nghlttng the,cSiemonlal ~amp

It Gan. (R~td.) 'S.K.S~nha

WeI1com,e.Ad:dress, by George v. Barse1aor

semtllor ill

progr9$.S. ptesilrrl~gl ",rpa~rs

- 'Sang~e~ 'Slina-C'm"a _ - :I(]: II, .rl ",:. D,r" ,,:_.;.s;

'C"' ......

n·g··! ·oe·.;Jj,
"' ..
-" ~ • I(~ "





ISSN0973-79 44

Vol. I INa,~2


0. R-5,. PaCket·

New Delh~110016

~Santa Villar


·Jf -'e-·:NlS.·····.' : CO
r -

··~.· •....•.•
. .






E-mail: iatishber@r&difffhaU.CGm ebsite= WWN.ish""arashnamtrust:com


2 3
Commentary by Ishwarswaroop Swami Lakshmanjoo



. S.SIt"

I1kha" I

Conversations with. Swami Lakshmanjoo
Alice: Christensen




rnational Seminar on Kashmir S,.iaivis Jammu.: Welcome Address


Business Mst;}agefJ : rI Surin r Khar


A Photo Featun

Centre Spread

v·..... . h;l .'.'.~ ' umr "•. latvtsm Wh··V '1L ovenas·.... Shai

Sbailendra Gulhati


The Conceptualand Textaal Sources of Trika

CiA I'L~:

g Itt 'l fij'tij qr 'tin ift 'Qf~i UiGi


i~iii ftl14 1& qlq SCI ~ fiqif

+1+1 II tlllq liifll RlFil;r ,~

~. tfrfl t+tfl,;fi'


4'9:11 &II_I ...· ('CP¥4tft ' _-' ,) -',2

'MIl 41





arsw,aroop Swam] Laks'~manjoc j;n Samadhi

em bir1hdlay


crkeo by' deep faith andl devotioncl fervour; the celebroltons of lshworsworoop ,Sw,cml'iiL'oksh,manjoo,l,s birth centenory are now cPlproliachlng the~rconcfuslon, Ot the va il'OUS proqrornrnos orqonlzed by tlhe 1shwc'r Ashram Trust' during the vecr-lonq ce'ebrcttons. three lnternotloncl serninors on Koshrnlr Sha~vfism seemed to hove ho'd tremendous lmpoct on the oudiences. the lost of them havingl been held ot Jornrouon March 17-18~.2007, Withl s-ome ot the top scholors in the fleld makin,g their respective preserrtctions. the sernmors no! only gClve expression to the lmrnense reverence thot people have for Swa,mjji as the greates,f mcdern-dovexponent of 'the non-duct S'ha~.vatraditio'n of Kashmir, but oeo proved he~pful c!reat~n'g'0 greater cworeness cbout 1s dliff'ere,nt ospects. ~nl As, W'B 0.'11know, SWolm,iji, as a master of i.ts.scriptural as weIll 0:5 oral trocltlons d~rected aU Ih~s effort,s durin,gr his I~fe on th~seorth toworos maki,ng the bosic concepts ot non-cucl Kas·hmir Shajv~s'm cornprehenslole tor everyone m this world, For decodes 'he confnuousfv contributed, towords thi's end through hJs'numerous: olscourses. lectures~tolks land exeget'ic,a~1 writingls ln H'indi~ EngJislhl and Ih'IS noltve K',ar~n,g deep i,nsights and encvclopoedlc [h~s knowledqe ot itstane is ond doctrlnes w~th scholors as w'ell as iovrnen, .As a res,ulrt todov there ~.s o 'growing interest throu9,h,out 'the wortd in sfu,dying, onallyzi'ng and ~nterpreting whet Ka.shm~ri,Shai'va phUosophy has to say obout boslc exlstenttcl ouestlons that men and women have asked: tnrouqhout this ages. Jhe philosoph'Y, with lts emphasis on explormngl the nature lot rea'Hlty as consciousness seems 'to be pjartic,ul'ar~ly sUlited to the rn odern men's temper enid opprooch to thi'ngs,.


eolt ·a I I'O~

'WrTi~t'ing 19'89, Paul Eduard MullerOrteqc, in eminent scholor of Kashmlir~ nco-duel S:hJo'ivismJ slays. that "there hove evolveo three fociJ of reseorch on the trodltlon" ~~n the recent decodes: lnd 'me Fronce o nd lto ~Iy' TO:" th··e··,s:--e'"rno'Y'b'9"· o 'd:' Ided WI'th'" cc:s·.· ··rt,c·· In' a-rn e'g": of' the U S' :.!~ In-ty··,, Germa~ny Bntoln ond severo' other countries where scnolors of eminence have boen r de'vo,t~ng Ylelors of "study one reseorch to the trodit~on~' M'uc'h of this has come cbour due to . th,e ra1e thot Sworni Lckstunonloo ploved 'in tts propcqotlon and, populcrizotlon. ~It iSr~ tnererore. of great signiflicanlc·e· tho! au,di~oenid video cossertes 01 S'wami~ji~s i~scourseson, d vcrlous Ka!shm~lr Shelve texts were pla1nlstak~nlgly prepored by th.e Unlverscl Shoivo Fellowsblo (U is,,) and the lshwor Ashrorn Trust and, released: dur~ng the seminars. These expositlons are ~.bound to furth,ler enhonce th,'9 undersf,olnding of th!9S9' seminol texts of the tradition. ~t ill be w ~mp·ortantto note ·that SwamOI delivered some of these dscourses during the very last veors of Ih'~s ea!ftlh~yllte.
_ '. "_". _ .:. ".. _. • . _ 'U -""



..' .


'.' _





























.... _.

.:- '."



. ..





Wlh~llethese cossettes enid public'at'~,o'ns wiU be greatllY Ihe'lpful Is ccrlry~ng torworc the gr,e'otleg'Qcy thol SW'Qlmij! hos 116ft behind" we hove olso reoson to be encouroueo by the prospect of the ostcbtlshrnent 0 1'a Chclr devoted f'ID Swami lckshm,cnjoo at the proposed Mota Vc]shno Devt Uni,versi·ty. 'The,onncuncernent obout the Chc'ir was rnode m h'~Sinaugulr'oi codress at the seminar at Jammu by the, Governo,r 'Off Jam:mu end Ko:shmilr, Lt. Gen,eral (R'et,d~)S!I~., Siin1haas the Chancellor 'of the universify. W'e at Mia Iin i welcorn e th isdevelopment , inl th~s blrthcentenorv . year wholeneortedlv.

Jei GU'fudev~




'ega ,n,~~Rl&:lrtl~~ am' ~III,cl'®I~~lld~, 'Cf)~tfI~ 3"l6~~~G~~m 7$ ~q 'if =tqlift uTt m- 'JrFCt ~~$~ll ~ 3lql~ tllH1l~f~1f~q,;;rriflT -$ ~ llm ci5 mt ~ ~ q§1 \11, I~Vl'Qi (!~ if ~ C[ft '~ I I~


q1f ~ $ ~¢~r,qw"'W :q q;~l41~ "tq ~'3l~IRl1i(1 ~ a~t1~f~l1 ;flJnf?dlli' \i1~-taC%~ ~ ~q~T ~~\I~- ~ tirG' ~ ~ i ~ ~ 3i'ftj!4i '451' 31T:Q~<it'~~1 '17-1.B ~, 2007 ~\ilttt it lfth~1 jl'~H ~~ x:1Jrrf'ol;il 81~L Rrr~ ~ fCl~·-~ -ci1'
3fif tl'fltff ~


3fRIm ~

~-m-qi11 \Ill W ~ J

~ ~"1rl!1 \.iff

w tltClI'{tclf)4'(<t14\ ~te sU"(I' ~ u:rR.~


em \lI'*I~tlCJlfil~





1i!51~11'tffJ ~


tli, W~ ,tt ~ c;~'T~


G1tufCn ~ ~ ~q 'il
!>iI ij M


!t~ &I"

~qtl;:ij ~

'qft ~ ~ -;ffl' ~l~"$ -qR'urrJi,,{;q<;§y' ~'~ iJll 'aifffi!(q ~ \31 ~ ~ cff \dt1~: ~ W',tgBJ fJ55.11 '"6 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l1 ~ ~ -g~ 'd~1'Jj'31'e:I~IFJ rrm dH~~I-Fcl~e!1t1tJl~ ft ~ c6 'ftl8I'~ arfUcp ,~G~fd ~ Frl ~ J q'(sl~1Irlqfi ~ti[fa GPl trG~IW '(ijq ~'3J,~ti Of ijj~~ ff{ ~ ~~lrl'~ ~ ~fll 311111'~ (f6 all U1 $ &I jb.Q ~'~ afR -~iil,tfr "$ fcil:ittt (ij q ~ 3lj~c1 ~ ~
~~Iict ~~'~ ,;hU

,.3fG1411'~6~ ~rt{flie:~\f

~'Rtep \f1nl,q~, i1 ~ rir c6 ff:rit ~ 3fR' '§&111l ~ifl~ ~ ~ 'Iff a~E' vl ~ ~ 31 ~iCfj G~ ,II'enl 'd' en ~~ ~ ~ Qft' ffW IiI'Qliltff ih ~'4i' I -it ~ 1Ttl 31 qrtf' d:H \t.Cl1rff~ eu d kHf q ~ r ~rtJtf er~cpla#--qlm¢la~l-ijt~' ~ it ~ fG:m if f.i~t1'! 3Fl4i;:!1 ;ql'.1 ~~~ ~ ~ r ~. fatt1,~:
'; ,~





~1tr'm'~ -~n\~f)~'4'afR ~ftJ¢




q tlGI fr ~i1I'~~ ~

tiPi~~\i1i1) ~


~~cr~ cfi !It§lx' qI~t1~fif Rli;U'1, q1~ ~ R[~=q-~1ffln~ ~:~~ '4 19B9 If ~j\';JJ:d ~ ~ 's: tq;: ~ q~~r tr< ~ cf.; '~ fflz~lqi ~ f2l11t1 cgB G~,~ql\i -q ~ "flTFf;f ~' E ~it ~-11' ~1t1, C 6ft rim lfHi \9 I ffl firlrr "fclj,tfl fi~li!~ ~ ~ +i Q-) tfj L :~ e.-r aiR" \fl' tt~1 3:ptf ~ ~ ~ ,;oJH ~l ~ ~'~ ~1q:;f1~ \il5:lf ~L~I'd ftlfiM ~ q~q\!1 ~ 3ltl1~~ 'qfr ~ ~ \Ji1n!q~1~ 31~Q)1 ~~JlfCld CPX~ 6 ~Cfl1511 ~ ~ ~ G~r~~q~'q~r '$ ~f.n"V Olm ~cpft:llJtll ~ ~ 1l 'l-<u41 ~a=t1UI~ Q1T '~lilq tllj~~R -m I ~'~ ~ 'Cf):t4lq: G!!frJ $ ~ ~ ~ fql41 uft ci? ~1~1~··i\~' cff' 3I11t;q51 ~ '~q~i~1 iter t1;·C1i!I~~q-~ ~ a:rr~ ~ ~lr\fI ~P4~~,ij) ~'~~ fclrq ~ rrfltl J!1ar ~';f1lel-$ 'fqif1t1~ q5\ ~ ·~~ttf'tUifJ Jill~i un +I:cp'C11~ ~ tr '&Q~IL~I~:~ r:1~~,ll '-;ff ~ G~f~-qiq~~ ri) ~ 1j~ 'tnT \tf1s.:1~ if '(i,al~'~ ~ t1¢tftl ~ ~~ if~ct qft aiR" ~ ~zn~~ ~nq~~lqJ t f$ ~ ~ tfi8 15Q1'L~I~1 i:"GIl~r ~ ~ ~'~iRlq) \j1lq''11 ci?







ailRiq crt if ~ ~ I

it 'cf;:8(!, ~r41 ~ G I'{I

9'1$1" 1Tt ~6~rr ~t;lIRqJ ~1~1s'!em- arrft ~ ~ if' ta:tlltti *iq "fr flal'iltff 5T ~1qld ~ I i11~ tft '~ ~1t1 1fi Chll1fi \3'ct115\i1,~,qi, ~ f0 Mff1l:1~,t11 '1~dl~ ~ tcft fq~qjq!Eli'C'1~ if ~Itf) ~ cffl"' i+flfqtll.~ ft1~)tf tfto qft- ~~lq~l~ urr ~ I ~ ~1't1'qft Ellquu ~~ fjJn~ it ~q~ i3C\,EJIe,1 "lT~ or r5 t)~~I"1 . \Ji1 ;f:Jxiii (31q'CffI~lf~~,p<11) ~.cii. ~'~l ~ ~ $T' W' fcn ~ Rl,q i 61 tI $ tN4 Rl
~ ~


~ I i~II~4)~

-fr 511 ·~cqllfl uft ~


'$ 3Iqtii


'W liG~


vli' tclf11d




with commentary by

Ishwarswa,roop Swami akshmanjoiol Revealed to the Sage. Va·;ugupta, the Shiva Sutras forDl a seminal text of

Kashmir Shaivism. Swamiji's English rendering of .he S"utras unfolds their

inner secrets, and mysteries, helping us to fathom the ocean ~ depths of their c
,',' ,.J;.. 'I
'I ,,

> . ' ., '. aphorism ' b V aphorism






n the second awakening of the Siva Su;traS,t the explains the second means of awakening, called faJ(to,pa:1a,,'~ The energy wi, h which saktopllya. · · . · , 1.S concernee d IS not- Of' d- mary e:ne:rgV~ Th-. IS energy 15 the expansion, the commentary, 'of mantra uirye, the' commentary of I-consciousness, At the enid of the first awakening, the author introduced mantra Vtfya because, he wanted the idea '[0 be fully revealed and explained in t: le second . wakening ..To illuminate '[he actual state of mantra vir'ya, the author first explains the reality of mantra, and then the power of mantra vir:yla~



... Awakeni g ist

TIle first sutra is '[he explanation of man fa:

,z•.~. Icitta'm mantrah

In this siltra, [here are two understandings of the- mind and bo h are divi ne, The first understanding is . hat the mind is the thought 0:( a sacred word" The second understanding is that. mind is the thought of a sacred aspirant 'who is treading on th .sacred path~


from the internal world 10 the external world~ 1-[ is pr,a~~ava1l1Urltr,owhen you com,€:out from. [he Internal world and travel '[0 the- external world and then travel again from. the external world to the inte rna] world. So, it is said that this .llTa~la1l,am,tl?lltr'u is truly a mantra for the word "mantra" is made up ii:ii' t. -. sacred word, is absolutely purified [nsirleand outside .. from man and tr,a~,Ma'n from the word lnanana· means "causes you to reside in your- own GOld So the aspirant's 'mind is mantra and a sacred word consciousness .. Tr'a -from the word tTt1>tl.Ct means. U also is mantra. "protects you from all the evils of the worjd. n.l So The author now explains this siltra in these when, you focus, 'YOIU-r rmnd towards God two ways" The wo:rld "mind" does not mean what: we consclousrress, yOIU, are protected, from all t he horrors ordinarily understand by' he 'world "mind." Here, the of tile world, Here, this is the meaning of the word word mind 'means "that 'by which you become aware of supreme consciousness. ~n So this mind is said. to 'be "mantra. !~ that by which your self is exposed in, its fulln,ess~ It is Now this exposition of mantra is explained in vi'mart,al consciousnessthought in two ways: in another w'ay .. Because the mind ,of this yogi is a~lways prasddJQ; lna,ntra and in p1ra·'Ql.ava mantr,a~ Pfds,a:da purified and never thinks absurd, thoughts, thinking mlantra is "the mantra 'of external flow." Pr,a~~,ava only divine thoughts and being focused 'towards God consciousness it is mantra. 'Wh,ate'ver comes into the mantra .is "the mantra of external and internal flow." It i.s the internal flow ill the external world and the mind, of this yogi is divine, So" all of his thoughts are di,vi.'ne and hence, his thought is also mantra, externalflow in the internal world, 'O.riIpadtnni om .Pr'anava is the mantrawhere 'both mantras10m namat, siviy3, , hie'mantra ah,am and mantra ma-ha-a-arise. When svaechanda bhaira viva namah the mantra aham arises, it is external, and when m81ha-a arises, it Is internal, W-he'n ah"cull, occurs, it is 'These sentences are collections of sacred coming out from your supreme God consciousness d . b ,; ,. .0 ,. anc moving to objective G-; d.conscrousness. T'h' ,', words, Collectio:ns of sacred words are not mantras, ,TS IS 'but just a waste of time for tile aspirant. In a real traveling to objective. God consciousness, not the sense, these two-the aspirant's mind and a sacred objective world, When you rise' from objective God word experienced as.p,rus'ada man,tra and/or ,pr a1_1. a,1)Q consciousness to, your subjective 'God consciousness, mantra are mantras. that is the rise of the mantra mct-ha-,£l." So in both The Sarvaj nanottara also explains 'this in. the ways, these are the states of pranava, Prasla,aat on tile other hand, is the state of the same way, Those manntras which are recited with the lips and sacred world Stlu},Q". It is o'niy external. It is rising from with '[he mind are not really mantras. ,D,evatas and inside ['0, outside ..This is also rising, It is no'[ fall' ng OandhaTVl],Sl al~ these great .-50 1;1'IS have de:~ud"ed when 'f'OU move from inside' to the outside world, it 'is themselves ill thi'nkin,g that thesle are '3,ctuaUy mantras, a kind. of rise, But it is the supreme rise when YOI'U rise And addttionally, the-y are fUled with tremendous pride in corning out .and, when you rise in going in. And thi nking that th,ey ate 'v,erbally reciung the name of .his is the lise 'Of.Pf,U7.1a,Va ma'n;tTa~ Whe:n you only rise Ged. (Sa "vla:jnilno~£taTtl .1.6-17) in. one way, that is [he rise of ,pras.ada 1nanl'ra,. Those so-called mantras are not actually So 'in both ways ~ this is ~ the state of citta mantras, Mantra is divinity in the mind. of 'the yogi or (thought), It is said to be mantra because it Is secret [he Flow of subjective God conscieusness towards (gwptam)" It: is not written, it lives i-n a, secret world. , \Vh,e:n you recite [his mantra, 'y.ouare not reciting it objective God consciousness or rhe simultaneous flow' of subjective God consciousness towards with 11'1)s" but with consciousness, When you 'recite objective God consciousness, and the flow of and yOlu are aware of the prasada mantra. usau~n ~of its objective G',odconsciousness towards subjective God, occurrence in your oW'O self, you, will understand consciousneas. that [his whole universe is the expansion of yourself This is the 'kin,d, of rise that occurs when you travel
I --

kri .",. ~ -'II,.~']U Tn'.e S,a.ns' nt war d Clt.',~a means "tlu'e- th gh.t' of a sacred word." This ['110ug'ht is said to be the' m n5 exp" -0 cd "'"I'on'- Q' f m~an t '[-- 1M.-. n t n Iih e r-:-e'f - 0 sacred word" Sacred word is also '[hie rise of worlds and sentences in rh,€! internal mind of the aspirant. 'Ii"h,e n'~ - ..~ h,; raln' ik ·ala • Thi'" 1,!Ii" also 'm~a-n-tra becau
. _ ',j!t_!.i. .-,.' .'-_ .,ot. -11 ..·._.ct.
''1Ii 'Ii'" '111 .1l0l.,



ji"Q ,._'.!!!,'!L.,


Q. ""11 ,'I;.,!U




Q ~',


-' •


'Iil'iOii '" II;;.,.

III. ~

"iii ~ ,a, Y·1""!Lc.

. .. ,lib '"

iGi! I!I,...










In the Tantf,fi Sadbhliva, this same thing is also,explained: .r The life of a ,I mantras is sole~y the energy of God
consciousness. W'hen [hat energy is absent" aU [hose
collec icns or words are useless just like a mass of

clouds in

me rain less au

umn skv.
(Tantra Sadbhava)

'In the Srikan·thisathhtta Sastra~~ 'it. is 'also said: Th.· one who recites mantra for th·. sake of realizing


God will neve r att ai n the reality of God consciousness. There ~s only one hmg that - yogi must mairitain and [hat is awareness, awareness of the union of objective God consciousness wlth subjective God consciousness and, in one driving push, the flaw o objective and subjective God conscinusness.

'movement, gives rise 0' the union of, he worshiped th 'hi' · · h some an tie W',Q'IS, rper, -Here, rusteglnbeai WIt· movement, any movement, and stop, Hold [he bezi . L, •h egmrung point 10 . '[[13,[ movement w~t, '. awareness, In Sanskrit, thJs state is caU.e,d, ,u,nusanldhitscL By the very beginning of that movement, the goalof uniting the seeker ofGod-consciou; ss with the God ... consciousness 'he seeks, t re spiritual aspirant with that to which he as- tres, the one who recites mantra with Tnan[~T,adet'ata, 'hat lord for whom the mantra is recited, is achieved.
I .

It 'is said in ,Sri Tantrasadbhava;
as 'when a vulture, flVi nB. in the sky Q 5 - rves a pi. ce of meat .in [hat skv and immedia ely"with spontaneous effort, catches that piece 'Of m at, so in the same way the eleva ted yogi d irec s. his mind to that point of light (b~.ndu pfa.ka~fa) of God. conscrou sness, Or just as when the arch r, p acing 3111 arrow on the

J list

This is nota flow, tr is a PUShE . f yOlu force ~ [in this way, with great velocity, 'it will be just like a bal thrown against a wall, It wil come to yOlu again, and bring 'VIOU 'back '[0 subjective God-consciousness, IOn the ocher hand, if you drive :U: slowly from subjective God-consciousness 'to objective God-consciousness, it will end in objective God consciousness and that is '[he state of.pT.asada~J'When you push itwith great velocity, it 'will trave] [0 objective Godconsciousness and then again eturn '0 your subjective GodI: _ 41 rC,ons,clOusne,ss .. ,

string of a 'bow and hen 'pu·U.ingbac'l> on that arrow and. letting it g01 where i flies ~wi{t~YIstriking the point at which it was aimed. It is in Ibis same way, 0 Devi, the supreme hght 'of God Consciousness r(prakasa) isat ained by just one thrust 'Of awareness.

]f the yogI is not successful in. one push, he will not be successful a. ' a~1.., must be attained in one It
thrust of awareness.

This Is narrated, in Spanda in this. verse:
Because these words are digested along with the mind
of the aspirant, they are said to be, along with the divln i V of the vogl, one with divi e God ..

h rn some on -er Il ace, tt

11 1.S arso

"d sate :
of awaren


In its true


the knowledg

is [he

slate of mantra.

2.2 p,a:yatna~ s'iidh4.ka~II
(For such '3. Ylog-) pauseless effort brings about his attainment GOld- consciousness, of

TIle explanation 'of this satra is that your effort rru st ' ot 'be artificial (akri.lta) ~ It must be absolutely natural, filled with in ense desire and fervent longing, and originating from the center of you r heart, By that force, this great yogi di rec ts his. mind to that point of supreme 'God- consciousness .. This is narrated in, S.pallaa in this verse:
he yogi must 'first possess such a de! rmined longing that it 'YJ'~U lead to the resolurion, III ",Ul si unril 1

This yogrls attainment of God-consciousness is realized by his continued leffort~ His effo.-.. must be t pauseless effort (pr,ayatna)j That is sadhaku [hie means for attaining God-consciousness,



body," The

e stare of God-consciousness or I willleave

The' mantra and Irs appli cation, which was explained in the Firs Awakening of [his scripture and which is carried out at [he very start of any



must be fililed with such t musr not be passive effort must be' 'That. active effort itselt ls God-


(Spanaa Kar'ika 2.6)

Fe such a great yogil the mantra" universal I, and the splendor of I at universa I is explainer ..n
,is net sUoTa.

Now the Tanc-r,(ls,adbhava explains fU'rthe That



e., r, t ess.ence' of 'mantra is establishment the bodv of the knowledge ,of onene .s.


Divine Mother, who is fil~ed W'[ h supreme light, has. pervade the whole universe u.p 0 braltmalo/,a. Oh devi, just as at letters are found in · I '11 [he firs tetter, t, h e tetter.. II la,I,· [ he same way" the m 1 ..:« d in 'b WhQlle u,n vers·e 15 10 . n', .1n tar. - D~" Vln M" "h ' . ~ or
I, I,

Here, knowledge means the supreme _~nowedge of oneness. It ~,S" in the real 5 nse, [ e supreme Go who is ,"hie form,atio'n. 0' the collection of all sounds, It is from this point that all sounds are created and stored ...So, in another sense, it is the state of God-consciousness hat's one witIl the universe andfilled w'it:l) sU.P' reme l-ccnsctousness. This is the essence 'of a 1 mantras. B,y the words "essence of all mantras" is not meant the rna atras such as Olll 'n,ama,~ sivaya,. om namo bhagavaite vasudeva,ya,t etc. These mant 'as, are no" mantras in the real sense ..Mantra, in th.e real sense, is that supreme l-consctousness. This is the secret about mantras.

Now I win ex "~a.'in to you some very essential characterisucs of this 'Divine Mom:he r. She is supreme, sub tle, not limited OJ arny' particular school of philosophy or religion,' Tbis Divine Mother, caU'ed. .KUTJ~a!ini,' ls placed in the c, nter of the heart." There vou wi 1 find that D'ivWJle Mother, jlus· e a serper ,~nthe gJ, eping 5, ate ..Oh Pa rvati, I' here she rests, in, i eep sleep, not perceiving anvtlungother than her own self in 3 place caned mu,la:ahiira9 by our



n addition, this goddess, :"la.ces in bier body the moon (,candra)l fire (a,gtli), the sun (r'at1i)~ all the stars (r~al(~',atTa) and all the fo,urte,f" worlds (,bluv,an,ani caturdasa) and still she ls absolutely unaware tha his is happening in her own nature.

T tis is alsoq oted n Sr-rTa'rltrasadbh,avu 'Tantr,a.

But: how done ..


awaken 'h,er? He now explains how this 'is

All letters a re ~~H= cUCIlUy one with mantra and hose' mantras are one with mother, the energy of lord. Siva, and bat mother is one wi h Lord. Siva himself,

Even though this explanation its secret and can't be expose or explained, i~ revealed in the Is Tantrasadbllavla Sd5tra to rhi 5 way. 'his is said by P Lor d~ Siva to " a fv,at :
Oh Parvati, there are those who are nor main raining the discipline as taught in, rh scrjptur s who do not believe that our master is one 'with Lord Siva, They are crooked, attac ed 1:0 'world~y pleasures and .:,' e :11.01[ doing ,3j,ny spiritu prac ice, Because of these misdeeds "I have extracted splendor from their mantras. When that splendor is removed, these mantras bee rne useless. For him wJho WOI Id wield these mantras, th.ey are as good as le .ters. They have no value, You 'IDIJS . have 'faith. rhar the master is one '" with Lord Siva, You mu-st maintain discipline and charac er, YOli must no [ be given to attachrnen Of wor~d]y pleast es. ,\Vhen yo hve in tlus way"~ then you r man. fa. will ne filled with spl ndnr and w HI remain successful,

TIlis goddess cannot be awakened with force. She can only be awakened by (nada,) supreme .]~ consciousness filled with supreme awareness .. To awaken her, t e yugt has to cl urn his point of onepointedness in .he heart, withou break, again and agarn.


He must churn it by ins rting sparks of wareness, one after another, again an. ' again, in unbroken continuation ..The 'process is to insert one , spark of awareness, Let tha one spark fade. Again, insert fresh awareness, Let that spark fade. Again, msert fresh awareness, This process must be continued over and over again in co, tinuity, Then, 'he bOldy of energy" which "5 established in tne bodv of the D'ivine MOl her, k,uJJl~ali11fl is churned by tl is awareness, Because of this churning, this y'()gI will initially experience very intense lights seeming to come from all sides, Because of hese lights and. that (ndda) supreme I consciousness ft lle d. with supreme awareness, this kutl~alini rises, In the body of that kU1.l4ulinf" the yogI

The first proj ction is hat of subjective awareness. The second projection is cognitive aware: ess, The rhl d projection is objeorjve awareness. And the fourth projection is digestive awareness.
Subjec ive awareness is awareness 'of the state of knower (pramatr).. ,Awaren,ess of the state 'of knowledge is cognitive awareness (pfama~,a)" Awareness of th state of the known is ob] ..ctive awareness (pranley,o),,,These three kinds of awa eness rise from that center of that Divine Mother kltiJ~alint Th, 'fourl['h project] on is known as digestive awareness, This is that projection, where subjective cognitive and, objective projections are digested in such a w'ay' that they are not differentiated one from the other. In the projection of diges .ive awareness, ali chese projections are one 'without distinction. In Sanskrit, this digestive projectjen is caU,ed pra7nit,i' b,; the digestive stare of thought,

imraediatelv comes out from his internal state because he carmot tolerate the jlov he is. experiencing, which is the creation of th ' nectar." there the Divine' Mother is ca led 'trip ati1a; because S.11E takes the formation of the three centers, And [ben again the three centers, the subjective center, '[hie objective [center and. 'he. cognitive center, rise, And when all these three centers again rise from ku'~4alin'ij the energy [of kU.l,~al'ini caned raudrf s,ruKti because it is that energy that puts obstacles in, the \Va'y in the journey of final lberation.

The' yogi must return inside again and again. He must not thin hat he has los anvthing. He need not wait for the master's direction ..Because the 'way of liberation (mok.,a) is sopped, hie must continue to return inside agai'nnd again 'and main .. in t awareness of that oneness,

Then again she (ambika) takes the form of the halfmoon, which "ishalf inslde 'and ha'~foutside." And 50, even if that supreme Divine Mother is only one, yet she takes these three formations, one for the infertor yogi, lone fOf the j ogr' who wants to experience enjoyment and one for the superior yogi,

n,QW you have to simultaneously put the churner and that 'which is to be churned in ' hat body of kU1:1I~,alini. By doing that, kU~l~a:linIJ the Divine Mother, rises in ,3 Si raight line .. Here she IS called jye,~~hasa,l(ti because she is absolutely established between these two points, the point of subjectivity ( enid, the point of objectivity (prameya)~

o Devi

Then, when these two points (b~"ndu) of , su bi -" awareness amd' cogru tve awareness ar jectrve also, agitated by the process of continual churning,

By virtue of these energies of he Divine Mother 1,u~1~alinr, ine classes of letters have risen. n The first is the class of l tters from 'a' to ~1}isar,gat (a,1)'arga). The next is the class of letters associat~d with ka. (/,'(t1),arga) The thi rd is 11e class of le ers associated with Ctl (cav'a'rg,a). The fourth is the class of letters associated with ~a (tava,f'ga)~ The fifth is the class of lie ters associated with ta (t,aV1tlTgU)_ The S'~xth is the class of letters associated with )1n (yavarga)~ The eighth is the c ass of letters associan ,d with (!avarga)E And the ninth is the class associated with k~a {k~av,arga)~ All these classes of letters have risen f om, that 'D~'v· Mother kun,da1int ne
i I



. hat: l(ulJdalinI gjves rise to rea] p .re supreme semen and that semen rises from bottom to 'top. In, the form of ku,t1~,alil1I. Tl13t kundalinI is, known a,s,, he Divine . ~~ Mother Re,khint Here you won't find either the subjective or the objective projection because these are bot 'h dilu led in the oneness of that supreme bliss resulting from the rise of supreme semen,

There are five sac .ed states of the self tha rise fr'onl;.this kU1J,~ttl'iniand they are the five mouths of LO'I',d, Siva: isa,na, tatpuru$'aJ ~ghor'a, vamade_ a and L .sa d' aJlata.. 13 T-'--h m,Q,U th S h ,a;v'· a:ppea re d from this _ .- ,.,ese n_ -, kU11~ali'nI~ so' Lord can speak to the public, h"elping them and, by illuminating that which IS to be icr JI!oh -k-no - 'n t:teach .rr em. 14
___ ·,.,·,.'W'I'_~

At this poin .when this semen rises, this ,og~


mantras get their life from the Divine Mo£hl.!f kl~ndt!hnI.She is t:he center of all mamras,
, •

(Spa'Rna Koriki 2.1)

The supreme speech is thie supreme sound, called p,asy'anti., The throat is the center of 1nadhya;rn,a speech and the tongue IS the center of 'vaikha,Ti speech, be taken from one's heart, In [he heart, there is no different! ation of lette rs or words; there is. only consciousrress ... here is some force ofwhat is to occur T in th,e next moment. So in heart, it IS just 'one point, one atom (eka1.tuv,a), and rhat is called pasYl!:l'Ltf speech (va,k.)~ The riext speech (vlak) is ca,,~led madhYluma va,k .. 1'[ is centered in. the throat, And the. '[hi'[ld. vak is calmed uaik,ha1"1.~ and it is centered in the tongue ..It exists when you speak words ..


W'~le:n something is to'

he sajd,

i[ is first

Although the strength (vlrya) of the 'mantra is brought into 'existence by meditating ,on the supreme heart of J-consciousnese, now and then~ by . ,,-the opposite 'wrII of Lord Siva, the will of concealing (tir'O'dna'na) 'his nature, some unfortunate men do 'not '(~. 'h" . ... ..... .d ~.. t. .. ".rea..lze tr rs l-o consciousness. ann, on " h.e contrarv, " ,. '. dl i. r nnute satts f y t'h· ·mID··S wrt h 11' 'd' . y'lo~g:tc powers" 10 T'h~ .elf .C'IS next s~tra explains what will happen to these unfortu nate yogis.
. , .' •.• I _' ",,' -.',... ..' •r [ "1 .' . ••


'I "






\¥hle.n, H, YQgI's mind is satisfied with the expansive hodv of il]u.sion." then he falls in the world of Idifferentiat:ed. perceptioas and his kn,Dwle1dg,e: of being is, just Like that ~Df ordinarv living beings~

,AUthese sounds appear in the tongue. S'O,~ this whole universe resides on sou nd, This is the proc ess 0'( sound and that sound is carried form that soundless center kU1J~ahnl.

