back l r ate l er ow oth e r (Fig.14 sh ow s th e face s pe rspe ctiv w h ol, finish e d e w ith e s (front ante nna of m y m ode l ). th e [Num 1], face s of Fig13 Fig14 side [Num

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Fine .L t's m ak e th e h e ad a bit m ore e com plx now .I adde d face t- e ye s to th e e h e ad by adding an Icosph e re (4 Subdiv isions), m ov it to th e corre ct ing pl from th e front and side ace pe rspe ctiv and e rasing th e part of it e th at protrude s into th e inse cts h e ad.I use d to cre ate th e Icosph e re s out of th e e dit m ode [TAB] to h av th e m as a singl e e m e sh and on th at w ay, se parate l for th e y l r te xturing proce ss.Final I got a bit ate l y m ore th an a h alIcosph e re on e ach side f w h ich I fitte d on th e h e ad by using th e Proportional Edit Fal Tool [O] again. l off s Th is action coul ne e d som e tim e until d th e w h ol e ye fits (ne arl pe rfe ctl to e y) y th e h e ad.So tak e som e coffe e and be patie nt.:) In addition, I al adde d a so ring, m ade by Fig15 e xtruding a circl e se v ral e tim e s (using th e scal- tool e [S]) and fitte d it on th e h e ad as w e l as a l , k ind of fram e for th e inse ct e ye s (Fig.15).As a furth e r e ffe ct, th is re v al th e e s unattractiv are a w h e re th e Icosph e re e h its th e H e ad's Surface . Afte r appl th e e ye s, w e w il ying l continue w ith th e se cond instrum e nt th e se anim al h av on th e ir h e ad.As you s e can se e on (Fig.15), th e y start out as ne arl as unde r th e e ye and l until y ong th e uppe r e nd of it.Th e ir structure is re l e l e q ual th e one of th e ativ y to ante nnas, so use th e sam e te ch niq ue to cre ate th e m .

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th ing a bit m ore com plx to giv it a bit e e of structure as you can se e in (Fig.17). Th e re is al a "m outh " (or be tte r: h ol) so e sh ow n w h e re th e be ak com e s out.I took th is scre e nsh ot w ith Subsurface s turne d off, so you h av a be tte r insigh t into th e e m ode l structure .As you can se e ing abov th e be ak (or m outh , se e n from th e e top or front pe rspe ctiv ), I h ad to m ak e e som e m ore cuts to de fine th e m .Do not use l cuts [K ] alth e tim e .Inste ad of oop l th is, use norm al cuts [K ] to incre ase j ust th e part of ge om e try you re al w ant to l y incre ase in de tail av problm s and oid e e As you can se e in (Fig.16), I al cre ate d w ith too m any face s or problm s w ith so too ch ise ld e dge s (Th is occurs w h e n e a be ak w h ich h oists spiral unde r th e too m any e dge s com e too cl toge th e r ose h e ad.You can e asil cre ate th is by y g. e xtruding on oth e r re gions of th e m e sh , e . ) w h e n turning Subsurf on again. one face from th e uppe r m iddl e h e ad and continuing e xtruding [E] and rotating [R] it until you h av e a spiralI . did th e w h ol e Fig16 Fig17

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Th e lgs and th e ir conne ction to th e e body. As se e n on th e re fe re nce im age , th e butte rfl h as a sh e laround it's lgs as y l e w e las on th e part w h ich final l l y conne cts to th e re st of th e body.Th is part l s re l e l com plx w h ich ook ativ y e w oul ne e d a l of additional e rtice s in d ot v th e th orax ge om e try and on th at w ay coul probabl disturb th e Subsurf d y functional or e asil incre ase th e ity y v rte x count unne ce ssaril Be cause of e y. th is, I did th e se e lm e nts as w e las th e e l lgs se parate l So - lt's ge t of e dite y. e m ode [TAB] and first cre ate tw o lgs as e Fig18 se e n on (Fig.18).I starte d out w ith a circl (about 5- 7 v rtice s) from th e top e e v w and e xtrude d it until re ach e d a ie I m ode l sh ow n in th e figure .To cre ate as th e indiv idual e lse gm e nts, you can sh l use th e sam e te ch niq ue as al ady done re w ith th e abdom e n or th e ante nnas.To m ak e th e indiv idual e lparts sh ifting sh l unde r e ach oth e r, m ov [G] and scal [S] e e th e m until e y re ach a bit unde r th e th ne igh bor sh e lse gm e nt, as se e n in (Fig. l 19 ). Th e re is al th e l e st part of so ow th e inse ct, its cl s, sh ow n.M ode l aw ing th e m h igh l de taild incre ase s th e v y e isual out w ith th e com plxity of e your final ode l conne ctions m . to th e body.I W e w iluse th e l te ch niq ue sh ow n did a cube at atte h e re to re fine th e first, fl ne d abdom e n l r in it a bit ate [S+ M M B], th e de tail s se ction.Now w e e rase d th e bottom face sh oul h av d e m ode l as in (Fig. and th e n s inse rte d som e 20) and in (Fig. l cuts [K ]. oop 18, th e oth e r lgs). e Now w e w ilstart l

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Fig19

Fig20

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I continue d m ov th e v rtice s until ing e I re ach e d a form as in th e re fe re nce im age s.Th e n, I fitte d th e m on th e th orax by using th e Proportional Edit Fal tool from th e 3d- and side l off s pe rspe ctiv [Num 3] and e xtrude d one e e dge until e y re ach e d th e uppe r th m iddl of th e th orax.As a l ste p, I e ast m irrore d th e part and j oine d th e tw o m e sh e s by h itting [J Now I conne cte d ]. th e parts I e xtrude d be fore to th e uppe r m iddl of th e th orax toge th e r (Use [V e ]k e y w h il h av 2, 3 or 4 unconne cte d e ing v rtice s se lcte d to cre ate a l , a tri, or e e ine a q uad).Th at's it.Now you j ne e d to ust Fig21 m ak e 2 v ariations of th is form for th e oth e r 2 pairs of lgs. e You can al so cre ate som e de e pstructure by m ak ing 3 v rtical e cuts again and m ov th e ing m iddl of e th e m al ong

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Fig22 th e z - axis of th e m ode lYou . can se e th is in (Fig.21).L ook for (Fig.18) to se e th e conne ction parts from th e side pe rspe ctiv . e Re f ining t e m ain body h Ok ay..th e m ode l . isn't l ing bad, but ook th e re are stilth ings th at ne e d to be l m ore inte nsiv , e xpre ssiv to l e e ook natural istic.For e xam pl: Th e sh e l e l se gm e nts (again! ; ).W e w iluse th e ) l sam e m e th od of m ov one sh e l ing l se gm e nt unde r its ne igh bor as w e al ady did w ith th e cl s.Se lct one re aw e row of face s in face - se lct- m ode , scal e e th e m a bit sm al r [S] and m ov [G] l e e th e m unde r th e oth e r face row .(Fig.22)

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Now w e w ilfinish - up th e back - part of th e inse ct.As se e n l in th e re fe re nce again, th e re is a k ind of incision in th e sh e lw h e re anoth e r part of th e body is v e be tw e e n l isibl th e uppe r and l e r sh e l You m ay al m ode l is th e ow l . so th fol ing w ay: First e l l ow ongate th e uppe r part a bit and de lte th e face s be tw e e n th e uppe r and l e r part.Afte r e ow th is, e xtrude th e borde r face s of th e ope n l e r part to ow th e m iddl and se condl to th e inne rm ost part of th e e y inse ct.Th e n, I e xtrude d it again out of th e m e sh and form e d th e body part w h ich is m ark e d in (Fig.23).Final l y, do not forge t to cl th e ope n m e sh by se lcting 4 ose e v rtice s and h itting [V e ]. Fig24

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As a th ird de tailyou can e xtrude som e ch ose n face s , of th e top th orax and e xtrude th e m too, to cre ate al som e sh e lse gm e nts on th is pl .Se e (Fig.24) so l ace for th is

Fig23

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Th e w ings As you can al se e in (Fig.24 and Fig. so 25), I se lcte d 2 pairs of face s and e e xtrude d th e m on both side s of th e body in th e top pe rspe ctiv [Num 7].You can e use th e scal- tool in th at case to e [S] e xtrude th e m aw ay from th e m idpoint afte r h itting [E] for e xtrude .Now , start to buil a construct of m uscls and/or d e v ins w h ich start at th e body and e be com e sm al r and sm al r in th e w ings l e l e re gion.Th e l of th e se m uscls/v ins ook e e diffe rs from e ach butte rfl too, so tak e a y l at your pe rsonal fe re nce or e asil ook re y do it as you l e :).Do not forge t to m ak e ik th e se gm e nts a bit th inne r at th e e nd, using th e scal- tool again.Plase do e [S] e th is w h ol action for j one side at e ust first.Now se lct your one - side e construction, m irror it, and attach it to th e oth e r e xtrude d e nds on th e oth e r side by [V k e y (Fig.26). ]Ok ay. L t's start w ith th e w ings surface s. e Th e re are se v ral e th ods to ach ie v e m e th is, e . 3d spl s, pol g. ine ygonal surface s… e tc. For now , w e w ilcontinue w ith our l te ch niq Fig25 ue w e use d so far: Go out of e ditm ode [TAB] to m ak e it e asie r to te xture l r. ate Now start

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Fig26 w ith a sim pl cube again and fl n it e atte so it be com e s v ry th in (but don't forge t e th at it probabl be com e s e v n th inne r y e w h e n Subsurfs are turne d on).Try to cre ate tw o sh ape s (Fig.27) by e xtrusion [E] and re fining ([K ] for l cuts or oop norm al cuts e tc. w h e re as th e uppe r one ) (as se e n in (Fig.28)) ov rl th e l e r e aps ow one j a l e bit. ust ittl

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Now , turn subsurface s on and m ak e th e w ings in de pth a bit irre gul For th is, ar. w e can al use th e Proportional so Edit Fal Tool de spite w e coul al use l off[O] d so l attice s, e tc.But for now , w e w iltry to l m inim iz e th e assortm e nt of tool use d s and tak e th e first one .You sh oul pay d som e atte ntion to th e w ings th at stil l ov rl but ne arl conne ct to e ach e ap, y oth e r w ith th e ir l e r and uppe r ow surface .In (Fig.29 ), th e de pth s of th e surface I use d h e re are m ark e d, j for ust e xam pl. e Now com e s th e l ste p w e ne e d to do: ast W e w ilne e d to tak e a l to se e if th e l ook m uscls or v ins w e did j som e ste ps e e ust be fore are stilv y conne cte d to th e l isibl w ings in top [Num 7] and bottom pe rspe ctiv .If th e y are not, try to e ach ie v th is by m ov or w e l e ing ding th e m w ith th e Proportional Editing Tool [O] s and/or th e m ov - tool e [G]. Ok ay - now re cl and be h ol your ine d m ode l did you e v r im agine th at a e butte rfl l s l e th at?Ch e ck your y ook ik re fe re nce - if it's ide nticalyou did a , v ry good j e ob. Fig28

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Fig29

Fig27

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Th e finalye t unte xture d , and unrigge d re sul can be t se e n be l .I h ope I h av ow e succe ssful cov re d al l y e l aspe cts of th e m ode l and h av w ritte n a e com pre h e nsibl tutorial e

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Rapid Prototyping w ith Blnde r e f Je w e l M e tal or ry/ Artists
By Cl Eick e K uh ne n aas e xport 3D ge om e try into th e STL(Ste re o L ograph y) form at to transcribe to 3D ith printe rs.

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incl traditional com pute r- aide d ude and approach e s to e xpl , de v l and ore e op, construct m y art obj cts. e Th is proce ss be gins w ith fe w q uick sk e tch e s to capture th e m ost im portant ide as of th e proj ct.H and sk e tch ing e al s one to q uick l e xpl m any ide as l ow y ore in a v ry rough w ay.H ow e v r sk e tch e s, e e

It is im portant to k e e p one l itation in im m ind about Blnde r: Blnde r doe s not e e support adv ance d NURBS tool And s. NURBS tool are e sse ntial h e n s w Th e M ak ing of Spe cial PEZ de signing sh ape s and e lm e nts th at e D ispe nse rs re q uire a h igh am ount of pre cision.And In m y re ce nt M FA Th e sis Exh ibition, I pol ygons do not offe r th at pre cision pre se nte d PEZ dispe nse rs w h ich w e re e ith e r.H ow e v r, w h e n a NURBS obj ct is e e constructe d w ith found obj cts, h and e e xporte d into th e STLform at, th e surface fabricate d and com pute r ge ne rate d is te sse l d and sav d as a pol l ate e ygon e lm e nts.In th is articl I w ilfocus on e e l m e sh .Good re sul w ilre q uire a h igh ts l th e te ch nical possibil s th at Blnde r itie e te sse l l ation of th e NURBS obj cts.Th is is e prov s artists in cre ating CAD ide sim il to w ork ing w ith Pol ar ygons.W h il e ge ne rate d e lm e nts. e pol ygons cannot re pl NURBS, th e y ace e antage s.Organic Toge th e r, Blnde r and Yafray are a v ry h av th e ir ow n adv e e m ode l is today’ stre ngth of Pol ing s ygons. strong tool t w h ich prov alne e de d se ide l ide m ode l and re nde ring tool to v ing s isual e Toge th e r w ith Subdiv d Surface s, you iz not onl h av th e e asy m ode l tool to y e ing s ide as and e xpl v ore ariations in a sh ort q uick l cre ate your de sire d sh ape s, but y pe riod of tim e .W ith it’ e xce l nt s l e al Subdiv d Surface s th at are ne e de d so ide m ode l and anim ation tool Blnde r ing s, e for fine te sse l l ation to gain sm ooth STL al s th e de signe r to v l ow irtual cre ate h is l y fils. e obj ct and proof m e ch anical lm e nts. e e e Yafray tak e s core for a ph otore al istic During th e past th re e se m e ste rs at re nde ring. Bow l Gre e n State Univ rsity, I h av ing e e H ow e v r, in te rm s of m ode l e ing, e xpl d a de sign proce ss in w h ich I ore Blnde r al offe rs th e possibil to e so ity Th e M ak ing ofSpe cial dispe nse rs PEZ w w w . e nde rart. bl org

by nature , h av a h abit of be ing tw oe dim e nsionalstatic, and , disproportionate .Th is is w h e n Blnde r e be com e s an e sse ntial .Afte r th e m ain tool e lm e nts are w ork e d out, Blnde r is use d e e to construct ide as in a th re e - dim e nsional space and to re fine th e obj cts. e

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3d W ORKSH OP
w h e n you are incorporating rapid prototype d obj cts into your art.For e e xam pl, if it is too th in, th e obj ct m igh t e e crack .

Issue 4 M ay 2006

Th e adv antage of sw itch ing to Blnde r e afte r th is be ginning stage is th at th e m ain and im portant ide as are e xpl d ore and a sol foundation is cre ate d on id w h ich Blnde r can re st.Afte r an initial e m ode l se ssion (w h ich ofte n re q uire s ing q uite som e tim e ), appl ch ange s to ying th e de sign, adding sm ale lm e nts, or l e ch anging th e point of v w onl re q uire ie y fe w cl s of th e m ouse .It is during th is ick stage th at de cisions conce rning m ate rial th ick ne ss, scal and proportions are e m ade .Spe cifical w h e n m e ch anical l y, e lm e nts are inv v d in th e de sign, th e ir e ole inte raction w ilbe e xpl d and re fine d. l ore W ork ing w ith th e corre ct m ate rial ick ne ss is v ry im portant th e

fild, be nt, and/or sol re d toge th e r. e de H ow e v r, cre ating a re al h e ad out of e istic a sh e e t of m e tal not so e asy.Th is task is re q uire s a diffe re nt approach . Th ank s to Blnde r’ STLe xport fe ature , e s th e natural istical m ode ld h e ad coul l y e d be se nt to a z Core 3D printe r to cre ate tipl th At th is point, alof th e im portant aspe cts m ul e , re al re e - dim e nsional l re pl ications.During th is proce ss it w as of th e de sign’ de v l e nt are s e opm im portant to w ork w ith cl d surface s. ose com plte .In th e fol ing ste p, e l ow Th e z Core softw are ne e ds cl d sol ose ids, orth ograph ic v w s of th e 3D m ode l ie are ose e printe d out in 1:1 and use d as a re fe re nce or cl d surface s w ith a m ode ld cul to start constructing th e m e tal lm e nts. th ick ne ss to cal ate w h e re it h as to e e gl th e starch pow de r toge th e r, w h ich ue at th e e nd w ilturn into th e de sire d l Th e m aj ority of th e m e tal ork can be w obj ct. e constructe d using fl sh e e ts of m e tal at . Th e te m pl s ne e d to be saw e d out, ate

Th e M ak ing ofSpe cial dispe nse rs PEZ

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3d W ORKSH OP
Th e z Core 3D Printe r w ork s l e a re gul ik ar printe r, but inste ad of using ink it use s gl . ue Th e printe r starts by l aying dow n a v ry th in e l r of starch aye ov r w h ich th e e printe r h e ad puts dow n gl ue drops w h e re th e 3D m ode l q uire s it.Afte r th at th e re printe r brush e s anoth e r th in l r of aye starch pow de r ov r th e first one and e again gl droplts are appl d. ue e ie Th rough th is proce ss th e z Core Printe r cre ate s your 3D re pl ication l r by l r. aye aye Th e se fragil 3D e prints sh oul be d se ald e w ith a spe cial and fastdrying e poxy gl to ue pre v nt any dam age .Th is proce ss w ork s e be st w h e n th e 3D prints are pl d in an ace ov n to w arm th e m up.Th e te m pe rature e w ilm ak e th e e poxy gl sink de e p into l ue th e surface w h e n appl d.Th is pre v nts ie e any gl re m aining on top of th e surface ue and cov ring any structural tailTw o e de . coats of gl are e nough to cre ate a v ry ue e sol pl id astic h ulor surface . l

Issue 4 M ay 2006

Th e onl re m aining ste p is to y Elctroform th e pie ce s.To e lctroform e e m e ans th at you are grow ing m e tal onto your pie ce . In th is case , coppe r is use d. To pre v nt any dam age to th e sol e id obj ct or th e e lctroform e r, th e starch e e pow de r inside th e 3D print sh oul be d w ash e d out w h e n th e 3D print onl h as a y v ry th in e poxy gl se al It coul e ue ing. d h appe n, th at som e w ate r w ilfl l ow th rough th e porous e poxy sk in and m ak e th e starch e xpand w h e n pl d into th e ace e lctroform e r.Th is w ilre sul in crack e d e l t surface s w h ich , h ow e v r, al can re sul e so t into be autiful crack de tail w h e n de sire d. s Afte r appl e lctrodag (a coppe r ying e paint) to th e h e ad and se al th e inside ing w ith w ax and attach ing a coppe r w ire to it, th e 3D h e ad can be pl d into th e ace e lctroform e r. e

Th e M ak ing ofSpe cial dispe nse rs PEZ

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3d W ORKSH OP

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e lctrodag, w h il th e righ t side onl re ce iv d one v ry th in e e y e e l r.Th is re sul d in th e lft side be ing strong and sol and aye te e id th e lft side be ing th in, fragil and onl partial e lctropl d. e e y l e y ate Th rough a l r pl onge ating proce ss w ith a l am p se tting, a ow sol and e v n coppe r surface w as cre ate d.Tow ards th e e nd of id e th e proce ss, th e am ps w e re incre ase d to cre ate a strong nodul ation on th e righ t side of th e face .Th e nodul ation turne d into an e ffe ct, w h ich l s l e th e h e ad is de caye d. ook ik Th e final stage of th e de sign proce ss is re ach e d.W h il m ost e im portant e lm e nts w e re final e d w ith th e first sk e tch se ssion e iz and l r in Blnde r, during th e proce ss of asse m bl al ate e ing l e lm e nts, th e de sign is tw e ak e d and ch ange d furth e rm ore .Th e e printe d de sign pl are a pe rfe ct pl ans ayground for som e m ore re fine d sk e tch ing.Quite ofte n is it th e case th at th e problm e soling re q uire s you to go forw ard and back w ards be tw e e n v For th e final e ad, th e lft side of th e face got th re e coatings of th e se tw o approach e s until e final sul is re ach e d h e th re t

Th e M ak ing ofSpe cial dispe nse rs PEZ

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3d W ORKSH OP
Re nde ring w ith Pov f ray rom Blnde r e
By J M auricio and Rodas R."M orfe us" osé Pov ray.You m ay al w ant to instal so l M e gapov as it is com patibl to Pov , e ray and h as additional ature s l e H DRI fe ik support and Fil Exposure . m

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Righ t now , th e re is no e xe cutabl e instal l ation for Blnd2pov so you h av to e , e unz ip th e rar arch iv of blnd2povinto a e e Al ough Pov is an e xce l nt rayth ray l e fol r and re nam e th e blnde r. xe to de e e tracing softw are , Blnde r use rs did not e som e th ing l e blnde r2pove xe and copy ik e . h av m any w ays of using it clanl until it to th e de faul Blnde r instal e e y t e l ation th e re lase of Blnd2Pov Al ough e e . th fol r.You m ay al w ant to cre ate a de so Blnd2Povw as born as a script, j l e e ust ik sh ortcut to it for your de sk top. th e J S Blnde r- to- POVe xporte r, th e M e Fig1.Povray as re nde ring e ngine . script e xporte d th e XM Lge ne rate d by Be fore going any furth e r, e xe cute th e 'Re nde r buttons w indow ' Blnde r for Yafray to a POVform at.Now Blnd2Povprogram to m ak e sure it l e e oads in th e ir l st v rsion (0. 6a at th e ate e 0. corre ctl If it giv s som e m issing fil y. e e m om e nt of w riting th is articl), Ram on e e rrors, m ak e sure th at you pl d th e ace Carl Ruiz (RC Ruiz , th e script auth or) os re nam e d Blnd2Povfil in your Blnde r e e e h as succe ssful inte grate d it as th e l y instal l ation fol r. de re nde r UI w ith in Blnde r (Figure 1).Th is e prov s al ost se am lss inte gration for Afte r th e succe ssful ide m e instal l ation of Pov Ray, base d on clv r usage of th e e e Blnd2Povand Pov e ray, you'lbe abl to l e Yafray code .Th is articl w ilte ach you e l acce ss it dire ctl from Blnde r's Re nde r y e h ow to use Blnd2Pov e . button j as you do w ith Yafray (Figure ust 1). Inst l ion al at To m ak e it w ork , you w ilne e d to instal Fe at re s l l u th e Blnd2Povbinary w h ich you can find Now w e w ilde scribe e ach one of th e e l at El ysiun, and al th e ne w e st v rsion of buttons for th e Blnde r2PovGUI in th e so e e