[he supreme energy 10'£ supreme speech is the SOUTee of all speech, This is 'why ai~ these letters emerge from the- supreme ce.. rer of that energy of n o· .,' ~. ..' lVln G"ld -conscto,u.,sness, foh'.e 'D-:"', , 'M-·· ··'·o··.. her An ·d,- all 'db 'Y' S:Pl.. , 1· aspirants mantras t h at are reciter rttuat (sadhakasJ get their strength (vlTya) and splendor from that supreme devi of God-consclousncss, kU1,1~alin..1., This 'is why it is said that r-na,tr,Ka and 'mali.n i~~ r:iee from thi sku~{l,alin [ both
I .... •










.. '




Here, the Sanskrit word g;arbhe, means that expansive body of the energy of illusion. That is mahamaya~ tile' great illusive energy of Lord Siva. The body 0'£ illusion that is being referred to are the limited yogic. powers (e .. ~,creating divine 'incense 0'£ g the materialization 'of sacred ash to give to disciples, walking o.n water, Ilving in. air, etc ..) '"All these powers are existing in the sphere of ma',a~When the yogi exhibits the world of limited powers and. his mind becomes satisfied and does not move ahead, then for him, his knowledge of Being is, like the world of dreams'; it is not knowledge at all. His, knowledge is just, the: same as the k'D.Qwle, held. by ordinary
worldly people, And so, like ordinary living beings, he falls and i.s established in the world of differentiation with various perceptions and thoughts,


Because the SitJ'a S'u~ras' are actually the most secret and essential thoughts of Lord Siva, in explaining them we have referred to SD rnanv tan·tras", You should. not 'be worried about our giving S,O many This is also said in Pa'£,anjali'~,sYoga Dar§an.a, references, An-d if you.s'tiJl do not understand what . Th,05e ~ig'h is in [he cen ter of the eyebrows and divine ku,~~~ali'n~ actually i.S;1 even though we have given ISO sounds in the center of heart are obstacles for many references to aid vout understanding, then VlJU 5aTnadhi~ ',b' -: kll - O":C 0 u e ~"-rt ,f", ,'..' , S."QU"ald taxe he ld of . he reet or your master, (Yoga Sarra 3.37)
",,' I" ,,' , .' .,--'



This meaning 'Of [hie' sutra is narrated Sp"ll,da in this verse,


The experiences that come in front of this 'yolgi are called .samadhau 'u,p'asarga, obstacles to attaining real s,tl' These are obstacles for that

yogi. For worldly men, on the other hand, they ap "ear as great po" - '[5 'and they appreciate th' se powers, They say th yogI who 'possesses these powers is a rea .., person, a real yogL They applaud him, saving

[hat he bestows these plowers on his devotees, This is narrate '_ Spanda Karika in this verse: in As soon as spantll1 ~s rneduat d u pon ~ the yog'i perceives some divine light emanating' be' ween the
eyebrows, he hears divine' sound reso ating in the heart, divine form appears in his sigl1_ttand divine taste is experienced on his. ongue. The'sf ar all j ust a disturbance in. the stare of real be'br~gand are ro be avoided. by those yogis who wish to become fortu nate (S:puNda Karika 3.10)

Thia state, described above" i nat real khec.aTII mudrtt ]. shouldbe avoided .• _-ha is r 31 khecas! nludra?
'W'hen you are tread Lng the , .ay of totality . (l(ulamarge~la)~ you must see the [0 ali [ in at piece 10

the totality, Take one part of the uni erse and. see the whole universe . xisting there. That it th way of rotalitv, So, just as its said in the Tantr sa!dbhi'v·9t[1 [his khe:cQ'ri 11ludr,a is becoming one with .·upr me conscious tess,

Then, what hap ens [[0 this yogt who puts rh Sf: Iimited powers aside, even though tll.ey have appeared. '[0 hlru,m, and who holds in his mind the supreme state of Lconsciousness!

'must understand that everything is filled with completion. 'If only one individual being is th1ere, you must understand and you must 'eel that in

that one individua] being al] 'Individuals exist,
Ta'ke,. . or example, one grain of ri e ..S' e the power that exists in that grain of rice ..This one "grain of rice has the po,wer of producing not only a

The pur . knowledg' ',IQf God-consciousness effortlesslv rises an, this state of Siv'8J is r, ~aH'ledas one with the state of 1(h i?CU rt

hundred plants bu t thousands milli ons-billions of plants. ..Innumerable plants. exist in tha one grain 0' ric e. So, one part of the world is complete i.n self

When this pure knowledge (Juddh,u v:fd-ya), which has b en explained in previous sutras,
effortlessly comes into existence and when, by the supreme independent 'will of Lord Si,va,~these limited powers 5U bside and that real state of Lord Siv'3, come's into being, then i his yO'if~Flies in the ether of supreme knowledge. Fhis :~sthe s'[ate of khecari n11i.dra hat comes into existence for 11'~'m~ state of khec,ari IS The the state of Lord, Si'va, who is the supreme embodiment of CI,. isciousness. Here the aspirant (scldh,tCl,ka) becomes one with Siva. This s the ise of on' 's own. blissfu] state ~T'll'"s khec,ori is not "he /<.he'c·ar'l described in these .wo verses!, \Vh.en. tl"l yogru i.s seated in. p,admiisa.'na~ 11 musr PUI[ his mind, the master' of a.ll organs, ill. the c nter of
the. navel, He must sir erect until the rime when the three ethers/voids, sakti vyapin'!' and sanlana, come in' a existence for him. imrnediaeelv this vagi should infuse the supreme 'Void by taking hold of these three voids. B,y prac tieing ill. this way, this vog~ enters in he m'Udra Then

mus , when treading the way of totality, feel the voidness of differentiated perceptions in each and eve y being, This, in the real sense, is k hecari. I' is this, '(Jt.(~:carimUldra that is to be prac iced ~

So, the reality of this l,hecarf mudra is j us' as it is, explaine in th Tan rasadbhava, "becoming one with supreme con ciousness", And when the agitation of that differentiat d illusion of Lord S'ia fad 5 into nothingness, then the power of aJ mantras and all mudr!as (states) appears anl is experienced by such ' a, YIO' g' ,i
,~ ,.:. .J~rl

This, is said in

Kul.;acu, ,5ust'fa:

\"('hen, by one germ of creative being and one g'erm of existence, [his knee-ail mu,df'ii is created (-man.tra vlrya) and [hen established ,(mltdra vr1yt1)~,and 'when

these two states appear' to this Vo.gj, then he is
es ablishe.d in tl at supreme and peac
"a -

Lord Siva,


state of

' is mantra vlrya, and when that mudra' is, established, it is lnudrii


that mudra is created

not discussed. however, in the last verse [here's this reference , In 'tlle :·panda Kdriku:>." m,u.dra llfry hi in orporated in the explanation, of mantra v'irya. so h re is acruallv no difference between m,tllltra virya (_ Tn ud ra 1)'Irya. Mantra vfrya exists on Iy at the nd beginning of creative energy and, establishment in, .hat creative energy is 1nlldra virya.
WheIl all these agitatiorts end, then, he state of 'Lord
Siva comes into be ing,
(Spanda Kdrikif 1.9)

that supreme and wonderfu ~wort : of the master l, at gives nse to manifold ways of supreme thought that carrv the disciple across the ocean 0'- all doubts, (S,panda, Kdrikd 4.1)

I. bow

Even though there are other subjects that are e '. I ined in this verse from . he Spu11da Klirihii, yet the subjects of mantf'a 1)1rya and nludr,a vir'ya are also all u ed to. .

Some other masters think, because of the: reaching's Qf the Ma:lanlvijaya Tantral hat the master is nor a worl,d.~y being. For them, the master is, in the real sense, the supreme energy of Lord Siva~ 1- this reg rd, it. is said! ·n MalinivijajlCl Ta'JltTa:
That ws [he whe 1 of all energies a", d hat is the
mourl of I he master ':her'e evervtl ing~.sobtained. (Mdlin"fvl.ja y.o, Tantfa)

For attainting these two powers, the power of creative energy (lnan.tta. 'virya.) and '[he' power of esrablishmenr in that creative (mu,dr,tl 'virya,)~FIo

In [he Trisirobhairlav',a Ttl'n,tral, it ,.S said:
The grea: energy of that great Lord is said I[Q be the mouth of the master: he= Ice, '.hat energy, being the cause of understa nding, is the m . aDS (ttpa)·a). ~ (Ttf.s'irobhajfavla~ Ta,ntra)
.. -

2.6guru,rupa:y'a~ II
The master (guru) is the m ans,
These' two powers can b,e'at ained only through th master (guru)~ ,nO one else. But who is the master!


Therefore, 'when the master ,ns pleased",

2~Zmatri'ka'cakTas.ambl,o,dha~ II
(The disciple attains) the knowledge of the wheel of the hidden mother (Matr k:acakra) The discip e attains the knowledge of Mdtrk,u,cal(Ta only by the grace of the master, and :not i.n allY 0 her way., What is m,atr,kdcakra?" Matrika: is he uni '51' , t'h 'molth er W ~. lS un kmown to rne uruverse, 17 .'. ae Hi ie -"0 the creat ive cause 'Of 'all mantras and all knowledge .. The word ucakrau means 'whee L Sal m.litrk,acakTa '. literally mans the wheel of 'the: hidden mother.

e who demands that his disciples donate moneyto lim or who requires 'his disciples to pr . ide service to him, all in the guise of attaining enlightenment, is not the gl!r'U,~ 'Then who is the, g'uru,? The guru is,that person who puts before you' he reality of God-consciousness. It is said that the guru ns the means here because onry he can, make you realize the fullness of these' wo awareuesses, mud,ra d mantra.,



It isdeclared in Ma,['vljaya Ta'ntra: Lord ,So va tells Pa rvati, "That master who. is the cause
o Y'O'u"r attaining as me." the creative energy of Lord ,Siva

and who then establishes you in that sra e is as good


Tantra 2..10)

n other words, that master is one with Lord Si\7a. I' .Span Ida KidrUGa, . his point about the master ~s

MatTkaC'akfa,!~ is concerned. with "he theory of the Sanskrit alphabet from the letter "€lIT to the letter n,k,~a,.u There are fifty letters" The fifty letters represent rhe existence of the whole universe. The universe is composed of thirty-six elements and the thirty-six elements are represented by the fifty etters, The universe begins from siva taittva1 the ~ . element of Siva, and ends in prithvi [attva the

e Iement of earth,

The representative 'letters of Siva, the first supreme element siva ItattvaJ are the sixteen vowels seginning from nan and ending in u~u (visarga). The sixteen vowels represent, respectivelv, tile existence '"' of Lord Siva, the thirtv-sixrh tattva~ It is explained . that in the thirty-sixth tattv,'l there are five energies: ci' sakti~ the energy of consciousness; an.anda sakt :', .h _ ·L .' i ;n t e energy 01,f 'ILl·' 0 ISS; £oCH,a- laf(~~~1[ he energy 0 f 'W1U1;, jfi,on,a sakti~ ('h,e e-, n.ergy of knowledge; and 1(1j'yt1 sa.kti, the energy of action, 'These five energies combined together form t'he embodi ment of Lord Siva and hat is s'lva t,attva.~




. us.' t0 b'' .. acsotureiv d d " W~tho . ,[ 1~£.. oe b .11, - - ... 1 uea nou ire. But there is also life in a. rock, 'In the course of time, a rock undergoes change, r-

.' k.. ..' -." R·ocxs seem







word anuttara means "unparalleled where 'there is no similartty," TIle word akuJa means "where the totality is 'not d~fferentiatedll it is ,a,nly U . .r~. Jd!i:.' 11 .. mdiI.f~erDnil-j''''''''''e' , totalit y ~II




r ..

I ..







In Vedanta,~ on the other hand 'it is 'held that there are only three , energies that comprise the embodiment of Lord, Siva, These energies are sat, cit and a1t,anda,., S,at means "all existent, always existing" c,:£means "always conscious a, Id ,dn,an,·da ·s "always blissful." This is the wav Vedanta has , explained the-state of Siva. ·
J U .

first moverne nt of the state of Param,4siva was anuttar'a~ unpara leled, and incomparable, But wherrParamasiva keenly observes his nature, hrs self, his reality again and again." her fe'eJs the blissful state o·f his own s,elf. Otherwise, in this first move, he· does not feel that blissful state a.' all, In the ficrst move there is only all-consciousness .. The. blissful state is dtgested in that all-consciousness in the state of anuttarr!l., The

"" .B,u[ Saivism understands it differently. Sai'v'ism, argues that sat is nor needed, ~ It is already present. Sal is not an aspeci at Lord Siva, Sat is the reality of Lord Siva, Why, therefore, call it an aspect;

_ ~





Siva, tattv,a is explained in Paratrirh.fil(a Sastra and in the TantrdZo,ka:
;he f~,rs[movement (kal,a) ofsupreme l-conaciousness (aham 'vimar§a) is unparalke le d (anu'ttar'{l,) undi fferen.r~ated totality I( ak1da), And when .i t moves forward w,~th. 'the Inrention of cr a(~ng His g:lory in the external world, it takes rh formation of,unanda.



And when He takes the formation 0 clnanda,) the blissful state, it occurs only when He wants to observe ir, 'For example, when you want to observe what yrOl really are, that bt~ss comes. Whe'n you are not keen tOI observe your nature" your nature is in a natural way .. You are who you are" WIlen you do not observe again and gain, then. ylou are o.n!y filled witb all-consclousness .. When y'ou observe it again and again, then 'you tee '[be glory of your self~That is [he formation ofiin,anda" r111€' blissful state,

Siva's glory is already created in the internal ~ w,orl,d of His hieing" In the next movement of Siva, when Hie has the intention of . rearing His gLory In the external world, the 'blissful stat appears and that is. the form of ananda~


'Here, . h.e, word kala does not mean "part": here I~,ala means "first movement ""f is the first .... movemenr of Siva. You should understand that Siva · · lA, · bl rs :at 1'ways moving, oiva IS not. sta bI e, unmovame, unmoving, as 'Ved,aanta has explained, Vre.dan'ta, postulates that 'anything that moves ultimately comes to an end. So any movable object wil , in . he course of time, expire, This theory of ''Aedart-ta is , absolutely incorrect. Siva is a ways in movement, He is the' embodiment of movement (spal'1du). 'This is why everything, even. one small blade of grass; is in movementv And ~it is not only a blade of grass that seems to U,S to be living; even a rock is in movement.
-' .

Anuttar'a, the unpar alle led state of consciousness, is represented by the, irsr letter 'In the Sanskrit alphabet, the ~,Ietter "a", The bl'issfu~ state, ltnanda" is represented bry the second letter i the Sanskr it alpha be t, the letter a~


subtle 5 ate of will, Wl1at does He' desire ln this state .f '111 ie ..... ',~ 11... '.esires -, . 10 WIJl·t 1 HJ dI esires not th mg..'H-'e onry desi .. H'IlS own,

Then. after allanda,~ two more movements e -- _ come tort h' liceh ,a an d lsana~ Th'.ese two states 0:f' L orld . .. h Stva come mto existence a:fre 't1· existence 0'f- [ ter Ire ' ~'d . · -. h '. rstsrate lee h a 1s tt e hI ,[5Sf ut~ state ana n a~ The f'm
-<* . I, • •
r .. , .. I

natur ~ So the energy of will exists here just to . reasu r His own nr tu ~ "It is the energy of 'will whi n 'he admires His own nature, expressed by, "Yes, I am osaessing this state. , And In. the wo ·Id of vowels, th s ate is represented by the letter i .. Then He takes another movement anr th t is e gross state' of will In he subtle stare of will, He on" admires His own nature, In the gross state of will, He no'[ only admires His own nature but H _a. [5 [0 own that nature He wants to have it, He wants to possess it, And. that desire of possessing it will c. rrv him down, Wh.y? B,ecause when He desires opossess it, this means that He feels he's not already rssessing rh nature of hts own self, his. means He i rnovi g away from His awn na ure.' "his ns the state ~ [sana,. 50'J when He wants topossess the nature of f His self which is, full of consciousness and b ISS~ He wants 'to possess it in the state ofisa1!a, and that state is represented by the letter l. After that, He produces anot her movement and that h~Jrjit.clna~This first 'movement of jnan.a is the stare of t-tn,ne~a, represente b,y [1 e letter u~Here, He discovers that the universe is exis ing in His own ature \vhich. is full of all consciousness and all bliss, When, he discovers this, then e b egins another movement into t re external world. In. this. nex 'movie ... -..nt, he observes, UI want '[0 find out Wl18t is existing in this self of ml -e." As SOQ'n as he desires to observt the differenttated realities existing i. H.' 5 own nature, the splendor of all ccnsclousness and all b iss begins to move away. He now has the apprehension [hat this consciousness and. bliss may e dim; rushing. lt is 'not actually decreasing, but only the apprehension that it will decrease. This 13 the state of unata~represented by the letter il" The word i:nata mea' 5 "lessening." This state ~.s the apprehension of the lessening of that supreme onsciousness and supreme bliss that is 1 is own nature"

The final tWOI movements are in the state of establi hment, Firs, , H, has the intention [hat this flow, this movement, must be diverted towards internal being and not the external world ... e mus take His will . ack to His own nature. Then there is the confirmation 'of . hat intention ,['haf it must be taken 'back" So thes are tWOI states, one is intention and the second is. tile confirmation of this intention.

'1rutrauv, tnere '.. 1 1

~ IS OIl~V

lv Simp le i si e Intent ~ Th" -:15 on,

is what 1/'OIU find in lightning. Whe'n 'bolts of lightning are flashi ng forth from clouds, that is the firs' 5' ate. And w ten that lightning is 0 I. served flashing forth, that Is the second sea:e ..So tn the same way, firs' there is. the intention of taking his whole movement into the snternal world of consciousness, and second, there is the- confirmation of ,tllis · .. mtention, TI. hi IS representee d by t heler r ,13 "' .. 1- e ietter Tl- an,d b I'.y the letter riO Tile letter r represents the intenrion of . , diverting His will again into the internal world, And 'f1 is the confirmation . .,. of this interrtion. A~l this . happens in the state of Siva"




There are now two additional movements in this process of taking will int o inte rnal conscioi sness. First, there is [he inten .ion to return, Then there [8 he confirmarlo of the intention to return, Next, there is the establishment of this, intern ion of again going back, And finally, this establlshment is confirmed, Theee final two processes 'of establishment , n.,d the confirmation of this establishment are represented by the. le ters ,ir. "he short letter lr represents ' he establishment of carrying this entire process inside and the long letter Iff represents the a..C[U: 1. carrying of this whole process into his own nature so it rests in his own supreme being ..These a e four states of Siva and . hev are in movement in one's own nature. ·"our state of consciousness is also in movement ..Everything is in movement.But he e it moves in His own nature, : does nor come out of his own nature,


.uprerne cIQ,nSCi,QUSneSBand supreme bliss will b lessened, He then diverts His wi I again into the in. ernal world. He takes 'His will back again into His 0'-' n nature nd does not let it go out into . he e .tern world,..This takes place in four ways, The · te 'l(51: [- 0 movemen _ a e In th state 0 f·' 5 mtennon.

He has [he apprehension

that his

So, these four states are represented by the four vowels r r 'IT lr Here, in these four movements, you get a Jg impse of fa and fat The semi-vowel fa, gives yo'u a glimpse o,f the first two movements and. the semi-vow -lia gives y,olu a ,gti.mps€ of the final rWQ movements of carrying 'this. whole process black into your own nature,

process of universality is carri d to one's own nature. ere the 1 ' · H' . 'el'ng 0 f a l' w,h·ore un'v'e'_ se IS rna,d e one wrt 'h ,_ IS bei consciousness ... and all bliss. Therefore, the four states residing in Siva are said, to be "'Ifilled with nectar" (amrita ra.p·,e~la)," These four letters 'are nominated by . r h e great grammarian p-' . 'aQ.nni as alnrita b' b '1)£1 aecause they reside in one's own nature" which is filled with bliss. Here, , here is 'no iridi ation of moving outside ill ,0 the e: tternal 'world.

Acc or d ingls ~ the

wh ol e

At this poin ~ h~re 'is no 'hope of cren ing the universe" The creation of universe has corn "Mete'ly ended, B· completely inverted, this whole universe 'ns carried back to 'his own nature .. Nothing can be created now, ·
Tlle grarnmarjan PaI)..i1).i fl. so' designated these four [etters, which represent these four movem:e'ntss, as , h- ',e, l~ eu'nu.c.jh 5t:a es U 10'·' s. va.. Th ey are '. r called the "eunuch states" of S,iva because here 'Siva has tne impression that the splendor 'Of His supreme state ,of being may be lesserted, F,earing this, He does not have the courage to, create.
.. c_ _'"


action that is 'not vivid is rhe sta e of the triangle (triko'~a)~ WIlY is this state of non-vivid energy of action sa' d to be the s ate of the triangle? You already know that with the exception of the energy of consciousness and the energy of bl "8S, which are not "10 be included because they ar on' with Lord Siva, t ,ere are' three energies, -_hese three energies are also not separate but, because they existe aft,er the creation of the state of his anandJl1 .s.aK,tiQ; they are being explained as separate, These three e ergies are tile energy of wilt, the energy of knowledge and the energy of action. In the energy of will, only the energy of wi'll exists. In the energy of knowledge, two energies exist-the e-nergy of will and the energy 0' knowledge .. In [hie energy of action, three . nergies e: ist the energy of wilt the energy of'kn,owledge, and the energy of acticn. Therefore, the non-vivid energy of action is saidl to be -he state 'of the triangle 'because in this energy of action rh ere are three point of will, one point ofkn.ow~edge and one point of actjon,


In this firs' movement, Lord Siva infuses his
eatlve power, a n.u;ttarQialllull,da] in wilt Here, consciousness (Ianutt'ara) 'and all bliss (ananda), the letters a~or 'letter i, are combined with [he ene ,gyof will" the letter L Th_is fits state 0 energy of 3.C ion, the non-vivid, energy ot action, the stat of [he triangle (triko'(l.a),. is represented 'by the letter e. Now he infus ~S that crea ive power in knowledge, So anut,tara OI lana Ida, the letters a or a are combined with the energy of knowledge, (jiiana sal(ti~)7 He letter U,I infusing _ heir creative power in the energy of knowle,dge, and another state 0 the energy of action comes into existence and that energy of action is represented by the letter- ai~This stale of the, energy of ac ion is vivid energy of action, TIle purpose of this state is. lust 'to confirm that it is the energy of action that Lord Siva is going to create, that this universe of will hie' created in spit,'! of the fact that 'he fo ir states of'i1€! energy of will (iocha ,sakti~) r~r lr a d ,lr~ have entered into he state 10 eunuch, This is t ae power and the greatness of Lord Siva's energy of consciousness (unuttara) and allbliss (anan,da),.
, j6' 1-

Now what ha .. ,ens'? In reality, 'Lord Siva is alw·ays.fu-1" always blissf l~;, 'nothing can dlrnini 511 '.' , is riature. And it seems to Him a great sh In not to creat,€, this universe, So He rakes anoi her step to create this universe afresh. Now another movement takes, place. This time, however, .. e does not infuse the, pOlwe-r of creation 111 is 'will or in, the will d,f His knowledge. This time He infuses the 'power of cr ative consciousnesa jrr ftis own self, which is anu,ttara and ananda, and' hen He infuses that crea ive power in, His will, When that creative power again, mixes in His will" He cr ates another internal world of His being. That world, is th,e 'world ,of His energy of action ..Tl1is energy of action is re-presented , by four letters: e, ,ai", 0 and a.u~ Not vivid (asphu,t,a) energy of action t.S represented by the' letter e, vivid (sph1lfa) is represented by he letter ai~ more viv:id (sp,hu:tat.ara) is repro s... ted 'by the letter 0. and most n 'vivid (sphu~,atama) is represented 'by the let er au., The four states of the energy of action (kri~l{j sa,f(ti~) take place sequentially. First, the energy of

And now, when, anu;t' ar,a/dna?lda are again tOI infuse th creative powi T, it "s infused not in win, as it was in t'he fIrst movement ~it is infused in trikolJ.rll ..

his infusion gives rise [0 the 'more vivid state of the d h· sa e IS . energy 0 f· action c '1tee $ut k- OJ,la,.,t~ _~5 represented by ,th let .er 10.. Sa~ko1:1aIS t~e 5, ate. here the whole universe is found in Lord Siva and, Lord ~ Siva is fOlun,d in the universe, In this state" you \: on'r .. find any ,differe ice between Lord Siva. and this crea ted universe. You 'may call it "created U nl ve rse II or you may call i "Lord Siv: If; it doesn't make any ~ differ nee, If you want to see Lord Siva, see Him In blades of grass, H,e is there, vividly existing, Therefore, in '[he letter e He was not vivi . y existing, [n the letter ai 'H is vividly e '.isting. n the letter 0 He is more 'vividly exis ing In the letter au Lord Siva, is most vi,vid~y existing.






the most vivid energy of action (1criya sal(tlb) is no universe at a L In other words" it is the expansion of yOIu.r OWll nature, nothing else, In reality not hing is created at aIL I is only tile glory of His own nature that you. 'will find in this so-called creation, This, stare of knowledge and confirmation is represented by the le-- ter 111m" (al1usvlar'a) ~ Here, there is onJ,y a point (bin~du)~ A point cannot be created; it is only one pointed, After accomplishing this expansive h dstate 0 f' aC[IV'I[y~ rrus entire ac we war" Id 1,S, .lSSO ~ve d in one poirrt. S'OI~if you are created, if f'Oll grow up, .if Id ·f' ~ · you corne acatn i I'IIS you b ~ee,ome 10_ ,. 11 you' d te, tfvou come again In . 1L' world, what sigruficance is there in t'hi,s?' It is only the gI,ory of you own expansion of being, There is 'no creation, there is 'no death"
Ii [I iI II iI







The final stare of [hie energy of action, represented by the letter au, will be found only in he u -iversa state. That state is calle §ulab~jall where the triple stare of the three energies-will, knowledge, and action-is consumed in one universal point, This is. 'hy in this fourth sra e of energy of ac ion all three '" energies of Lord Siva-the e,nergy 0_ will, [he ,en,ergy of knowledge an .. the e:nergy of action-are most vividlv found. They ar not found as,'vivid in th first state of the energy of action, the letter e, or in the second, the letter ail! 0 in the third, the letter 0., They' are found most vividly existing in the fourth, the , I. tter au. It is in lau that you will fin,d Lord Siva most vividly existing in. the universe. So if you want to erceive the state of 'Lord Siva as it ought to be: perceived, in its rea] sense, you must this, unive sem You won't find the real stat' e of Lord Siva in sama,dhi~ In [hie state of s,nnadhi', you will find His non-vivid formation, You will find the exact state of · L.orn S In. rh uruve rse. '.if d orva
It :,iII· •

Up to this point" allof Lord Siva's energiesthe energy of consciousness, [he. energy of bliss, the energy of will, the energy of knowledge, the energy of 'his four eunuch states along 'with his nor vivid enc'rgy of action, hi'S vivid energy of action, his more vi' i. energy of action, and 'his 'most vivid energy of ace ionare ex .lain'e,d, cornpletelv. But what is represented by the 'next two vowels anUs,vartl "rn" and


By if no _hing "iscreated, then what: is it that happens to, mak . it seem that it is just like crea. ion! After all, you do feel like If is 'being cseated, This is explained by tne next state of Lord Siva, visarga MQU~ In the previous state of 'knowledge and confirmation represented 'by the letter "m" (anusvdra),~ 'we saw tha 'the universe is, just the ,glory of His own nature. There is 11.0 creation. The e is on y one point. The · is .. 1 woe I universe 15 diissorvecd' In one porn S now', '10 h after creating these five energies of His nature, He creates the state of visarga,. This sixteenth letter of [he vowels is represented by the letter T1b"'1 This state represents sirnul aneously the in' ernal creative' force a.nd, external creative force. ere, in, this state of "' being of Lord Siv"31" if you observe in onewav, you will find that nothing is created, is the internal creative force, If on ..he other hand, V'OIU observe in another W':aly, V'O'U will find that everything is created, This is the external creative force. So by observing in onle' w'aYl nothing is created, and if at . he same time you observe in another W· y, you will find ('hat everything is created,
,ill _



~ larif a, story ,.ha WI'll h eip CI.aIL Y , hi aat . is teaching, which is the supreme truth, In earlier times in t is universe, there was a yogi and his name was Macchandanatha, He 'was considered to 'be a great yogi and lie had many disciples. One day his chief visaTg,a n,~IIII'? disciple Gorakhanarha was . raveling in a far off count.ry.,_e,_'e Th to "lIS surprise, he saw h" master hi · us making love with a. beautiful woman from a nearby The whole universe, beginning from the, energy of consciousness (cit §al{ti~) and ending in . town, Gorakhanatha was furious 'with his, master for

ere H·

this unacceptable action, B-1 b.i8 master had fallen in lovie with this woman and he married her, Living tog,ether,' his master and his wi .e 'had 'rna y, many children. Gorakhanatha observ d that his master "_as absolutely given to h "',s wife and. these children~ Then after some time. Gorakhanatha L: returne d to h· own country, 'H' w ent ,0" LllS master s _lS "..e asrnln~ Upon arriving at the laS'ram Gorakhanatha was dumbfounded to find ..his master there in perfect sa111adhi.." e knew his master was attached to, his wife am c hildren aru yet here he was withou his wi e -1 1 and. 'Chi dren, -ere he was, aI one; ahso I ute.y given to, s-amludhL In fact, his brother disciples told 'him, his master had neve left "he asram,. H,e has always been here in his aSr,a1n,. He had nOI gone anywhere.
I 1,
" • 'I
,iI _'.




















second visarg:a. concerned with saktib is called p,arapa~ra, visargo, 'his medium creative energy. The [hi rd. visar'ga conce rned with the in . ividual is caned ap1aYIa viJar&".1 his inferior creative energy, These three energies ar represen ed res _- ctively 'by three' e etters. The supreme energy is represented by the second vowel of the alphabet all which is ana.nda s,aktib., A~landa sul{ti is , the supreme energy of creation pertaining to Siva, And rh medium, creative energy pertaining , 0 sa.ktih is vi.sur-ga the' sixteenth vowel of the Sanskrit alphabet .. And finally" ' he inferior creative energy, which peri ains .a individual being (jfva), is repres .nted by the le t:_ r hal tho last letter '0' the Sanskri t alphabet.




Gors khanarha was puzzled 'by this. Ea lier he had seen his master, along wi ,11 his wife and children, r esiding happi ly in 'hat: faroff place, No'w he sees his 'master 'residing in his, as'ram absolutely given '0 ,samii~hi~ nW·ha.t is happening?" Gorakhanatha thought [0 himself. To answer this, he again, t I rough his yogic powers, returned to the far-off COIU ntrv and again saw hisma.ster rotallv gi'v'en in love and affection to his wife and his children, Then Gorakhanatha was filled with awe a' d totally su renderer to his, master, His master tIl. n explai-ned to him, n'From ante POITlt, you wl 1 see rha m have fallen in Ilo'vle and. a'm attached to,the world, and from another point you will see that ,I' 'have not fallen in

In addition to this, it is explained that the supreme energy of Lord Siva, which is the Irst . ·n · '.T,a de 'v!sarg,a" 1s cauecd Clt't~ P l a .. a h 'lO, t...T ...] necause Lorn S""iva ~ does not have dl mind, In 'place of mind lord. SiY3 has onlv supreme independent consciousness of self, Because of this, th supreme, crea ive energy ts called (',itta prala)lu.