Fig2.Th e Povray GUI

Re nde ring w ith POVRay from Blnde r e

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3d W ORKSH OP
Bak e R adio& Ph ot Th e purpose of th is is to sav th e e radiosity* and ph otons data in "e xp. rad" and "e xp. " fils th at are store d in th e ph e de faul Yafray path .If you w ant to t re nde r an anim ation w ith Pov Ray, it is re com m e nde d th at you re nde r th e FIRST fram e w ith th is button activ d. ate Th e n, disabl 'Bak e Radio& Ph ot' and e e nabl 'L Pre v e oad ious Bak e '.Final l y, re nde r th e anim ation.Doing th is w il l sav you som e tim e on radiosity e cal ations. cul L oad Pre v s Bak e iou Th is button is use d afte r you h av sav d e e th e Radiosity and or Ph oton data in th e first fram e of your anim ation.It sav s e tim e during th e re nde ring by using th e sav d data from th e "e xp. e rad" and "e xp. " fils. ph e Th e qual ofth e radiosity is configure d by ity de faulpre se ts in Bln2Pov, w h ich tak e s t e advantage ofth e store d val s in th e ue "rad_ de f.inc" fils. e

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Radiosity
Radios it is a t ch niq ue us e d f t e y e or h cal at cul ion of Gl obal l inat Il um ion. Il inat l um ion is done by e m it ing l t t igh f rom e ach obj ct in t e s ce ne . e h O bj ct abs orb ce rt e s ain q uant ie s of it t e e ne rgy and alo re fe ct s om e h s l part f w h at can be cons ide re d as , or l t e m is s ion by re fe ct igh l ion. It is done in s uch a w ay t at alt e s urf s in h lh ace t e s ce ne act as am bie nt l t , and h igh s t e re f h ore e ach one af e ct t e f s h il inat l um ion of t e ot e r s urf s h h ace (w e l now n ph e nom e non as D if us e l -k f Int r-re fe ct e l ion of t e l t ). h igh Th e cal at cul ion of Radios it is bas e d y on m at e m at h ical e t ods t at are m h h de pe nde nt on Rayt race rs . Pov ray us e s t e Gre g W ard M e t od f h h or radios it cal at y cul ion. Th is prov s a ide f orm of re pl acing t e ol cal at h d cul ions (cons t ant v ue of am bie nce ) w it a al h v ue of l t bas e d on t e al igh h int ract e ion of l t in t e ne igh boring igh h s urf s . ace

Fig3.Radiosity se lctor e

Fig4.Radiosity Options

Re nde ring w ith POVRay from Blnde r e

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3d W ORKSH OP
Now w e w ilgo th rough th e av abl l ail e radiosity type options. No Radios it W h e n se lcting th is y: e option Blnd2Povdoe sn't cal ate e cul radiosity. Radios it D e f t As th e nam e y aul : indicate s it l oads th e de faul radiosity t param e te rs, th e re sul m ay be bad ts de pe nding on th e sce ne , but it is good e nough to m ak e te st re nde rs w ith out sacrificing re nde r tim e . Radios it Fas t Th is m ak e s a q uick y : cal ation for radiosity, th us is of l cul ow q ual but supe rior to th e De faul ity t. Radios it Norm alTh is use s typical y : v ue s of radiosity for sce ne s w h e re al ge ne ral a good re nde r is re q uire d, but l y not sacrificing too m uch on re nde ring tim e (for e xam pl, anim ations). e Radios it 2Bounce : Th is use s v ue s of y al 'Radiosity Norm albut m ak e s a doubl ' e bounce of l t, im prov th e sce ne . igh ing Th is is ach ie v d by al ring a spe cial e te Pov param e te r cal d 'th e ray l e re cursion_ l it'.Th is param e te r control im s th e q uantity of tim e s th at th e l t igh inte racts w ith an obj ct.Th e re is e m axim um of 20.In th is case , th e v ue of al th e re cursion_ l it is at 2.Th is al im so incre ase s th e re nde r tim e .

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De faul(20 Se c) t

Fast(38 Se c)

Norm al 50 Se c) (1

2Bounce ( 5M in 50 Se c)

Abov com paris on of t e q ualy and re nde r t e s w it dif e re nt radios it on t e s am e s ce ne : e h it im h f y h

Re nde ring w ith POVRay from Blnde r e

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Radios it FinalAs y :

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th e nam e indicate s, it is use d for h igh q ual re nde rs and as ity you gue sse d w ith e v n h igh e r re nde r e tim e s. Radios it O ut y doorL Th e l - q ual Q: ow ity radiosity re nde ring for outdoor sce ne s.It w ilbe spe e die r.It is use d to sim ul l ate radiosity in e xte rnal ne s in w h ich th e sce l t com e s from a source of punctual igh l t.Th e re nde r is of l q ual and is igh ow ity ide al te sting due to th e l re nde r for ow tim e s. Radios it O ut y doorH Q: Th is is th e opposite of th e pre v ious se tting and is use d for h igh - q ual re nde rings of ity outdoor sce ne s. Radios it O ut y doorL t Th is is use d igh : to sim ul radiosity in e xte rnal ne s ate sce w ith th e sun as a prim ary source of l t. igh H ow e v r, th e q ual is sim il to e ity ar OutdoorL Q. Radios it IndoorL Th is is use d to y Q: sim ul radiosity in inte rior sce ne s.It ate use s a 're cursion l it' v ue of 2. im al Radios it IndoorH Q: Th is is use d to y sim ul radiosity in inte rior sce ne s ate using a 're cursion_ l it' v ue of 3.Th e im al re nde r tim e is h igh so, th is is be st use d for your final nde rs. re

Final M in 37 Se c) (13

Outdoor L (32Se c) Q

Outdoor H Q (12 M in 11 Se c)

Outdoor L t(20 Se c) igh

Abov com paris on of t e q ualy and re nde r t e s w it dif e re nt radios it on t e s am e s ce ne : e h it im h f y h

Re nde ring w ith POVRay from Blnde r e

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3d W ORKSH OP
You can ach ie v be tte r radiosity e configurations by m odifying th e radiosity param e te rs inside Pov or, by m odifying ray th e Pov obal v ue from w ith in Blnde r. Gl Rad al e Re m e m be r, w h e ne v r you m odify Radiosity e param e te rs in Blnd2POVyou w ilh av to e l e ge ne rate ne w Bak e Radio& Ph ot. Ph ot ons Th is button e nabls th e ge ne ration of e caustics in your sce ne .If not activ d by ate de faul fak e caustics are ge ne rate d, w h ose t, re sul can som e tim e s be good.Th e ts param e te rs of th e ph otons for caustics are store d in th e "e xp. " fil.Th e ph otons are ph e use d as h e l rs for Radiosity cal ations. pe cul Al ough th e fak e caustic re sul are th ts not so gre at, th e se can be use ful sce ne s in w ith l q uantitie s of w ate r (for e xam pl, arge e unde rw ate r in a se a or a pool In th e se type ). of e nv ironm e nts, re nde ring th e caustics w ith ph otons w iltak e a v ry, v ry l l e e ong tim e .So, it is sugge ste d to use fak e caustics h e re .Th is can be dire ctl adj d from y uste Pov using th e k e yw ord caustics pow e r, ray th is com m and can h av a v ue be tw e e n 0. e al 0 and 1. Note th at caustics are not sim ul d 0. ate w h e n th e v ue is se t to 0. Th e v ue of al 0. al caustics pow e r is introduce d as an Inte rior param e te r of th e m ate rial s.

Issue 4 M ay 2006

Indoor L (46 Se c) Q

Indoor H Q (25 M in 36 Se c)

W ith Ph otons

W ith outPh otons

Radiosity 2bounce (11 M in 34 Se c)

Radiosity 2bounce (4 M in 47 Se c)

Re nde ring w ith POVRay from Blnde r e

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3d W ORKSH OP
J tr it e Th is is a condition for th e are a l t th at igh m ak e s it ge ne rate a random sam pl of ing th e are a l t, th e re by sm ooth ing th e igh l rs of l t & sh adow sam pls.Th is, aye igh e h ow e v r, cause s problm s in anim ations e e as it ge ne rate s random sam pls of th e e sm ooth ne ss and se e m s to j p in th e um anim ations.Se e th e e xam pl im age s for a e be tte r unde rstanding of its e ffe ct. D e f l Am bie nt au t Th is produce s th e sam e e ffe ct as th at of Blnde r's 'Em it' function. e Exe c. Pov ay R Th e function of th is button is v ry sim pl, e e to run Pov for re nde ring as soon as Ray re nde r button is pre sse d.If Exe c.Pov is Ray activ d, th e sce ne ge ts e xporte d to th e ate Pov form at and th e im age is re nde re d ray dire ctl w ith in Pov y ray. Au t AA o If th is button is pre sse d, th e re nde r is Antial d in Pov iase ray.It is ide al a te st for re nde r.It is pre sse d by de faul If you t. de se lct th is button, th re e ne w options e w ilappe ar: AA Sam pls, AA Passe s and l e Th r (AA Th re sh ol Th e se ne w options d). W ith J r itte

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W ith outJ r itte

Radiosity 2bounce (5 M in 14 Se c) w ilal you to h av m anual l l ow e control e r ov anti- al iasing. Th e AA Sam pls is use d w h e n using DOF e (De pth of Fie l AA Passe s is th e q uantity d). of passe s th at are use d in th e re nde r for al iasing.Th r (AA Th re sh ol is th e d) se paration v ue of th e pixe l gion to al re anti- al ias.

Radiosity 2bounce (7 M in 55 Se c)

Fig5.Antial iasing options

Re nde ring w ith POVRay from Blnde r e

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3d W ORKSH OP
R ayde pt h Th is is th e num be r of bounce s of th e ray and is im portant for gl and m irrors. ass H igh e r num be rs e q ual tte r re sul Th is be ts. al w ile ffe ct th e re nde ring tim e . so l Proce ssors Th is option is curre ntl not activ in th is y e v rsion of Blnd2Pov e e . Gam a Gam m a is re l d to th e OSA proce dure , ate th e ov rsam pl of pixe l th at are e ing s m ixe d to ge ne rate th e final nde r.Th e re conv ntional nde ring h as a Gam m a of e re 1. 00. Exposu re Th is addition sim ul s a de cre ase of ate re activ ch e m ical in fil e m ul e s m sion during e xposure .Th e are as th at h av e re ce iv d m ore l t re act lss th an oth e r e igh e are as.Use ful h igh contrast sce ne s as for it brings out th e dark are as and l its im brigh t are as. Concl sion u I h ope th is basic e xpl anation of th e Blnde r2Povparam e te rs w ilge t you e l starte d w ith using th e aw e som e Pov Ray raytrace r from w ith in Blnde r.And, of e course , as Blnd2Povde v l you w il e e ops, l be abl to use e v n m ore pow e rful e e fe ature s of Pov w ith m inim um fuss Ray from w ith in Blnde r e blnde 2povray dow nl e oad. h ttp://w w w . graph icalorg/buil l . ds/buil ds /sh ow buil ph p? d. action=sh ow & id=116& PH PSESSID=b4c1a7c0379 5db2af8e fe 72e 0349 6 217 Code r: RCRuiz

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Im portant
To use Exposure you w ilne e d to l h av M e gapovinstal d, since Pov e l e ray doe sn't support th is function.If you use it w h il re nde ring, M e gapovw il e l be e xe cute d autom atical l y.

Re nde ring w ith POVRay from Blnde r e

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3d W ORKSH OP
Ch aracte r D e sign 2D Sk e tch to 3D
by - Rogério Pe rdiz difficul to l w h il 3D m ode l t ose e ing. Oth e rw ise , w e m igh t turn our ch aracte r into som e k ind of de form e d al n, w h ich ie m ay onl be h e l if w e do inte nd to y pful m ak e one .; Abov , you can se e one good) e l ing ch aracte r sk e tch but, it is not ook v ry h e l w h il 3D m ode l So, e pful e ing. for th at re ason I h av de cide d to do a e l e sk e tch tutorial ittl about w h at goe s into m ak ing a succe ssful ch aracte r starting 3D from th e 2D Sk e tch ph ase . Th e Ch aract r e Th e styl e d fictitious guy in th e picture iz is Orion.H e v unte e re d h im se lto ol f il l ustrate w h at w ilbe de scribe d in l upcom ing paragraph s.For th is, you w il l ne e d a digital e t or th e traditional tabl pape r and pe ncil . Conce pt D e sign v 2D Sk e t s ch Som e tim e s, th e gap be tw e e n th e se tw o te rm s is bl d, th us e asil urre y m isunde rstood.Conce pt De sign re fe rs to th e actual ativ proce ss of th ough t or cre e ide a and th e de sign proce ss th at suits th e final outcom e .It is usual re pre se nte d l y v isual th rough continuousl im prov d l y y e sk e tch e s or draw ings of som e obj ct or e ch aracte r from th e v ry first ide a until e

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th e com pltion of a production- re ady e draw ing.It al incl s th e sce ne de tail so ude s l e e nv ik ironm e nt styl, ch aracte r e spe cial s, l ting and m ood of th e tie igh sce ne and th e te xture styl as w e l e l . Th e 2D Sk e tch is a singl part of th e e Conce pt De sign proce ss.It giv s you th e e basic form and h ape to h e l m ate rial e p iz th e ide a th at w ilgain, ov r tim e , a m ore l e organic sh ape on th e pape r.It can al be so cal d a rough pre - v l e isual ation of th e iz final al e d draw ing. ide iz Tim e -Sav ing Tips Unlss you're a v ry gifte d artist w ith e e th e abil to draw q ual sk e tch e s ity ity l tning fast, you w ilne e d l of tim e igh l ots and a flxibl de adl .Re m e m be r, since e e ine th is is a sk e tch for pre - v isual ation of a iz 3D m ode lyou m ay ch oose to be lss , e de scriptiv on th e pape r. e If you are draw ing th e sk e tch digital l y, use L rs in your fav aye orite paint program .Use e ach L r for se parate aye th ings.For instance , put th e h e ad in L r 1, th e h air in 2, body in 3, cl e s aye oth in 4 and so on.

Int rodu ct ion Th is articl focuse s on a v ry im portant e e part of 3D Ch aracte r M ode l k now n as ing th e 2D Sk e tch ( or Conce pt De sign).Th e sk e tch artw ork is th e basis for th e succe ssful ch aracte r th at e v ryone 3D e h ope s to h av in th e ir anim ation.It's e during th e Conce pt De sign ph ase th at w e de fine e v ry aspe ct of th e ch aracte r; e prov iding a w e l structure d form and l ide a w h ich , if prope rl fol e d, is y l ow

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Using L rs can som e tim e s be trick y aye but, in th e e nd it w ilbe ne fit you q uite l substantial sav you pre cious tim e . l y, ing m ode l w ork w ith th e ch aracte r's and pose .

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3D bl m ode l ade in Blnde r as m y ock m e re fe re nce for th e pe rspe ctiv e pose s.It giv s a natural e ra v w fe e l e cam ie For th e m ain ch aracte r sk e tch , your goal to th e pe rspe ctiv draw ings and it´ e s Th e Sh e e t sh oul be a 3- side d ch aracte r sh e e t d re al e asy to l y Th e first th ing you ne e d to re m e m be r is (Front, Side and Back ).Th is is a v ry e de fine th e v um e of th e ch aracte r. ol th at w h e n you finish th e 3D m ode lyou'l crucial p for th e 3D m ode l ph ase of , l ste ing al ne e d to Rig(*) it so th e ch aracte r can your ch aracte r.You ne e d to de fine th e 3- Sk e t ing Up so ch be pose d in th e sce ne .It is h igh l y dim e nsional ature s of th e ch aracte r in W h e n I use d to se e draw ings m ade by fe re com m e nde d th at you pose your th e sk e tch l e m uscul v um e and th e profe ssional I th ough t to m yse l ik ar ol s, f ch aracte r w ith th e arm s and lgs sl tl strik ing contours.Afte r th at, if it's e igh y "W h ooo!! I’l v r be abl to m ak e th at, lne e e spre ad apart.You w ant to do th is possibl, you can de fine m ore de tail a th e se guys are gods and sim pl m ortal e on e s be cause , for instance , if th e righ t lg is e cl m ode lbut for now your 3- side d ay , l e m e w ilne v r re ach th e m . W e l ik l e " l , v ry cl to th e lft it w ilbe a m ad j e ose e l ob ch aracte r sh e e t sh oul giv you an d e w h at h appe ns is th at w e usual onl se e l y y assigning th e v rtice s to th e bone s.Th is acce ptabl 2D fl ne d re fe re nce .Th is e e atte th e final draw ing, and ignore th e ste ps type of pose facil s th e arm ature bone sh oul be e nough to ge t you going.In itate d th at th e y’ e use d to ge t th e re .You can v positioning and m ak e s it a l e asie r to ot addition, if you w ish , you m ay al do so com pare draw ing to th e construction of som e a h ouse or a buil ding.In th e e nd, it l s ook pe rspe ctiv e pre tty.But w h il th e artists are w ork ing, e sk e tch e s of it’ j a l of dirt, trash and indiv s ust ot idual your parts. ch aracte r w ith re l d axe Rigging pose s.I use th e Pl acing an arm ature or bone inside pe rspe ctiv e th e m e sh to e nabl th e e draw ings for m anipul ation of th e ch aracte r's additional pose . re fe re nce .I al ays use a w

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Th e Gol n R u l of 2D de e Ch aract r Sk e t ing e ch Ne v r forge t th at th e re is a h e ad unde r e th e h air and a body unde r th e cl e s.If oth som e th ing is w rong, you w il l instinctiv l k now it.You m ay not k now e y e xactl w h at's w rong but, you w ilk now y l th at som e th ing isn't q uite righ t.You’l lbe fine if you k e e p th at in m ind. I’ not going to de scribe ste p- by- ste p m h ow to draw , but if you find m y sk e tch e s gre at th e n you re al are in troubl and I l y e re com m e nd th e fol ing site s th at h av l ow e q uick tutorial on 2D ch aracte r de sign. s Th e y are focuse d m ainl on th e J y apane se anim e styl but, th e te ch niq ue s de scribe d e are flxibl and e asil adaptabl to any e e y e styl (de dicate d draw ing book s are e pre fe rabl but, if th e y are out of your e re ach , th e se site s are good one s and cov r w e lth e basics): e l h ttp://w w w . ow todraw m anga. h com h ttp://w w w . ane k o. bak com h ttp://w w w . yk arbon. pol com

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e xam pl, th e h air on top of th e h e ad. e W h e n you're done , scan e v ryth ing and e j th e m in th e com pute r. oin L e in 3D, th e first th ing you ne e d is a ik bl m ode lin th is case a bl ov iz e d ock , ock al draw ing.Th is w ay you can de fine th e are a and position of your ch aracte r on th e pape r and av boring th ings l e , oid ik afte r al ost com plting th e ch aracte r, m e not h av e nough room lft on th e ing e pape r to draw th e fe e t.

Using sim pl circls and ov s is e e al ge ne ral a good m e th od to de fine th e l y body proportions, but is far from be ing th e onl m e th od.Use circls to re pre se nt y e Th e Front V w ie th e h e ad and th e j oints l e sh oul rs, ik de Now th is is w h e re alth e fun be gins! l e l s and k ne e s.Use ov s to conne ct bow al L s and Ge ntlm e n! Start th e GIM P (or th e m . adie e w h ate v r your fav e orite 2D im age e ditor h appe ns to be ) or j grab a bunch of ust Ne xt, draw th e h e ad h airlss, add th e e pape r and your fav orite pe ncilTh e m ost h air, draw th e body and final cov r h im . l y e im portant th ing, if you're using an im age w ith som e Coth e s.Ne v r forge t to put e e ditor, is to USE L AYERS, SEPARATE e ach th ing on a diffe re nt l r. aye TH INGS, and DON'T DEL ANYTH ING. ETE If you’ using pe ncil pape r, al re and so m aintain th e th ings se parate d.Use a l t tabl or ce lpape r to draw , for igh e l

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(Im age lft bottom ). e Now h e re , som e tim e s th ings can be com e trick y.W h at h appe ns is th at th e Front v w m ust coincide , as pe rfe ctl as possibl, ie y e w ith th e Side v w .Th at’ cal d Fore sh orte ning. ie s l e Fore sh ort ning e Fore sh orte ning isn’ e asy to say th e last.W h ate v r you’ t e e re using, th e GIM P or pape r, you’l e d to draw h oriz ontaline s lne l from k e y parts of th e Front v w and use th e m to draw your ie ch aracte r from th e Side v w .In th e GIM P, you can j ie ust activ th e Vie w Grid function but, it’ a l h arde r, tim e ate s ot consum ing and e rror- propitious. Pre ss th e [sh ift] k e y w h il ch oosing tw o points in th e GIM P or e Th e Side V w ie use a rulr on pape r. e W h e n you finish th e Front v w , it's tim e to m ak e th e Side v w ie ie

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O h M y! So M any L s!!! ine Pe rfe ction h e re is th e k e y.Th e m ore pe rfe ctl you can do it, th e e asie r it w il y l be to m ode l e ch aracte r in 3D.I th ink th th at’ w h y I al ays h av so m uch troubl s w e e in th e m ode l ph ase . ing

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it's aldow nh ilfrom th e re .But, th at is l l j m e , fe e l e to start w h e re v r you ust fre e l e . Start by j se lcting your h airlss ik ). ust e e Don’ panic j ye t.Its j l e a h ouse , t ust ust ik h e ad's l r and m ak e e v ryth ing e l aye e se e v ryth ing is m ade progre ssiv l I’ e e e y. v inv e .Sav th e im age to som e th ing isibl e m ade th e im age be l to sh ow you th e ow l e h e adGuide .pg and, using Blnde r, ik j e ste ps I’ e tak e n and th at it’ e v n use ful v s e Th e Back V w ie ope n it in th e Front and Side v w ports ie w ith a diffe re nt pose . To cre ate th e Back v w you use a fusion (in th e 3D v w port h e ade r, pre ss ie ie of th e m e th ods you’ e al ady use d in v re Vie w |Back ground Im age ...and th e n cl ick First, you onl trace l s from th e k e y y ine th e Front and Side v w s.Th e re ’ noth ing th e Use Back ground Im age button) .You ie s parts of th e bl m ode lik e th e h e ad, ock l m ore to it th an th at.Afte r finish ing th e can adj th e position to focus onl on ust y Back v w , you’ re ady to fire up th e ie re th e one th at m atte rs.Se tup th e Front Blnde r th ruste rs! e v w port to use th e Front v w sk e tch ie ie and th e Side v w port to use th e Side ie R e ady t Blnd o e v w sk e tch as back ground im age s. ie W h e n you finish draw ing, it's tim e to sav th e picture s to J e PEG fils.Th is sav s space and is e e Blnde r- frie ndl Any oth e r e y. fil type you pre fe r is OK as e w e l as l as Blnde r can l ong , e re cognise it (don't go w ith BM P's). w aist, k ne e s, fe e t (1) th e n, you trace som e m ore to re fine th e h e ad (2) and so on… draw h air, draw th e body (3) and dre ss h im (4) j l e th e Front v w . ust ik ie Don’ forge t to use L rs. t aye H e re is w h e re th e L r aye div ision proce ss pays off.Th e first th ing you’l ant to do is lw m ode l e h e ad (I al ays th w pre fe r to start w ith th e h arde st th ing be cause th e n,