..... love''.


t a.II " ,!ft-'h' I 'a Ib Ia~· arn


Lo f"d ..S" 'a .r ·IV!~


The creative lenergy pertaining to his energy (s'll,ti~l)iSr called citt,a ,$ambodha~" where the mind is funy aware, . ecause here the possessor of that " ~..[5 · creative energy s ~a k~ttiTh~ lS th.e secon d· lJ.,IStlrg,Q,., ' U 'B'·· rt - 0 e is Here·' ,ta·k;.; me ant" '11al1- power ~.uplw,row,a~ "f" h 't1 ',t L the power of maintaining complete awareness of self. Here, rhe mind is fully aware without any differentiated thoughts, . 'iffere - tia ed thoughts do not arise. Here, the e is only the awareness of one thought, This' s WIlY it is called citta 5ambo·dha~_
, , if(




S'O, rf from one point you ook 'to see what: has been created you will see no' hing is. created, You.\\riU. see it is onlv [he glory of yOIU. OW_ l-consciousness and, nothing else. And vet, if you see from another p,o .nt of 'view, you will see that every -hing 'is created. Such a state is represented by the Sanskrit Iette ~" and written in Devan!agari. as ii,:,/' tWOI porn s rn a verticalline, one above and one below", Vis'arga is classified in three , ways in Saivisrn. The first visarglu is concerned with Siva, The second vi'sar,ga is concerned with his energy (5akti~ J. And the third visa1'ga is concerned with Indtvidual betng. The f" rst vi's,a'rga concerned with Siva is called plara ~ vfsarga,~. the supreme creative energy of Siva. The

The third state of :nfe.rior creative energy is call. d cittla viSTa·nti. The state of c,iCtavis1,artti is 'W, ere one-pointedness is established, One-pointedness
does not mea one-pcintedness found in '[he Ra"b ·d ek-agrata- state.' 2J rv t ier, .,' IS [ he. one-poim ec ness 0 f it : thought cal ed, niruddha~. In this state, yo,u do nor have to maintain one pointedness, one-pomtedness is automatica Jy maintained. S'OI:~i~ ~Hirud,d.hab,oneiointedness is not 'maintained with effort. Nirudd.ha is effortless one- point ... nness, One-pointedness maintained with effort is called [he state of eJtagr,atit And one-pointedness attained without e.ffort-one= pointedness already existing-is called niru,ddha,. This third 1lisarga is,called. citta vlisran'tL






'There ws. thee fore~ the perception in the . . s ate of Siva of , being introverted and, the perception As we 'have seen earlier, in, the energy of ~ in the state of Si va of hieing' extrove fred - intie mal and consciousness (cit sa,l<.tli), the other four sakti.s exist" ex, ernal, Wh,en you perceive all these states of Siva Also in the energy of bliss (dnada s.a,k;ri)~ the energy internally, there you Find the state of'rlmn (a'nu,s.v,ara) of 'will. (ic.cha fakti')", the e,I],el'gy of :know,iedge (in,arla sak,ti.) and the energy of action (kri)"a ,§:akti:), al] the other f(]u r sa"~ i.sexist, SO in e:EU:: 2Ll1.d eve ry·· energ· of [1, And when you, also perceive: that state .... f" ., ,, L.ord S," a'l'~,ive energies exist. . : rva, ~'V~9"r' 1[1'1 t hen ',-u - f~'nldt he S,-3..'ll...e, O'f-'-"";coI'"Tf'D"a 1111;1'10".1"' ... ' nallv _~,"" yo' rate .' u".JIL<lC!_o,"~ '.' ':











So when perception from "he external point of view takes place, perception from [he interna] ., 1 . . oiva. " . point Q'f" VIew airea d-y exists m S""·· Th e percep ron from the external point of view' will spread in the body of the whole universe, This body of the . 'b' ft· __ £. un_rvers.,~eg[ns rom tne most mrerror e 1 ernertt, earth (Prith,1)i), and ends with the 'most supreme ' 1.• J not ..... W' e1 men t, W h· hi rne el ernen t 5'a,K.t~~:1 '·s·~· .~_ h y e '. icr LS, he e va ~ is the supreme element sa,~~t'tl~'Q 'not Siva? Because and, '" Siva is the source of all elements anc pervades them


now, when you move' to external observation, in the world of the created embodiment ., of Lor' Siva, tC! observe what is created, what has happened in this creation, you will feel that five classes ()" consonants are created, That creation is composed of one class of fiv'€ elements, on·€!class of five tanln"atTas~ one class of' five energies of action and one class of five energies of know led,ge,.,

As you know, Siva has five energies: the ertergy ,of consciousness (cit ,sa/(,tib), the energy of bliss (llrta7Ida, ial,t'i~), the energy of will (-icch,a:


the en,ergy of knowledge (J'lUllta j,akti) and energy of action (I<.r'i'ya s,al'liO). From [he E::'nergy' of h I [e, f1 ve great ererne nts his consciousness, (-m:aJl,db,nutas) earth, water, air and ether-have' been created, Why are these elements cleated by his energy 10J conscicusness! Actually, these five gross elerne nts ought to be ere ated by His, energy of action, f-" nor 'L." e:n,e:rgy' 0,.' eonSCUJ1u,s,n,ess. These fi, leemenlS 015 ,.... lve 1 are the, gr'Q,ssest Icreated tllwngs in th~s u:niVl~rS'e~ has It already been,po~nted, IOl_~tthat ,Lor-d. Siv3. d,€)If:s, n,ot fear com_itng do,wn, in't,o the gross world~ TllLs is, tll,eglory of ~ lord Siva., m:hat by His sw'eet w:nll. Ht! corn'es dow'n, and He goes u~ ag~in. So He fush~s towards this extreme e'n,d of c[",eatllo'n and by hu; subtlest ,e,nergy of .
i •





Both external perception and internal perception begin from Ul1utt'ura (ci,~ §akti')~ Bu.t how does external perccptton unfold? External perception be:gins from cit ~akti, (anuttara) 311d anan,da s'aktil the Sanskri t letters a and, a~which are one' and filled with [he five energies, From these two, energies arise the five' consonants ka,! J(hat ,ga~,gh,lil and, l\a The se five conson n,,·· rep re'se n t th '"'"sta '1iI-.o of lti-'ll~' ants Ll five g ross 'to grosse~'St elements: earth (PrirJlv'i) W'3 ter (ja,la)~ fire (agni)~, air (vuyu) and ether (al(asa)~ The:n from iccha soJ(tj" the' letters i an,d' 1, five' consonants . -h "L arise '3.0" d. . h t iese are tne consonants. en, C h' Ja~ Jf111 an,d, la nap These ft,ve consonants represent the states of the five- ta l1IDatra,S': srnel] (ga11..dha) taste (f,€lS.a) form (rupia), touch (s,p,ar,sa) and sound (sabda)., Then the [WO le tters r and ri ~ 'w'b nc:h are anasri't,aS"i\VG, along wi ttl fiv'e energies give rise tothe f~,ve consonants ~a~~that da, dina and na~These consonants rep resent the five, organs of action (karmen,driy'a)! The five consonants taJ t.ha~ da", dh,a and ,11a, whiclt represe nt: the f~i e v organs of knowledge (jfLa,nenari,u), are produced by the same five' energies through the letters lr and lrL ]fiana ,S(J,k,ti, the energy of knowledge, the. letters u and ii, along with the five energies, g1V'ES rise to the five consonants pa pha,~ ba~ b,na, and rna, and these ,-" I" ,"d: ... ~= ... [", ,'" pro, uce rh, .e. ,f'",· elements ntanaSJ ottafd· h'lt an,am"lara~ lye ,'~" -['~I prakrti and Pt1:TU$U'i So, from earth (prtntii) [0 ,puru~a there are twenty-five elements, because five enersies ,,' " st ',-, ',' -'" ord . iva. -_-Lexist In eac h energy 0"f L'.or S"':·,.,· Th. ererore, ~'b e r. energy of conscionsnes s "C it' §a,k'ti~" ~ I:he energy of bliss I( altOna saktOl.) the ene rgy of will (-iccha ~faJ(iQ), t [he energy of knowledge (jnana sakti) and the energy of act-i,Q'n (l<riya §,al,ti~) are aU filled with c'it sal,ti, '(111a1'Lda. fakti'~ icchtl s,akti~ jfial1 a §at(t'~ al'n,d kriya saklt'i~ An,d, t'her,efore, tl1.ese five' ar1e ,each, filled, wit'h fi.v'e-lenergies an,d this Calculates as fiv'~ times , fiv,e~ which, e:quals twent:y~.five.,
• _ ,I . ".. .,. ," . ._-..,.,', '.'





. ..:J






,1It:_... ,~,,,,_

























'he 'next four sernivowels )fail raJ lu, and va correspond to ie si; elements of ,ka,ta~ tJ'idyu,., T,aga ,ka,la~.a ,d niyati along" with miiy' ,U"Ll These eleme - ts of Lord Siva are known as '[he SIX coverings (~Iat kal1cu,l(t£s), which are rerlu eld to four by combining ll.lyati with 1'aga ancl/-,ala wit'h ka:l.a.
,JIf' -

From he master grammarian ~ Pitr,linilrs point 'of view, the six elernerr s of Lord SiVH1 k'lla~ vi'dYll, Ta,gal l(ala~,'ni,yati1 an,d maya pertain to the Individual being. They do not relate' [0 the elements because aU these energies ound mside, 'not 'Q,U sid, tilte individual b/ ing. They are inside the thought and inside, t e percep ion of the Individual being .. For this reason _"3.I)linl has. d, signated the letters, ya" raJ lal and va" which represent these covermgs, as ar~taQ.stha because they remain inside the individual being

and the state of fa,/(ti...These stai es are repress , ted by th s ~our le t rs ,f,a, $Ll! se, and hal The 1 tt sa represent the s' ate of Jl~ddh,avi,dyd,. The letter cSCl represents the st .te of i~v,ara. The lett r se represents the state of sudaJ'ivah. And the letter hat represents the' state of sakti. Here ends the world of the alphabet, This 'world, is called matriklacak,ram (he ,. wheel of the mother,


". JL ,11:-


On the other han", in the t.Ull.tllas el, our Saivisrn, these five elements niyati k,ala~,raga, viaj',a1 1(a,la a eng with, m,aya] are called ,dh;uraf,ul because , hey g~v',elife tal' 'he individual being.

In his world of the alphabet, when creation ends, ~t ends in its fullness of ein -", i absolute supremacy, not in its full ness of inferiority, The creative world is found in its supreme s ate in the s at 10- sada:.s'iva which as we've seen a' ave, is represented by [he letter sa. This is the rea on th ' author K,~ema['aja tells us that in the enr] of all this creation what is exactly Wl13 '- ought to be, andthis is fill d with the nectar ofsupreme consciousness. This is :he state of saaasiva ..It is the state whose essence is captured in the experience 'r',aham ida1n/ IF' am this ,.hole universe." In our philosophy, this let er sa is ,:_lled amri'ta .bija'1' th, s' ed of nectar, a
i 'b ' b __ f" aat A nrd III rh e en d ,o~t 'h amrlta_,. "iJt1 pr'a"Oa~j)a ' is. created, T'his p'rarta is the llfe of Siva. What is life "" " for Siv,a] Siva's life is Siva's s,ak:ti,. So pTa')£! bfja ls the life of Siva and that ,IS §,a.ktj~, his state of ,sakti .IS T called an4ha;ta" the automatic energy 'ofLord Siva .. .t is represented by the letter ba. This letter ha is not to be recited: It is, [0 be experienced, We~,however, do recite' he mantra ~'sQrham ..1I In reciting so'ham" we recite amrila bija, pra~a bija and, anusv,aru. h~ letter


The indivic ual being lives in these five' elements, Wi'-hout these five elements, the indivldu 1 be,~:n,~has no life'; there ~ou.ld only 'be the fL Th ' sp '1 nere 0', .ortdS.:rva, T aereforc, In Saivisrn we argue 'that these elements are :[\01: anta~stha, being inside the individua] being, rather they are. Idhara1)t1 because [hey ar.,_ what gives life to the i dividual be"ng~ The in, ividual being is created and glori ied 'by hese cover,' ngs, for Timitation is the glory of limited being.
I .,








Whe'n you subside these six coverings and 'move ahead, crossing the bondage of these n·'',' , ,1" ,-,~ -' ',', " · " varus ,es " id co've'r' l',gS1 di ffe' ren t.iiat'e"d percep at ton " ,,-,;',ihes anc undifferentiated perception comes 'before Y'OU .. Th.en your self l,S about tOI '[oo:m. in .0 existence (unmlf!$a). TIlls - oorning of the self is represented by the four letters ,sa $a s,a and ha. The grammarian Panini has designated these four [etters sla~ sa, sa, and ha as u~ma letters because the Sanskrit word 'usrna: means that ~ the internal light, internal fire, internal warmth, has again come for th. 'When this internal light, this internal wa .mth, comes forth, it is the state of §uddha1Ji'd,a, the state o,f iS1lara" the state of sada~'iv,ah,
1_ " ,"



is arnrira bija, the letter Ita is pTa{LQ bija and m is anus'vifr'a~ We recite it but 'this 'kind of recitation, is incorrect reci tation, Actually, these three letters cannot be recited at all; they are automatic. They are [,0 'be perceived, not recited, As long as you are reel ling t t is an 'Imi ration of these letters" It is not [eat And yet1 in the beginning, you have to recite these letters. And then, whe:n ' he reality comes in . ,. d Th-' f, ' 0 .. VOU7 recttai Ion len' 's.u nen rhere is onlv t rront f iere is oruy tne experiencing 0" these three letters: what m is, 'what amrita is and whatpr,ulJtl bri,u is. This is why it is calli ,d anahcz,t,u" The' Sanskrit word r£fl,a;hata means that -which cannot be recited, Why? Because 'it is · impossu ·bl to recite, re

unive rse that has been crea ted from earth (prit.h'VI) to sal(ti~ This k owle lgc ;s the theory of mat.rikclcakraln which is refe rred [0 b~ Pani n min, 'his s'utT'a: •


Puc , he first letter and put the last c imbine them.

[et ter and

In perceiving, you, should no' perceive things one by one. See what is in ch beginning and see what is in the end ..Take these two and combine them. nd you hay perceived the whole' universe, This is prra,tyaha1a~ To employ jJITat)'tihara" you take anttttaTa, t 1~ first letter 'a and andhata1 the las' letter net. and combine them. But how can you combine them? They can't be combined, You can. nowever, unite them by means of aking them in one pomt., That one point i,5 anusvara, the letter m~So the letters a, h, and lit when combined In lone poi become ahllil .. This is ahaln parmarsa, the perception 10' universal I and it is hie essence of ah,am vimars'a, '[he supreme mantra in our philosophy.


. na ever W~' te nature,

U pal deva this ve rse:



SaivaitE p hi l o sopher also explained this state of Siva in

perce · d i y ra,<.a:;a. n~'JIlt rvec IS in ,~-,1

universal l. Car.rrying

[hal point of the self, and establishing it there is.called jva:tantrya~ It is, alled all action and it is callee rhe universal glory of Siva"

an that

'IS t

h e s ra te



subjective worlds, First, ylo'u, have to extract s bjecrivitv from subj ..ctivitv and insert . 'hat subjectivity into objectlviry, Then you have [0 extract objectivity from the real objectivity and insert that objectivity Into inferior objectivity. Supreme objectivii y is found in ho: and supreme subiec ivity is faun' in a11uttaru, a..Because a,nuttara has given rise tal the five, elements represented bv the letters I,a '(ha" gill; ,ghla and ita, inferior subjectivi y is, found in the letter I<.a. So y'ou have to extract subjectivity from that 'real subjectivi Y of the state of ,anu,tta!la and insert that subjectivity into objectivity in the letter .l<a.., That is prithvi (lear'IL'h); where we ar actual y situated, And then you. have to extra t objectivity froiffi that rea] objectivity o,f saktil and insert that obj ctivity into another inferior objectivi ty~ which is .sa. You must then unite that subjec ivitv-cum-objectivi y and ohjectivi y-cumobjectivi y~ his will create he letter k$'a which is the cornbi nation of ka and, sn, The letrer ka is t'he objectivitv-cum-subjectiviry, because s- ,bjectivi'_ Y bas entered into 'at objectivity, and 'the letter sa is objectivity cum objectivi y because here supreme objectlvirv has come into infe rior objective y~ Unitmng the .. creates another pTat'yal~ara of ksa (i.,e-~~ the cornbi nation of ,'<a and sa).

is p rceived to your own


is the ,:sa,k pra tyal1ara~ Ir is the ti

(Aj'ada,p·,..(nntltrs idd.h~" 12- 23)

thle author of thi.s commentary, Ksernaraja, reveals [hie secret of 7niitrlGac,.tJ,<.ra., In Hllltrl<.a, there are three worlds, the su biective world" the cogni ive world and the objective worl ..We are situated in, the objective wor d~ Being in [he objective world we are not aware of the cognitive world lor the subjective world. The question is, how can we unite the objective 'world 'with the subjective world? The s bJ .ctive world is foui d in alluttara a and the objective world is fou:nd in andhata, Ita. How, 'he efore, can these two very different wo lds be united?

combination of one object 'with anot , er object, not one subjec and .anorher object as was found in [he combinarion of Sliva and slal<.ti found in 'matrikam Thts com iinarion of SralGti and sakti is found in this stare 0' I individual being .. It is th unification of sakti' with saku, . he mi -:cation of ka with the letter sa, [hat crea tes the le rter k~'a! This is. called I<utablia" 10,( bljra that' has arisen from female en-ergy! Here, there is utilization of male energy at all,


is answered by this precious ecret of Tna,trkacakr'a, which exp ains 'how to become successful in, uniting the objective and the

his question

This phtlosophy of m.citri,kd is supreme. The knowledge of matr1(,d ctCtl(r,ll is perceived b,y - hat disciple who receives the grace of his rn steel Wha' :'s thai cakra (wheel)? I[ is the. wheel ofmatrka made of the five great energies of Siva, the energy of consciousness (cit'~§al(ti)~ the: er ergv of 'bliss (anan,da sakiti)~ tne energy of will (~ccha sla,k,ti')~ tne energy of knowledge (jlia~a §,akti) and the energy of ac ion (kriyii §akti). All these energies toge ther are CHIlled caleras because thev mov. like wheels, This yogi does

not feel that 'these energies in that wheel are separate

f[lom Siva. On the oantrarv, he finds al] these five energies filled with the nat ure of Siva. This is J1e knowl ..dge of 711ti.ltrl<ii.cakT(l,.

and. that is all-pervading, It pervades the whole body. For example, when an ant crawls on your foo you are aware of it: that is . he heart, That abode of aware n ess is [hat hart.

Here" ,[,the Siv,a Sutras11 we have 'brief V in roducecl 11' reader '0 th. . hiiD' of fIla_ rl(a,cakra~ This philosophy is explained vividly and in great detail 'by our distinguished master Abhinavagupta in his ~a.ntrlalokll and. in his comrnenra .. on the ParatrimsiJ<a. ry


I.n.tddh,anl:rita Tan'tra, it is said: In fact in' his world of 1n.curka" 'the supreme hero is itund'al inl, KundaUni. akes the roles of all these states. Kt,~IJ.l~cdiniis, '[he real heroine. She is 'not 8tllli'Y the life of the world of mlUrka, but fi lled with consciousness she is the germ of its root .. _nd from that '<uo.dahnI arise rl .f! three le[' ers a;J,i and it.. (Si,ddhamrifa Tantf'tl)
Ii; II! I I

The external heart $5 the universe .. en ire universe .'5 'the external heart, The" nternal heart is the hear'[ abiding in one's own body and that is consciousness, Then there is th heart of sounr]. All sounds are produced from that soundless sound, ha soun is called nada., Nada is sound that is not produced bu which simply occurs. The fourth state is tile supreme stat: '. of consciousness and the fifth state is the supreme stare of supr me void,
The qi alificaticn
VOU [0

of a master is only this, he causes

realize what is first and what is last and how tQ combine it. That master is to he a dored in the same ... way p ople adore me (Lord Siva},


In the beginning, in his system of rhe Sanskrit alpha iet, the great grammarian Panini a),SO established three lette'T5~ These three le ters 3 re the letters, l1ail~n'~'~ "a-i-un" [.5 . 1'1 first S'ttl ralofPanini. The e le ters e, i and l·t are first because anuttara is first as. the let er a, ,lcchu is second as the 'letter i and unme~la is third as the let er u,. From thes thr,e',€ le te rs ail other letters are produced ...
I • ~

you realize the reality of matrka ralrtl whatever you do and wha ever 'you s,ay in your da~ly life wil become divine and will be fiU, d wid that suprern U' - iversal consciousness of I.

(Si:&dhamrita Tantra) These are the sayings of Lord Siva. You musi not consider this master as an ordmary 'human being. This master is 'beyond humanity.




11f' explains

how this takes 'place:

This teaching is also given in SpUlld,u in _ verse: his , Th is e.. ergy of action of LOI1d Siva. entan lea. Lo rd
Siva in, (he in' ividual state of H~. And when Lord
rea 1ize s the n a ru re of this en e 'rgy 'Of his own s,e1f., then it . ill cease to entangle him, It entangles only when it is no' realized Once i is realized, you are

The letterd rises [om the letter a Rod so on, until the
fl.ow of uisar,g:a arises. And from [hat Vi:ulT,ga 'arise the iet ters from ,ku to ,sa and tha t is frve old,


Thi.s awareness

[reed from all the bandages of b': .

world, in he inrerna] world, in tho , w'o[~d 'Of sound, in the world of the supr me state and in- he 'world of '[he supreme void. If rh: s secret of m,tttT,k(l is 'not rea li zed J aU th 'f,e c itar ions of man t ras are u s e les s just like empty rainless clou .s. in [he autumn sky.,

of m·-c'onscious.ness pervades in the five supreme states. It pervades in the external


(Span,da Karika 3.16)

.ere ends the theory of matrl<a.

r(Stddl1dmri,t,[,I Tllflt1a)

There' are five supreme states of Lord Siva. There is,. the external state of Siva a d the internal state of Siva ..The external state of Siva is the heart of uni verse. The in ternal state of Si va is the heart of the body, The heart ,of the body is not the physical heart. The. heart of 'the body is in the state of perceiving



'The establishment of 1 consciousness on the body becomes an offering in the fire o.,f
God consciousness.

established DiR the body, the experiencer perceives, u~ 'h am [~1,S gross bod Y' it:,. t 'h,e wa k ing stare! I am 1I:hus -0 ", ,,' subtle body in, the dreaming state and I a.. this, m su btlest bodv1 II'n the sta I of d'ee p eep ill Al',I wo rldlv ,' I( ,1.1 people have inaugurated (abhi,~ 0<ta) their I consciousness 'b insering r 1 bv neir I l-ness in I:'1 lese r h ree __ bodies" Whe'n l-consciousness is established in" these three bodies, t:hey are called the three vei]s, the three coverings. You must remove l-consciousness [rom these three 'bodily states, gross, subtle and subtlest, because when l-consciousness is established in these b'OleS!1 u en yO{~perceive t ha: you are , h ese b i'" d-:' h . rat rr coo res,

It is a LiJO saidin Bhagavadgrta~

IlL _








',0, !I"..



.... "







The 'way of action of great YOgID,s is [.0 offer all [be actions of the organs of the senses and aU the actions of breathing completely in the fl,re of the nnepo intedness

of God-consciousness,

































I-consc iousness on these three bodies is. ,_. ', Ica 11 ,d ,Sarlfl:t. For sue"h . at. yo,gl., ar t hese three b odies, I' '""',"" Ili " ,,' -II"': " " --'I' e Including l-consciousness, become offerings {havi.b) " " l'n [ h e f'~ 0,'0'1 d -consciousness, B'y r IL1A.~'se0f£' tre fG .rermgs, all these three states of l-consciousness become one. with God-consciousness,

The au rho r Kal,lat,a 'has explained the rneaning lof agitation this way in his commentary of Spallda Kdrika: W'hen all. agitarions end, then the supreme state of _G·':o· ,dl- on-,''' 1,i!""iJ;1II ~,n'e reve a... ' led ~.' (Spanda KarikGi 1.9)'
. . ii"" '-~ ~ i"" II Y Ulh3' ~ . t"'fO ,1J,faj Chl ~ ~
.. '-z

V' .. 0:.










Because this great yogi offers these three flows of consciousness. causing them to 'be digested in the fire of God-consciousness, only Dod· h consetousness arud no otner conseiousness remains. '.' ~, ads ,--:, Th~', ts yOgL-;'"'f"'to. S t '1-::' kin de.orn 0",f," iG'·. id-consciousness '··,0 ,.' everywhere, in the gross body, in the subtle bOldy and in. the subtlest body, So in this Wd:Y~~1 subsides I he consciousness on these threefold bodies and hie gains entry in God-consciousness.
'h "

In, this verse, the word "agitation" refers ro 'chat stare which exists when you put y'ou:r [consciousness on these threefold bodies. When, 1consciousness on these 'threefold bodies is removed and, inserted in God-consciousness, t:he11 agitation ends. There is no, further agitation.









'(.F'or such 13 'V"og'i) ..l!liff t. ', ~ ts f d '[JI, erennate d perception is h~ rooc or knowledge ,of his (fWD nature is his food.


This IS, said in S1'i ViillUl1.ubh,u.i'rava


lantf'a:: Wh1en all the five elements, aU the organs and all the perceptions of the crgans, including one's mind, are offe red in. t he fl re 0 f the great vo ida e ss wi rh the sacrificial ladle (s,ftd{,c,(t) of awareness, that i,sf in tb.e r€ a 1sense" the g re at {i f'e sa 01fice (h,atJ,a:n,iCL) ., (,Vijfia'nabh 41, 1tUJU 1419)

This y,o,gi eats and digests differentiated perception in, his own, supreme nat ure of ., cons C 1. ou sne 85 ..
'Previously in the second sutTa of the First Awakening of the Siv',u, ,SutTCl11 w'e are told j'iianam,b'anldha~J "bondage "is, differentiated pe rce ptton .. And when that ditffere,nti,ated ~e-rception is carried in God-consciousness by great "' ., Sarva YO',gu;' tt d oes not '~.. It expi'.res, Th.en, 11:h'ere :18 ..... Irve, no residue of that dlfferernlared perception. This is w'hy he. 'hats said in the present S'UitT,a" differentiated " , I' I "', I ," ' ; ,]1S -'.:,',~_" . eca.use ," - .·es .. ,'- - ',', ", .' ' '-' ,per.cep IJ:lOn,is hi £'I00 d ~I b,. ... '" ' h e [a, k'" :, it. 1n an d .. ... d igests it Ln,,-is ():wn n3[u(e 0,' ...'01 "'Iconsc;;i,ousness, 'h fG: d


III Tim:iro,dgha~a Ta11,trQ

it l.salso said:

Whe'n, the fire of God-consciousness you su bs,i,dle the attach .. ment to one whom you 'love, [0 the one wh.oh~ your fr iend, to the one who is your close relative, to tn,e' one who fill!i you with h,~pp:ines5 and tOI the one 'WIlt) s you r b elove d. the n yau a re ~ it'U ated " l>f. CQu:rtyar d ().t,f t.'h,e~up:n!m.e Ie .t CLf,~ 'd In 'h' .









(Timiro~ghil~a Tanir,,)

I:n lessen,ce, this is jl18t to subside t'he one,ness ofl=co:nsci'Qu.sness on .11ese threefold bodies"

Prev:~ously', thi.s; :p'olint was. ,com'mu:nh:ated
~ "_ ,~'I!

tn this

In that state~ wl1e~n;:!

l1e carries all diffe.'rentia.ced
and digest5

pen:eprdon into orn.e God.-con;scious:n.ess

p' rception digested but along 'with differe'n · .ter perceptions, death, time, all actions good or bad, all chat ges of life, all perceptions good or 'bad" and all discussions of the question of monism or duahsrn are also digested in that Sl1 preme oneness of God -consc iousness,

it, not are differentiated

I It 18 aiso said
. I I.

In Vrrnanabha!rava:
I. ' II~ _ II


( Bfurrga f i kha: Sas. tTa)

Take an'Y one 'means, in this world of one hundred and twelve means (upayas)., for entering in Godconscicusness, and 'meditate according to that means, The fulln.ess you experience by practicing consistently day by day on that means will give VOU perf ct satisfaction and perfect fullness of Sf' ~f.,


This is one expl nation [ofthis surra. There "is Here, the author says 'that' it doesn't rru.tter also another way tOI explain ir, In this explana io -, which means you, ake out of' hese one hundred and take' he wore j'fLa11,a to mean knowledge of your own twelve ways. The ullness you experienc through real self, and not differentiated perception. Thus, consta t practice gives you perfect satis action aru ·... readtns0 w·. -ould be: he a -. ~~.' fu lness of self" Fa such a yogi, knowledge of his own nature This is stated in Spanda in this v .rse: is his food. .N ways rnaintajn awareness in a U your act ivir ies, (Spa n cIa Kurika 3..1 ) · hi . S 0, In one wa:Yt b because tIS yo'gt· carries
l, _. '_ .

Ill., ~


differennated perceptions from the differentia .•d '[10 ' [he undifferentiated state; he has explained that 3.11 kinds of differentiated percep 'ions are this yog-Is food, This yogi carries these differenula ted perceptions from darkness to ltght, from sadness to ~ Iveryt,·hi C hl 15 JOYO'US, f'l'reo witrh 11' h amd · ngnt JOY'." E ung ~OI urn .. 1d .. glory, This is one wav of e .plainlng the wordjfi.ana,. The other way to explain the word jfiul1 U is. that jnaTIa ns the real knowledge of your own nature .. This is his fo,od. and he is satisfied wi th this food. Being a lW'3!Y 8 satisfied with '[his food means he doesn't crave for physical food. Of course he eats, he does not starve himself, but he is not attached to c d'~ , e IS always mtox . cate d t n h IS own set~f' ecause '1~ • ,. 1010' the knowledge of his real nature gives 'him complete satisfaction ..

If you lose awareness, then you regone, You have destroyed the reality of life. You 'ffiU5IIJ [her fore, 'be aware. If you are fully awar . of YO'urthoughts, then vou wit not see any thoughts there. You can't be "V h" ki I" partiat ~I aware 'WIh"1e ttunxmg, t hi won ~accompust hi _IS t anything.Be fully aware of what you are thin. ing and ". ~ of '. _. " yo'u won't think a·n-y"'hing' Ifyou a:r ~. aware .', wha . l5. happening nextvnothing will. happen" If you are
, '. ~. . ," ' , . _!L .~ . ' '. '~

aware that you are dying; you won'r die, If you are. aware tha' you are going' from wakefulness to the dreaming s·· te, you won't go. On the con rarv, 'by a , · es a bli h" ,1.5 tng th' us awareness, YOli wi'l~ get entry Into & God-consc ousness, This is the greatness of awareness, that if you are always a _, are in continuation, always one-pointed, and residing in the one-pointed, state of God-consciousness, you, won't r.hink anything. If~on the other han:d" YO'lJ are unaware, you wi~1 miss the reality of you life .. ,

-- --





Publisher's Note



We are pleased .0 inform 'OIU1' readers that MALINI has been registered with, the Registrar of Newspapers oflndia, GO\f1:. of India, New Delhi under RN]~.-',0. D'ELMuL/2007l18760. . .n addition to it MAL ':·.llll~S also been registere with the IS,S,NInternationa Cent .r~an international agency 'which identifies periodical publications, unde ISSNNo~ 0973-7944~ We acknowledge the valuab e services rendered by Shri, Devinder Munshi and Shri ~Surinder Khe in, this in this regard,


R~I(~ SAD _U (Pr~lnter nd PubUshe:r]1 o

'd .. IS Wh en th'· yo .' ,.oesnot maintain awareness n coni .inuity, [hen although he possesses the
knowledge of God-conscio sness, the 'e are many occasions when he lacks awareness, For example, :~f his yogI is aware of God-consciousness now a d

after a. short time he becomes unaware, missing '[hat ,W3reneSS then again af er a few minutes __ is azain maintaining that awareness, this is. not the' way to ., A · maintain awareness .._'waren~ss must b' malfl[alne, d -: e

in continuitv. And when his yogi d esn' maintain unbroken awareness, what happens to him! [To b e co ntl n u-e-'d"
:.:> .. ~. I .~ _:

.I~I~ l~... ~I








1. The word .falaopil~ (I refers 10 rhe "means' (Ul:!liytl) pertaining ro energy (.fakti). Sifirnbh,(lI:vopay,a the f~rst ~n l supreme Hpa,.,C1~is upa,Y( pertaining to Siva" And (i',Hlt -op-llyo, the thi rd and. in erior upllY'a'B is Ujlll,tI. per a ining to individ ual being. Sdnl~hcrvopa)'fJl is f'xp:~ained j;n rhe First £~wakefling 0' the Sf1[i'(t. Su.~t,tU,siil<~'oj:nl"ais explained in the Second Awakenlng, ~nd a:1)a,thn,lJa~~ explained in the Thtrd AwtlJ,'kening. ls l~ Here the word "evil" does n 't r ~er to he commission nf what we ordinarilv mean by rl5iJn ..1I Her [he "evil I we are protected from is that of comrnltring thf f:(re~t~ t of ij]~sins-v-corntng Q1Ut rom God- consctousness,