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Afte r you m ode l e h e ad, you’l ant to th lw do th e body.So, se lct th e Front, Side and e Back body l r and m ak e sure th at aye e v ryth ing e l is inv e .Sav th e e se isibl e im age to som e th ing l e bodyGuide .pg ik j and blnd on.For th e cl e s, you al e oth so can and sh oul use th e sam e proce ss. d Cl re Not s osu e Re m e m be r, it’ al ays pre fe rabl to do a s w e sk e tch be fore going to 3D, e v n if you’ e re draw ing sk il are not v ry de v l d. l s e e ope You’l lfind a l of draw back s, anatom ical ot issue s and annoying com pl ications in your ch aracte r de sign during th e 2D sk e tch ph ase th at you, for sure , don’ t w ant to find w h il m ode l in 3D. e ing Note th at I´ e onl sh ow n you h ow to v y draw a fulch aracte r.Som e tim e s it's l e nough but, if you re al w ant to spe cify l y de tail it's be tte r, or is e v n re q uire d, to s, e do sk e tch e s of onl th e h e ad, th e fe e t, y som e spe cific articl of cl ing, e tc.th at e oth occupie s an e ntire page .H ow e v r, e th e m e th od is pre tty m uch th e sam e . W e l it's th e e nd of th e j l , ourne y w ith m e . I h ope th is tutorial as som e h ow use ful w to you and pre pare s you w e lfor alth e l l cool ays to do 3D ch aracte r m ode l w ing th at are in th is e dition of blnde rart e m agaz ine ..I’ in flas to re ad th e m .H o! . m e About Orion..w e l pe rh aps you'lse e . l , l h im again som e day.Until xt tim e .. ne .

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3D V w s of Orion ie

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M ak e H um an " ak ing" H um anoids Since 20 0 0 ! M
M anue l Bastioni (Engl ve rsion) ish Alssandro Progl e io Antonio Di Ce cca Giovanni L anza M artin M ack inl ay W h at is M H ? M ak e H um an is a softw are pack age , w ritte n com plte l in C+ + and av abl e y ail e for alth e m ain pl l atform s (W indow s, OSX, L inux, e tc.).Its aim is th e m ode l . ing of th re e dim e nsional um anoids. h Use rs can se t up th e age , w e igh t, se x, race , siz e of th e nose , sh ape of th e face , proportions of arm s and lgs, and a e w h ol se rie s of oth e r w e lde fine d e l param e te rs, so w e can say th at M H is an artistic/para m e trical ode l tool m ing . Ev ry fe ature is de fine d by ch oosing it's e pe rce ntage , and alth e fe ature s are l "adde d" to e ach oth e r to obtain e ndlss e com binations of form s.Th is al s th e l ow cre ation, w ith a fe w cl s, of e xtre m e l ick y re al ch aracte rs, re ady for use in a istic v ty of profe ssional arie graph ics appl ications. Sh ort H ist ory
Th e ance s t or

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M ak e H um an w as born, ne ar th e e nd of th e ye ar 2000 in an Ital com m unity of ian ope n source graph ic softw are de v l rs. e ope M anue l Bastioni h ad pre v iousl y de v l d som e th ing sim il a pyth on e ope ar: script for Blnde r, w h ich m ode ld onl e e y th e ch aracte rs' h e ad.It w as a sim pl tool e cal d "M ak e H e ad", and base d on l e Blnde r's v rte x k e ys, w h ich can be e e conside re d, in e v ry re spe ct, e M ak e H um an's ance stor.

m ode l an e ntire ch aracte r, from h e ad ing to foot.Oth e rs l e d th e ide a, and afte r ik about four m onth s of de v l e nt, e opm th ank s to th e first group of program m e rs, in particul Fil di ar, ippo Natal and M ario L e atronico, th e first al a v rsion w as finish e d and ph e im m e diate l re lase d unde r th e GPL y e l nse . ice

Oth e rs w e re re sponsibl for th e e transl ations (Fabriz io Cal L nz o i', ore Dav ri), for l e ogos and oth e r aspe cts re l ating to th e m ate rial publ 's ication.
Firs t s cript f Blnde r or e

M anue l ne w proposal as to do 's w som e th ing m ore flxibl, w h ich al e d e e l ow

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First m ode l

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Ev n if th e GUI w as de fine d, and th e e m orph ing code w as m ostl re ady, th e re y w as anoth e r de l icate and im portant problm : th e re al ation of base e iz h um anoid, w h ich h ad alth e ne ce ssary l ch aracte ristics for it to be transform e d into any ch aracte r, and w h ich w as al so an optim iz e d m e sh , from w h ich coul be d cre ate d th e ch aracte r of a m ov or a l ie ow re sol ution ch aracte r suitabl for v o e ide gam e s. Furth e rm ore th e basic m e sh h ad to be se xlss, age lss and race - lss, j to e e e ust m ak e th ings a l e m ore com plx.Afte r ittl e m uch discussion, it w as final m ode ld l y e by Enrico Valnz a.Th is w as th e first e v rsion of th e m ode lw h ich w as be use d e , up until o ye ars ago, as w e sh alsoon tw l

se e .Afte r som e tim e , th e proj ct w as e official re cogniz e d by th e Blnde r l y e Foundation, by suppl im portant ne w ying tool l e a m ail l a spe cific forum , s, ik ing ist, bug track e r, and w as incl d in ude Blnde r's proj ct page . e e

Unfortunate l due to inte rnal y, disagre e m e nts, th e col l aboration w as re duce d conside rabl and th e official y, site w as m ov d to de dal 3d.Afte r a e osh ort pe riod tim e , M ak e H um an h ad an im portant m odification.Th e passage from an ol com plx GUI to a l te r one d e igh w as final com plte d, base d on th e input l y e from a consol w ritte n in pyth on by th e e Th ank s to th e se ne w aids and num e rous proj ct adm inistrator.Th is m ade w ay for ne w fe ature s, a ne w v rsion w as re lase d e e e th e re lase of v rsion 1. e e 6. w h ich j pe d dire ctl from v rsion 1. um y e 6 to 1. in a sh ort pe riod of tim e . 8

Afte r th is re lase , th e participation of th e e e arl r de v l rs, w ith th e e xce ption of ie e ope th e adm inistrator and a fe w oth e rs (L nz o Dav ri and Cicca), w as re duce d ore e drastical and th e proj ct se riousl l y, e y sl e d dow n.Fortunate l it w as onl a ow y, y pe riod of transition in w h ich M ak e H um an w as going to adopt a m ore inte rnationalook th ank s to th e l contribution of Craig Sm ith on m ode l ing, to th e contributions of Ol ie r Saraj to iv a, th e code of M ich ae l ardt (im portSch e xport v rts group) and to th e syste m of e bone s from Andre w K ator.

Ve rsion 1.6 and th e Blnde r Foundation e

Th e stabl ve rsion in Pyth on 1.6 e

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FACS

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Due to th e succe ss of th is ne w v rsion as e w e las to th e m e diation of Craig and l L nz o, th e proj ct re ce iv d an im portant ore e e donation w h ich consiste d of an e ntire docum e ntation of 20 ye ars of re se arch of th e dott k now n as FACS.Th is so- cal d l e FACS (Facial Actions Coding Syste m ), al e d for study of an e ntire syste m of l ow coding of facial xpre ssions.Th e donation e cam e from Paul m an, w h o w as a Ek psych ol te ach e r in th e de partm e nt of ogy psych iatry at th e Univ rsity of San e Francisco.

Blnde r and to av problm s w ith th e e oid e v o cards. ide
Th e ne w m e s h

Ve rsion 2. of th e script w as conce iv d in a 0 e ne w m anne r th at w as optim iz e d for profe ssional and ne v r succe e de d in use e m ov be yond th e unstabl ing e ph ase .Ev n th ough it w asn't e ful usabl, it did h av a v ry l y e e e im portant ne w fe ature th at re taine d afte r m onth s of w ork : a ne w basic m e sh .Th e first v rsion h ad in fact e be gun to sh ow it's l itations im V rs ion 2.0 in pyt on, unstabl e h e as m e sh e s th at w e re too At th is point w ith v rsion 1. th e e 8, optim iz e d (about 7000 de v l e nt of th e pyth on script e opm v rte x), did not succe e d in e substantial stoppe d.Tw o oth e r v rsions l y e cov ring alth e re q uire d e l h ad com e out and w as w ritte n al ost m m orph ings, and w as l ing ack e ntire l by a ne w de v l r, nam e d Paol y e ope o in som e fundam e ntal dge e Col bo, th at introduce d an innov e om ativ l oops for th e facial and GUI, be tte r th an th e pre v ious one .But th at m uscul anim ation.For th is ar unfortunate l re m aine d in th e y re ason, a ne w m ode lr, e e xpe rim e ntal ase due to som e ph K aush ik Palal ady auth or , re com patibil problm s w ith Blnde r, ity e e of e xce ptional um anoid h Ope nGL and v o cards.Th e se draw back s m ode l for Blnde r and M aya , ide s e cause d se v re de l th at Paol h ad to e ays o (CGtal th re ad), cre ate d a k re w rite th e GUI se v ral e s in orde r to e tim ne w m e sh .W h il not using e adapt it to th e ch ange s of th e pyth on API of an e xce ssiv num be r of v rts e e

(about 11000), th e m ode l e pt up w ith al k l th e profe ssional q uire m e nts w h ich w as re th e re sul of studie s of m ore w e l k now n t l m e sh e s.In th e fol ing im age s th e m ain l ow diffe re nce s be tw e e n th e tw o m e sh e s are il l ustrate d (th e "critical points of th e ol " d m e sh are m ark e d in re d).

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De spite th e fact th at K aush ik 's m e sh w e re al ady h igh lv lth e M ak e H um an te am re e e , w ante d to pre se nt th e m ode l so to th e al atte ntion of fam ous m ode lrs.Am ong th e se e artists, of w orl w ide re putation Ste v n de Stah l rg and e xpe rt subdiv m ode l be ide ing Tam às Varga j to nam e a fe w . ust H e re w e q uote th e w ords of M r.Stah l rg, be of w h ich w e are particul y proud, arl answ e ring to our post (by Tom M usgrov ): e "Tom , th at's a gre atre source for artists w h o w antto study topol No re al ogy. crits, e xce pt m aybe you coul ch ange th e dire ction ofe dge s d dow n th e ch e e k , to e asie r incorporate th e infraorbital d (w h ich is one ofth ose th ings fol th ate ve ryone h as, al ough it's ve ry subtl w ith th e som e ).To com m e ntth e face , I th ink th e re d and bl l are re al im portant, butth e brow n ue oops l y and gre e n one s don'tre al ne e d to be pe rfe ct l y l oops.Th e y can be , butth e re 's no pre ssing ne e d im o" Original re ad th Fe w w ords, but v ry gratifying for th e e te am .Obv iousl th e n th e infraorbitaline y l h as since be e n put into pl , as w e las th e ace l oth e r sugge stions th at cam e out during th e discussion. At th e e nd of th e w ork , w e h av col cte d e l e som e e xpl anatory im age s, particul y arl conce rning th e facial topol and in ogy, w h ich th e so- cal d l s of action h av l ine e e be e n h igh l te d. igh
Th e t urning point t e s t : h andal one v rs ion in C e

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M ak e H um an com plte l in C, m ul e y tipl atform , and w ith an innov e inte rface . ativ W e 'd l e to m e ntion in particul th e ik ar "sl r- im age s", a ne w button w h ich auto ide z oom s on m ouse - ov rs (w ork ing as a e pre v w of th e targe t) w h ich pe rm its ie h ol th e m ouse button to se t th e ding pe rce ntage of m orph ing.Since th is w as a com plte l diffe re nt v rsion from th e e y e pyth on script and w e h ad re w ritte n it from scratch , th e standal v rsion h ad a l e r one e ow v rsion num be r: 0. e 8a.

H ow e v r, e v n w ith th e ne w m e sh , v rsion e e e 2. of th e script w as still ite d by th e 0 lim problm s de scribe d abov .Final w e e e l y re al e d th at th e functions, pe rform ance , iz and stabil w e w ante d to ach ie v w e re n't ity e possibl w ith e M ak e H um an as a pyth on script.It w as ne ce ssary to "m ov " it outside e Blnde r, and to re w rite it e from scratch in h igh pe rform ance l anguage s, such as C or C+ + .Th e first ste p of th is m aj or transform ation w as possibl th ank s to a e m aj contribution from or Paol w h o al , and in o, one v ry l e tim e h ad e ittl w ritte n a ne w

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curre ntl av abl on Source Forge is y ail e stilPaul v rsion, but w ith som e l 's e additions and bug fixe s due carrie d out by oth e r program m e rs (OBJe xporte r by Andre as Vol , OSX porting by Tan tz M e ng Yue ).End use rs found th e program to be q uite usabl, but e program m e rs continual w ork e d to l y furth e r adv ance th e code , in h ope s of significantl im prov th e usabil y ing ity for th e e nd use r.W e th e n arriv d at a e ne w v rsion th at's going to be re lase d. e e

Issue 4 M ay 2006

h um anoid base d on targe ts l e ik M ak e H um an, but al on use r input so m e asure m e nts.

Dow nl oading of th e standal v rsion of one e M ak e H um an can be found using h osting prov d by Source Forge . ide In th is w ay, th e pyth on v rsion h oste d by e th e Blnde r Foundation, re m ains se parate e from th e v rsion w ritte n in C.Th e v rsion e e

Andre as h ad gotte n in touch w ith th e te am , announcing th at afte r re ce iv h is de gre e , ing h e w oul m ak e h is l d ibrarie s av abl unde r ail e th e GPL Th is w as gre at ne w s;th e l . ibrarie s w e re w e lw ritte n, h igh l obj ct orie nte d, l y e and w ritte n to be e asil e xte nsibl and y e m odul Th e C v rsion on th e oth e r h and, ar. e w as de v l d in a proce dural e , and e ope styl w asn't so e asy to update and ch ange .Th e passage from C to C+ + m e ant offe ring th e use rs a stilbe tte r product, w ith a m ore l Ne xt v rs ion: M ak e H um an 1.0 (b e t e a), standard and com pre h e nsibl code , w ritte n e in C+ + v ry profe ssional and incorporating al e l y l Anim orph s possibl cautions to satisfy th e ruls of OOP e e W h il w e w e re w ork ing on M ak e H um an e program m ing.Ce rtainl th is w oul h av y, d e v rsion 0. Andre as Vol , a stude nt of e 8, tz cause d som e de l be cause , once again, w e ays Appl d Com pute r Scie nce s at th e ie sh oul h av re w ritte n th e code from d e Univ rsity of Ful in Ge rm any, w as e da, scratch .Th ough , it w as w orth th e troubl e de v l e oping som e conce pts of th e pyth on since subse q ue nt de v l e nt of th e e opm v rsion in orde r to construct a ne w , e appl ication w oul h av be e n m ore slnde r, d e e m ore flxibl, l e e ibrary th at w as pl atform profe ssional re l e . and iabl inde pe nde nt and w ritte n e ntire l in C+ + . y H is aim w as to use it for th e softw are M H GUI th at h e w as pre paring for h is bach e l or Once it w as de cide d to use Andre as' l ibrary, th e sis cal d "M e asure H um an".H e l e w h ich h e dubbe d "Anim orph ", w e ne e de d w ante d to not onl m odify aspe cts of 3D to w rite a sim pl and stabl GUI. y e e

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In l w ith th e ph il ine osoph y of th e proj ct, e w e av oide d th e use of l e xisting arge l ibrarie s.W e w ante d M ak e H um an to be com pact and an e xtre m e l re l e tool y iabl w ith fe w de pe nde ncie s, and w ith w e l l de fine d fe ature s.Afte r h av re v w e d a ing ie l num be r of e xisting l arge ibrarie s, w e final de cide d th at, for th e spe cial l y inte rface of M ak e H um an, th e be st th ing w oul be to w rite th e ne ce ssary cl s d asse ourse le s.Sim pl = Re l e , Sim pl = Easy v e iabl e to m anage and update .For th e se re asons, th e GUI contains onl w h at is ne ce ssary to y us and w e are doing e v ryth ing to te st it e th orough l Th e core h as be e n w ritte n w ith y. th e h e l of Ninibe L A particul th ank s p abs. ar goe s to Sim one Re and M anue l h o w toge th e r h av de v l d th e first sk e tch of e e ope th e GUI.Subse q ue ntl e v ryth ing h as be e n y, e re v w e d by anoth e r program m e r, H ans ie Pe te r Duse lw h o h as al w ork e d on th e , so porting for OSX.
M ak e H um an

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be ta v rsion until is ful stabl and h as e it l y e th e ne ce ssary fe ature s to to be conside re d "com plte ".Th e fol ing im age s are a e l ow pre v w of th e w ork th at w e are carrying ie forw ard.

im prov d to be com e e v n m ore intuitiv , e e e w e are stilgoing to be pre paring ade q uate l docum e ntation.Th is is possibl th ank s to a e te am e xcl e l assigne d to th e usiv y production of docum e nts, th e ir transl ation and l ogical organiz ation.A spe cial ank s th goe s to Alssandro Progl for transl e io ating th e docum e ntation and adm inistrating th e W ik i (stilin ph ase of de v l e nt), to l e opm M artin M ack inl for th e final v ay re ision of th e ITA- ENG transl ation, and to Antonio Di Ce cca and Giov anni L a, w h o activ l anz e y contribute to th e ITA- ENG transl ation.

Now th at final both Anim orph and l y M H GUI h av re ach e d a satisfactory lv l e e e (e v n if is our inte ntion to continue to e pe rfe ct th e m ), th e onl th ing th at re m ains y is to com bine th e m into a singl e appl ication, M ak e H um an 1. Th is w ilbe a 0. l

Th e ne w inte rface , al ough it use s th e th ide as from v rsion 0. h as be e n care ful e 8, l y pl d to h av a sim pl and intuitiv anne e e e de sign.Each e lm e nt h as be e n care ful e l y studie d to be e asy to unde rstand and use . Ev n if th e GUI w ilcontinue to be e l

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O ut put

Issue 4 M ay 2006

M ak e H um an is inte nde d to be a v ry e spe cific tooll ite d to a pre cise fie l to , im d: rapidl m ode l y profe ssional ch aracte rs 3D w ith alne ce ssary fe ature s for anim ation l w ith th e use of suitabl softw are (M aya, e M ax, Blnde r, e tc.. Th e re fore it is a tool e .). th at finds itse lide al positione d in th e f l y profe ssional l s, and th at doe s not pipe ine w ant or h av to be an e nd in itse l e f.

be abl to prov ph otore al re nde rings e ide istic of th e subj ct.On one h and, it can se rv as e e a pre v w of an e v ntual - production (of ie e pre gam e s, m ov s, e tc..), ye t on th e oth e r, can ie . be use d by th e artist to produce final im age s (poste rs, gal ry, e tc..).Th e re fore , l e . in concl usion, th e output of M ak e H um an can be div d in tw o l cate gorie s: ide arge 1) Exporting in th e m ost com m on form ats, com patibl w ith th e w ide st range of e softw are . 2) Ph otore al (but static) re nde ring of istic th e ch aracte rs in pose , com plte w ith h air e and cl ing, suitabl for pre v w ing and oth e ie th e production of im age s. Curre ntl onl e xport in O BJform at is y y supporte d, ye t e v n th ough O BJh as be com e e a standard, w e h av inte ntions to add e additional form ats.M any fe ature s h av e al ady prototype d in pyth on, for e xam pl re e †œ h air†, w h ich onl ne e ds to be y transl d into C+ + and ade q uate l ate y incorporate d in th e GUI.W ith re gards to re nde ring, w e are w ork ing on a sk in sh ade r e ngine th ats Re nde rm an com pl iant.H e re are som e im age s m ade w ith Pixie .

H el f p rom t e com m u nit h y
M ode lrs e

Any capabl m ode lr th at k now s th e basic e e fe ature s of Blnde r are inv d to j and e ite oin h e l us.Buil a ne w m orph is v ry p ding e sim pl and doe s not re q uire any e program m ing k now ldge . It is onl if you e y w ant to e xport a ".targe t" fil.For e e xam pl, try it dire ctl in M ak e H um an.A e y spe cial script for Blnde r, cal d e l e "M ak e Targe t", is re q uire d and m ay be dow nl d from th e Blnde r Foundation's oade e proj ct site . e It's a v ry inte re sting tool cause it e be al s you to al m anipul th e ".bs" l ow so ate form ats.A sh ort introduction to its util ation can be dow nl d h e re . iz oade
Program m e rs

Additional to a l ite d e xte nt, w e w ant l y, im M ak e H um an to re ach an e q ual l y profe ssionale v l ith static pose s and to l e w

H e l on th e de v l r's part is al p e ope so w e l e e v n th ough , obv com e iousl th e y, participation is bound to spe cific ruls and e al l ocations of th e task s by th e adm inistrator.At th e m om e nt, w e ne e d an e xpe rt W indow s program m e r as m ost of th e de v l rs w ork w ith L e ope inux, and th e re fore , th e W indow s v rsion re q uire s a e m aintaine r to m onitor optim iz ations, porting of th e l ibrarie s, and ch e ck ing of th e instal r, e tc l e

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Spl F e re nde ring on it/ ram Re sPow e r Supe r/ arm . F
stilfram e im age s. l