Pnlsada,is the highE~t elevated sHl' e. Wh'erll you. are situsted lL1LPn15l~'dlft-fhe high~'1i stare ut' God-consclousness-ycu become 'Irh ioY'·· 4 This IS kf£Ul'Ul m,1ulra Jln ~ s real sense .. 5. S ... ~jJu'n 1.21 e 6. Sh,t! is nor H[l.1ited ro any particubl.r ph ~'~v,sophyor rel iginn because rlny~O.fieeven a !23J[c',Jf'JJ rlse i Lurd Siva puts: some for(;·e in thar bei rig. 7. Sh'e is c~Ued Kur.t(laltnl becalJ.lse she is internal power existing Hke a serpent in the shape of t1 coil. AtfuaUyKJ;,n,~utini' iakd is the revealing nd concealing e-1lt~rgy II L Jrd Siv.a. This KU~~~aUn. a,kti b nor different ron] the existence Df la:}nl.SiV13l jusv as the energy of Hght· nd he energy of [be S . ~ hear of 3, fire' .re no separate Tam ~'he f~re itse]f~ KiHJ~"Jinr! therefore, is, in the True semse, the existence of Slva.It ls [h.e U~eand g,lory of Siva. h, is Siv·~ rse If. 80 This ~_e:ur is not the physical heart, This heart ls rhe center of awareness.Ir is fOl'i~ndeverywhere in the bodvQ. Mal{alhfirl! CO.kli'H'IS'~oulnd near rhe rectum. ]0. Hererbi'ndu r fers torhe supreme semen (t'lrya) hat 'kecemes :s 7lf(ll[e _ ' here, The farmat~.on .of kU1J~aHnr is :)of thar supre m semen. ~r is nor ind ividual semen. h is something lle'fo.nd ~h.~.l~expeI~ent.:ed rJnly by Jog-is. Because k~t~~a.~inrn' s formed with. the body of supreme semen, which is , i binc[u, just tmagme how joyous her _,arm' I' ion W()u Id be! It This Is natural occurrence, He re':Iches. this s. a o:i g,U ,',r inrense joy and, hen he come-s OU'[ f~am JI" This ls the way it !happens 0 ev ,ryon who ex.p!,:riences [hi.s state. ~2.. This tate lis rn,l! real slate of kTanlrif mudra1 which ~s ulrhnarei" experienced by' blessed ~o&J'fs~ ]J,. In tl1e beginningof sat~uga, Lord Sjva appeared [ , .the ormof Svacch.cnuioniltha. As SVQcchandallalhu] he had five heads and eighteen inns. Hls f ve heads came 10tO manlfesraricn through his five gr,eat energies: cir !ILkti (n'll consciousness], iinanatl ta.kEi (:;1JU bH5S)! £,"dl.~,.flda:i (o~~will), j~~(hHl§a~H~ (~11 nowledge], and l<.'ri:'C §nJu~ (all accion]. Tt,ese five energies appeared ln his five mouths known as U£lno, uttpuru~u~ iClglu)ra, v{lmad lief. nnct
1 m


nne ~

sad~lojlna. "'" ~.4-" B:ec:ulSe these five mouths rise "rom kH~~nl,nt, Lord Siva is dependent on 1~1UJl-{ffiUn L 15. Mnt(lu'i is be svsrem 0, Ietrc rs uf rhe Sal skri[ alphabet dun beg~ns With the first letter a. ~nd lends witb rhe last letter le$lJ., In tbe EngUiih al phaber

d1J~8. W'oll~d correspond to rhe I~et ters 3. ro Z. In Kash rnlr S;~iV]:s;mTthere is another understanding of the sy uem of letters.In this system! the letters are not in Ofder;J if is an orderless 'world of let ers, Such 1;\ system ls one [h,ln~ in "~ll hi,ng~. [ and all thi[lgs in one rhlng, ln Kashmir S'·I~vism this; .sysH::rm ~s

(.~d M!il,i 11i. lied
_ yi,ng ~n rhe .sky, giving boons to disciples, etc. ~7. She JS unknown '[0 her children, Why? W,b,en you descend to the' objective 'f,ie;]d,~the- creative ls mother and 'this creative eneFgy h~unknown wn the.o j-ec- ive :Fieldl. When''1 U :;iIjscend ]10, su jeetive consciousness, (hen creative e,nergy is known. ]11 the subjective f~ td;, he i, nut mncrkn" rh .. re e she in dt ~aldi the energy of eonsclousness .. Hl Kashmir Saiv~sm~ there ~ :re two theories of the a ~phabet, These rh,eodse are known ,,,15 MiHr[J~liC(,~I~ra and 1VtainJ, The d:lteory be i:ng referre,d to here ls rl t~t heury uf MrrTikuccd<nt} not Mallin,_ Mlt1tri/{cl is '[he syste,mati'c rea Hng of d'l [,etters of du~ al pha'bet from ,0 0 ~~n~Miilh]i is the tcombi ned. joined re~d~n,g 0 these leners; In Malird~ Co.nSllnan.1rS a.r~ found ~n, v,ow~]_sand vow!els ·~:re found. ~n con.s'O'n3nti'~ Sakrils fotlnd L[. SiV3 and Shf[ft)!S foun.d in. Sakd. When Sal~('tt nlld .:ii vn ~[ue to'U'I'~,depan~ndy.: rhaT is The sy.nem of MtUr,~tLWb_:en SL1'Cl and S(dai: af\~ ,faun TO,ge[her, combined t~ emch o~heir, i lh(l- WI rhesy " mo "M .din'. The theory of .Mdlini. Jsno[ exp'lfiine in the S,!~I_ Sut'ras~ 19. This is ~,I.l;other mov~men~ of lord Siva. Wllet, l'1ie~wo movements ruru[u~rn and (lnand~1 a.:re rellnited ww~h.~he orce It:f\fko~--th~ [ettcr te~ wh.ich was a:lready created ..And when rhe£e two e'nergi,e£~anuUaTCl '~nd all{:lNda,~,(ame in.cont:JUct with ltCna fakti Hnd i~an,a ta lai , [hen tWO rdHJF.llgles are u-nited creating nv-o si ~pcs. tIll smx n.g.les..Thissi)t~angled stair 1-'.,;,ompll'· 1..1 of Ihn~;I' mille atlg~es and' h[e\:'~'fl1~1~ean,"Jl's alld ~$sba~ed Hike dlieJewi,::;h st~u". 20. The kind. of t"isarga e-XIStU1~ in ~he. JH.ilre of lJna1'tda $"/,,r..i and! $.f;pn~sented ~'YI.he ~.e'fte:rt~~, called ,§'ambha'L'a VtStJTgll" Thjs slhnbh~ua t1i.,urrga is is cidnprcdaytt~. Ci~tfr>trral{t[~ait m"e~.nsIliwhe'T,eyo~rrmi nd docs [lot flllncti'Qin~ iii It i£ '[he tho~lgbdei)s st';n:,e..And !:ILl ~a·1trlbh,n.p,~visa:rgn is I[h,e thcHcughdess flow., 2'1. The: kagrala S[@[:t~ af [ lind ,ex~,s(swhen )"OU are d [f' ffill\cd [0 n~[:lin.nJLtifl ou r mtnd o,n. one point with loonc,t"llt:ra.'tioD. Wht:nyo\J keep you r mind. ill y tn,e state ofbe~ng une poi[1r~dl J~ W.IU occasion~lIy [TV [0 Ii1f'MOve to anorher obJeCT" You cUlsr be a.tren.' i,msuch a way [har V0ruJplre!ve:nt[ it from going to' tun dbjf-.Ct. W~ell it go~ re, '(hi'lt object! yot! d r ¥e it. back. to its origil1'alpOlll'l. Thb is the srale of mind known as ekagr,{iUL 2. Maya ~s'[he energy of·~Uusjon.KaUi: is. rhe tenergy ,0 I lim~ ,d fdC{~tOtfi.Viclya IS d't: energy of ~jmi,ted know~.edge. ,R~g;a is I hI! energy of :tultachm, 0'[ to ~wmite-d thlnfi:s .. Ka!r:i, is the limj:nnion. of t~:me.. Niyati i.s'rhe eID.eflY lof Ihe'in,g fiirtl:i3Jn;~dI tIl Ofl,~.yone particu la'r pla.'c,e. Zl \Vh_o"t~veryou ~ .e'r what,e:ver V'OU hear~ 'whatever 'Yousmell WhateVlcr you [as[~ wha'tevef' vuu ,touch i5: ,~tJkilia. The sensarm,on of'touch~ the sensation of 2iffit'lL the 51 Dsati.on or l[asre. '[he sen.sar~o.n tQf seeing anyrhing, wh3,'te"""!£' yO'lU IP~r"(!ive DOlt onl,y lIi.hink b,lt ' erceive, with any or an of yOll.r five u"rg~ns of pe :rcep t ion. is ca~~ .~Ta~tllft3 ed .. ~,6.For instance,
~ -j! ,aJ . _ ~ _ ,~





Alice IChristenten came alII the way from Florida, USA, to lshwar Ashram at lshber Srinaga,r to learn ab u

Ig ..orance ad Freedom
ALICE:' wamiji, let's talk about the three impurities, or rna/as. In your 'book 'The Secre Supreme ~you say that" the three malas. Of' impurities, reside in maya not in swatantrya ihakti. What does that mean?
Swatantrya shakti is that freedom, that free will: swatamrya shatai is transformed when the universal being goes down LAKSHMIANJOO:


Kashmir Sh:aiv'ism at Ishwarswaroop Swarmi Lakshmanjoo's feet, The conversations that she had 'with the glreat Sha,i,v,8,master provide many il1lu,minatilng lnsiqhts into his Iii e as 'weill as various aspects of Kashmir Shaiva phllosophy Bind its praxis. We are grateful
to Ms,. Christen.sen 'for

from his position to play L1S his drama, the drama of the' world. The universa,1bei ng.. he has got energy that is called swatantrya shakti Sl vatant ry" . , And that is swatantrya. just freedom, everywhere freedom. In going up there is freedom, in coming down there is freedom, W· en the indi· idual goes up .he has got freedom, but when he comes down, he has no freedom .. He comes down and he is destroyed, ,AI~glamour of'God .... consciousn ess is destroyed when corning down, 8,0 there is a. difference between 'the individual and univ- rsal beings: that universal being can rise and. come down, wi hhi s glamour OfSMJatal1Jt)'(l shakti. And that individual being, wh en he rises, possesses swatantrya shakti but when he goes down, swatantrya shaklitak.1es the position ofn1a,y,Q ignorance, and it entangles him,
I .

gilv'inlg us the permission to use this material for the benefit of' our rea ,-ers.

LAKSIH~MA:-,·IJ10IO: Associat d with ignorance and the world, and individua ity Swatantrya shakii is associated with universal being and free ... dom, Absolute freedom abso 1. e God-conscieusncss, ,ALIC-: So when this huge, this vast consciousness have said, then the earth is there?
comes down as you

AL CE':, And when it rises oes h earth disappear? LA". S'HI,MA,NJOO: Earth do. s not disappear, earth takes another (0 mation, t a.ppea ~" divine. It ' ppears the n fi lledwith God-consciousness .. ALICE:: .~tbecomes i,od~

appear. And anavamala is the subtlest impurity. The subtles imp" rity is wi en one resides in God consciousness, in the stale of samadhi here also he finds giddiness, his is due 1.0 that subtle impurity. t is called anavamala; it is pertaining to Se f.. ALICE: It' .due to having

physical bo. -y?

_ AKSHMANJ1,OO: Actually this. is divine. Everything is divine, Only there is a lack. 0- our awareness. We don't observe it. God can observe it..So he do's no'! feel guilty when he slaughters lone individual, Hie does not feel guil y because i' is not slaught .. at all. r it isjust a change.

ALlelE: -·eca. se ofa physical body you never really Jose that do you Swamiji?

ALICE: So life and death and things such as war ...
LAKSHMANJ'O,O: It is a play, I 's a drarnacf'h.. For is, U'I it's . orture, .or us it is grief and ..-veryth ing~

ALICE: And do al three ~ mpurlth s stay 'with you for you, whol ~ llfe?

ALICE: t is tor. LIre. As long as it's adivin . conscio s.. ness, lt is a drama. LAKS_
ANJ'Q10: The is no drama when you don't observe j as drama; then malas appear, these impuriti "S in the' scene,
1_ -I

LAK,SHMA,NJOO:, For the whole life, but at the time o "samadhi they are all gone. Bu you have to develop it You have to develop it by -nd by in our lifetime As long as we havre developed ",~ when the time comes wh· n it isfullness, all malas are shatteredAnd he bee y also does not exist YO'[1 hav 10 leave the body also, ALIICE: While you are practicing, Swamiji .U these years that you have prac iced Yoga while you are practieing you are trying to be aware' of these impurities and deal ing with them constantly? LAKSHMANJO·O: '{i' S'I If you arc nut dealing with h ese impurities you cannot teach, you cannot elevale people.
AL CE: Because they're always there .. ~
LAKSHMIANJOO: No, I mean ifyou g'o In the depth of God ... consciousness, then you, cannot teach people. YO'U are abo ve that. You don't find anybody ignorant,

Lie' ': Now how c·an you describe t LI '- . ties?

three imouri-

lAKS,H '. A,NIJOO: Three impurities? Let U,S begin with g'fOSS, impurity, Gross impurity is called karmamala ..Karmamala is when you feel .."l am fine I am great 1 am nothing" -the opposite also, When this kindofsensation resides in your brain it is the 0 rtc .me oft-hat mala. A.LICE: The gross quality,
'LAK,SH AN,JOO: And mayiyamala Is, "Oh. he is. n y Ole: enemy, he i my' fi' e rs nen d OL he i my ~ h e ~ my ,QW,[1 .m, e is 11,~e_. IS ~ his 1 ..' Ill'.:. Self 011I.. _ e is n ,~I duality
i, 1 _ ~ .' '.. I

'l'ICE: I see. You 'See divine qualities in everybody. ANJOO: 'Yes, 'OIU see frOID the angl of God-consciousness, that everybody seems to you divine,
AKSH ALICE: So then. youwould Jose you worldly outloo ....

JL _ •





II iI!

L·KS MANJO'O:.l1is- duality of differentiation arises from ttl, second mala, the medium mala ..That is mayiyamala, where differentiatendness begins to

is the end of life. TiU. then you have to elevate people· and you have to see th, t there ,.. t,hit9 unrd_[0f i IS Ignorance', so you h rve to eachthe n elevat them.

LAKS[HIMANJO'O',: No, yon have to be aware of these malas. As long es malas are not there you cannot realize who is ignorant and who Is el evated When malas have vanished altogether, you'll feel everybody is e Ievated ..

Spiritual ignorance is that of your own nature, You don't understand what YOll really are, That is spiritual ignorance, And 'that spiritual ignorance is removed b'Y spiritual knowledge, called paurushajuana. Paurusl a jnana removes paurusha qin(Jnll~ Baudha jnana removes baudha ajnana. Intellectual ignot ance is removed by intel ectual knowledge and spiritual ignorance is removed by spiritual knowledge, Now; Abhinavagupta has discussed ~rOW this intellectual ignorance can be removed, This intellectual ignorance can be removed by going through those spiritual books by reali: ed masters, say Vedanta, Tantra loka Shaivisrn, a~1 phi losophies of thought By studying and going deep and. fully understanding them, til is inteJ Iectua ~ignorance is removed ~But ti~there is I a gap of that spiritual entity, spiritual understanding. Spiritually, you can't understand unless you practice on that, By practicing on that, sp iritual ignorance is removed, Spiritual ignorance, paurusha ajnana is removed by initiati.on 0_ your masters, And baudha ajnana is removed by going through those spiritual books. But there is succession in that. Some say t is

ALICE: Absol .. utely divine.
Some people pray tOI 'Gold for getting rid of all the malas, at once. They'i e ted IIp with 'this world So they don't want t'o elevate Those elevated sou Is don't care for the world.

LA'KS,HMAINJOO:: Firs'" Abhinavagupta has exp la ined this h j rnsel f, that ignorance is the cause of bondage, and knowledge is the caUS,€! of liberation. Ignorance and know edge There are two kinds of ignorances and there are two kinds of knowledge, also, One type of ignorance is called paurusha ajnana ignorance pertaining to spiritua i'ty Th is is spiritual ignorance And another ignorance is intellectual ignoranee, baudhaojnana lnte lectual ignorance Y[Qu. know, There is intellectual ignorance first and there is spiritual ignorance, And these two kinds of ignorances carry laman in the black side 0_ the world ..


'LAK.SHANJOO: Darkness, And S,Q he becomes part of the play of'repeayed births and deaths. And this first ignorance, inteltectual ignorance, comes from will intellect, thinking, perception; unders anding. You can understand ..what God really is you can un: erstand what the means to attain that state are, You have to understand those first, before you practice on them, Understanding won't 'carry' you there. but thls 'is importan! ·tounderstand the means, the' ways. S'O this understanding, the reality ofthat is perts [ning to intellectual knowledge Intellectual knowledge removes 'his intellectual ignorance. Do youunderstand?

everybody admits this thinking, that ~,gnoranc·e is, the cause of repeated births and deaths, and. knowledge is the cause of'l iberation, But still what is real knowl .dge? What .~sreal intellectual knowledge and what Hi rea.I, spiritual knowledge? It is ,to be thought about. Abhinavagupta discussed what intellectual knowledge is correct intellectual knowledge. There are so many intellectual knowledges found in various types of thoughts and schools, Sankhya describes and explains this intellectual knowledge and splritual knowledge also .. But in Tantra loka. Abhinavagnpta says" "I'm not boasting t lat my know edge is unique. Hie says, f. say this fi rle is hot don't touch 'til Is fi re, i will burn. So' this is reality what I say, S,O my explanation of spiritual knowl dge and intellectuai knowledge is correct, it is rea! knowledge, According to the way of real \. nderstanding 0 ~the maste -s. ~I' ,0 th is is how you 8 should begin, by explain ingwhatis ignorance and what .. ~ d' IS know Ieoge,



And then you should consider, after this knowl ... edge who is,capable of'receiving his knowledge rom

the dcp h of monistic Masters, Do yo J need some qualif ed s udent, qualified ' realizing and understanding shastras. This kind of practice Ion these monistic shi "n) a, disciple? Abh i' _ avagupta explains tha qualifica'[ion eonce ns only devotion, Devotion towa ds shastras is the chief cause of the removal of this ignomaster, Devotion towards God.Devotion towards this ranee, Whereas. the ne 'xl self-ignorance is destroyed by meditat ng on one's OWI.l self'without the suppo . of ~ oh phlJlOSOP bv. If h __ _'~there · devoti Y., Ir.S devotion rowan ds ohiuosopny ,S,' towards God nd towards his master, everything is shastras. th re. lf'heis outcaste, ifhe is notBrahmin, if he is not It won't be OIU'_ ofp lace ,to mention here that If only orthodox, it doesn It matter, if tl ere is devotion. intellectual ignorance is removed and self-ignorance is . v. rything is there, There ~ no restriction of caste, s creed, and color, Itean be' purcha led by any living being sttll there" nothing can reach it IOn the other hand if intellectual ignorance Is there and self ... ignorance is I"~'" who ,. caps hi 10f pure hasi IS ile rasing t h ese quauues, removi d by meditating, concentrating, and contem ... plai ing on one's own self, hie. w~JJ be liberated from he wl eel of r ~.' ared births. and deaths. But only a the e Ii" ;1:'" ~ LA!KSHMANJIOO: Devotion towards master and his irne ot tea Jng I' pih ' l b d' -no tn trns )"'ne time. 11' ~1'ySH;;a~o:,y teal hings, Only these 'woo Nominate these 'tYJOI,: devo... But if by the glace . .f God and by the utmost effort ,01.' d·' 1· 'I ~ tion towards master and, his teaching. But real master t h e rv '. l all, b ot h i - ignorances are des, royecd sunur lt a~ ut You have to analyze your master first' you have to' see neously then one becomes jivan-mukta, definitely, So' you have to examine .. here you find the greatness of removal of intellectual .. th 1~ .' ignorance.that makes one Shnne aSjlVan ... I~ tnner musta ~b ALICE: Question. ated in his own lifetime, Hence one must understand the greatness of the removal of intellectual ignorance LAKSHM -:-JO'O: Question. Questioning within but on ~ywhen se~f~ign,o.ran,ce"plattrllsl,a ojnana, is also you. You have to inves igate before you surrender at his removed. With the exception olf the greatness of Intelfe t. You have to investigate him. lectual knowledge, yet only self ... knowledge is attaine .,~

"'" m




LAKSH:MANJ'OO: I have already explained, that 'there is two-fold ignorance.intellectual ignorance and
se f... ignorance. This two-fold ignorance carries away an ndividual from real ization of God-consciousness, and thus he is entangled in the wheel of repeated births and deaths, samsara.

This two-fold ignorance, the intellec ual, baudha ajnana, and self-ignorance, pauruslta ajnana, can be removed successively by intellectual knowledge. baudha jnana. and self-knowledge, paurusha [nana. This intellectual ignorance which is destroyed by intellectual knowledge makes one worthy 'Of realizing

Still there is the possibility of becoming liberated from samsam. So one 'way' attainment of self .... knowledge is responsib e for liberating one's self without the adjustment ofattaining intellectual knowlIed g b d'L jnana, B .~",U'·ina ,,'ut G'" d t:. bid l' 'nne II tua 1 . ,0" lor .,1,', Of' " lee ignorance remains persia lng and self-knowledge is already attained, 'there is possibility of degrees of self ... , knowledge. That may become the cause of his selfignorance after some span of time if inte] lectual igno ranee persists throughout;

God .... consciousness. On. the other hand self-ignorance, which is removed by self ... nowledge makes him k capab c of realizing h S own nature, with in himself

S'O we have come to this conclusion in the end of explaining this two-fold ignorance" that the individual has . 0 develop this two .. old knowledge, intellectual f and. self simultaneously, SOl that there is no apprehension of falling down from realization of God.' consciousness at any' p 1.ace..

In additi on there, is one more thing tOI be' underShaivism has laid down three means 'for the stood, regarding removal of this two-fold ignor .ace, removal of this two ... fold, ignorance" The supreme lntellectua ignorance is removed by practicing and I means is shambhavopaya, the medium means is

shaktopaya, and the inferior means i .anavopaya. The supreme means, shu ... bhavopaya, is explained for those who have the highest capacity for maintaining awareness of self: The medium. means, shaktopaya, is explained for those sadhaks 'who have to some extent elevatec the condition of their maintenance o awareness" The inferior means, anavopaya, is meant .or those aspirants who have no capacity of maintaining

awareness at all., The supreme means. shambhavopaya, means just holding awareness ill continuity W··Ul0Ut adoption of meditating concentrating, or contemplating en any
recitation of mantra. The yogi has just to hold awareness of self and remain there. He has not to adopt any process of thought, remembrance, memory, and so on, just remains vacan from all sides and void from everything but with awareness, This kind of means is called sham b hav opay a ~ The d e fi n iion [0 f th is shambhavopaya is .xplained jnMali11ivij,ayo/tara Tan/Tass follows: "Where there is no adjustment o· any thought, where there is '0.0 recitation of any mantra, where there ~s no practice of breath where by the divine grace of master, one gets perfect residence in o n e's own nature , o m p l. te ly, is called. shambhavopaya ~ 'Hence shambhavopaya is prloces'S It of thoughtless thought, which sentences him to . he point of 'God... consciousness in a flash without succes ..

this shaktopaya; adoption of' recitation 0 ~ mantra, breathing process, meditation and all other things are discarded, altogether, The definition of shaktopaya is explaine .. in Malinivijayottaro as fol lows': "Where there is no ecitation of mantra, where there is no adoption of meditation, where there is no focusing of organ on one point, that really is called shaktopaya. "11 The inf rior means, anavopaya, is that kind ofmeans where .he sadhak has to lake support of breath. man ra, cogni t ~ or,gan.s~and aj ~ kinds of rituals .. For instance, to' ve illustrate it~ breathe in an out- very slowly .. Adjust mantra at the same time 'with this breath un... er the · direc .ions of your master, and fix your though o'n the point either between two eyebrows or throat or heart. By doing so in continuity this breathing rna. -ment is transformer in hie subtle movement of -~ reath, The recitation of mantra is transformed in. this subtle move ... rnent of'breath. The recitation 0" mantra is transformed in development of mantradev,Qta·,. This means. tha .. he deity 'whose mantra, is recited and concentrated, taking poin on which I ~ concentrates, expands and melt'. in absolute pervasion of God-consciousness. And after some substantial period of this practice, this sald/lttk gets mtry in God-consciousness in the end, This is the means 'by which the sadhak experiences the rise of _1 tm. leu naa /'1 '"

The medium means, shaktopaya, is absolute pure thought process, it just to hold any thought and associate it with this same thought without any sllghtest adjustment of similar hought, To make it more clear, it is the process in which an aspirant concentrates on. one thought without any other interruption, . 'his one thought may be interrupted by another similar thought but that has to b·e checked .. This process is not process ofthought in chain form. Take one thought and concentrate' upon it in perfect content, By doing this 18 Yogi feels this thought going on without the wavering movement of breath, So utoma ically the movement of breath also comes 'to'its standstill position,

It won't be out 0.. place to mention here that by adoption of th is practice also, one attains the f nal realization of God-consciousness ...In these three-fold means, the aim of attainment is,God, without the s,~ ightest differentiation, IOf course the means are different, but the meant is one,
In shambhavopaya one gets attainment of 'God,~ consciousness in a flash, instantaneously. Shaktopaya leads to successful achieve-spirant slowly and by and by to the sam e end ~That is God-consciousness.

To make ·'t more thought the breathing IS bI'Y t.'hOi on gets entry

clear, when th re is only one
movement ceases altogether, So ". · H" In G10 d -conscrousne SS. _ iere m

In conclusion, one must know the supreme m eans, b .l d .' . do; s h amonavopaya; IS caiII eo monistic means; mec turn means shaktopaya, is, called mono-de alistic means; and, inferior' means, anavopaya, is ca Jed dualistic means, In other words, shambhavopaya is upaya ·" ~~ pertaining to S b Iva" S"_L' ."' hakiopaya 1.8 upaya pel taining to Shakti. And anavopaya is, the upaya pertaining to
IJ 01



individual jiva. Moreover, shambhavopaya

is con ...

is centering, but with some support Shaktopaya is
without a support,

ALICE,: An obiect. iJ
So this is the explanation of shumbhavopaya shaktopaya, and anavopaya. But there is, one more point to be discussed regarding these three means. In addition 'to' this, Kahrn iri Shaivism has explained that l... ,...... ."·h·.' b .. ', .... .' .... s , ~ L. nree predonunant t suot . -rb s, amtnh (J.l$opaytl d en 1' w.~u th jeers; shaklop,uytl deals with six predominant subjects: and anavopaya deal s with five predominant subjects,
I -' .

LAKSHMANJOO: 'Yes, S11Ukl0PtlJ!Q is supportless centering, For instance, youlook at. one thing, then look at another thing, This sensation of looking on th is, part and this part -th rough these two sensation less areas and finding out what is the mediator, what was, in between, Whatwas the' sensation in between these two
objects ..These sensations.

ALIICE: Where one began. and the other left off


LAIKSHMANJOO: That is shaktopoya.Ts: fix awareness there, without support of these, When, you take .' ... .,' ,'' '..', I " t f th . '." d . -h . ,. s.U·PPO.fI, 0 .. " ese", a,ga~.nan.,· _ a~aln, that ~,S QnQ1)o.rpQ)Ja~ That would go '110 anavopaya. When you take only hl shaktopaya, the, first subject is' beautificatlon of support of these two objects ..not these two objects, two thought; the second subject is 'the treatment of mind sensations ofthese two objects -only once and get entry through logic. and the third subject is the explanation of I' in and are fixed in that center, that is shaktopaya. And the limbs of the body of Yoga, and the difference shambhavopaya is just jump in that center, between limbs described ;n Shaivisrn and limbs ~Sham,bJ1,(;JVopa;ya is without support. You have to' take described in Yoga Darshan 'with their purpose, The support only once in shaktopaya. You have to' take ' fourth subject deals 'with the' rise of the wheel OfSUp6.r~ support every now and the'," in anavoplaya~ organic reenters and how these organic centers are focused to one female energy, Kali, in. twelve-fold wa,ys~The purpose of the fifth subject is how the power of mantra is acq uired, and the sixth subject deals with L,AKSHMANJ100: Continuous support, Then you the point that when a Yogi masters al i the other five can maintain awareness in the junction.For instance, ways" for him noth ing is pure, nothing is impure. And at take support ofinha.ling and exhaling, and mantras; so'0 t sd I" ", rit y, h aum, s ~h--.. aum, so- h aum, [lepea.Le]yw,n "'. coni,·t' 'In.U.1 'the same time, nothing' is right and nothing is wrong, d '. . anc seeing tt,hre center. TIL ~ anavopaya. But ,tn . hat is shakiopaya, you have nor tOI recite these mantras. Just In anavopaya, the first subject is the intellectual meditation and how it is done. The second subject in only once to begin. Take support lor this thing. Leave them aside and get centered in 'that center, that which Is anavopaya deals with the six. centers of vibrating breaths. The third subject clarifies how the rise of between 'the two, ['1 is, neither this" nor th is, jt is something, sorne sensation j,n between, It is nothing. it is consciousness is breathed out and breathed In. The fourth subject explains hOI·wEI. sadhak gets entry in void. You have' to catch, it. That lssh,(1ktapaya, ..And that is why it. is very unacquainted with that voidness, Then supreme consciousness and, what are 'the signs experienced by him therein, so that one can understand that he we ju'mp in that voidness at once without baking Support of these two obj ects, has entered in the kingdom of supreme consciousness, The fifth subject deals 'with what actually is word, shabda.
I' "

ln shambhavopaya, the first subject is the theory of reflection and its purpose, The second is the theory of alphabets and their purpose, The third, subject is the theory off-consciousness.



















io .. ,,'-




Everywhere in anavopaya there'

LAKSHMANJ'OO: Or 'two thoughts, or two movemerits, two steps when. you, walk, one foot there and

another foot there. One foot is over, one foot is done, another foot is to be done,~ run between, That movement in between.which i~·no _in movement,

.A.. LICE:, It 'is still ..

LAKSHMAINJOO: It is still" But it is centered. It will happen. Movement will take place, It has not taken ALIICE: Direct, place, First movement is over, Nex movement will rlec, , 'take place, But it has not taken place yet. There, in ~ha't -LA-K""S"-HMAN' J10"Q-"" 1S d·'''~ . ,t.. center, that is shaktopaya, i ALIICE: ls free, ALICE:: Like music.
. ,c _ ~ _~ __ .' .' .::_:_/ .. _
I, ~

shambhavopay a., nd 'we place 'this centering in envelope of anavopaya to that where is not so rru ch . paci'ty to learn ho\ tOI dive deep in that centering .. v rithout support. 0 we keep support also \ ith th LAnd shakiopaya also we keep support, In shambhavopaya, we don't keep support,

LAKSHMANJOO: Free, yes, You see thi whole universe, so many things have develope -trees, LA.K,SH,MIA.NJOO: Yes. [Laughing] houses, roads, motor cars, planes" everything, But s il~ 'C····-:E'" Lik ·tIL s. -' I,!.' ALII_ .'._ .~~.L~ene.,."pause In mUS,IC~ Vedanta calls this ma)i'Q, because it is not true .. But 'we don lit cal ~ it maya ..We fee l th is is true. I t is onl.. C0f11-' , lAKSH,IMANJOIO:: Yes, pause ..And shambhavopaya mentary of that vo j dness, Th is d ifferentiated man ifesis without doing t tese two movements. That is, tation of universe is the commentary of voidness. shambhavopaya. Shambhavopaya is just 'tID dive deep 'Voidness is put in various envelopes just to make you in that void center, understand, For example, red color and blue colorare


AL~CE,: Shambhavopaya would come from long practice of shaktopaya. Shambhavopaya would come natural ly,
LAKSHMAN!JOO: Yes, naturally, yes. It is just to maintain acquaintance. When you are acquainted Dl0'f'C and more with MorhcrAlicc, Mother Alice will be 'with you always. Just to confirm this acquaintance you have to gOI toMother Alice every now and then, to see her, tOI talk to her, to touch her, to do all those things, But . afterwards, when y'OU. are ful ~y acquainted with that being, then there is no need, they are there a lready .~ ~



hen you could have invisibility.

LAKSHMANJOO: Yes, invisibility. Because redness and whi .eness are on [y phases of its. appearance. I the n background there is only one thing, And that is percep ... tion, , bought. And this thought is individual, undivided. thought, Formless thought, timeless thought, space less, thought, There ~s no space~ There is no thought, Thereis no 'time, in real sense. That. is what we have to experi ence j n these three upayas, ,AL111CE,: We' will write it.~like we have talked,
LA,KSIHMANJOO:' You have put my experience aliso
in this,

LA,KSHIMANJO'O:: Yes, pause. So centeringis a thing I: ~ 1[", W hi h IS d .rcr i aeverope: d in these upayas. N" . ~ snastopaya. <_otIn h k YOLl, see, th I:S is our sh OP,I our prov islon shop, There is . ". '.' IN·" /. no different sale; sale is one, But the wa.y of sale is LAK··/S· ..' H' M'A· I·· JiO' 0·· different. W,e sell only one thing, one point. That is ter] . ..- ' --. ~ . 'B' cen trenng, C·_.· ·t·'. ~..-- ..~',' t·, b-' e sen~d .rsut m tlh' _; ,',,daureren . t_ .en er ~n,grs _0 tree ..' ~ . _', envelopes. One envelope is anavopaya, and one envelope is, shaktopaya, and another envelope is
'.C I ~ .' ,



. ,If'} es.

T~ .l I~

ik,', I . .'. ..... d v . '.' I.e t·0','be" ,e,,-.,...pose.'.,[[Laug h



ITo be: ecntinued. ..]


JAMMUI, 1 7'-,18 MARCIH, '20107

".. 'nbe,half

of the Ishwar Ashram Trust I would your Excellency, seminar participants devotees and

like ttl welcome ....... , speakers, seminar ~.

all wel'lwi~,h,ers of His Holiness Swami Lakshmanjoo
Maharaj on this most auspicious occasion of the third. Seminar on Kashmir Shatvtsm in this "The Birth Centenary Yea'[ of OUT 'beloved, Swarniji," these two days of this seminar it 'would be e91sV''to get lost in the h~gh philosophical principles and

concepts of the unique teachings 00£ Kas,h,'mi[ Shaivism, But, I p'[ay that we should not lose sight of tbe underlylng reason we have all come together on this occasion, i. e"1 to eel ebrate t he Hfe of one of KH,shmi r's g reat treasures, a true ,Maste.r in the lineage of ancient masters of t'h,e h ~,g·hest and, richest ph.ilosophv existing ~tl. today's world.
Swamiji tells us' that the SampT,adaya of Shaiva masters is eternal, constant t y conceal ing an d reveali ng itself throughout the ages. Somananda. the ,aunder !of Pratvabhijna system. records in his Siula Drifti' . hat in the 'beginning of this present age of Kati j~uga. (more than 5~IOOOyeats ago] the charge af Shaivism was given to, the great Rishi Durvasa E'v,e;·n todav it is said that

A few centur ies after Abhinavagupta, the.Shaivism partirular to, Kashmir once again took an introverted 'turn and became hidden from view, only to emerge h id h .. aroun d'- tne rm -etg'h ateen . umrd re d s, A th aJr nme ·t -h···_.,' ,':, .' t- r '-, , ... ··f S':'·· ".', rvtanakas ani' S'matvrsrn- saw rh e-.ernergence or owamt · M,····· . ~I,-, 'k .. id his illustrious disciple Swami Ram,~,a personality that most of th i51 audience ar,e familial with. It was Swami Ram who once again, picked U,P 'the thread of this eternal.sampr'adayat Swami]i tells us that the ,M~:harra,ja Pratap Singh'l the then ruler of [ammu and Kashmir state, was very devoted to Swami Ram and when he asked what he could do, in humble service to his Guru ' Swami Ram requested that he collect all the lost manuscripts of Shaivism and pubH,sh them, Though it 'ns well known that this work W'8.S entrusted, to j.C, ' .C hatterji, there are few who realize the initial impulse came: from Swamiji's grand-master, Swami Ram,
.I . • ~. .
I.", ,'.".