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re nde ring w it Blnde r? h e Th e Blnde r Pyth on API h as facil s to e itie Th e basic ide a be h ind Spl it/Fram e pe rform a "Borde r Re nde r. Th is " re nde ring is to bre ak a singl fram e into basical m e ans th at a re ctangul e l y ar m ul e ch unk s cal d "buck e ts". Each tipl l e se ction of pixe l from any im age can be s by - Cory K ing and Earl Eh l r y inge buck e t is th e n re nde re d on a se parate se lcte d and th e re nde r e ngine w ilonl e l y com pute r so th at se v ral e (possibl one y re nde r th e pixe l w ith in th at re ctangl, s e h undre d or m ore ) ch unk s can be run in lav e v ryth ing e l bl . Using th is e ing e se ack O ut ine : l paral l Th is spe e dup is l ar in th e ory, m e th od, Re sPow e r can spl an im age l. e ine it I - W h atis Spl it/Fram e re nde ring? m e aning th at a fram e spl into 100 it into any arbitrary num be r of buck e ts, II - H ow doe s Re sPow e r accom pl ish buck e ts sh oul re nde r 100 tim e s faste r d and re nde r e ach buck e t on a se parate Spl it/Fram e re nde ring w ith Blnde r? e th an th e sam e fram e re nde re d as 1 com pute r.Th e n, using anoth e r ope n III - W h ataboutre - asse m bl y? buck e t. Unfortunate l be cause of y, source softw are pack age cal d l e IV- H ow m uch spe e dup doe s Spl it/Fram e Am dah l L , th is is not th e case , 's aw Im age M agick , th e fram e is autom atical l y provide ? al ough th e spe e dup can stilbe q uite th l croppe d to re m ov alth e e xtra bl e l ack V- Re al orl e xam pls. w d e re m ark abl. Ch e ck th e side bar for m ore space . Each indiv e idual buck e t's output is VI - Know n Issue s. inform ation on Am dah l . sav d as a se parate im age in th e use r's e Re nde rs fol r. de I - W h at is Spl / it Fram e Spl it/Fram e re nde ring is not a ne w re nde ring? conce pt and h as be e n av abl for m any Th e abil to re nde r se parate portions of ail e ity Re sPow e r is constantl se arch ing for y 3D re nde ring e ngine s for ye ars. a singl fram e in paral l l s 3D e l al e ow w ays to spe e d up th e proce ss of 3D 3D artists w h o w ork w ith stilfram e s to tak e l conte nt cre ation, spe cifical in th e are a Profe ssional pack age s such as l y 3DStudio and L tw av support igh e fuladv l antage of a re nde r farm . W ith of re nde ring. Spe e ding up th e re nde r Spl it/Fram e nativ l but e v n w ith one e y, e th is te ch niq ue , a singl fram e can be e tim e s of anim ations w ith h undre ds or of th e se pack age s th e adv antage s of re nde re d at fulre sol l ution in a m atte r of th ousands of fram e s is fairl y Spl it/Fram e are onl se e n w h e n using a y m inute s at Re sPow e r w h e re it m igh t tak e straigh tforw ard;sim pl re nde r e ach y re nde r farm l e Re sPow e r. ik h ours, or e v n days, to re nde r at th e e fram e on a diffe re nt com pute r so th at sam e siz e and q ual on a singl ity e m ul e fram e s run in paral l tipl l. e com pute r. Spl it/Fram e re nde ring is basical II - H ow doe s R e sPow e r l y accom pl Spl / ish it Fram e th e sam e proce ss, onl it is de signe d for y

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On top of th at, an artist can continue to tw e ak h is sce ne , or w ork on som e th ing com plte l diffe re nt w h il h is fram e is e y e re nde ring be cause h is m ach ine w on't be bogge d dow n w ith th e arduous task of re nde ring. com plte l e l inate d. Th is m e ans m ore e y im re source s are av abl to de v to th e ail e ote proce ss of re stitch ing, and th at m e ans custom e rs ge t th e finish e d product faste r. Anoth e r adv antage of Im age M agick running from th e com m and l is th at re stitch ing can be ine III - W h at abou t re -asse m bl y? al ost com plte l autom ate d. W ith a m e y Re sPow e r h as re ce ntl introduce d th e y singl com m and, th e farm w ilfe tch e l abil to re - asse m bl alth e buck e ts ity e l e v ry im age re q uire d, giv th e m to e e from a Spl it/Fram e re nde r w ith a proce ss Im age M agick , and w ait for th e final w e cal"stitch ing". For fram e s subm itte d output. l as Spl it/Fram e , th e re is a com m and on th e j page cal d Stitch . Stitch ing obs l e Th is abil is v y supe rior to th e ol ity astl d once again use s Im age M agick to w ay of re - asse m bl buck e t im age s ing program m atical pulalof th e l l l y w h e re use rs h ad to use ph oto e diting indiv idual buck e t im age s toge th e r and softw are such as Ph otosh op and appe nd th e m into one ful siz e im age . Al m anual put alth e im age s toge th e r to l l l y l of th e indiv idual buck e t im age s re m ain ge t th e finish e d product. av abl for dow nl if th e use r w ish e s, ail e oad but an additional age cal d im l e IV- H ow m u ch spe e du p doe s "fram e _ x. stitch e d. xt" w ilappe ar in th e Spl / e l it Fram e prov ? ide Re nde rs fol r once th e stitch ing is de As I said be fore , th e th e ore tical e dup spe finish e d, w h e re 'x' is th e fram e num be r for Spl it/Fram e re nde ring is l ar, so ine and 'e xt' is th e fil e xte nsion, i. .png, e e th at a 50 x 50 spl sh oul re nde r 2500 it d j bm p, e tc. pg, tim e s faste r th an no spl Unfortunate l it. y, Re sPow e r h asn't be e n abl to se cure any e Im age M agick w ork s from th e com m and re al state in Th e ory (price s are e l so th at ov rh e ad associate d w ith ine e *incre dibl h igh th e re ), and th ings th at y* starting a graph ical r inte rface is use w ork in Th e ory don't al ays w ork h e re . w

Issue 4 M ay 2006

Th e spe e dup is conside rabl w ith spl e its in th e range of 16 buck e ts alth e w ay up l to 400 buck e ts. Unfortunate l th e re are y m any factors inv v d in de te rm ining ole th e be st spl and trial e rror is it, and ge ne ral th e be st w ay to find th e l y optim al it. spl Be cause Blnde r is onl usabl on th e e y e Re sPow e r Supe r/Farm by purch asing a subscription, custom e rs don't h av to e w orry about pick ing th e w rong spl If a it. 2 x 2 spl isn't fast e nough , you can try a it 4 x 4. If you start w ith 10x10, and you'v e passe d th e point of dim inish ing re turns, you can back it up for a 8x8 spl it. V- R e al orl e xam pls. w d e Th e fil use d for de te rm ining th e se tim e s e can be found h e re . It is prov d so you ide m ay re nde r on your ow n syste m to de te rm ine th e spe e dup you can e xpe ct w h e n using Spl it/Fram e on th e Re sPow e r Supe r/Farm . h ttp://w w w . spow e r. /~ CoryK ing/s re com pl fram e _ te st/ it_

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Th e se are th e tim e s re q uire d to re nde r th is fil at diffe re nt spl using onl th e faste st e its y re nde ring node s av abl on th e farm . Th e ail e re sol ution of e ach re nde re d fram e is som e w h e re cl to 2048 pixe l x 2048 ose s pixe l Th e sl t ch ange s are due to th e s. igh fact th at th e w idth and h e igh t in pixe l s m ust be a m ul e of th e num be r of tipl buck e ts for stitch ing to w ork prope rl For y. instance , an 800 pixe l 600 pixe l x fram e sh oul not be re nde re d w ith a 7 x 7 spl d it be cause 7 doe sn't div e v nl into 800 or ide e y 600. Plase note th at re nde r tim e s de pe nd on e se v ral e factors incl uding sce ne com plxity, e ne tw ork stre ss, th e av abil of re nde r ail ity node s, and m ore . Be cause of th e se factors, th is v ry sm alse t of data is fairl e l y inconsiste nt. A m ore robust data se t w oul d sh ow a sm ooth e r curv of progre ssion e be tw e e n data points
1 x 1 (no spl - 2048 pixe l x 2048 it) s pixe l s re nde r 11 h rs 06 m in 46 se c 2 x 2 - 2048 pixe l x 2048 pixe l s s re nde r 05 h rs 34 m in 08 se c 3 x 3 - 2048 pixe l x 2048 pixe l s s re nde r 01 h rs 53 m in 11 se c 4 x 4 - 2048 pixe l x 2048 pixe l s s re nde r 01 h rs 32 m in 55 se c 5 x 5 - 2050 pixe l x 2050 pixe l s s re nde r 01 h rs 13 m in 21 se c 6 x 6 - 2046 pixe l x 2046 pixe l s s re nde r 01 h rs 01 m in 11 se c 7 x 7 - 2051 pixe l x 2051 pixe l s s re nde r 00 h rs 27 m in 17 se c 8 x 8 - 2048 pixe l x 2048 pixe l s s re nde r 00 h rs 40 m in 53 se c 9 x 9 - 2052 pixe l x 2052 pixe l s s re nde r 00 h rs 17 m in 17 se c 10 x 10 - 2050 pixe l x 2050 pixe l s s re nde r 00 h rs 27 m in 54 se c 10 x 20 - 2040 pixe l x 2050 pixe l s s re nde r 00 h rs 13 m in 27 se c 20 x 20 - 2040 pixe l x 2040 pixe l s s re nde r 00 h rs 33 m in 21 se c

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20 x 30 - 2040 pixe l x 2040 pixe l s s re nde r 00 h rs 10 m in 10 se c 20 x 40 - 2040 pixe l x 2040 pixe l s s re nde r 00 h rs 9 m in 27 se c 30 x 30 - 2040 pixe l x 2040 pixe l s s re nde r 00 h rs 16 m in 31 se c

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Am dah l s Gus t s on: a Paral l ow dow n v af l Sh e
Am dah l L state s th at a paral l 's aw l e proce ss cannot ach ie v l ar scal e ine ing be cause th e re is a portion of e v ry e program th at m ust occur in se rial Th is . portion de te rm ine s a l it to th e im spe e dup one can h ope to ach ie v by e adding proce ssors. If 80% of your program 's tim e is spe nt in th is se rial portion, th e n adding an infinite num be r of proce ssors can e l inate , at m ost, 20% im of th e program 's total xe cution tim e , e and th at's assum ing th at th e com m unications inv v d com e at no ole cost. rough l th e am ount of tim e it w oul y d tak e you to re nde r th e first fram e on 1 com pute r. At Re sPow e r, w e routine l y se e th is sort of spe e dup for anim ations. spe e dup=1/(s+ p/N)

Issue 4 M ay 2006

W ith anim ations, w e te nd to incre ase th e siz e of th e problm m ore th an th e e num be r of proce ssors. As a re sul you t, se e a scal m ode w h e re 400 fram e s ing finish in rough l th e sam e am ount of y tim e as 1 fram e . You h av n't incre ase d e But w h at about Spl it/Fram e re nde rs? th e spe e d of any indiv idual fram e Can you div a singl fram e 700 w ays ide e you'v j done m ore fram e s.So, w as e ust and h av it re nde r 700 tim e s faste r? e Am dah l rong, or Gustafson? w Unfortunate l for indiv y, idual fram e s, Re sPow e r's te sting indicate s th at th e se rial rce ntage inv v d is pe ole significantl h igh e r th an for anim ations, th e y're both righ t, de pe nding on your y pe rspe ctiv . If you k e e p th e problm e e and you start to se e a point of siz e constant and add proce ssors, you dim inish ing re turns m uch soone r. As se e a v ry l e ogarith m ical sh ape d curv , l ye th e ch arts sh ow , you se e a tre m e ndous w ith m axim um be ne fit around 100- 200 boost v ry q uick l but afte r about 100e y, e 200 com pute rs, adding buck e ts doe sn't com pute rs (at last for th e te st sce ne w e W ith re nde ring, th e pe rce ntage s are use d). If you ch ange th e problm siz e in e spe e d th ings up v ry m uch . e typical inv rte d: 1% or lss of a l e y e conj unction w ith th e num be r of re nde r's tim e is spe nt in th e se rial proce ssors, you se e a ne arl l ar curv . y ine e W h y is th at? W e l J n Gustafson l oh , portion, so adding proce ssors can giv e cre ate d a re buttal Am dah l at to th you a ne arl l ar spe e dup: going from y ine As it turns out, Dr.Yuan Sh i ov r at e e xpl it fairl w e l W ith a singl ains y l . e 1 to 2 proce ssors w ilgiv you ne arl l e y Te m pl Univ rsity w as abl to prov e e e e Spl it/Fram e re nde r, th e siz e of th e doubl th e th rough put, and going from 1 problm re m ains unch ange d, and so e m ath e m atical th at Gustafson and l y e to 700 proce ssors w ilgiv you ne arl l e y Am dah l e re both saying e xactl th e w y your spe e dup fol s Am dah l L . l ow 's aw 700x th e th rough put. In oth e r w ords, if Th e sh ape of th e curv l s al ost sam e th ing, w h e n you account for th e e ook m you w ant to re nde r 700 fram e s of im pre cision in th e ir re spe ctiv e e xactl l e a graph ing of Am dah l y ik 's anim ation, and h av 700 com pute rs to e te rm inol s. ogie e q uation: do it w ith , you can e xpe ct it to tak e Spl it/Fram e re nde ring on Re sPow e r Supe r/Farm w w w . e nde rart. bl org

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I nsiderv iew
Am dah l s Gus t s on: a Paral l ow dow n v af l Sh e
Th e ir form ul alw ork e d out to th e sam e th ing, w ith re sul th at j e w ith w h at ae l ts iv w e se e at Re sPow e r: a static problm siz e yie l dim inish ing re turns, but additional e ds proce ssors lt you sole l r problm s in th e sam e am ount of tim e . So th ank s to e v arge e Dr.Sh i, w e can now se e th at th e univ rse m ak e s se nse again and pe ace h as be e n e re store d.
R e f re nce s: e h ttp://e n. ik ipe dia. w org/w ik i/Am dah l l 's_ aw h ttp://j cis. m pl. du/~ sh i/docs/am dah l dah l tm l oda. te ee /am . h h ttp://w w w . . e sl gov scl am ab. /Publ ications/Gus/Am dah l aw /Am dah l h tm l sL s.