. ....









Durv81sa still sits on Mount Kailash in 'his subtle body,
From Durvasa flowed out nineteen generations of ·db 11.. rrunu ~oorn sons, masters W11,Q carrteod' th' e tra d' " .itton forward .. The nineteenth, Swarniji tells us). was 'not so introverted that he 'could create a Blind-born son, ': lie therefore married and carried 'the tradition through his own SQ'n., From that. time on, historic records of Shaiva M8ts'~ers was more complete, Lord Shive's revealing of the S,ivasu,tra to Vasugupta Lswel] recorded, Then carne the flouris'hin,g of masters franl Ananda, Somananda, Utpaladeva, Lakshmanagupra, Shambunatha and the illustrjous Abhinavagupta and his disciple l(s,h,ernraja and his disciple Yoga.raj a. -

With his vast vision Swami :Ram saw into the future, and :25 years after tha t request, all the texts, of the Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies were ..'." ... teo. (iI!-" S ouro not. "- ' ~ 'md ' seem st .. ,,-,." - th at, t LSI compte .. .~ strange t -~ coincided 'precisely with the time that our own Swami Lakshmanjoo, still in, his late teens, was, eager to 'imbibe himself with the teachings of Kashmir Shaivism,
·d·-: h" '




S'O complete was Swami Ram's commitment 'tOI the conrinuation of this chain of knowledge that in 1930 {~.~_ ,ye'ars,.~aft er "h" e h , d 1··f' e-, .. , th :'. " '··1.1-1-,'\ 'h" e appeareeed t a 16'" .,..'',- ,8,., _ ac en 1S wor d ' , .' . M' re-,pu:, b 1-'1S,~_. . :],lffi, S w'am,~J~ an d· r equ es tet d h i Abhinavaguptas Kashmiri rendition of the ,B"nagav,ad IG'i',~aftha~sa'ra"=Slam,~raha. - ., which thouzh alrea d,'ly', - "" - - - - - '~," , ...,' ., 'e ., 'bl·l-·tsneo m t. e V h '-,. , 'S''-', " a, ""T"", an"d .tu,dies .",. . "If ,1 . S:-·' lea, pu ' ···'hl rd . -- hi l\..a.s,mlf,eru:s kS h . a,d'·n,Uffi'erOUs. m~s,'t:a.r!s.,~wamlJ ". f'umue d, t h t request L _ "If"'~l na mdth ·00 _'. '. 'b"·l";h-· d i rv, ,J,. wr e am ,"" was pun ,is e·_ m 19'3:,'2 Dlu~ring the next three decades Swamiji remained practlcallv a~oof, known onlv to a few cherished
t· -' ,-, ,










many of 'whom are here eared in. this audience, The natives, lof his village at Ishber affectionately gave him-give).'} the name Lal Sahib"

Though Swamiji triedhts best. 'to remain aloof, it appears Lord Shiva had, other plans. In 965, he wrote' a . · 1 V. d 1" vlJ71arLQ R . .. paper ennne: d 'II ,I.\.un,. aun! ',,I' ._...- . ...tuh lasytun u JI h ~ h' he W L' latter presented at a, Sam,eltana conducted at the Sanskrit University in Varanasi, Swamiji's papery read in flu.ent Sanskrit" was so well received hat, the Chairman, the renowned Mah,amaho'pa,Ghyaya Pandit Gopinath Kavirai had Swamiji sit on the dais" It was from [his date forward that scholars carne to realize that 'the tradition of Kashmir Shaivism was alive and well, and fully embodied in the 'person of S'WHlm~ Lakshrnanjoo, The rest 'is history an up to the time of his leaving this world a throng of scholars and seekers found heir way [0'silt at Swami] i'sfeer, In the western world some major scholars of 'lode "", like Alexis Sa,nd,erson. from Oxford University, Andre Padox from the Paris research institute, Professor R~ Gnoli from Ita~y, Lilian Silburn from France and .numerous others have all sat ar Swamiji's teet and . ought answers to their own perplexing questions,

Throughou his 'life Swamiji intentt onaJly remained l."dden from tbe 'masses" in fact, it could only have b, en by his own jrva,t"a;lltrya that he managed to remain. somewhat hidden even from rhose who were close to him, But, occasionally and unsuspectingly, the truth of 'his underlying existence would leak ou ., giving a glimpse at least, of the majesty of his being, On the surface one saw' in. Swarniji the full dignity of human existence; beyond that one could 'Qll~Y sense the oceanic life of a God-realized soul whose verv purpose in being on this earth was :_evond our limited learn rehensi -n ..

In, India we have works of BaIjinn,atth pia' dtt, Nilkanth Gurtu, Jan'kin.ath Kau] 'Kamal', Paramaharnsa Mishra~ and m'any athers, all of whom give specific reference '0 Swarniji's invaluable contribution [0 not onlv their work, but . 0 Kashmir Shaivism as a whole .. They all held Swamiji in highest es .'em, jaidev Singh Thakuft a prolific writer on Kashmir Shaivism, k .. rrts derd~ · ~ . us owarruj icanons d e;.direate d' a l~'O'.!f h~ 'WOII":S to S speak for themselves: "To Lakshmajoo who unsealed my eves" "To Lakshmanjoo, to whom I owe whatever little I I know of Pratvabhijna P' ilosophy" and . inallv.. "To Swami Lakshma joo.; 'he doyen of Shaiva A gama When I first saw the word "doyen" I ha.d to refe-r to the dictionary, It1 translates as: IIOne who is the most experienced and. respected member of a group Or tradi tion "Th,3[ certainly applies to Swamij "'.,
I ' ,.


I would like to relate two brief incidents, which give validity to Swamiji's hidden greatness. In 19861 ill . oak one of Swarnij ~18 gardeners to visi t the renowned Sufi saint "Sultan Sahib" who lived in a. small village in Anantnag distric I was told that Sultan Sahib was considered 0 be the highest among the' S _fi peers of Kashmir at thar time, The whole valley was shrouded in. heavy clouds that day 'but it did nor, deter the throng of eager visitors who had come to seek special favours, that Sultan Sahib was accustomed to give. Sultan Sahib eve'ntually entered [he small ,'OQ'm, and without even looking in mydirect ion, he cryptically addressed the audience with the words, ~IIWh.yhas the English Sahib come to Ananrnag when the .Sun is shining in its full ;glorv in ls'h,b'fr"lii Such was the hidden recognition between great souls,


,As a re, ercussion of Swarniji's 'earl er talk in Varanasi, in 1970~sl arne shwar ]ha, renowned Varan81si R scholar and 'poet travelled [0 Kas-hmir. 'When. be arrived in 'the ashram he stated 'his purpose before Swamiji, i.e, to enter irrto debate on the' subject of Kashmir Shaivism, Swarniji casual y agreed, but said "first let's R" ..~ . k h" ta k- tea n.~,:ames h_W3'r Jh'la sat 1n Suenc e am d.tOOJ. . 1$ tea, we .

Once again, in the summer of 1990, Wi1El1. the valley was practically bereft of its Hindu population, an old Muslim gentleman arrived at 'the ashram gate, As he saJ: at. Swarniij i's feet~ he began to press Swamiji's legs and repeatedly requested for a chit which was to be signed by Swa iji, Swamiji gave no chit~ but simply patted his head and the old man lef satisfied, Later it was revealed that the man 'lived adjacent to ehe famous Baba Rishi shrine near Gulmarg, During that brief meeting he conveyed to Swamiji that Baba Rishi 'had appeared to him in a dream, and he had requested B,aba Rishi to help him with a serious problem which was weighing heavily on his head, Baba Rishi's reply was clear and unambiguous, nyou will have' '0 go to Lal Sahib and rec ive his c'lli[~,as, he is in charge of al] of . .mlr~ Kash-.' ;~


knowledge would li e on 'or the benefit of futurle generations. This is no, e idenced by the numerous publications, audio a Id video recordings that are available to all who are interested in this vast subject.

and we' now have a word search programme where you Even tod,ay we an still unab ' tal c. mpreherid the I can pick any word in Shaiva literature and ind out how' many tirru Swamij ihas used it, and the tell: vant text in vastness, f Swarnij i's h~ den rol - in rh s infinite play of which that word appears, This takes. approximately 30 Lord Shiva, What we an say is hat Ion th,e; obvious seconds. and will n doubt be of immense value to level, I e lived and bres thed _he teachings of his serious scholars ofthe future. cherished tradi i ion of Kas mil Sh uvisrn. Throughout his life he gave freel of his knowledge to wnosoever expressed a genuine irrtere r. This he did indep: ridertt What of the. future? of caste, creed, colour or gender. Swamiji also took r the wo days of this Seminar, we Sh'0U~d great care to e_ SUfi tha fter t ving this w rld hi seriously consider what WI" can achieve w· th t' _,.' 'egacy



It would not be out of place to meritiort that the majority of these b oks aru publications are the result of efforts of John Hughes and his w ife who many here are familiar wi'th~ Jol~rl arid his famHy spent l6 years 'i n K81S_fOir studying and recording, and therebv preserving Swarnijl's teachings for future generations, As was stated ill the previous Seminar held in Delhi last yea,[; John Hughes intends to release all the teachings lof Swamij i, nat only in book form, 'b'ut also as original audio and video recordings, which in total constitutes over 600 l,ours of material, This present Seminar will see tile release of 111e 0, iginal audio recordings of Swamiji's ranslatlon of Vasugupta's Sivaslltf,a \lfmarsil1i:. also, the vi eo recordings 'of Swamiii translating selected verses from Abhinavagupta's Pa:ralnurthasllrut (both of these are in Eng~ish), and '~81S b" no least, a set of42 C,Ds of Swamiji's translation. f ". -I' Utpaladeva's Sivastotraval! in Kashrniri language,

of knowledge Swami] i has left ~behind" Already it is well known that t lie possibllitv of the establishment of a chair "dedicated to Swami Lakshmanjoo" at the Mara Vaishno Devi Universitv is a realisable goal. We would like [0 hank 'your Excellency, as it WHS your greatness to advise t:'heVice~IC'hancel1o'f of Mata Vaishno Devi University t. report on this chair, as was earlier announced. On, behalf of the Ishwar Ashram, Trust, ] further request your Excellency to gtve the necessary directions so that this befitting tnbute is implemented in this, the .:,wrth centenary year of His Holiness Swami
Lakshrnanjoo ..

also a nriounced at the previous Internationa] Seminar held in, Delhi last October, rhe lshwar Ashram Trust proposes to establish a research center for Ka hmir Shaivism bas, d on the teachings of Swami Lakshmanjoo, This center, to be located at lshwar Ashram, lshber, Gupta 'Ganga, Srinagar will serve to promote the teachings of Kashmir Shaivism to 't he masses
As was

These at, at realtreasure, and m 31mreminded of an, incident when a recognized western Sanskrit scholar ques ioned Swarniji on a point 'where' 11edjffered from · ~. de K shiemrajasI transtauon 0'f one 0f U' "tpat~a·"evas 'II _verses, , "lied with devotion, Swamiji replied, "Listen carefully [,'0 my words, as m have entered . 'he heart of ~ U-tpala d eva! U

Keeping in view the contribution madre by Swamiji of spreading the message of true love and brotherhood among the: masses, we again appeal to vour 'Excellency to help Ishwar Ashram Trust achiev this laudable goal through .h,e assistance of the jammu and Kashlnir government ..
Once again, I would like to extend a note of than ',·5 to yo,ul Exc llencv fair having spared your precious time, w,nspite of heavy engagements, to be with 'us 'today to pay tribute [0 our Gurudev, Swami Lakshmanjoo. Also I exrem my thanks to the 51 peakers, participants, devotees, and to all w:ho have come to attend this Seminar in honour of His HollnesS'wami Lakshmanjoo Mah,araj.



Wh,il,e recording the B,ha,gavad Gita video in Nepal In 1990~Swam'mji was, ask, d h,QW people would be intriated in the future. He straightaway pointed 'to the 'video camera and said, "through his it will happeu."
For these past 12 years, slowly and steadily, work has, been going on, transcribing and documenting evervth ·ng Swamiji ha said on these ortgtnal recordings, he bulk 0, this was c mpleted last year

J,ai Devl

Shaile,ndra Gulhati


Shailendra G,ulhati is a y'oung' Jammu-bated poet and writer who prefers' to call himself a "ShaivaMystie". This' recent collection ofpoems, Nam Roop, .,0 be'(Jut'ijully illustrated by the reputed artist Arpana Caur's pain tings, has been widely uppreciated in literary circles. Here, is this paper which he presented at the international seminar on Kashmir Sha.i'v;sm held recently at Jammu, he tells US' about the great appeal th'at Kashmir Shui:vaphilosophy holdsforyoung spiritually inclined intellectuals like him:
'he abrlitv to think is, what makes man stand at. the crest of all creation, And man used this. ability in, two ways. He observed the world around him. A.nd kept records of his discoveries and

these records became stud:"es for further. thinking, giving way to the circle of inventions and, marie discovery, l n di a , f- om time immemorial, ther[€ appeared great thinkers who came to understand that though '[his cycle 0'£ outward discove -Y' was fascinating, as well as rewarding, i.t, heweverv was endless) as r lie Universe itself was too large, They became keen ([0 know who they themselves were, what was their purpose in life, who had created life~[ and why? Whether there was a higher power that 1goveIne d t hi lmma[cu .. ate - [5 Universe? They' sed the second. In

ability [of thought and shifted their focus to man himself They began to develop an "inward thinking", Some' of these rare individuals discovered that there is a. faculty greater even than thinking and rationalizing, the higher knowledge that comes 'by' intuition. Intuittvelv, the'y began understanding various phenomena about not only themselves, but the entire cosmos, They became keen to enhance this subtle way of knowing, and with interiorized eves, they started systems of yoking themselves to the intuitive state b,y will. They were the YOgISI, and their vegas we're' wha t we n ow call rnediration. Wh[en the most determined of these meditators [dwelled on the inner Self with , unwavermg awarerresa, t 'hinev reached j.he very core of life i' self This co' e was beyond mind, beyond even flashes of -

mtuition-it was a, state of being. 'En this state the knowe -, the knowing and the known all 'b· came on: "The seer.the seeing and the seen became one. This nan-dual state 'of oneness, in, which the whole universe, all of creation, was actually felt within one's OWl1. self was obviously a state of tremendous bliss and it came to be' ca led sama,d,hi~ anc its expression was cid-ananda, bliss of the Self When one arose from this samadhi, one was back to the outside WOf'_ d as before, bt ie transformation of knowing that all is one, And this phenomenon of having been, in that state of Oneness was termed as dars,ana .. The possesso ,SI of [darsana1 were called the dristas',1 the' Steers or the Rsis .. Even. from' he. Everests of their spiritual attainments, out ~ of their compassion the Rsis '. gave pointers for others of the outside world of samadhi" so '[hat
u with the ma s s v




thev too may realize it forthemselves. So c!'~dan_ ~daj or the

meditative climax of finding that the 'whole uruverse was, in fact withirt one's self was thought tob'e man's greatest achrevemerrt in the inner jcurnev, th,e greatest 'blessing that divinity could give 'b,y revealing itself, 'But, the rsis of Kashmir wan .ed to, pursue even '[he state of 5\umadhi more, Thev were not conceut with just cida.. n;anda~ of 'being blissed only during sarflladhi. Perhaps i'l was the greater design of divinitv itself: that the r,.s:i of Kashmir could not ignore 11i5 beauriful outer landscape for even the divine mountains withinv And he began to seek for even greater blessing, working dexterously on harmonizing the two' beatitudes,



And 'this;

to, me, was the rea!

advent of Kashmir Shaivism, giveu to us by Vasugu pta, Utpala, Sornananda, Abhinava, l.a lleshwari and of course, Swamiji Lakshmanjoo, they were all adept yogis ", thev were

siddllas, and yet they retained

tremendous love for the manifest beauty of Kashmir.

'~Kashm'ira ,p'IUf'Va:tl pafoKshu, ". "'e'lt ,~ m ~ ,r ha M' ah :twar-a 'i'~ ~a ~all:..
~'ILcV~ .• _'_. ~_: -. -- - ; __ I~~



_- _



,'i,y -m'tf





Puranas of Kashtni f'" quoterl even by Kalhana, emboldens 'me to suggest that even Lord Shiva


this - children can move in their and motorbikes alnd cars, go to gyms" thi S ---:I PI'U['Siue, great professions and dar'sana rna t ur e d . t h e aspirations, go anywhere, and outstanding feature that started, still see Shiva, in the temples, lor developing was its pragmatism. in [he discotheques, He is The love 'tor the reali ty of the: everywhere, and the al)11ity to, j agat 'mad e au r fou n ding see it like this is the essence of spiritual fathers work tirelessly Kashmir Sh a iv darsana, The to uphold all of life in the world ability of confluencing the two they redefined renunciation, abilities of outward thinking and, ,. .. · hthey did 11,0'[ want for us to leave mner mtuitron, tr e abili!ty' to ':1 our homes, tl~ey W'311ted, us to harmonise caring for outer b eauty an" mner ': ivrmty, t hle~ d dE renounce the sense of duality with God. They did 'not abilitv to perfect working advocate monkhood, though in efficiency and inner surety, TIlls their task, they' may 'have had to is Kashmir Shaivlsm. This is our go on long' hours, days, even great inheritance. And I entreat lifetimes, of retreat, the fruit all ,of you to learn our Idar51ana for which they wanted '[,0 give us ourselves, When and where does from their amri trees, was for 'us one begin [0 learn'? When the to, see G10d everywhere, in mind is resolved, now is always everything, 'They started leading the best time" And, asm,aI1Y U,S f r om cidanar&da,~ to grea'[ teachers will be giving out jagadananda~ 'bliss of the world, I beautiful facets of the darsana,. am sure that in, their days they this right here, is a. great place tOI loved [heir baghs, th,€! shil'ara.s in 'beg'in~ Formv part, I will just try' thei r terrvlanes, the dainty to give yo'u a. verv basic idea of embroideries on their p,hirans, how rich and supportive of the warmth of the l<angf'is~, the prag mati SIn some of th.e singing alongside with the ad vanced ancient Kash m ir Shaiv a texts are, china'fs with the tUlnba.k naris and the santoor,s', all was Shiva ~ In the' ViJna~nlla=,bhaira'va,~ SOl tOO, our c hild re n are which looselv rransla ted wou ld engrained 'with divinity and pragmatism, it is ill their 'D~N'A! mean the applied knowledge of They are- a proud p eopl e Lord Shiva, the Devi asks the renowned for their effic~ellcv in, Lord to teach some methods that work their amiable and warm will helpan aspirant reach ', d ll.atures ,an- customs. 0-11",'Y tIle levels of Shivahcod for himself, . ... 1 L , 0····· '- Now Shivji" comes out with 112 oute r [,lffi,eS c,h ange" , .... 11'[
I!. !I oil.
• u,

wanted us to subscribe to, harmony of both the inner ou ter dim ., [Y,! A- d a S VI ru --11. -



,dharanas, which



p .actised, Its wonder ul to no' e, chat not all the vegas are of the same grade, but they all {lead to [he same summit, And. Shiva has bee:n though -{ul enough to
so' 'many
to .'LIne

,of our excellent P ecepto the para patras, as many of Swamiji RS


different in.. the higher to

fre,quency of vibrant: divinity,


'Do you remember, when, as 'l 'eh1.,' ren, lor S ometr mes, even accompanying our children tOI [4, magic show, we used to be amazed at the conjurer's tricks, say of making things disappear or 'appear? 'W rile 'most spiritual systems may end to rubbish this as hoax, Lord Shiva is fa I' 'kind r, and ill his advano d mec itative technology, tel s US~I to mature hat arnaze m ru (vi.smaya) which 'you feel at the show of magic, into a meditation, make ~,t a bhumU<.a (base) for yoga~For' those of you who love music, the sada.vasantam (evergreen) Shiva s.a·VS1' that ananda (ecstasy) you feel wh.ile listen ing ',O~ or um ng gi yo favourite tune, let that ecstasy lead you ' 10 know that it is 'yo r right as, Shiva to be happy, Not just your right, this is your actual nature" you only have to e=· cognize it, pTa,[ya-bhifia~ Hie goes on to say that even the litera Iy hair raising arousal we get wh.en we see our favour ite land, Desa Drl$.ti~,or when we are reminded
I , h mi al o n s d e u r

devotees would be feeling dt ring this celebration, know that to be the oneness wi tIl Shiva himself Whether even it is the eating of good food.Iwhich is of COLJII'se oth e' __. nhe ri ra n CI th .an I"' _ .,'. r gr e a t ~ la.. .' delight that one gets, know' that '[0 'be the delight of Shiva enjoying his own creation,

A yogi should fix his mind on any phenomenon that brings
delig it, because the repose in deligh '5 he na ure of the Lord, But [0 ensure that we ar . bonafide yogis and not se f deceiving b'hogi,s, we will have to begin where we began, to make su e [hat we end whe e our normal state becomes a flow of
divinity, we must train as yogis


"_' ~.,

O L.)'




repeat that, Shiva enjoying his own creation, this is the e s se n c e of Ka s hmi r Shaivism Kashmir Shaivism tells you in the most direct of words, that you are the God you looked for" you, are Shrval You are Shivs everv moment" even if vou da .t know it, and it 'helps you on y to re-cognise, that you are and have always been Shiva, because All is 8, uva, And [his is why I [ove Kashmir shaiv.It is 'by design, that Kashmir speaks of so many things which can. be d,el.i,ghte·d in our OW11'J. culture, as pathways "10 divinitv, tal abiding happiness, provided, of course, we do everything 'with [he '[I rnernbrance of our' Shivahood, when every act has become a r irua] dedicated tOI the divinity that abounds everywhere, and then the Lord says

I will

with the introverted, meditative eye. For these sections of the V'ijnaf1.~b·h"ai'rav'a that I have chosen are only to illustrate how a matured yogi can reach the level when all is yoga, sa if you can already '.a that, great! It means YOJU 'have strong anugn ha already, you may take the 'high path, 'but even. :if you cant s raightaway do that, your Guru wfl tell vou which up'aya suits your present disposition and lead 'you Llp the same mountain of Mahadev where .'h ' surrus of Shiva are revealed by Shiva, fa Shiva to know that He, in fact, is

: . ~~ Sh-,Iva 11

hi rus



w.h y

- 1ove .

Kashmir Shaivism Llove and live it and again entreat upon you 'to know it for yourself and then, like good shaivites, share it with those who devotedly wish to learn.

Yatra yatTa

manas tu~~i,TJ' fi,anas f

alva. dharayet, 'l"atr,a tatra parama-nallda sVi,arup,um samp',arvaTtate


Lal 'Pandit

- d' .. ~~ d h "'1 d"·' d-~ h ~een __lea "_oll ' ..,~, D d A note:,'" SCh 0',l",ar 0f 1nllan JPlTl[iua l . an'~ P,llLOSOIP h"' I tria: .mon, M' La' r4n:',I,j,t ,las b .... Sh .. ~ '·h d f' ......1 .1... • Tlegul aT l ''1 s h-aTln,g h" de.e'p lnslg husmro T·k ·~a~· alVIsm WIt. - t·h-e rea_ers 0.. M"lalnl., n tJitl.S '~15: 1·1 r~ article w,e find him thTowing'some invaluable ,light on th.e, tJen,tual SOUTces on which this scho,ol of.philos,ophical·thoug,ht particulaT!l., ,drawS' fO'T its basic concepts.




nor to th e at opeara nee of the foundarional 'text of Trika Sa iv, n am elv, th e ,. SiVClsutrQ.S of Vasugupta, we do not know, much as to what kind of Saivi5'~ , existed in. [he valley of Kashmir. Most probably the kind of ~ Saivism t'ha existed,. prior to the appearance of the Savasutrru wes m.a·~n.~y dependent on the canonical texts, known. popularly as the Agamas or Tantras, Since this form of Saivism derived irs sustenance from the canonica ~ rex ts, so its orienta' ion was more theological than philosophical. However, the ~ kind of Saivisrn that developed .'. -_.oriwar d was f 10m"B·d•. century A"D' more philosophic al than theological) and so had to give IISI' to such a philosophical outlook that would respond to the needs of people, One ,. ofthe features of the Trika Saivism is charactenzed by the fact that . f rom t h..e 8!·,h,ce'n[ury [0 th ee.n·.d' Qf .. 12!h, century a lo,ng succession of outstanding reachers came from. the Valley itself, and 'who" through their intel ectual a cumen, enriched 'it bath philosophically as well as rheologicallv. T'he' Sa ··v1is.m of Kashmir, from the point of tradiIi!'

is refer re d tal as the Tril<.:a Sastra~ Trika Sasana) Rahasya S a 711 p r a d a 'J a T r a i 'Y a 'in b a.l' a S,cnn.prrada)J'a etc, (1) The Saivism of h _ . . '~I • Kashrmr 1S aiso given. '['.e no:menc~a"" ture of T_ ika on account of its acceptance ofmany rinitjes, 'which

'C'U m -non



are constitutive ~ the Saivism of

,of its ontologv, As,

Kashmir is generally




spoken of as the Triadic Saivisrn, so to counterbalance this app .l~ation it is, also referred to as the School of thle Half-of- he-Six (~a{1ardha.,. !asrr'a)i It is within the framework of triadic on .ology that the gene al philosophical and religious orientarion of the S,:a.l.vism of Kashmir, or what otherwise is called the Trika Saivlsm, has to ee pu rsued ~

-dualistic (,b:heda·bhll?,d.a) , and the monistic (a.bheda),. (2) 'Each section ,of the canon .s given at specific name, The texts that are du a l ist ic a re k n.own as the ,. Saivagarnas, and their total number is believed to be not more than ten. (3) The texts that explain reality in terms of dualism-cum-non-dualism ate 'known as the Rudr:igam'as~ a'nd their total number is said to be eighteen, (4,) The texts that are through and through monistic are spoken, of as the, and are believed to, be. sixty-four in number (5').. This classification of [he car .on indicates the evolutionaTV development of Saivisrn fro'm dualism to monism.




General Feanrees .., 'The Saivism of Kashmir, generally speaking, i~r oriented towards and outlook that is Tantric and so such canonical texts, 'known as, the tantras, constitute its religious base that has a mon istic orien ration. It is within the ideological framework of monism that the teachers of the Tri'ka Saivism have divided the canon into three sections, nam ~YD' the dualistic (,bheda), dualisticJI'

These Agamic texts have been given the canonical status on account of them being considered of divine origin, which in rer '"SI of theological bel Lief is explained as 'having issued from the five mouths ~ or faces (.pal1camu,kh,a) of Sliva {6)., ~. These five faces of Siva are known as I§an.~, Tatpurusa, Varnadeva, Aghora and Sadyojala,. This anthropomorphic concept of Siva as h,8tving f~ve -faces~ and rherebv



five 'mouths I' is, :at t11 phH.oso'ph ica] level of thought, seen as representing the five ' ispects or p.etwers of the Absolute. These fiv' p'owe-rs or aspects of the Absolute are consc to' usne s s I( C'.t t ) ~ hlliss ( a'na nd_ll" w il] (icchil), knowledge (jfta,na)~ and action (kri,a)! As representations, these five fate s or aspects of the Ab sol ute, cal led t ech n ical lv Pararnasiva or Mahesvara, ae concretized, at t'h,e iconographic level, by Svacchandanatha, At the popular level or religiosirv, i~ is believed [hat the [sana face of S'~'Va, 10,0; s upwards" whereas the other four faces are directed towards the four quarter of space, which, when inter preted mysticallY'I' symbolise the inclusiveness as presence of the Absolute. This interpretation of the Absolute as be ing inclusive or pervasive would mean that nothing in 't'l,e!Lln~v'e'rse~ including the universe its:,,If, has any onto ogical signi ficanice apart -from Paramasiva, If this ·5 the case, it would mean that the Absolute is no - only transcendent, but also is immanent. 'It is mn, the context of this view of the Absolute 'that the divine origin of the Aga,mas shoulr be understood, The theologians of the' Trika School are of firm belief h81[ the mysterious mouth of Siva has uttered particularly tile monisuc scriptures, and, if SO~ it would mean that these scriptur s are higher m · · me(lt.;" (7) to t'h re non-morusttc· Agamas, (8). The Agamic texts that are given almost the transcendental status by the Trika are the Vamakata rttra, S tdd,ha-ta rLtra a 7-lld th.e M.lj'lin.i~ta?l:tfa,., Collecriv .. v these l irnpcrtant canonical texts are spoken of 'a.s.IHaJf=,o.f~ the-six (~a~ar,dha) (9)~ Each text has a special theological concern, and I

deals accordinglv


it exten-

The Vama,ka-wntr,fi, deals with such rehs..ious themes that are ,=, either theological or philosophical, Insofar as the Silddha ,rantTa is concerned, it deals with the practical aspects . f religious life" such as, ritual, ethical discipline, an: wi th the practices of meditation, The last canonical text, 'name l-y" the Malin r __Tantra, ' expresses 'at it, best the svnthesizing spirit of the Trika. In this text an attempt has been at synthes,~z'ing the themes oft eh first two texts, 1: am Iv~, f the Vamaka~17a,ntru a:nd o the Siddya,-ta11tra~ by integra ting them into the general philosophical framewor:l{ of the Trik'a ( ,0).

classification of the scriptur s, there are three' mos important texts ha the Trika Schoo] cherishes and" believes that the ir

emergence has occurred , t rough the mysterious rnouth of Siva and t ",', texts are the Varnaka·-tanc-ra" S-iddha, ..., an:tra and the ,Mii-!ifliI -

t"cnl ra ..

2. The entire cosmic man ifestario from Sadasiva category (Itattva) down to earth" is said to be constituted bY' a trinitv of principles, -~, , namely, Siva, Sakti and Nara: Siva repreaent ing the prj ncj.ple 01 transcendence, and. Sakti embodying that. suprem power by which, Sliva becernes practically the manifest universe, and 80 should 'he '" T'he Saiv,inn of Kashmir, tec,flllivally seen as denoting t'he principle of :spe,al{iTlg, should be refe'fTfd to as ['he divine' immanence" lnsofar as Nata Trika SaiVisln ra hlfT than as is concerned, it is tie principle that ,,,, represents Siva as bound being Kas,hm'ir Saivism., It is,J~C~ Chatterje.e who~ .for the first, invet\ted, s-~ch as (bandha) in tr e world (leka)., In nv IL u appe. l'~·'l as £\JaS{1nrur~ J.anlt~m~ shor -,I Nasa denotes, 'the' finite condi ion 0 'rile Ai solute, It LS a. alld stnce then TTlika Saivism 'vh ~ Si.... f doctrine of "emptiness' in terms; of ",as. rrU'l",aUJtHn. Thie S"'" Cll·Vlsm 0, Kashmlir' is gillen the technic,a,l name which the Absolute is shown as to of Tri/(la on account of us tri'adi'c how, bv assuming the condition of 0"tol08Y (1.1)" Some of t,he rnosz finitude, empties himself, as it were" i,m,pOft.a nl t1ia,d:it pri'ncip,l es o:f Tri,kla of his own divinitv, It is exac tly this doctrine which St. Paul expounds are the fo1l..o hlg: ir the context of the doctrine of '" L The begin with: The Saivisrn 'of Incarnation. There it: is assumed '[hat when God as Word has become Kashmir has classified its scriptures finite by enflesh ing himself as ] esus, into three main b,ranches,which, he thle'tieby "empties" himself of his are the Saivagamas, Rudragamas if an d.:~aur.avag'(lma$", Thi _ Blh·.... , .·13C as.~~n','~ca- divinitv, Thus GOid as Jesus "emp"" d m-h non IS rna de i accornance wtt '. hie ties" himself as Tt were, of his e In ~-,US , ruca c rheological or philosophical line of d rv m 1ty. Th t he Trik d'octrt ·ne 0' f the Abs ute as hecomi ' ,S,OI necommg t he though leach group of scriptures 'universe hHS its parallel in the euunciates. The philosophical Pauline, doctrine of divine emptiideas rhat are respect ivelv found ln them are either dualistic, or :ness..
_" J1' _ i ~'"







d uatis t ic-c I" ·

,_ um-rnorn · strc

an" d

monistic. Apart from this thema ic


It is in and through Nara, maintains the Tr"'ka,that, space-time bound

[imitations are experienced by the Absolute, 'Of 'what 'we call the state of un freedom which (he hu,ma.D condition represents. Insofar as Sa.'kti is concerned She, as the principle of Energy, is seen, as an ~. intermediarv between Siva and , Nara, in, that it is wn and [h,roug:h, her that Siva descends to the position of Nara . It is this very Sak,t~ that enables Nara to ascend to the ~ position of Siva. Sakti, fr{Jw a theological perspective, is viewed as ... being innate E!l,e,rgy of Siva, and it .,. is 'by virtue of 'th~s 'Energy that Siva manifests himself as Nara, viz., as. a finite being. It. is, this very Eenrgy which enables Nara to recognize himself as to what his essen tial nature (,S1J£!TU,pa) is, whichv within the Trika framework, means it (8 non-different from that Siv~ (12)~

4, The yogi" upon '[Iealizing the rriniry of poweI'~ of wiil, knowledge, and action, recognises the three aspects of his divine nature in terms of luminosity (prakaf.a),~ recogn itive reflection (vi.lnarsa)" and the experience of the resultant bliss of unity (s.an1.urasya), These three aspects l)if the divine nature of Palramasiva are rete rred to as the transcend ental triad I( para- trH~ul). The concept of luminositv explains rhar the Absolute as consciousness is PL\ re 1., and it ts on e ac cou n r of light that the manifest is revealed. It is in the COTI,'t:Ext of this explana'[ion thar consciousness as ligl1.t is inrerpreted as C011.Sti tuting [he Si va aspect of ~th,e,Abso~ure (<<nut'tara) Insofar as the reflective aspect of I [he Absolute is concerned, il: I explains the phencmenology of ik S-ii" ", 3_ ,"_E''T-h T'fLaa.lVlsm, '. m its d.og- consciousness as simply 'not being a, « matte formulation, has postulated wi tnessi ng consc icusness, but a an in termed iary tri nity (Pll rapara- : consciousness that knows itself as tri,lta) in, terms. of the three absolute "I" through reflection, which denotes the dvnamicnature of the powers 0 f t'hie A:'~ -1'-'[)So,ute~1 antd- t'h- ,',e,v Absolute. It is through this selfare win. (iech,a) ~ knowjedge (jliana) h d' .'tnm,arsa".' t-at and acticn (kri.ya). A, yo,gi who" appre hencung power (' the objective world outside one's through contemplative introvers u'bj ec ti v~ty is experienced :3S being sion and absorption, realizes three f' non- diffe 1. ,e-r'entrom one s ownpowers within, recognizes thereby being. As Ego, ~t is spoken of as the that he is essentially non-different olf ,~um,[ n,QU,S from, the Ahsol ute wh ich ~s po'w'~"r (f'aJcti) (pra,k aSt11H,ayi) co nsciousness I( ci ti) ~ Paramasiva. At the level of religious sentiment, these three powers are 'The absol ute Iden r:itV' of ligh t and depicted 'as representing the three reflection of consciousness L:S falces of S,mva" These plowers are spoken of as the bliss of ontological 'made use of as a.princLplle lof unity (sama"'felsya) ~It is thi S ontolog;, h vern'f"tcatron w~t·'h regarnd- to t_. e ical unity which is accomplished by a. true: yogt in terms of his submersanctity of a vo,gi as to whether he 'has realized them. Thus verifying gence (saml~Ive§a.) in the Absolute, Th us is es tab lished expe rient ial~y the sanctity of a yogi in terms. of the acquirement of these 'powers that the nature' of the Absolute authenticates the spin tua 1 ty of a inherently 'hi;, non-dual, and what.i true yogi. ever dualistic experience's we have


perceptually or conceptually, they occ ur 0'0. accoun t of extroversion of consciousness, This very fact may 'be explained in this manner, The absolute purity of consciousness, which is characterized 'by sarneness, is disturbed 'when. the outside content, in the form of perceptions and mental ideas, invade the realm of consciousness The purity of consciousness, thus, is tainted 'b,V the conrents lt receives, in the f6,:rrn of ideas or images, through perception from outside, This blemishing of the purity of consciousness resul ts in experiences tha tare dualistic, It is upon freeing consciousness from its contents that primordial purity is restored to it, and thereby is experienced the nature of Being inunitarv terms. It is in terms of scrneness that the luminosity and the reflectivity are viewed as being 'tW'OI aspects of' consciousness, which denote's their identity.


are other types of trinities like the Trika 'yoga; 0'[ 'what may be




termed as the soteric methods or


ways ('uplliya) 'of salvation. The Trika has devised mainly three W'Qj1,S of sal1Jation~, which are the Way of ~ Siva (§,ambl~ava-u,paya)1' the Way of Energy (sa'tt'u=upiiya) and, the Individual Way (aB,ava-upap,a)~ There is a fo'ufrh way, but it technically is no 'way, an,d so appropriately ~s' spoken 'of as the Null Way (a11UPa:,lll) Th. ere is also a trin i.ty that is on tological in nature, and, therefore has a. direct bearing upon, the meaning of existence itself The T rika holds a hierarchical view of existence in 'terms of dive-rsity" diversttv-cum-untty, and unity .. These stages of existence correj


ma.ya. vid)"a and sak:-i, M,ay'a is conceived to be such a power by which th Absolute


he marrifesrationa diversity, whereas as knowlledge' terminates :n the experience of both diversirv and unity, Insofar 3.5 the stage ,of sCl,kt.i ~sconcerned, it is no-different from the Absolute, actualiaes

and so accordingly is, considered as
the embodiment of unity. There is also a trinity with regard to the

existerice-In-: he-world. To the extent an individual being remains tied to the peg of the W{1r~, tt) that extent h, 'is considered as being in bondage and one of '[he three impurities (n~ala) or a~l of them determine together the bound condition of the individua .' The impurities are of the nature of actio' , (l(aTlna)l, lor are atomic (dl~ava)~ 0 delusory (?naYl)la) (13). Even 'the worship of th Goddess is offered in three forms. The Goddess, at [he stage of transcendental unity, [5 worshipped as, para~ devi, and at the stage of unity ..indiversity, She is worshipped as p'a1a,p,a,ra,~devi, When it comes to the phenomenal stage, She is anrhropomorphized and so is worshipped as a,para-devi.. Even the

e ed purely from a doctr irial viewpoint, 'to give the appellation of Kashmir Sa.ivism to the Trika Saivism that developed in Kashmir. This nomenclature was" for the first time, made use of by J.C~ Chart rjee in his book, namely, KashHtir SnClivlsm. As already poi:nted out elsewhere, th Saivism of Ka~;hrnir is both philosophically and theolo ~tcally kn wn a the Trika on account of it dealing with a variety of conceptual tttnities, The diffused state of ph" losophical ideas and rel.igious practices we'reul t imat e ty brough t iriro the embrac _ of the Trika 'b1y one of the greatest Saiva thinker, namely, Abhinavagupta. The Trrka, thus, boas integrated into i s ambit such philosophical ideas and religious practices as tho s e o f the f'I:atyabhijll,a Spanda, Krama and Kaula,

of th, $,iV4-lut1'a", it we're Agamic texts that formed doctrinal basis of' the Trika. canonical texts, the Agamas considered to be revelatory nature, and 50 non-human origin. Ln the commentary on

the the As are


of th"f!' Agam'as texts the Mali. _[vija'ya-vaTtika Abhinavagupra 'has
this to, say concerning the ete mal origin of he Agamas: ere , ion, of, to be m,or~. spe'c iflc, man' festation, 'is . of two kinds, 0, ne re lates to sp eech and the other ' 0 subs ance (tJ,acya ..vacaka'I ~

atmaka,). Speech is 3150 repres··n ed two kinds, ~ ivine land


human, The Saivagarnas are the ivi e speech and as such are the
man ifestaj ion of trie Supreme self-reflec ion (vir.nurs'a).



'The Tnka S'aivis,m of Kashmir, in its P'fatyabhijfia~ Krema, Kau'~a forms"
began to take a coherent shape from the eighrh century onwards, 'which is the time when Vasugupta composed the fundanle'n,tal text, namely, rhe SivuEsittf,a. It is, a. text ~n which such bas' c religious themes have been presented that are constitutive of the main heological framework of the Trika. With the emergence of this text a large number o,f philosophical and religious texts were composed and the ideas and practices that were 'pres en tied, in these texts remained in the state of diffusion, till the time of Ab'hinavar~up'ta~ It was A' "hin;a.vag'upta who synthesized all the scattered ideas and practices of the Trika In his magnum opus: the Tantraloka. Prior to the emergence

as different fr .m [he individual s lf-ref crion, which is rl e cause of ordtna ry hUffi8.:11. spe e.c h. Speech, has an eternal exisrenee in a state of identi ty with [hie Transcendent I(para,), Th Aga'mas are but divine spe ch, md as such they also have similar et mal existence. According ro '[he Tnka, thus the re can be nothing like the' or 19ln 0'( S~a a.mas. The re is only ivag appearance or reappearance of them ['tl e d ivine will,

three powers of Siva,~nam,etV1 will, 'knowledge and ac io , collectively known as amba" co' respond ' 0 the three divine Energies, which" are Jye~[ba, Rau!drIJ and Vama (14)~It is
through these divini ties that t'he "", three' powers of Siva are actualized, or should we say that Siva] while assuming the forms of three Energies, expresses himself through iem The ,Agami.c Sources It is absolutely erroneous, t, consid-

Traditionally it is believed tha the Agamic texts" upo'n their disclosure, cons is'-ed or iginan.y of nine crore verses, Ini tially Siva d isclosed these verses '~O one of 'his own manifestations, called Bh:airav,a~ It was fr,om Bhairava that the various accomplished persons (siddha,s) and yogis rece ived '[his d ivi I'e lore" Since 'this [lore could not hie divul ed to non-iniriates, .0 competent Guru OI' spiritual master imp rted it in secrecy tO those disciples whom 'he considered to be



qualified for its reception, In the t . rocess of this impartatinn p from 'Guru to disciple a aJrtsidlerable I number ·of verses were lost. The! total number of verses that were lost in the process of impartation from Guru [0 disciple are said [0 I have been non, less than eight crore, Whatever Agam·tc lore remained, rut was am:last imparted by Guru, one of the preceptors, to h,LS eight disciples in accordance with their mental and spiritual capabihties and the eight disciples a.r:e Daksa, Sarnvarta, Varnana, Bhargava, BalI, Simha, Vinatabhu and Va§ukin:a,ga~There is an another tradltional belief l which thinks that some' of ~'he I verses had remained hidden in the h eavenly abode from where Ravatl),a the demon-king, retrieved them. These verses somehow reached bibhlsana 'who, in turn, gave. them to Rama, From Ra.m.a the 'verses passed on to Laksmana, from. Laksrnana to, Siddhas from Siddhas [0 Dariavas, from Danavas to Guhyakas, and from, Guhyakas to

S,eei'ng the 'miserable and pitiable' - of himself as being the twentieth . descendent of Traivarnbakaditva, condition of mankind, Lord Siva; nut of cornpassiori, incarnated who, as pointed above, is consid"" himselt as Srikanthenatha who, in ...ered ~5 the historlcal founder of the Trika. Somananda adopts complete turn, asked sage Durvasas to revive silence w,~,t'b regard tOI the first the Agamtc knowledge so that
,;} .


The above explana tion concert ung the origin of the Agamic lore give's lJS the traditional history from the time of the Golden Age (:ullyayug{~,) to the time of OUT own age, which is known as the,3,te Agel' (l<aii=:nlga) (15)" This divine lore of the Agamas is said to have disappeared upon the emergence of the Degenerate Age on account of the retirement of the accomplished people to the soltrude of the forest. 'Upon the disappearance of the
Aga.mic texts, there followed a period in the hist,oty of mankind that was totally envelo ped bV the ". kf ~ S'p~:rltua.I-d ·,ar,,:ness D'_.· great d .. ~_e'ns~ty.

mankind may nor completely be lost to spiritua] darkness, Sage Durvasas accordinglv revived the Agamic I knowledge into three classes, namely, dualistic, 'mono-dualistic and non-dualistic texts. Tbe sage" u'pon. this classification of the Agamic lore, imparted this. knowledge to his three mind-born sons, ., namelv, Traivambaka, Srtnatha and Amardaka. The non-dualistic k.nowl.e dge was irnparte d 1[0 Tratvarnbaka, whereas morrodualistic knowledge was given to '" Srmatha. Insofar as Arnardaka is concerned, he is to have been taught those ,A.g:amic texts that contained duallstlc knowledge, There is, however, another ,A,ga:mic school known by the name of Ardhatraivamabka, which means 11.alf=,of..,Traiyambakaj No defirute information concerning this school L~ available. This school most probably must have descended from the side ofTraiyambaka's daughter,

fif' een preceptors, He begins 'his account from the sixteenth preceptor, According to him" the sixeeenth
descendent of Traivarnbaka was Sangmaditya, and. then. fon.owed. Varsad[ty:al Arunaditva, Ananda and Somananda.

Som\ilnan.da w·as the CDn~empOTa1Y of .. d ' · KG t ..... ,ll-a~a"bh a~~a, w.h 0., l"·rue.: ..dUT,l:n;g t h e fflgTl
I'. '
,I .I :." I:
..!I '. ".

I .'









of ,f\'i.\}anti~)arma\fl.1(855·~883J. (.17). As

S~"mt[na.n.da, l~'[v~ddUTl:ng' n.ll'lth centttry and tva 5, the nuent';e1.h, des ce nden" of Tf'i)!tUl1,ba'(fl~ it woul.d not be tVTong ,['0 as 5l~ me' th at Tm i ,n'm ba,ka must h« ~},e. l:iued ~n th.e beginniflg of C~~.ttstianera, What hQP'pened fr',om th,e;' thne, o.f TTaiyambak~ to ~the time of Vn.sug'ttpla.~ ,the author of Ir-he. Sivasurra Ultt.h regard ,to' t.he de1)e'I~OpHlent of S,aivism in Ka,Sh,nir is d;iff;icu,~t to' t,e'U.

As the Trika Saivisrn of Kashmir traces its 'historical lineage ro Traiyambaka itself 50 it is also known as the Sc b o o l of Traiyambaka. Insofar as the ether two schools are concerned, we know very 111tle about their histor i t cal antecedents, There is a tolerable ~ account to be' fOllnd, in. the Sivadrsti (16) of Somananda concerning the preceptorial line of ["he: Trl:ka,. In this text Somananda, [he first exponent 10-£ the Doctrine of Relco·,gni,ti.o'n. I{ pTa tYlab'hijl11~');, speak's
II I.!I !





It is probable that Si:ril1n·k~l'ra., who, is supposed to have lived in the eighth century, rnust jtave exerted some 'krn.nd of influence upon the formation of non-dualistic philosophvof 'the Trika, It is believed that he , '. . h· . ... visiter d'_ t· .e va.·~'1 0,f Ka sh mI.f. ·('18·) 'I' ey and. d uring his Vi5,'~t (if it ever took ··1 . . ..), ne mustt d et tmteiv h·ave l' f'.t . ,-,. .' ·- ·1··-. . . p,ac€;: t .e some marks upon the local religious milieu, Samkara, being the '![ systematic expounder ofVedan.tic monism, must have found a ready audience among the Saivite·s, in the valley who, too, were inclined towards ;3, philosophy of nondu al ism, Moreover, Samkara himself accepted the authority of I "A t he si .~ srxty- f'our morustic , sgamas amd e refers to them ~'n his, Sauflda'fya',' m _," . .







'l -






laha'rt Whatev,er be the truth. with regard to his vi it to .. -'hmir, there remains ,h.IE fac' rharjhe Vedanta , of Samkara as. w,e.ll as the Trika Salvism of Kashmir firnl1y adhere to

the notion that it is the all-inclusive Absolute that is the source @f aU phenomenal entities, 'This does not however mean that both the

as spanda and pT,at:jl1(;!hhijfta (20) ~ Vasugupta along with his disciple Kallatabhatta inserted the priricipie of spu,ilda (vibration) as the fun,dam.en al or basic nature of the Absolute. Another contemporary of Kallarabhatta was Somananda who, inhis Sivadrsti (21)~ prepared

theof gy (26)., The earliest A,gamlc texts CIO .tained such religjous
viewpolnt that were dualiseic through and through. It is only in some of the later Agamic texts that the no'n-duaH$[h:th~nking 'with 'regard to the nature of the Absolute is given prominence, and some such texts are the Malini1) also kn.own as the MaL.i:nfvija,otta.fa~




Schools have similar or identical urrdersta nding ccncer ning the ontological s atus of phenomena, There exists at vi tal diffe'r,en.c.e between the: two Schools on
matters of ontology and epistemology. One of the basic differences concerns itself with the nature of the Absolute itself For the Saivites of Trika persuasion the Absolute ~5 not only PU('E conscious ess, but also is l-coneciousness, which denotes that its nature is characterI'

the ground for the development of what has come t.o be 'known as the p h i l o s o p h Ic a l Scho',ol of Recognition (pr,(ltyabhijfiti-vada) ~
Both the savants, while giving birth '0 newer forms of phil sophical rh mki ng, assert that they follow the reltgio-pllilosoph ical frame-

SVlac.nanda., Vamaka, Sid.aha etc" Whatever philosophical thinking ~5
DOll tined.

i"n these



work fth.eTri'ka(2Z)~

The Sivas~utJa

ized by' an. inward throbbing. Unlike the Advaita Vedanta of Samkara,

(23), on account of its impor ance, has, been given he canonical status and as...r such is considered by a. believing Saivite as being of revels tory nature. I-n order to en ranee the revelatory character

received new vigo , r with the appearance of the Sivasutr.a, The ". S tvasutra, being the fou.n.da t ional texts of the Trika, has been c mmc nred upon profoun d lv hy Bh.askarat and Ksemaraja in their respective leo me taries called [he 'Varttika and Vi1nursini (27)~
Textual Sources

the T:rtka Saivites view the objective world as the real manifestation (abhasa) of the Absolllte~, which means that th'e world though an " f~1 . f appearance, ~s a rear1 renecnon ot he Absolu .e, Thus tile Vedanta theory of illusion" vivar,ta) is totally rejected, It is th ~s ki:nd. of revo] uI' 'I

of the. text,

the Saivites



tionarv view of the Absolute that distinguishes the Trika Saivism from thee monismofSamkara (19).

Even, though the essenti l features of Trika thought may be traced to ,. A'gamlc tex .s, yet It . so'me unportan t .''.
developed vast philosop iical
literature' of its own independent of the Agamas, The first and. the mort . h~ . 1 ..portant . slue..' In d ep ·n·derr text ~s lent the SitJ',asutT,a of Vas, .gupta, which lays down the basic philosophical " rinciples of the Trika, and whicl ulrirnatelv find their appropriate' expression. In such technical terms

resorted. to such a form of my' h as a: mode of explana .ion that would establ ish irs su pernatural character. According to' Kse ".araja, Vasugupta .. had a dream in which Siva mforrned him that he would find the text inscribed on. a big' boulder on the' M'ahadeva m o u n ta i (24). Vasugupta went to the- said mountain. and, according to the tradition, found the '[ext of the Siu,usutr,(l inscribed on a 'big slab of stone, May be on account of this supernatural origin ' hat the text is consider ..d as an Agama (25),.

TIle texts n at constitute the ·[heo· basis of the Trike are known either as the Agamas or
these canonical exts are vast, varied and complex and quite a number of them, due to the

exigencies of been completely Dr partially lost. The tex S that are no more extent are known frolffi quotations which later com -entators made, use of in their seminal works".The most irnportant such -exts that are constitutive of the Trika are the Vamaka-tal1tra, Sid(th,a~·ra·n'tra and the Malj'nf.-'
vijaya-,ta11tf,a. The f~rst two texrs are

no more

available '" Jayra ha

It is nat

tho truth 0 ,say " Saivism in Kashmir, prior to
far from

thee S,i'vasutrtl" was more theological in orientation than philosophical Ion account of its dependence on
such Agamic texts that were, for all practical purposes, treatises on-

exten sively quoted from Siddha=.tiJl'ltra in his Viveka on the . thl.tralol(u. Insofar 'as the Ma!.in i~,a IS concerned, it is available par iallv The present
printed text seems [0 be a part of a larger tex "This conjecture is based

'. a. the

upon the fact that a large numb -r of verses of t us text have, reen quo' ed


in he TalltT'ILl,tokat and quite 3 number of them are not [0 be found in the text that is vailab] a p esent (2B)~ It may safely, therefo e, assumed [hat printed ext that is available may 'have forml~d the e nd - pOI tion (uttara,-bh~g-a)1 of t:'he text calmed the ,Mathli"'llija)a~tan rrz;

(remained incomprehensible. As the la ter comrnentai ors have n. t commented 'upon this. comment IfY'

of Abhinava


the text of this

as is Ram,a,ka,ntha~5 cornmentarv, ~111 nametv, the 'V(iftika.. Vardraja, being the disciple of K~elnjlia.ja", has nothing'new to' say; he rather
II •

Next in importance to the Agamic ~ texts is the Sivusut'ra of Vasugupta,
ideas, like ,Spal1.a,a anel pratyabhijf1il, are p. tentiallv found in this text, l ~s thts 'ext that is responsible for giving rtse to the Spallda ~.. era ture, and the firs t, aru the most important, text of this. genre is the Spol1dla-K.arika of K3~1a.~a.bhB!~~,a~ Upon [he ernergence of the SL asiL ra and the Spa~u,da-I(afika canl)e into existenc .. a vast amount of commentorral literature, Mos of this kind of literature is of forma] type and the importan commentaries of this ~ class are the Si.,vasutra~var 'kaln of Varadaraja, Sivasu:tJa-, afrika 0 B,h,a~tabha.skara, Siva,su t ravil'narsin,i of K~lemarajla, Pratrim5ika-vilJaTa,1~la of Abh inavagupta, ~ ViJna rUlbhaira,vaudd)iot.a of Sivopadhyaya, ~ StJaccha11d,a~uddyota and ,NetTutantra-uddyota of K~e'ma'faia,., The important commentaries that are informal · re the SpuJldu=lcarika: of Kallatabhatta and the ,MaJi11I-vijyCivii1tika of Abhinavagupt a, The [atter commentary throws much interpretative light on the most important esoteric doctrines of Tantricism, which, in rh abs nee of such a commentary, world have philosoph


who most probably lived durin . tho lei,ghth century. The 'necessary

cornmen tarv is 'qu ·te ab tr use to the one 'w·ho has not been initiated within .ne sacr ..d tradition of Tantricisrn. The esou ric significance of certain Tantric terms is also uri-understandable due to, the lack of a reliable glossary, Thi commentary is one of the 'most important works of Abhinava that has co e d wn to us. It is believed that p rio r to Abhlnav'a, Kalla~abha~~al 0'0, composed two c ommenrar ie on the ,Mu-,linl-

repeats verbatim his teacher, Another important commentary of Abhir avagupt: is the Vivara~a on th, Pa'ni;tT!'sika, whichis believed to be a chapter of the Rudraya~nlala., This 'text deals, wi h such esoteric practices of Tantricism as, for' example, ina,l i'11~ m.ritr1<Q and fa'nbhava-~oga" Prior to th is commentary of Abhinavagupta, l is believled, that Somananda had 'h" WTl ' en a, comment cary upon '.. .18 text called Vr.tti, which however is 'no more available Even though 'he ViVOTU11lJ has been written in at lucid • Sty~IE, even then some esoteric practices remain as obscure as thev have always, been.



viJ,aya=tanlTa, namel v, the MadhuvahivlI and the Ta,l[Var,th,fj·cintam,al~i~ Unfortunately both these works of Kallata have 'not so , far been found, Ir goes to the credit of Kallata who, for the first time, collected the essential lines of thougllt of the SiV(lS-Ufra '"n his Spanda~kiirika and Spa'nd,asarva,Sva .. ,h.e line f interpretation that



Kallatta initiated concerning the nature of Reality was later O'D, taken up by Bhaskara in his commentary "" called Var£ika on the SilJasut'ra~ The commentary of Bhaskara on the '" SiVQ,sutTtl is qui .e difficult to follow on account of i' be ing quit. abstruse and complex", This cornmentarv, in comparison [0 the commentaries ofK~etna!'aja and Vardaraja, does not engage in fanciful interpretation, and so' follows authentically the spirit of the Siva.stltra ..This commentary of B~laskara, moreover, agrees with th VW ews of t~ e Sptlndas'arvas'Va of KaUata a.nd the Spa:nda~tJli'vrtti of

The treatises , that are contemporaneous to the: ,Siva.Sal'ra~ and have at 'the same ti'· e urvived hie historical oblivion, are i he two texts 'of Kallata, namely, the Span,da~karik,a, and Spanda-sarvasva .. The former , work explains the' basic doctrines of the Sivasurra, particularly [he dl . rine of "vibration" (spand,a), The pu,rp 'se of the doctrine of vibration 'is to' explain [hat the Absolute is 0 the' nature of vibration, which philosophicallv speak.



Ram "aI. anrh ~ Th ouzh the cornm en tarry f K~emaraja~name'tYi the Vimar§tni.~1 rnav be much more
(]I. ~ ,'. -. '. 'I
i! .•

01 iii



10 '







popular, it however





ing, means that cogni ion is the basis of recognition, Whe,n, this principle is applied to the Absolute, it means that ehe Absolute is not simply consciousness, but a. consciousness that knows itself The Absolute, thus. is seen as having two aspects: Light (plrakasa,) and Cognitive Reflection or what is caned l-ccnsciousness (vimar,sa), which, at the level. of theology, are

expressed 'by such terms as Siva. and Saktt. Insofar as the tter work. ·s concerned, it is a par phrase of the philosophical verse' that Kallata


a smaller work on [he Sp'andal<arika, namely, Sptl,nda~sfandolha.,
Ap1art from the above texts, there







to o






e c t lv ,

Abhinavagupta himselt compose' a
version of it narnelv, the. 'Ta11trasura+ There is an another work WhOIS'f' authorship, is ascribed to' Abhinavagupta, namely, . he


himself composed, ThE line of philosophical interpretation th t Kalla'~aenunciated concerning the
in these texts was later follow,e d 'by such wr iter s as Ramakantha a nd. B·has.ka[9!~ ••

are number of ether important rex S that deal 'with the Trika doctrines extensively, The most
such impor cant work is the


The .~ pand a=J(.Q Ti1{ri of Kall ta has many scholarly commentaries to its credit" One such comm ntarv is the Spa,ncl,a~pradi'pika of Utpala Vaisnava, This commentary of
Utpala 'contains many quotations from another work of Kallata, namely, the Ta,ttvart,ha-C"i11liini,QUI' ~ which is, no more avai lable , Wh31[ever gaps, if there ar any, may be found in, the commentary of U: pala, have 'been br idged by Ramakantha in his V:iVTtt.i~ Another extensive commentary on, the
'I!! .!! E!'I

- '.!' 'S'p::an da- k art,l(a _.. ts :

S'p '. trhe:,-'an d a~ 11i'r?:la,a of Ksemara]a ... e also wrote H

enc)i'clopaeaic Q,n.triiloka of Abhinavagupta. Th.le: Tantralol<a itself cannot be understood. It i51 need of such a commentary that will enable the reader to under .. .tand the secret aspects of Trtka SalvLm. For unarelv we' have such a commentary in. the form of Vive1,a of [ayaratha .. In th.e absence of such a commentary it would. not have been possible to understand the various Tantric traditions with which Abhirsava 'has dealt, It seems , at Subhatra Datta]-"he teacher of JayarathCl~ had also written a commentarv on the Ta~ltraloka.. Unfortunately this commentary has been los (29). Realising that the text of the TantTQ,loka m,CtYnot

'TantTa-'1Ja~a.,-d,hanika. Wh,ether thi . worj c is by our Abhinava or by his cousin of the same' name is an,
dispute among [he scholars. This work, how ver, is a summary of the Ta'ntfasara~ work in [his direction 'hat has come .town to us after Abh inavaguj ta is he Maharth,a~rn"afijrarf, along with . he
c o m men t a r v

unse tt le d

The other important



Mahesva rananda Also should bile included such works in this genre of lit,erature as, the Maha'llaj!'a~prakasa tJf Si;ti1,al),~hl.l,~ the VtllnQ I.e iva 11mara of Ja)1aratha, the K,a1naltala

vilasG[, of PuQyanan.da., and Yo g i tl! - h r d a :, [J - d IPI'i "ti Am rtijn:.,a'l,da;;


[Io be' c1ontinued,,~~]1

'1{eferen.ces: L J.C.'Ch.~v'u~rj'ee~ Kashmir Shaivism, Srinagar, 19l81,' ~. Whi~e the various hr'1rlchc5 af Tantrlclsm were clrher d ualisnc, du~]is1t'h:-cum·li'tion~dun1Hs[&c 0,[ non-d ualistic i~ 'was, the endeavour of Ahhinilvugupta 1.0 mterpret these d i' Celr'~l1t Ta'l1rric vi "wp-ai.ntS! in such n 'manner as would be reHgioudy ~htlistic. . ,- d phUoso,phh.:aHy moniscic, The Trika, rhus, is both theistic ~nd monistic Ir is thelstlc in rh sense
that the Absolute is ~ OF. as lmpersona] as is the Brahman of Advnlta Ved an [a. The Abso 1u re as Dod is ac [ive an d fu ncr ions [ike [he p ersena 1 God of t:he1~im~ '[he same time '[his tJoJ as Abseluoe is i:ruerpreted ~n At mnniaric iPerm!'i w[,icn. m~ans no orher reaUtey . xisrs apart frum the

TA.! 1.35 1.7 -n, 1..3; Z,Sl-96'~ 2.18"6; 2:,)], 'lil.. A real Slddha, according ro A.bbi rnl"ll;t g1l1J'[~] is ~ person who IS in pcssession of rhe foUow~IlC qunl:it1,eli: (a l he should have control over


14, l5< 16. 11

whicb denotes [!he pcssessjon 0 Qccut powers; (b) he mus" he a devotee of S]V3~,(c) he must he well-versed in [he scriptura] Lore. and (d:) he, as : possessor of occulr [H,:nNffS must be ahle toperfurm occult powers for the good of RU, T A 9,65~66" 6. 9~ 9..] 39:'n f,(1p"·n,tJ.abh,lJ~~ii I(hen ce forw a rd I P) I 10;

cllie en,ernal


Tilntrt1loKCI-l!iue/cQ! (TA.V)r 4'.50 T AA 36.381 ~B8 SitJMnri (3D) J 2.'lli 7.1.0;liZ; 2.1]8 ..19
R.ajarar,(l1lgflT, ,5,66 Ui oS a m kti ra -di.glJ'ijB.,t,R 16.54·-80.

Absuhrre. In onloiogica]
experience ot Trika aDVOCah!S

exists between cnnstitutlve of 'the world. Since

rerrm iT impltesthut [10 essential difference rhe Alhst}Iute and rhe rnu h:i:pl ,divef.;.;i'ry [haC is

is one, so 'I~means rhar the ,J:Lversiry C0!rLno,[ he said to he u]timalel'y real. T}~lLSthe

rhelsm and abs.~Jluthjm See for tur.dler details .. M.o[l.l3.~Pandlir ~Tra,€.l S{'livi~ni of Kushlnir~ New Delhi, lOQ.3, p..5~6

19'" K.C. Pandey, ,A.bhivagu·p.f'~l. V~ranas[, 1963" pJ4J., This is wha[ Chatles Eliot has to' ~ay concerning the content of Kashmir
Belivism: "In K'Hshmir it was chiefly phHo~oph~c, in Dravidian
countries chieflv religious, In {he south ~rcallson Go . 1[' : he]p rbe sinner DUr of [he' rnire, whereas rhe scl oat of Kashmlr, espechlLUy in. its later development, resembles the doctrines of Samk,~nl,~ though its te:rm~nolog'y ic,S, lts owo. "H.incl1dsm. and B1J.Iddhism~

3m Moti Lal Pandit~ The T1,m~aSufvLun, ,af Kashl'nmT! p.]S~, n ..L6 4. Ibid., n, l7. 5. [bid", n.l.S,.
6~ Concerning

'[he five faces


of Br::ruhm311· (bndlrna~l)llflr.nlu~J ~-iree C'(p~lfliri]j N'ew 'DeJhi., 1998 p.3~ n. 29' T~nTu·~loka(TAl ll. 40-4l

or Si'V:C'\J which

arealso known as ~lbe. pentad MOlt~ LoJ PJJrtdit In: ~.d€ntiIJ Itl

:replin~J' New Dle~hi200~~h 2~114

Sf, Malil1i ~.f'ia'd-1JarltaUII r(MVV) L 160-66

2.0. R.G. Bhnn.darknr Va~~t].avism, S~ivi- m and MinorReUgi.,~.u. System5~ .Peeu a,192,8" p.129 .. lL [blcl.~, p.13D.


Ib d.

10.. Ih~d.


See M~dhu5t1dan .K.aurs ~ntr(Jduotion roSD,p. Iii.