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FIg2.Th e de pl com m and/script. oy

Spl it/Fram e re nde ring on Re sPow e r Supe r/Farm

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Under rev iew
3D Cre ature w ork sh op

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Once you h av finish e d m ode l your e ing cre ature of ch oice , th e re is a rath e r in de pth se ction cov ring te xturing.Bil e l BilFlm ing and Rich ard H .Sch rand l e Flm ing sh ow s som e gre at te ch niq ue s for e adding re al de tail your te xture istic to In th is issue w e are doing a dual book m aps. re v w .W e w ilbe l ing at Bil ie l ook l W h il both e ditions are som e w h at e Flm ing’ “ 3D Cre ature W ork sh op” and e s de th e update d 2nd e dition h e co- w rote w ith ol r, noth ing ne w h as h it th e m ark e t ace Rich ard H .Sch rand.Both book s cov r th e th at can surpass or re pl th e am ount of e inform ation av abl in th e se book s.If ail e sam e gre at ste ps and te ch niq ue s, w ith you w ant your cre ature s/ch aracte rs to be th e 2nd e dition containing four ne w re al and appe ar to be as l l e as istic ife ik ch apte rs h igh l ting fantasy cre ature igh possibl, th e n you ne e d to ch e ck at last e e cre ation and th e anim ation of singl e m e sh m ode l A v ty of ne w cre ature s one of th e se book s out. s. arie are use d to il l ustrate te ch niq ue s in th is If you fol th e fol ing l , you can dow nl a sam pl ch apte r l ow l ow ink oad e e dition as w e l l . of th e 2nd e dition from Ch arls Riv r M e dia. e e W h e th e r you h av a copy of th e first or se cond e dition, you are e h ol an inv uabl re source on cre ature /ch aracte r m ode l and ding al e ing cre ation.Each book starts off w ith a th orough discussion of cre ature de sign.Th e n you w ork th rough th e e lm e nts of cre ating a cre ature e biograph y th at w ilh e l you w ith your de sign de cisions.Th e re is al l p so a gre at se ction on th e v ue of source m ate rial h ow it fits into al and de signing your cre ature . Th e ne xt m aj se ctions contain ch apte rs th at cov r m ode l in or e ing v arious softw are program s.And w h il th at m igh t put you off buying e th is book , don’ lt it.Th e tutorial are w e lw ritte n and w h il sl d te s l e ante tow ard spe cific program s, can be appl d v ry e asil to blnde r ie e y e te ch niq ue s and tool s.
3D Cre at re W ork sh op u

by BilFlm ing l e · Pape rback : 450 page s · Publ e r: Ch arls Riv r M e dia;Bk & CD Rom e dition (M ay 19 9 8) ish e e ·L anguage : Engl ish · ISBN: 1886801789
3D Cre at re W ork sh op, Se cond Edit u ion

by BilFlm ing and Rich ard H .Sch rand l e · Pape rback : 441 page s · Publ e r: Ch arls Riv r M e dia;2 e dition (Fe bruary 1, 2001) ish e e ·L anguage : Engl ish · ISBN: 1584500212

(Graph ics Se rie s)

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Under rev iew
3D Ph otore al toolit ism k
by BilFlm ing l e In th is issue w e are re v w ing ie “ 3D Ph otore al ism Toolit” by k BilFlm ing. l e H av you e e v r w ork e d e l h ours to ong m ode lrig, , stage and l t your igh sce ne , j to ust re nde r it and say “ som e th ing j is not q uite ust righ t” ? If you w e re not abl to figure out e w h at th at “ som e th ing” w as, th e n th is book m ay be for you. 3D Ph otore al Toolit, by BilFlm ing, ism k l e prov s m any ide as on h ow to ach ie v th at ide e cov te d “ Ph otore al e istic” l . Th is is not a ook H ow - to book pe r se . Inste ad, it is a group of good ide as th at you can use to h e l im prov p e your im age cre ating abil – a true Toolit. ity k Th e book is div d into fiv parts, e ach one ide e cov ring a spe cific are a of th e cre ation e proce ss.
Part I is an

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introduction to th e e lm e nts th at e m ak e up ph otore al , it is a 10,000 foot v w ism ie of w h at w ilbe cov re d in de tail th e re st of l e in th e book .
Part II div s into m ode l te ch e ing

niq ue s th at e nh ance th e de tail of th e m ode l incl s s, uding th e use of scre w s, se am s, be v l and fil ts, es l e e tc. It al discusse s th e m e ch anics of h ow so th ings are put toge th e r, as w e las th e l m ate rial th at th e y are m ade of. s In Part III, Flm ing discusse s surfacing e te ch niq ue s, conce ntrating on fundam e ntal s, such as aging surface s, prope r use of spe cul arity, h ow to use im age s and proce dural aps. m
Part IVde al w ith s

use s to sh ow th is is incl uding a w e l be tw e e n d a fire h ydrant and its base . W ith out th e w e l d, e v n w ith alof th e te xture s and l ting, th e e l igh im age stildoe s not l righ t. J th e l ook ust addition of a fe w e xtra pol ygons and th e im age l s l e a ph otograph . ook ik Th e book doe s h av som e draw back s. It is e cov ring a l of ground in a re l e l sm al e ot ativ y l num be r of page s, so som e are as are not as de taild as one w oul l e . Th e l st part e d ik arge of th e book cov rs th e first th re e parts, e lav th e l tw o sh ort on de tailFinal e ing ast . l y, be cause th e book is a bit ol by com pute r d standards (19 9 8), som e of th e te ch niq ue s, partial for som e of th e l ting te ch niq ue s, l y igh fe e l bit date d. H ow e v r, th e book is nona e appl ication spe cific and be cause th e te ch niq ue s be ing taugh t are w e lfounde d, l th e re ade r w ilfind th at th e se ite m s are not a l draw back .

staging te ch niq ue s to incl h ow to pl your im age , w h at ite m s ude an to incl , h ow to cl r th e stage , e tc. ude utte
Part Vtals about using cam e ra angls and k e

Th is is a “ m ust re ad” book for be ginning and l ting to th e m ost adv igh antage . Again th e inte rm e diate CG artists and e v n e xpe rie nce d e e m ph asis is on th e th e ory of h ow th is im pacts pe opl m ay find som e ge m s th at th e y h ad not e th e final age , back e d w ith e xam pls of h ow k now n or th ough t about be fore im e it w ork s. Nam e : 3D Ph otore al Toolit ism k A uniq ue ite m about th is book is th at it doe s Auth or: BilFlm ing l e not e m ph asis te ch niq ue as m uch as h ow Edition: 19 9 8 im portant it is to be aw are of your Pape rback : 328 page s e nv ironm e nt. As artists w e h av to l e ook Publ e r: J n W ily & Sons, Inc. ish oh e de e pl at th e w orl to find th e sm alde tail L y d l s anguage : Engl ish th at, w h e n lft out, m ak e our sce ne s l e ook ISBN 0- 471- 25346- 4 unnatural A gre at e xam pl th at Flm ing . e e

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GAleria l

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CONTRI ONS BUTI
Blnde rart St f e af
GauravNaw ani Sandra Gil rt be Nam Ph am K e nron Dil l on Editor/De signe r M anaging e ditor/Proofe r W e b Adm inistrator/Proofe r Proof re ade r

Issue 4 M ay 2006

Blnde rart Cont e ribut ors
Bu t e rf y t t t l u orial Ch ristian Guck e l rge r sbe h ttp://w w w . abyi. / com M ak e h u m an M anue l Bastioni (Engl Ve rsion) ish Alssandro Progl e io Antonio Di Ce cca Giov anni L a anz M artin M ack inl ay h ttp://source forge . t/proj cts/m ak e h um an/ ne e Ch aract r m ode l at Pl m if ros e ing u e M anue l re z (Picasus) Pe Cl audio Andaur (m alfico) e h ttp://w w w . um ife ros. / pl com Blnde r2pov e J M auricio osé Rodas R.(M orfe us) R apid Prot yping w it Blnde r ot h e Cl Eick e K uh ne n (F. aas ip2) w w w . brd. ck de www. concol de ori. Ch aract r D e sign 2d sk e t t 3d e ch o Rogério Pe rdiz (rogpe r) Book R e v w - 3D Ph otore al Toolit ie ism k Ed Cick a R e spow e r Cory K ing Earl Eh l r y inge h ttp://w w w . spow e r. / re com

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Upcom ing
Is s ue 5 av abl in J y 2006 ail e ul
Th e m e : Articls : e M ode l trick s and Blnde r Scripts ing e Using Blnde r for 3d gam e asse sts e Various m ode l approach e s ing Exte nding your Blnde r v Scripts e ia

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Dis cl e r aim
blnde rart. doe s not tak e s any re sponsibil both e xpre sse d or im pl d for th e m ate rial its nature , or accuracy of th e e org ity ie and inform ation w h ich is publ e d in th is PDF m agaz ine .Alth e m ate rial pre se nte d in th is PDF m agaz ine h av be e n produce d ish l s e w ith th e e xpre sse d pe rm ission of th e ir re spe ctiv auth ors/ow ne rs .blnde rart. and th e contributors discl al e e org aim l w arrantie s, e xpre sse d or im pl d, incl ie uding, but not l ite d to, im pl d w arrantie s of m e rch antabil or fitne ss for a im ie ity particul purpose .Alim age s and m ate rial pre se nt in th is docum e nt are printe d/re - printe d w ith e xpre sse d pe rm ission from ar l s th e auth ors/ow ne rs . Th is PDF m agaz ine is arch iv d and av abl from th e blnde rart. w e bsite .Th e blnde rart m agaz ine is m ade av abl e ail e e org e ail e unde r Cre ativ Com m ons ‘ e Attribution- NoDe riv 5’l nse . s2. ice Th e CC l nse is avail e ath ttp://cre ative com m ons .org/l nse s/by- nd/2.5/lgal ice abl ice e code

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