· cq FCfd'ftt t?ue' 11q en

«1~' ~"\~
,~ _,'

(1 ~'




1s:t1' m'~' ~ !i.111rii\ 'qi '"ffi1 ~~'8~ i ,.i. l1 iBl!5~ ~'-~-:q t1.IIN- ~ 'Q6h,H6,: -'"tJA\i1~,1
, Ji];{{'i



'~(fJn~T'loHq"-\~ qft ~ ~ ~~(Uf-~~ff q;(~' ~~ ~~-M ~1l q;.1 !l,~'t-"~Il=ijl-'~'~, ~rLi1iifil~'-qrcift11 , ~


t1 '~H~Jil(1',~\4'~ if ,
'f~~ =--r---r--\ ~ctll q,~,
~tik1\i11ff ~


~') ~ ~'-

('l4til~ff-t1~K'~ -;ffl on1)~, (~~
,rtpS1ld I ~ I

ilfit:-~' ~

-q ~S"(h

l-1!f(d1f ~~

't1ft1{1 ql~lct,c:nJ 'li~IRl6~~

'!rl cii q '(1
- ,~ ''i;


3fR' 3N<11q {""q,:r ~I~ft~MIFq, '1~rr~F~;a ai~fU~ <. tu I q !aCi1l '~ '~ I

t 'itt =n
~fj.fli q:rr ~ ~


m,~'~i(U! '"lfW i' 1%'S?I
.~ ~


(1?3I"4II'qlq~1)~~''q'~' ~

11 m'


crnfi ~~tIT~


~11',(ll' t~q

j!a:n1~ W"2f1l 'lfjricflH:I

,tt l(fitU


iIT~ o~C1r:a;~'m)




rir '4t

~ROY .~

ft ~ tt


(i4;<I'~llf=tfi) "t 3fR~I~jt~{ ~Itft


~1\!I1 ~

if{qti1-qr~-~ ,'l:I(,uU11141 F4
Ql;q,q: ','I Ii1(4
( ~ ) :(i,{U~II;U'1( ~

'lH~-fl ij54I~'Fq' l,~~Gq{f

',~I'(,U f


1faT: ~~ 'fi<tiji P3h ~~t'l~] ~U
t1~ ~f4' !tii'11~: ~- ~:


';qj qt1I'~

~ I«(q~~I:i~f !1(i 'l3"1 Ftcit E\h I~ IkH{ (' 4''5 ~ 1

<,~: )


- ~'-

a;rfi:r) 'q \i1 \4 ~



(Sq·Gi" ~'I


dme"blI FCI'1i4 ~auf*tfllllcq~<d(f

'iPi' ;nwnfq

Wq l"1iifi4i!iQl1N

I'!;!'i2I{U II1.1




a1,;q it:


I~ I~ i:4'~ q,


H ~~n1?b q 1'



~,r ~i



lftm4ff q;-)


e~~1 Cfi~ ,F~01{q~, ~T


CfPiFl',~1..n,I~~~,', t



i2f~~""iI"'!I"'{T"r'Tru .:



3llf~,~' aTftr' (~Iti~)
F:ij~qI .....

3itnFq ~


a~~fq ({fu g)

fc4Rt"·-f~-f'tf?Jlt ~~~alf'
i\fiq'(~ ~I''! ~,


'fI]qA~~Jitn.~ ~)
~ ~-'"!lrtij

1W1 (~rfu;''i,lli) ~'~f~~ ~~ 'm 4§;qjt4 cifi'8 '{4 &Ill ct ~ ref "141'{ I~ lJ§J 11~~, ~iEh~nsnf~-f~1 'fe(f~1 ~r ~!I~


qrffi ~


~ ~.

~ifd< ~








fillCf ~{QI~lti-ffIq - ~r{ljllfi


anf'1l"lt _. fil$11 (~

"#Ieo"( ~
~rq J

a1fq--qr~ ($I(f'l,-~)) 'OIiII~N'-&,ff ~'-~ 'q;f

GT~ a:r!R~(Rj-3Hi:l41




If ~

t: ltF{ OnJlftet

ffi EfllH


q:; tI un 'IJ

'd~1Pi'-6QI'~1Idl'l (~


iEI"(DI'2fitfitl '3IIIII(H ...."f'I (0 14(fq

fW .fI,JJq~)-S~


fEfl~l'!) ("iijH~ ~J ~ '~

1<1 fElCfi"{ J


~~Jf~') ~ef~;'~


f~~q ~'~I{ 11ncf

~1<UIIJ.radl,«i:tfI ~ " ~. 'i~ -~~~ Cf'i,'Q'MlfCfiti ~

ctl· ~1f~4f ~ a:d(~ii{ ~qCh,~a:IT
"IH tft ~,

an9' 1f;' ~ 1$f an~ ffi' l:f{ ':IT ~ Oflir '.q a:r~

-t' 'ijf{ ~' ~,&ht\q '~:41'q'l"tftTeI eW 'T.J (ij 1* 4 ~1)f
rq1'~ 3i f,q;;j
at ~\~


(-q) +lAf~:, ~I

1tf alii ~
~~ ~


31{{:, ~


'A kl6h)li fl, ~ "2h[' fcrtflf ~ ~


finqr- W dfi ~£f ID1~~I~


r.llcl'! J'



t ~nffi IIifi L ~
-$ "5I'ffi'~
"ijl {U'~ -,06

'l{an~ld-t ll(uU~lldl



if fR6tn ~'~
g Cfi aq

am ~~~\if6 ~6Y'4rij,,!!cif'cfil ~~ICf,Jll

~'GiCfil:R q;y


q(4H<1~iiiiI4Utl Y'!i!, ~-(~

m tt,
'~~ ~(ftI~ ffi

~ - ShlF\Ji1 \) N- ¥lllijl ; Q

t1q -,3i Itqq; ~q,(Ill ICf) 14~.-.



CIt; ~


q;r l'i(U~:EtlI';:r ~
-~~q€!JI~~ ~-~


f~ 'f6ctli 4 '~I°tl a ~llif(g t1~ Cfi ;qf<tll, Pi ~ ijJ ~t1i\qq~fq 'qJlci~(1j'C4 eq,F~'e'C\lf<~ ~:, U311
3f;q~ :-'4'~ICFl lUrciht (~)


,I :er'4'~:-(m~~)

1Qi ("{i' tl'tfjdf) I
~ ~" Ji~It1 ~ -a~q

t 'qJ'~En;<J, ~
~~ a;f I q

em iifiHro.l ~


+i:GJdr('(rlr: ~:


~1a1lctnr ~ I 'I";) ~

qffi' ':(' ~ alR 11(tl n. itj1i~ fq1r{



( diicf~)


31tl!iH'~~ 1Q~ all

(T:[ )

34n!r~- ~

"tTl ~

,4J1f'i1((J ~
Cfil. ff(q,(dl
fc, '~('I~~I



8ilq~ (~)



'~,<Ull,dfilib1J ~

\31'1,1 q, ~~l:~




"R~ '~(UT ~ w lfiq:J(1 n ~ I ~

'q,4;(Q1-t 1=~~lldll'FIL










fffi qI~cl -{f) ~ '14Ci:t In;r-~ '~T3i
~-("a~q) .&i ftsrtH'--;r,:ft



elqf<-vn~f'1ft tHi1t( - TQil {Ff) it')

'~(alr*--tttfl~i 1t1-'·6h·4it1 1

q;l ~ffU

~il i4 {IJ!H~ \itl'9.1--t,q lU lfilF~~j

(1~ ~HitJt1'

( T.f -

am) ,




t!l~~q;1 i1rtdl~'---'. di 611: _'tilf·

~J ~ ,

d 'i q bfi I'{til,Cfi ''1(11,+II '1(fi111 ~ "lf~T(1

r~\i1J I~ it q r~II


ii, ~-3irBiJtf~~
~ ~ ~gd ~


~ fq{r~·qr~i*H{4tA'1~- f.~:P:UY~E4~!q}~1' wflf~ I~5~II
a1 ;ejq;- ~

~ it) 3ilqe5 ~ 3HidilChrt1 ~~'.-rn: W "ij"tt? ~Frcrr5dd m 4 Iai' \l11:~tl{:q~:rF~ 'rq Rfiia~5 flf;;a ~ '~ ~ ,a:rrA- 'ql:,a ~ qi ~ 1Wf (fi'·n~'f)fi1 a~hfu C

~' ~.lliqI1J~


m9r '~!rffi tfKi



(l1,qdh3i,J5~firCh lit:1 3i 141 t111~= 1

5Ififi'h~(qd1 a.:tlr~ca·'l






'~!l{2Rr~~~ dlq'qi-a~rcr~)


~~qCbI"il{fI~ <<Q:qIRl



~~t11 ~

0iIj(4F1(1111~:-a:i-~~ 1:f{

ta ~~

~tttl.,f-q-3'1 qi~n '~

'3=ljflli, ~~lltt~~-,qr~'-'d1I' ~tt. ~

G:q'~L;q" ("{et1f~) I



:ij-~~ aH~6flli{qt'1~:-alF~CfiI(


FdlEhH ~~

( 1A~q~3J!;('~~~fqiji' )'\~ ~

~'~!I ~

@ q~ rf6~itl~I';:;'C(irIi..t.-!"i) 3fifiQ.. 616h,(

";f1{fI" ~

t '~!
F~ltlful~' ~



2A14'eh ~-<ul(&lqll 1~4'f1)~' &llfl1' -qt cf;

'1:Fi!14{- ~'

1Rr ,~

a~T: - ¥




if' ~d6h(, 3f4;fl fEtd;;;{ '~teSl '~ ~je~<-, fcr~lq~

-w, cl


Ft1~SQ:~ ~

'~~-rFr~' if it ~ ~ 'i16.l[ \i[ 1llll~I@~I<1d~h1

m eft)

ql<:-,q·q;\:iI~~·{Ur~Cfi ~f Cflr, ~~3I11~-m,. q

'«(!I~r~tf-;q1§(d ~,

d1f~ifil< ~ ~



( 31 I qEfi'


"'"lI ~ ~

~~~ "1''q,


ileRf,-r~{;;j( 'yf~,
~- I ~-~--" .'''It...
'\ ~~ ~I


'~~. ,itI"

T4(UI~'ChJifl~i cnl' 34iFt~~m) (<<'iqr~,~~@J,a

'~~i*a~lq~ti) dt'ff~,at WICf1.

'rcrfqsj,· rifi~:q1'"Sl'lqr~

f 3l~ ~li1-W) ~

( 3l~



~:;H4~1 'Y'~!,) ~~lff1ii

crrfr ~ 'ffi1J 3i1114c4A aq=4-lI:=-'4~II,6f'l (,'lRf:,) ~~'SII;CbII~lq3E{: m~ -r~~i''q'1 ,:q'(areti1i~ ~ i1ll:fl'"{1d ~ if ~ ~ ~ ~J, ~ f2h ~ if ( ~) Vfd~ ~ 1f14 cit f€1 "iJC( ~ g Cfl ffl d: 'fC1 ¥ : 3lf4 ( 1:Ci) ~ (~ II £I ~n cil) ~ I. d reh I'fl- it c:q GO a~,} 3l~ (=+4 chi ~ t{~rr (Jjlfl) ~ qRiilii>tf; alful. if !'1fi:1Q; ~ ct d(qiliilm ar:I~ <liT fciltlICj em..'. ~.~qij; Pa M y ftI "1 ~ ~, alR' b' m -f~ rei"2" ~ m W"Efil' "'4 ~itfl ~ ~
'Cijfffit1') ~

m~ ~

'qi ~14f.f1t:11 ~~~.I\1~








«~;it' fl

}liCfiI~'~'lq,::tltt :-'~ij1Tfr~ tQ~q

it ~ ~-f~~



(at4~~ ) $I fatq I~ ~"Ci q,Cfi, -=t 1t~ q g

-:;'hfff fl2fi 'eI' 1J.






'~~~1'~; SU9iffid:~ '~':ner ~~ ~,:,-, ~ SQ:I 'qr, ((qf-3"l1'4), (qlll-~)}, ldl~d{:-gp:a~~-i~




'll ~'~
,1dr4t ~ ~ a:1I,2Ptq (f1'ffi


(fif trCii,'~

lichdl tl

MiqUJ ~I(§J' qrn;; f:q~P1;((qrcf' q;it alJ~ ~: lff fblti'li 'if ~ 'Mild m Cffl

b~' ct alfu ~'



~~Iql;;'n3i14t 9Q€hr~14~ 't4,~q ' II qi {'n



ttiq;,) ~ -srrn~' t - 3l~]<l ~J~"~~ g fuf~~It1 lin I il


Fclttfi,111 iji-=~GI1)-f ..

"1121 'fqifE(lf 'qffu' ~

a 1Jf 'ifit\l"iI'1


~ "p' ~

t~ 3«f:

m ~ ftli!t{d\q ~

'Chatl~~', "lJtl' fq~r~C1


a:rrq (~-~




I' -

3i flI r(~ ~

(C\ q eB

t:1 m ~',t~l ,:ft

q. ~q 1:IIrq eti) lCr'ifEi
(eJ2, -qz, 'fu

3t1;q1f!~~T2{ <H~dr~,~·~ ~ ' Ff '~~

~I~!,~ 3ic~~ M&1ll1tiCfdQl ~ ~



tt ~I

m~ ~

lfCi ~

mt ((Cf) fEfft1qtl ~:




,cif1~11IFq {allr~



ilG:q1rQld,~Rt~qdrl ::~ T.f~4~q9)r}q~[~J(~ 1711 -~

1~1I-(tTI~'t1~uW-1) Y!1L a:f~rl,-q{JiIi1~"iIJ a



lNit 'W



qft~ fcM1-'1{~ ij'ifili41~"CfiGl (3l~


~ "ffq;H~6fiII~ __3,,") I" "tJ[q-~~ , -q
~) 1

~ ~ i~'g,I~~l


~ ;;J1ft11 ~'~( ~.~ ~n~



li~~ ~en


iRfu- ~q:;'111~(1 '6~Mll ~ " li{f- ~ (antr ifil 3Jf~ ~~ ~-Gf1 'm~,C~,-~- ~ lEt)) IFq~- M'iTttcl'6h, ~:~ ~-~

~~iet1.), rR{-m


~@~q ilttfi 2f
\;jj 'iq ~Cf

W tEf M'ci1B

Lfi(t16 "5f\]U)'CI'1 ttUf'lttl ~~H:jd4r1i ';f fitif'ilij_lllO II



fCb'(~'dtf'-a:t'PII"tt-~t4;R a~,Cb\

aiR ~

Cfln (iR~,

a:!;q,q :~ 1f1f€ft (''i q d I )




I T(C{'


f~\i1iliriT ~

t "9l~l

31lq"ij1~ '~1ft:ft~




'E6 'fH

~ ~=ar4'1

6fJilRt1': .~

CWP.l \i11C4~q



~ 'd<~d< *,t1iji ~



1J~lf'4' qft' rq'4(Cf'{-t 'qllcifA!1 ('1i4t1'I'-~)"


'cn§ 1-:IT ctf091lf

if 3Tr['l:Urud 61 ~ " ctit 3W( r~(f2:nf~;ft ~ 1:fRft ~ M~qfl,!:fq?J m \i1"fdll ~ a:1tt'~ ~ .dfl,~' iih~~i:b=tafR


-;f l(CI~·tt}
lJf{- ~II

\(4i441 ~'-~q;fl51

~- ~ ~ f1;or~:n~l~ am
• .• 1 •• J

~;~!H (3i!~frRttaJ ~




llrli -v:
, ~i



nn-~ J Cfitl-:::on'~ n,,," (11 . "'"f""'1 ~""n

~ ~'q, 6~

(~) ''1


a~,q-"~Cfdg,a{ attl(1~q
{.,.ql~fMiltr11i"flP=i1T~14'lH:U qff ~




if ~

~ ~ ft ~ '1i3[ ;;q-, fI~,[~~ {'ii,

'Fr'~ '.""

~ cnt '111 ~'\l e I, ~ ~~~

~U\'i - dl:( q ~,( q, (?II ~ I



-qfr Qlfasll ~
tiI+ti4q tg

W tl




(iCfIf~ q{qft-d 1



cl rn 446fllli
4d,iyq;a) -q'H'9H


"CJ\ '~:qIEfi(



ci"J 'ari:fit-~ ~).; f'fifiEl1





~iI,lH alIq'retfl~ ~~' '1Ci ~
Qi;;qq :;- ( 11,111') ~ ~ -39~


lfu' "tJ '6fltl

~~lf I Zf2fr

en 3fCf fgld ¢.f ii, atfu am' rq fiJd tt am: a:{q~l' if ~iiJil it ~ ~ ~ i11~ .q ~).~< a:{~it~ ~~ (·q;lfl) tci 0li611m tt ~c=r~ tr(~I;q,illi"
I~ ~





l~fIj~_') anq -f2tI41' ~


(~llif€fd'iI,~r 1R) WI


'~ (cci) if !!~q12:\lCf I
(.,~~~ ~l11
~1~t{[-3ffRl 'attr{- (3litJ'

~ 31J~

3lT~,(U r cfi" ~

'-q CFITt qi1 m' "iff (? I



ectp:rr")'" '. ,"',

D"lil·-+JiM1 ~ ,J .... -~'-II\,




~I'" "".

q; fit 11)

flcflt-~'EfifJ, ,affil-3IIQ ~ fit fi21C{~9liJ 'iff, ~ ai r~- Itt~~} T

m ~~



Cfi'rsftI ~ ~

~'ltUqEfi~~ ~

i~iJllq dij:tt:11


<Fr' ~sfiJ 1d"fjfl4!d~~lllll


'JT:J' ~

5I~,q;I(j ;q6Ml'-~,



~ '41


a:r;q If:~ ~

d rql€fi: ~

i,qT[ - 'TIcf'


( ~ ·f1,.·:QllJ1-'-f1


,~ cq~auq

1[1 ""ft&4~ij12U a:p:~~X~:R'~i\i~Unq,ll: fqt





'bqqlrt:trn:-H~~q ~-.~, ig6ht:.-34~~'




tt, (~ ... ,I 3irQ)

(\4~Rt) II

~<~.Y6f1e ~~it
T4~-~ IfIm6J{6q COT "ffl(1

~--t ~

L dlqSfi ;- a:1Iqij;

(4 (i\q' '~'~


(t (+ddlflql ~'~) ~~ cnr 3i2:I~t:1f tn ~

~2U' Ciir ~ 'ahq~ ~ Cf;1 ~~:(C\q
C§@' ~ ~

a;t <=,i;~t% 6fi


d"d ij:-~

d ~ e til IUu~ ,j I\JIIIer ~- a:r11"'i:fC\~If I -:'h.r,_ ~ \~::]



~~ ifi:;:-'~~lIif~'~~'fql~ft"id
~J ~~~~ ~,

II ~


31JtfRCfd ~
~ ~


m tJ *t-r\fl\Y,e~
3f1 '4at:i 'q8k1 -R') 11'1,4~ 6fi ell :-

\,JI ~.~I

q;t1~:, ~

~ Id Cfi J

tt~T-~ ~ ~
~ {&~ij, auq

anrqqi '~
C:Hcn '~1''t11 ~

q;r fi=r~f{UIII ~

'fC4tr:eW if' ~

cr~~~i{~~1~11~'~62 (q:;) ~;1!5~ ~)

i:6 hit



Q~ '«I'4~~" ~3f~II'\-l ~2<l11q,1t1 .;;:; ~~

aTftr- ,;fi;


(1f6 I

t ~!


f.ct'f:et;t {(=I qtfiCiI flfu :

'lll~ ~'

tRr$t 11S tgi 41Ref:



'Efi lIDf ~

WJ:) ~Ck1 ~ 11-

~ 3P:rtJ1~1"lf ~'"3.t1Etib2 Sh1fl ~ ~"_'i~1-,"<"""',q;qri-+n \iffffi' t.r F\i1J;lqi 'V~!lrq ~ ~rq q;1 ;q ~rl ~ {C\lq ell trll -q Iij qrnl-~tF qf,f

"iiIi 11~"l1fI ~ if' ~ ~ir

~I~, a-IIrq:t Ilrtf I

fa"lflllr.:, [I~


ti4lltl;q~ '1Cf iiCI.y;q)1 'J11: ~1.31 I~


'it ;qf.;a ~@'1

l~lrqd~ ~ 3i fILl ~I' fEf -!.i IF -aft ~'lf ~I'
'(q~~j' ~ 'q:;·tUrq-

~'li?lli~I1i2 -fr

'\Ill, i ,atf(Cd'


Ir4lft1~RIQti1r:"l:' I
=q1,1Jt1~tq\~UI14 III

i( '~16k1(i\41 ~Idiji f~(*dct "ffi:M
d Alr;y

51 \ifRl ~'~
'l[JT 1{11 qftti1i~14I~I.d':1

"lJ,: ~11:tnq ~S'Jldl::elll:llt(



~ld~1 ,: .orfq


6G.9~ftd: 1i:


~ i,~ { - ~

1:[: -:q

f(rifq a:u ~~, ~ ~


1d4 1~ \5\1!1: If£J1

( -m)

'£I f"lI)fliWq fI ~~an{ltfT

a~t'liR1:. 'filC'lm

'e'JII*iJffiqffJ 112 III

a;rrfief1tl M

m ~ ~ttl' lJ

Iqlht"glffl': ~,

"i:f '1(Ji ~ d

,(4\l~ra (~:)
3f;q~ ::-(,@"JOf~"t) ~,V\~tt1 f



F1'ti1d 1\TtFl ~Irw ''ij

f£f ~:

Cfi""Qlfil 1fI1cl ~'~
't=fCfl2U ~~iFd:


~1~ld: ~


f~41J!11 ~



( eqtt~) ;]1rq d ~Bcf q; t1 fulill

.. Rtf~jf=(,~~q

fi'"iI~~1 ~)




m-~l~:q~ qf~':~1~ ~,

(Cffi(-~' Cfl ql R~r-( ~

'q;) '5H[(f ''Qa:rT1 "'I.ij'~I:


fql,tl1~)J l[ff:-~





~ &h51~
", t_ , ~.

\lIiIjJ ~.\


~{tfttr it-a. fEU (Uf
._ ".' , !!!, ' -','

'if ~



~ •



"If .•_"'\iilIT. tit 614'"- ~ _ I,.


:roffi, ~')

( arfHJ"Hdt) ," \Jlf:~~j{P


31 t1ifCb q:; "

'€11 f.FQl- 3i jU ~_':~1f!11r ~ ~ cf;)

~lli{ lffi=~f!fIq~ r¥Iii\:~1W~~~~3lT'

q; lIlqr:r



4f(,q]tl'l- ('~fl11')

3fll'lt1::-~ Wdi


if) aWJ-~
(IF\- ~);



J. ~




'qtJ I

(3.1Ttr qt
«('q(t- auq


DlJ:c2iFr) ~ ~ ~"-'~


q;l), 'fI~Cii'QI~'~

-q ( afR),


'-« 'g01fd"

011 fCf'tTm~'~ fl!1,Kd ~Iii()· -,,"

'61"tH W


~' Oil (, ~ II ("3'2' ~,~~i~·J ~~ ~ .~ '. 'J, I~

~I·· "t~~~ll 'f!H ~£\I1I' '<'''~ ,,."

~ ~ I'~'I! q'll~.,


litlffa:-~~ dffiC1~-,e.ffi,~ Cfil


e~lltf-fBP#\'q-{i,'~1414 ~~


t"'H:fj'Rr-~(q~ iji{m ~II

\ti~~-¥ cf{!) ~ll ~ 1


31~ QCfil



ctWV ~


,a:Urq~ -yifd (a:tfll'i:u{rrr)


'Fctiijl ~':t'qftli t1't1~l~t' tr~itill

fiHcJ-~·:fiTq-~Zf"F~f'j. ~-;m ('1tfffr) ct7 '~-'iO"tA-t!@'iV~ 1l~ Hlfid~R-~':q~~ if', 9"~1-~~ :a:tI'fi:tt-t~~rt11l~"-~'
(If::)=~ (aff~~
~~l=ii ~ '~)~



q,~11 ~, q(q~t1-'~'~rsa


51~t~ ~a:n;


~~JaqR1-@!Gf itt~,iffi




ftF; ~


1("lffI~~) ,I ~qr;U-'~ ,~,~'I


fqePI~~' ~ qft
lH5t ~

~) if' ~'I-afiqct a4IQChl ~"lIT fJi{Ur ~ aT 3iJ ~q cfi '~Ttlfq t11 qn d t{4lq "t.J ;:n~~' ~ ~
tI'ifid- ("<iii) litJr~1 Cfll ~
f<:r;tll ~ ~ «fl*fil{
~~ 'flo:tidl




qfil ~


tt 3l(J"qq

!, ~ti'111

"4n~~~ san, ~ m~~ ~ lir aT!lI(I~ '~11~IJI iffi >ii1ldll3Tf Jliq;"" ~I<ii:{ arm~ ~"iiIi q &e;1Iif mtIlf(.'1 ~

(t vf ~(

q d ~~C1 !)


r~ f41:fqi nJ Fq

f~~if1';C; I



q;l ~

-q''1ift', ~

CfiI qaY"! ~

" ;ill foll!)'IG:lllllltr
gO{ 41 ("q !lwOFil 3'1~

cfi 3111"<

6j'i !'II


mm t I

'ill ~ I"5flI1W,I-or~ ~iCflitl( iift1r;t!hll;'q;i m£l ~, "if m ~Rd tmn l\gffl t ~ ~'ftrq' fla;;



(-s) 2fiqllFq t:1;CM·qr=~~Ii:1~~ ~~f·tfP:u~t ~~ (11) 1if:qlJI~!'

'if ,_a:jiffi:J..... 3i 'id lIPfl a:r I9liifl it'll "fr

;q ;:s;: 'II ~

qW'd 1fCflftti"f
31ljd(<< $~

{ll d I

~~~~"EfiT ~n


alR 'ir~~

~ffC{Q ~'~lcihl:d(


dTiffJ!:1 clI "en (dl~ ~'6d I (f6f{~1 )iicRrtf.f~J
\lrl~Cfi II (




(:it f~ (



311,!i~ fJFr

fCh'lfq dtifi~ ~lf "q1~nl21



f1'(;.a;( ~



51 II

,:urtlf~fftlftT.: Il1611
("tiM: "ldltl ~


-q V16t~lm qft m d'&4d( ~i3fir ~' tif£fifijdh q~ '~fg\9 ~:qr W ~ dl{i,6h), ~1I@q '~ if 'Fq~~,~!;U Ch,t;rl ~l~ 'm~ co) ~ ~ICfill "t('{ ,{~~Lf~ m~61iFt E~81 ~' e:t)Mi)\4,{ ~ if trm ~ 'f%" Cffl' '~;lf



di1< ~ , ~<fncfp1





li11 =q~I'Sfi ~ ~ """', ~""'iI

fifi44fti 'ifi'9 ir1 ~r~rPf,: I l;.""""1111 "" 'I -.,ut"1l:1 ~


'~N-t. 'fqJ14J!"

'lAdt1-'~~~l,-, ~~~


~qtt-·a:rrq ~~

"'~ f< ~

bet !i+ld



'4i1h'U ~~:I 6hll'<UI ~I




ti ~




:rUf,a ..;:;,' ~

rCiftl'l1~ll' ~

';e~iIT~ ~
~. ~

'~'t Y,~d :rq:a6h

~!tret1 'Mlr;q~"~I~~'

m- t'!

-:q ~


q;, dt((~1=f~-1WT cnt~ rq~lq,~·-OOr$ ~, fU~ij-t'1I~nrl4ij ~ ~ ~::-1fl ~~, l1lI-"!W 1RJ Ii11q), 1Cf- ~ ~ 'ffil~ ~, fift ,qfCf- a:I tffi FCfi Of) ( 3r.:l~;h5) ~


-Qft43'q-~ ttffq ~ g I fq ( 7\ip I: tt., :rq~I' r~

msm t1Th

~~'q;)TfZ1~,Qt,~ ~-~"ti~





,'11 til 1«1" : II


~ ~ if


ir ~I

diC\N ~~'R=d' '1q~{1
a4;q;q ,:-(llqr) ~

ill 31J-'lft1iiji, EfI~e;1,quq41 ~15 ~I Clh!fCi, f
'Sitl1f fuJ,t11; !i-31T


~tg"qlr -ciI1,l1<1
lftl~' ~


\Jf .• I~ '4RQq~ ~Il{_ ~ I



qi '·a,~(·131J~

dhfOt?li~ q:i) =~\J2I~r~ ffl rl"<fid ~

a.=i~('M:' trol: fq'IF~ld:~



I m "ql~

~ '~1% ~ R' 3i~II:q_ 3i111~1~ff1"'~r4dqRC "R Ch~r~t! ':at,ij:Cff

~, a:Wf '11 f«1'1
(It"'1~~Q' )r~!:),

'4riit1t4{i\4 arrq ~


ti,@i 2h{~

otr~~ ~

if ~







4~Ft-~,t:I~'l~~ r(t1'~ll~ {4.q
I Cfi1

t,. (Tl-~)~,

'''4}fi :-

(1lt )


1]&, Cfi '+ttf- 6f,H·i t1 ....;:..:q !1 ~ ~ l'"l
tjf§U Vrq,Wff41

~'T9h ~ ~ I'l,.

~~ qa-

R ch ..



t,~ '~-m

~nnM:-~ at~1 ·lffi": .~ (fqiij)l<) fc1~lfffif:-~ ~~





31ti'ti= 3:pf~]-~J' ~ ~~llffa-~-t,. ~t1'd,~ I

~qlc~fE6ql&1 fq1Ell{c:r"l.~

-q. ~ -~T~ it· "{I~ ~ a:rf'l!llli M \J111~tll t':.~ ~~Fq aliiQd ~I d i((~ q,~ t1 ~ if1:q C4i1{11 ~ fUTSfi a1'2.fqf ~ :fI~TI r ~1 ;J1'E6I6t' :~ ~,ft' !1 fi~ll Cfi 'fUlCh I (i;\ q~ ~I fm 2n 1-1
'q~&4i- {lf~Efi llTl .....

(t (~,q iQ''j!.) ~14
'g:3lIf ~ ~ t, t:pl "tTl.
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
3i{~ iffit 1'(1



til '1R~+l1(

'm 3Ff

m(=-3ijU 6, ~
f!~q ~ I ltd

5rlJl (!Q~6U~1 ;eIEi~ 1=ffJ' ~ 1R1 ~



2rl~lqatT ~rll( (f~i(11;;f{':yyq) ~

fEh,cn~' (=etl=l rjf' m~ ~ \t t IllS II !Ii cit tS:< = 39-rq q:ij 1 ~l{ f-q 44 t{~J.ij,I 1n~ F~~S'I(;1,4 R if' '-g~~~,]~"iji"f i&t 4i1~Cf1 ~ ' ,a;pfu1='ijik3 qft PazF~';=f1,a:i@llifa em 3irCR~~'


l f"Ei' U,eFAi&lfttr ~~ t112trifiGAff31'f":~l Tiff f1q~ifffi l:FI: oqRQ64d1tt.l1


a1;q,q:-(t-n) li'~
3i~ 3t4<1


~~~~a: ~j ~

arqt tJ,@''l


tR( *'f;ilqCfi GJij\J1~~

lf1~ 1if tr"Rff£l' fqff

~lfJl "Qjtr


ft:t'bJ,~t!:1~: '~



"i~!) ~

w-~ attn:
~ ul,~CW(,



qfr ~


fiif '~-,~ ~


attR-' ~e{I ~

«-'l~ ;' 3lFt(f- C61~


~'iffi':- *iq~I"(m

li rt.h fli )



at~'- aTIt~

~Hif1~1) , ~



q:t1luRt 'ra~,l4li

\iFr-('"d~ "q~£Qi.ftit!qtil·qtl:II

(m ~ ~ &Q: 1:ft) ItI~qliji-a:w:r ~ ~ ~Jet\ilHI(iZI-~


dr{Fq;GefFcl<:Jf41 tI Cl6Id(11:: FeJl fq'C\Ji I<fZif "=t ~


u19 III


~~) q:;fc+fd ~'




~-~ '~' I 1'11' ~I~II....~(, ~~11~4Mf)1 ~~ .. . ~~;... . .

T.fT1f ~ctn ~iJ I~~-"!rnur: ~I"i.-~I

&'lI,~rt2-J4H1lq;g: 3flf \iFf:

'Fch,(H' "ijEf

1" q:t ;q'ffl' t1 t(fi4 (~)I
iJ IIIIfql '

cffC4it a:mf~d cit (x4:~: (lf1) ~ it

3"'11(.r2d~ ~


ct, ~tSl51l1 ~!)
alR' .~
-e:1(4\iFi ~
4~1~·q{t ~

.lnq:¥tPl 3l~'tII-q';:U 'it,cit~Ch,( ~
1if ~~

fi"Bft if .3I1 qcfi


tt:@J 1U ~~
al~ ~


~qcicH ~. ~



(>rm- t. ~),'
~ ...~"(fiqi-3lfq ~~

1V1l d11 ~~rql~11

'41J:!'dh< Cfi:f~f1f1 ~lq~,·:-"t1R11· ~

s;q Siql 1,1162: - ~.- ~ ·it~ s3tW~ m:_~, GP{!-~r ~-r~r~iBH1
1.+t;J;f- ~~


~,(!ifldl ;m' lID

t? ~
~~tti6~ ~

i{9:,,:-f?q:eJ("4~-~"@:"Q q;)j

t~~-.~ m'~,.

~'W~fd-~ ~



fd"ul'''I,q1,Q "1 'ft~dlCfjc;lfldf




-g-ffl ~ =q'Riii1i:-3:rjifi~¢1'~ (~~'

~ .~

it;C(c::,.q"(t'illlffqtr~t(,(I'-~Fq{ti \.fa~qJi6~~ ~I


it-~ itU, ~Rrid-!i.I(~',.f2ff-;r-~~, '


a:J If!dill, -;r

ni~ ~ '{ ({ffif) 3Ii w d Itl "fi t;.HHd"YRf

~ 1"1~ ~ Oily M'

f.i1ct, '4iClllll'lI

Oft lQ: fOt 'Cml ~.~ q U"d'i 311 q "* iii I edif9> (F-iIdl Cfi1~ IJ"I;q ) ~~1t <liT ~ ~ -qRf t tit '4t all"! "W\i <f];d "WI~ qm alR ~11(OU~lrlT ~ :FiG! ~r=tct ~,itfi ~ '_~::liQl( ,tRt, ~ ~~
'11 q I'tl-~' ~



I ~-~~

~~-~La:ntt(lltt-~ 3i1~i?\{ lit
~-a:rrq ~,

3:1'f~{tf-tFP'lldl( ~



oU(=i i;l1{~ -qK~YJI q;-( I '';f {Ia"iftf'l-''fCIlit ";f '~

m ift ~

5i I q,chl

-utI (rffiI-m m) J 31t-~J w-~sf di2tiji-a:rrq' qi, ~-w~ qili ''qI~'i~lfr5f, lQulqfq-lfllIT ''l{ cfi ~
f1~,:qlt 'it


~ qlJlfr4i ~-~ ~ 1l ,q~Fl~ ~ 91"9 ''I!~q i ~. rCJ1d~-1lPft if' (I a:U~ii~ ~' a:llq~ ~ ,:fTI' ~ if:frrIT ~ mP..T ~ (~T?(

cnl1tf ~fI ifilij i lR'·m ~iTal1'4ifh~1~

t ~ .~~"ii~

fC.iIIfr ~

gQ;I,QI14ltFl q{~,q{!) -Wf{


a{~:qCf11 3i~q1ct11 ~' ~


'(iH{b\41" 3i11H€4 ('l1F?i~~)"iilJ


1=t~ 3i1~T~

l'1 ~'fijT{ 1f ~ ~~' ~~'
~·e]{ ,~


cE- ~

aq.gERf ~



'm 311lfqij ~J(4\i1i1 'iFFt
ifi~. 3"11'11 ~

tt, -aT

ttRfe ~ Cfii\ffiil<:;uftfWd fqq~~@!Iq1qJfq =edd~q ~~&9:il'~'~ ~1flfJ2lLit!f. ~
31~q:~-qJ~ ~ ~


iffil.~ II rqlO
q;~I'r:qil &ftr


~{F~ (~


tJHf t$ ~

'Fqq~Q1@q'J{ lfi~ll Ol~
'14lct'3:~PdVT alJFIl1 ~


~ 1~f31~4cifil w ~
a-U4Efi 3i\~ 1lf



<TIl' (~dld)

(4tfj~~ "tfl:.~~.

3ii@1 Ofil~q F~tH ~

tt m~~



lifl~ ln conti"nui~ty
q~t3, ~

Tf,l fCb,qr




=lddtr&( ~

iffit (t{Ci) lilt)




(~~l::tl- ~

3P 1@ 1990)

( "lfCt- f~')


~ft,tl4"f1~A§lI t J{-


,If lU I~~


i:fi ~ II

r~ Cf; ~it 1[(I

arfq - '-11


§/s ~ ~ ~f~d'l~ if i~J
alfafff-t:11111 t'?(~




m, ('cHQt¥f-,q1qt1)

m w t FP)
1t ~(CK.q

i" 31:tDfq

~ ~'Cif'~l:- .q m




~ ~s~q,qitm Cfil'ftr; m fq\illla·

fClCftcti'~;S:'U=-"!f_q: W' ~'~:

flHCf{rr'f~: {qwql~SIJ;g{~lfCI{~qll




ar4'Il\!~-~ t, "ffiI_ (~)-effit

(llfd) ~-~




,3i;qq:-"q7f ~tpqJt. ~










q,l~1 ftll'df(lfil:

i ~~!
31q:~t1~ q;l



t ~ ~ ~ 'q;,:fi fbtfSPl~'

f~~l4d 1


t ~~ (auq~)


~U:q11 q;1

~-Fm:r (~)
I BlliJ


'1a:~Cfi~ rEfqf6tI1.-(Wtur~)
~ )iFS(ffi •



a). ~,

PIm at Iq<i1 a;j tH:fr

{"'Hi,; q <fi1 ~1t'ifl1'!;

if ~l"Il- ( 0lt11'i

!if 'lFdf1:J


~4~It=H ag'~,flqFr 6fi<41 it', ~~fld

I lFl:-l~r'tft (rat'ihl~q' ~ fB(,P IUn) lJW- ~ftH1j 5~~ ,(rr~I it( \!ita Iiq'l-3lffi ;1 tfcr~ ?at Rff i-,~ m~ 1W 1.<i- "U 'IT-31 q ;ft C-f~~qU]l) ifdr~ ct -:SlEt(,-Sl+R 1\ 'i£U+t4@ql~~l cq~ri ~ '~~ t ~~! ~ ~ "lfF{ '~ 'l%" ~. !Ft 31-crf lift cw:ft q;~fq_,3'1 ~",FC6€fi~ fillet'll r~:~'-~~'fct;ijt1d - iF=Q' t ~ ~ 'L.i,fs'time ,q' ~m 3lfiq if Fq'lilf ~ CilT qf~B .~~ llJ' q1~ I +iftllfl~" probtern solve Ch{9 ~ "R1t{ Sfitff '~, iflIlf6h ~ ~ (t ,~ti\q(ffll 'ftrq'l) m ,~ 'if
Tfi tif:cf'qJ{ \ID
J ~,:








s:I ~I:O!Sf 0116'


.... , L

•. ..".J=p __.l., ~ .. ~h :q ~q ~-a1~ I~ a:<i q 11get 15' ~~"" . (U~, If"st1 "-al~1 \!._


ct. ~



'-'f~q f~[ctrG4A 'd'Q-e6 '_Hql~)~


m \TfT6 t~ ~




aq-q~n it 'filBl~r~~Ji4) qft ~\itlfIEjii{

-31~J7r1 ~d


1\ fef1'1Q{ 1pIir
~ ~ (~)

\lCld: "9'11112111


3H'tTI ~ f~f(hl(~ iI'l40fi7dt '~


"Her ~i50t1I' 'dlq~-


a«l?li ~ ~


0iIUj tflfqfd1J-t' ~



~~ (a1t) ~rq,G:~~

ir ~'q ''2~ltit~,

:eHlll~~ 0 'ff:(dlF1 (~(\!f\1 :)

'd",r{§(1~ q'!l<&:fU~lXI'APld(~

fqiJ111'l~123 ~~

( aB-'~)


~rCfi(1-eit~~~ ~



CIft ~ iS8hq I,_ ~ "ci€t.1 ~ ~ ~nEfeh- a«q ~ ~ ftlq-,ctl,{ftlTUT-l{lfj ~-llP11R~ Cfiatt~·:atftR-q~Jqul f~~rn" "ijiU ll;q- ~ m,l 11"--itt 1(Iq~.~ II' F1-'~ ,It q;~1(~iji f{ "26) ib f'lIl U I'

(~-Tf)} 'iCfi1:~~

"S.3lr" (~~t\:~~
~~ 3i4(-·affi,

f(11J:), l1QJ--,t


1tfi_~, ~-1if'L?

t 'q61~ 'f,m~f~~=iI''4 it f~~l~ TFtJ 3f1qibl ~
3I1Q'c6tillllt1q~l1l1f tRTfl.T ~f' qfi t1 ~

t~ ~ san i ala! ,t,~s~



lR1 it ift'~OhI~1~ Sf111~IO'rft~!
iij~ qi(

am 1flITlln ~ 11


3fJQ1c6' 'iI~D~l·

'em ~ cf l~\qC\r~ 3i~d~~


'tqff ~'


1iFn ~ "ffFIT' q;J :i,q4f qiJ tct Irq {q

d q criitf





~'lf¥f'I¥1:-F\@I~ ~
OT~ ~





am ~:,



atftt-qr, -flr'C4d~'~; ,a:r'~~ a=1R ~ it ~-·~r~-Y6Fut.
J ,



cm:l ~


t 3=ltI{~]f! (~Rq;
li-r:TS~lI'Uf'!Il &4;wit 'i'tSiG:etf ~R1'Iii f<i1~~ ~ ta: I :q ~lI· 'Jrll I:U111tf il' ~~ lfii~ ~ ~ ~'1<11-sftrU241'1
'iRJ 1'flf 3I~ If ~-.,-rtl ~ , ,.
t'Cf~'! tra diYffi t(j' • ""--W ...... "t! ~,
~ ~ ~.~~ 'If~ChI1:R

... ~

~11~kIF{ ~

~r~'~ (&~'k!

'3d'{ Cfi'\' ~

Cfi' '~t¥ftf

~11l{ \J11~1 ~) ~CWf

'I1'~ ~


'~Cfd1)~~ ~


34 (gEtl ~) tpq· 34'44 "',...,


1f:iIT ~ ~ g-q Idl ttl ~ 41 if 1ft 'fI11=(llPbll 0 I ~ w; mtlm'~ ,. :F!, ".. ~;, r 18.fn( 111 'iii fi" <,3: [' ~ 11' "lIT af~{~ ~ ..;:;~'d'!I, m' ' ~, ~ it II' '41 :,' , ;I-III!
'iITl, ,,' "






'-y~:tI114i l(Ci' (ttl,!

*J Lt1






d11N4~ OIQ¥q a:Ur.4~4~~'ct{ fBlCfi~~i ~ ~
~"Vl1_:~ ~ • U ""11

~)o~:~. ~1{ij]]II'


~ 'fCfl1tl1, ~


dr:Ii 'I!.aI\ '" ~

3i ~ I~I '&4;q 1- a1ll1 +1 }. ~ ~ ?1I " . ,,",,(311







'~ tl '~ ~'5fC$R ~ F6 {@J ~ ctnRl, 8;t ttl{:- ~ ~ dllf'l!- 'u'=i F~Ch,. ~i'~l:-'1lfo'1 :-.( -ttm) ~ Q{P{-311 if ~ ~ l{~~', ~~ti ~$(QI ~"Efi1 fl4{fllr'1f5h '~~l d~ch~r~'qi qeRFSI<', F\l11Ch~'~ lJlT~~ ~-C1lfFU ii\J1\d~ C81ftd-t), 'zq~ fcF;~ ~-~~, )ftf~U1''l "Q!-f-~'I,e"H1 l11J1rar t~ 'r ~', ':, qi1-,I ,~D¥_~'~ I{'~ a:!q,~.€-11T)' ~{t- ~~If~ !f~I' ~. \51jblFll tjfi14Y ~ 'li~q if afR '1{U ~'~ ~' Ul., ql\:1} t€t1,,{-3ffq " V1"'1~U'C1 ~~= ~ m ,3.lfq-m·";{· ~~~~ ~ itRft I lJlI1 ~ ~lf~ r~, II q;i G~ II -q llJ ~' ''i 00 qft ~ lit '1 ~ ~ t!;q:;'PifJI(dll q:rr 31J\T(( Ofl~~ ~I tlSf1 Q!4i!IIf:fiI{ qft ~ II tl'{iillr t· 7.1ir~ l 3i I q~ ~ ~--q' q;l .aq'~"6fi;qU ~ II1 Cf1 I U -Et @ q q rt11-~ - SIi'4 ij ~t:J ffj'"trlCfI if it 'ret ~ i111 ~ ~ ~tH ~ i ~ iji 1 (U I ~ 1%" I1l1rt!~ "lidI ~ lft ~ ar-fRt if 3ttl"'l qft t ~~ ~ ~\ftRIiJ-n ct ~:fqqltl if 'llj.'~li eil~11lIDl Y1"f1¥-'q q GJ"lil ! fcn lPH~~ Cfit ~ I if 'qlfP'W11 m ~ a:uqOflI T{ (J{j, (llIt:1'IUf {~~ f I fir.;: 'ltJetdli <'fit 1'1 I~flil ~ t fcn 'q ~ItlI'rEfil oQ~ ~~ <ii1"11:( 'I1it ~l~ -:rtf ~«ft tim tJl"l'*l( ~ -m ~ i,~ A'"'If("fM tI'51QI¥l <::fil ~ (f;1{~~1 ~M(( ~ q(--q 3i~ci4~qEfi t~ ~ t: til JOt iil'll 1f'4'"I1;ft - s 121F-t:t,j ftli 6df(!f 'i (&q ; I "~ 111'1=1 ~~11~ ql +ffij,:: r!ti4d'~ I , r~fcf_,~46~a41 1fT 'i~1'im~1(~-jJq: ~~t M '€lf8('""t1q(qliO ~¥;qlil'1:: ¥fi'(Ra ~~2:t16<. ~ W~11251'
'~ (am) ~ ~~.aUjq,efi
(fq"li\q ~)


m 4\ff' ~.




3ff~~('1 '~'~i:1

Fcfiru ~ ~ -;f '~ '\ft ~q~dllil








I ....













a1;qq: - ~'41{~~ (~)

3TF11~'iil&ll·q !;r':
.~ ~: '~::



,~3f1 {q t1t;q f1 ~~~ n b'i"~f:.t ,

fiJ ~f, ~ ~ I'2Kr.. "I'~ IP4j, i'di,~ ::~
~2ft "RWit'f,1 'llf'l(1


~~Iiji ~l(Cn'-~: sy(J ~ ~- ~': ..... -

fd ld-r~1(~,)
tra 'Wi {F~l i ~-, ~

''i~~+4!1111:31ftr lIT

.~cf~i;ffq'i~r1iliitIN Mll~


t ~aif
aTJf' ~,""-r.1


~p=tl-~ I (~-a;rrq),

a:rF~,i~-r~{~(J L ~·l ~~-wm 'tJd:~
~ iffi "1;ff
2~\st~. ~etl '1!f6Jt-,

&III '1 :=.~ ~. 'l."'-U

3Ifi:r - q;. q; 61'-"4 til ~(1 tit ~gJb.




m ~, (~~a:fR),


it tt·, 'w-~ w~rrT iii
cfi ~

' li10 ~I 3,.J3~S.~IMNj<{4~tm ~;I 4. w:.~.~StJ<'H'I1:f1't-"-m



Cfil "fq'f~i 0 III en

< 11:R




"ifR ~

.q ~'m ~ e--rtu ~ ~ d 19'en I' ~uj OJ ~:
'q;i ~'



'fit~O ~ g Eti I,~ I

'iI'R (pqfq ~ ~ ~




rCH~n Tpqr ~

WQ ~

t-~;ff!q]1 a:rf'1~II"lJ

m&i t~~q

~~ lfuJ <w14 it J

~ ~ ~ ~, 'ii"'ill""Ycih.....-:t:,,'II~R~'~a fi ~~' ,YCiflI'~ ~[~J' m WI ~


,g ~tJl'~ -q~ rd!

(" '-q £l1-~'


II a:rif



tit (j'" \Ji

~- mt
r{lq (fen f-l:lo:(1''l


fCl¥CI l<h;;1.1 H'lI ~ ti~ iff IiJ1rJTJ ;flifNi ;§f. ~'hil~" Cfi,41~ llqJ~ttf"i --aft 'tls;! {:tl1In' Fctt:H ~ I



t ftt4«T

'dffi(~JlIl ~I'

"Gil '~ iT -ltF~{4'~ ~ ~q~l iii1' llfFGi{~ -3i,zl t
\l15f ~ '~


'it ~

aT1~ fiI£I!I'ii ~ ~

tti ¥ q'h~fVI en i;flll ill eM i{i Ii!I dTql t.ft ti t;'1f'~ 'fWlfCh til lR 31lR ,;~ ill '1
31q~It1' if)'(f ~


Irq"6ll{ "lfJ ~<l11 ~ ~?hl~

4l(ct1t ~,
'6h(d ~


q;l gfgd
~ ~


r~'1I~ ~


t~ ~ 1iW

zff qfT. tf til r~i'H:t if; <til'


afrr ~ II~

lf~Rt itrfF?tifl





~IIf.uldl ~' ~



a1Ft atff



'f~;q)r~d dfi {dJ II t~, 31"l-«'=lR

Ch{d ~


4 (P4{1'

if ~


~6f ern~"ft'fq3ilq~l

1;(1f ~.,

t'il Cfi@"1'1




~d I ~ II ~ ~ ~ ~,


~ F~r¥'II~~ ~ ~Iff*lcn1 '~ ifl:€f4i:t





"Cfilll~ t~l~14J:f~il~ W



T-f ifq: ~

<fi 3ftl':ft ~

3i6l1q p{t -qrf ~ ~1flf

3il~dcff ~h11:~ciG11l 3f fdJ·{IJ

n -fr


Ft§ql<fi·{ a:rq;) q;) ~\l

a 'dfi d I ~ ~


~,ftI~' F~,!H1'

";frill :Y:6h+f cti

~~4n: 1f ~
a~~ ~

~I~ir~;:h fiv;rt'\flJ l11T~~
1ill ~

Slli HiT ~2.1J ~

lQCfi ilJ~[H'

i~:{~I· 'Cbl~~r{

Cffll ~


fi111t:n;~'~rG: I ~ 'fl 151~I q ~ 'LU"~T~{1 qft 'fq fi IfS2: '~ rt2: Cfil vFa q It\ '1 i%~II ~ ~ ~ ~1(OIi ~ ,;'aq~HU'1~CfiI -11 f\l1tS,q mU' 1

11 r ~en5!1 'd

t m "i1 31lqt~Y qij' 511, '"i ~
-t ~ ~ ~ ~

am ~




'mm '~~ ~lff~~' i ~:+gfr.:~ 3"lIQle;,*, t fOIlt1~ 3frr ~ "2fiT 3i~ql<iji t rctA«~~ ~
~"q;J,tll[$~I~ 1lrq~' ~ .~ '~

m' ~ ~


q;1r ~I'ld

tcn{1'~14 ~

J.;p:~;r~~~4 q~q'iEf ChI d4r~qI4 ~'~ ~ q ~(J: ~,i!fi~:(1 r€4J4~f q;y il4r~d ~'


"i:fT' ~
~ ~

fimtft- ~.
~Il(f ~


fl' ~' ~ifil(iffli

lFf GJ;Tf

'I:\H(U Iii

311 ~ ~


'~n .~

'Paq,il ~




f2f{i'i:H1~' ~

~~Dffi'~' ~ 'ogl a:m. ~I! ..
i1rr 31·~'~ l;fif ~

'~ ~ -rrOlrd{q ~ ~"ii§,~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ if if ~fia '~~,nl i:fir t"ij~ iF¥l4il'q)

lfi ~'Efil~ ~

~I" 'CbI~ 141 0( ~l;ffr&~i!;HC\

q;l ~

if ~

~;:rn ~,(414i'~{"Ol~ ~

q;l d ~ 41&1 f fH

~ aill ~

m "iu~(liCfil 41lfl1[

€I 61I~

it ~:fCflI;q: am -fqcfH {I ~ i ~ iT 1{Ci

_.!\ jq'i, tJ r T!f'QT 6

to {.I

\lip Iti d1J ~

ttt~q;-r ..'.. '

ft ~


m tl ~

t \l1~ f ~'

n en fqiigi~{n,~'l 111iliif Y6hI::(,M ~ li'qq t "'sf' ~tff£l tt ~ ~ -R '~fftf~k41 (frqr li~ m-ru t ~ erg fq.+@, m
~ rilft1fCh
g 'flilf - ~


iJR ~ ~, 1R

~ ~' 4fttrl~
'qr f8J f¥1ti2

y--q, I( q(

m ~.




t, ~



~'Iii~J ,t1l ~

crw Fq1~TI ,:ft ~ if ,Q q; rPtl d it ~Chd'i i I
~ ~ ,g fdl~kij 1

"*~ m ~rtrft -fitlkt



'ct' ~


,!:JIffir~'1Oi41: blRt1

m -t -r~flq
~ '~ ~'

'1lfuJ m;t "tf{'



~ ·~

... u


if' WIJl
"ffJ8ll{ ~

til ~


f~,~ ~



~ 'mq;QtdJ

'1QRcqd1i't:fre~I~ ~~~1~1 Cfft -~l~iCi~n if
iSifii iql ~

1JIt ~! Cill~ ~






',fttl iJiS» 1Ft '~

i~ ~r~dm' ~' lit


;JRI{Irq~61 6T-r d1~d~

Ch511T~:1T tl ,;pq ~:d4 r2:f' 'q;1 tI

q l'ffifW-err l¥1 ~
'6ii I{[)r tft41 t ~' ~~

i ofR
'¥ ~


'@\q'Efi 'ft'tl

'wi' ~
~' ~ ~j

if' ~''4ICHl{ ¢f

'~ fr -~ [(W ~ ~::

m t44Tfq,"Fj~

'6 ~ ~ ':t ~Ifcitd,liQ if 1ft


3i'~4ffi~' oq F@:rl

,12M ~'
'~~ ~~I~

r6r~'q~ f%f5l,11 qff ~fn~ ~q li:'qF~'9T ~
'f~'~I( '~Ifq;a ~
Cfi·(tli ~

f~~J.qI1 ~\ ~



'l.'Ill'4~ ~

t\~~ ~

'~~-'~q~(agT' ''Efil 'i8t:iU' '~

~'I ~

,!fq;~;r- Ir~ COT' ' ];:11'1
"titll'{9LI I'


'4Hf!l III(



R~ t 1H~ "ift 3i!(¥i,t1'PQ Cfit '~Ir~h:q,ll' 'if tfTi'~ijq;l ~' wq6h~ t~ ~fl1:F~'l{liS r 'll fCk14{ ~' l1J'up:f' ~ ~-~ H I'~·f Cf11 'fq;j ~~rq%(Or it 'QQI6f 'cw[' '~~ ~II~

'qf ~W4' ,~



~ 'r~l~ :&ciI ~ q q;y ~'~, f'qS1 Fi' r;r ~ cfr if ,t1 '~'~~ ~ if~ ,~L iQ~~J "iCfjl(til II" '~ ;;q' '"l'~ 'l4~, ~ 3iq1~'rl\H 34IW~~'t11 'i-n'~r~~ ~II( t:f;g'~(ct '~,t3CY~' '~' ~ '5H~,lfi ql( q st q' (' '~ 6JU tc4 fI:, a:t I() Ncl W ~ 'Cfg' m ~JP~li ~' ~. ~ld;;j(1 ~ d(fiR1 ,gl~( it r~~-tt ~ '-~pqfqili'l CJi rQ1l~ fCh~l Cf;a\(m~,r , ~ a:i( tit qft -A1l&1 if; (1ft ~' dl~f4~;q2h,dl '1tf ~ 'CI'~ ~ ~ ~ ~' '~ ~ .~' ~ ,:n1\ffi 'm ~H11~'~ (4,er(444lea-·~ ~ ~Fte Mti1F~?1~ CfIT ~Uffldl ~ll~u ~ ~ ~~16m ~ 'if' t, ~~ili ~ 4lI'ff91 'iPld ~ lHR ~~~~~ ~jg,~,'bfi{cf; '~'"iii am"B' ttQ;¥\'4 ~ "' ~ ~ 'dtt4 ~ ;g·cifiF:qd ~'"lm' ti . 'ffi t[ am: fiR1~jl ~" ffgl( , '~ (4~'dhl~-G1 GlH' Q('4tiffii iffr ~T~II' 'Cfij 3{j,U:S dlft' q!; t6tI(l~q "Efil m 'm ~gf{O~l'i' alR 73ll e~i6fJ1'q ~ ~2Fi6( t, !lij1 Pl'~::r ~ I~ if a~~l ~' '~~ -rrf: ~ 11 qrf%ra r~~.ft if

m~r 'CfVl '~ Y(l1M~F:r m ~I~I~

fBI III rq-lll rll! R=i~ I~

%~ FCiI fi if' -~i9

~' ~ 'tt. ~~:. ~


'raJ ,~;Atd.f¢t ~ q cnm fq+H{W ~ rcn~1


















tft 'fnr'4f1


1fc'~ Cfd'lU


Jd Ji U6' ~~ ~

,:u '11111~ a (1q; 15L<~ en

SI@lq'cifi,,~ilt~J '~~


lr ~


Gr~ ~ ~

tl:.J ~:



cnl ~

-e' ~'

oq 141 { ~

'a «cf,9"

11,{ihlc[ {ij'1

am ~

31411 '~ q;l

~ '8i~ f'4r~

'(f~fIi{l' '~"~

tl till

~s= ~1 'iii (~:r 1Ia:rr~' (41 ~:qYii91 ;;'1' ~T 'tqh;q~U~ cii ,cq~T ~ (Cq'F~ij ~dl
'~ t1ttil'141t1ilfl~

lil~I (lif' 'lliJ' '~ ~~'ff~~ a~ CfIT 'fCtd'~,af ~ tl ]:CfiI~11 tlJ ~
iQ~lf1r ~ fiilll,q~
Qrq,~iijI1 ~' '1I1~

lffi'g Ch-'IR: '11 ~f "iTA' F~~l:n' ~HH'~~ ~
'-q,; Y-q" ,q '11 ~ tt &ro 'tU d 't41 {4~q; '~-Jfit; ~ ~ d ti I ~ I~ -, _ nt1J
TTl'H ~
~II ~ ~
I. I ~_.: '1
J. ~ -_ -•• _ _



-m ~l[vldi&4' ~ "iFf 'm ~ ~ I '~


~f\l CfiT 1f1cti(


[f2-~~r>lqrtJ~'~ ~

6,lilll(~ fll(1 ciq~ql{ ~Iftll



I~ ~ '~~ '\J


,~r9hlU ifI d1H' '~
'q;~lUil ~




t I '~

1=1 ~1iqt1

W~'q:'if ~~r( r~'~1~'~


ct m
F96 lIlaif

'fI·~ii''if ~Fca
~ ;R]' f~

m t ,~ l1f
'itl';:111 ~ 'q;1

'~6,~'~: t I {

~lii~f ",g'iji I<

fir~~ ft~


~rCRl "EfiT -qpf Yr~~1 3=1 iUT~n~' '~ lff
~lI{1fqa' ~'

~ ~~

a:m: ~




l]ft' tl ~ ~:~~,


ij ~

Cfi<:¥i' tp~ '~rqIGr~ ,S:IIFCij:



iU1tn ~

,Qrn:q~~~' ""q~cifi''~I

~~i W aT ~
"S41:fi ~ijfjl

'q;FO,t1i oq; I14'



'3ir1q I+l1'


tf' tt D' 'w m ~~'ff'~

t 11{' ~'

'mq dl<]ltttl'qlq ~

q;y ,~ietid6fri cm1 '~\tP]~S"-1:a-r;:tnq ~ til

t'l '~~
(:Ii H II

-u ~

'ifi6,~ litH'

~ cnr' ':MlH~ ~In 8iL[u'rnr '~ ;oll~'~ i CfS1 3i~

~'1l3t~ ~ ~ "1F6Z \itef
~o:t~H ~





::t1=1ht4 1~110I~~


'~ 3i Iiq ~


~' I



{411111"{- qff-q~;;q 1,14' ''3lI

l1fiT' Cfil' H,~~l



lf~ RtlQ i -ret .3<11 f~:~11 frtt lRf ('4 l1'i1HI lIT ~:~ ~ llii~!jrCftl . qft ~ ~gjt(f "fHlm ~

-,m. t

'tl~ '(p:uu



Wi Ir'TI

d 441tJ 1ill



'ct "Q~'f'1;ijI1'~ m~
~'~!Cf;'~{ ~

>P41ul tl





,ttffi{ ~
aqif ~ ~ ~


''9=<:'4 ~

rCp!f11ffl~J ~"EfiT ~
q I4k1Cf




-r~'~1~~ ~i'iR

i5!1 EitH(

ariuia ~~' ~'~

am affi' q;l


\filru.,~ tl

61411 ~


Ji$qt\~ ((,Eh-q~ -q~ ~ ~

Bfi {iq I ~





'-q -;l11 t1Ti

ct ~
aPT ~
"5I'Efi~( ~



m ~~

~P.f ~

oii ~

11 \ijl~d ~ I ~
Jfij( ~

RRffl" mY q;1 ~.-q i q!tfi "ijqi -mit 6I'1fi1l~·.-mt ~
~ -;f~
~I~ ~

'ct ~

i~ fi{4l\

q;r ~ "Rfttj ~



lIT m~
~ ~


qir '~~ '¥U'Ent C4i\iFd
Cfi (fn


3it-:lrr~'CfifI q R"U1~~ 14 !1"Cfi \ 4

~qqtt ~


Y1"I '~""

\4fq~l=q-f fli ltf ~

31 ~f4«~


am ~

arrr2t q:;r
,~~,~~U ~


tl ~~~


qil, '~

3.lJqcJ qft

CfiT~ ~




ctt 51 mfii'J
1TIt ~~

UI~--r~iI~ "lfIT '6ft I(0 r 'iptal 11
III "1 ~ I


'lI6 1ft
\; ~




3tf;q'd ~I '~
'{.ffU< ~

q\J4 glfl~1


en l"k

.... ~,'q') ~ ',- I!' ~

~~~ ~ I'(.,C\11

';J I~ q}111

J1I,~ It Cfi1 Idf'il~ '1lq:~

1Vi"' '~

ct fuit m m~l1i:1 ~;~ffCf'(l~,
q;l ~

~i.fil~;ql~ ~


Wf~ frxfli



'ifr ~I;;lI 1Ql~QI Q!6fJrHi ~ "R a,'q~~ ~I ~' '~ d1~i.fiJ' '~' W fEp ai-q~, "if lp:U;It"U lfff ~ a:n,q~ if~' ~ iI 3if~,rl t ~ a~,rlOfq;-(r~ 'eg€§ ~ tz,' '~~lWrIT, om ~,,5"fd~ YltIlat '1 II tf:;:nf~a' ml to 1ft (Q,Il\ftr ~tfr itrnr. ~ di46E9l t 'Zfllf61 F=qFdI1 f~Cf;ftgd q;'~11 Cfi ~~F:4l( '~ ~it 1:fif m m~ ~{U II~ ~ a~Kr:, ~ft Ii;(~ti~Cl~:~"Efi11?[ptq t ~ ~ I tilF~~-~,gf F~Bl f~' oqM~d~ lH~'q ~ 'trt!4lfcttf q;l "ffI1f1l ''Q i ~~ \l'I~ICf1 ifrftl ~ ~ 'm tia:n 'W ~ ~~ It ~ ~llID ~ ~ ~ qfry l=fl~ 11~=r if ~r~d m 'm W -m- ~ 1M1't4~ '~~ ¥ql it ~ 3illr4dtt1 q1J mq 'lI,~G -q af~l'''''~, a.f~d-~~t1' ~YRl4I'r(U.1' t'l ~ \l11·~r~dfi ~'~ Yr~l' "El11(Oliaff q)fi ~T)I)T ~ €fig iF) f.l'l'~f 3111;«~ ,tt 12dI,(C\qetl~1l 'Cb(~,~ d'i~rq~ '~,~,ijijl ~ 'R if l.1lf~ t '1~- qIT ~ m~ .q sn~
,aTI"I;;;H:t~,'ltI' ?l'Qf ~0

a ttl i"1 m ~~ r;~fit~r!in.4~




&1fq:tj41IdQ q.7

ftl'lf~q; ~
~ '~



~ ~ il 3i,IF{
W '~
~' ~

1ti ~


"ftfH\ '"Cfil' };i~&i

dl=I ~


3iP<:{ "t.1F2t1 ~
-q"( rq

ffi ~ ~


,3~q; ~ trJ~' '~ q1'<11 I

t ~ .,~




fq<fi Iff


aftt ~ -~t~ ~ 'ift ddl~ tr 13iIQ"\iCf;
~-d fl4FISl

m ~~
I a1if


Pa r~ mt


m ifi1 r~ffn~
<t ~





3fu'~ It;ft

~ ~ '1f;q,
1;~!6h ~ {

Sfi1"T ~

Ftilqi F'(l' qfj-

f~,r m{t.1I(fit[llfd

fI qeq ~,d1J Cfil ar=~,q~~ ~

"qN ur

ortt ~'


I "iT 3'l itcill<\ I" l~ij) 101:.15 (01


Cfi t1t~l~


qft ;m'jHI~



ct if' ~




qj{ ~

mru ~ ~

«q('qcui{) -rtd111 CiIT
'"1Htt tu

iif Ylembbdll~ t~1

t11qi:lffi~ ~

q.ff 5Ilf"'d

m II


~' ~


t Ff; ~qrtltnf'i(1 ~ftiC'it -ijU$(

m~ ~

~ <n1 afn: ~·tll ~"ciT ~ll"l'ia W 1%1 ~ CIii9: {flfRI ~qfq,laTI Cfi1f ~
41"t<O~ ~ Q'i"fI(II,


~""n ~~


1Wf 4d'(Om~

t"4111 ~


CfiT QS"EfA',

31~Cf~ ;qq;?ll

"3ll q{'I 'd\~ll~

ctft a:rit~a;fj Cf

q~~1': li~'l:'U(

Si, ('qf'q~n9 tnT m~


'~ '"OOian({'t '~
~ 1tr ~

tllf:4fE21ilt1lt'l) fq1l~~



ffJ; l~~?d{ ti~t:I'
~j' ~ '~

~~ T~(=f'6f, ~ ~,

lM ct· ff:rl
~qd'tH1' W!

3tif. ~ ~
I'~ ~._.' ~ t11




1arft ~ W, ~ "f!500'( ~ ~ cnl' ~

am aqrq 'if ~

lH&f£R1Iql~tO' ~".ftia efiT ~ Chl~'

-ri-rA-I 1=11, 1tiq, ~I, <S' eq r1 lJ'1 ',,:tU '~H1"1 TIT ~~ ,\'


Cfj'41 l} Ti~

i fq; ~

eftUl1:Efi '~q"i~~fer;'lIl'~rfr
etffl"lIOS1 qft ~

~~ ,3iPli

t~ cf:

m fl4f41~

~ '~~


am '~'~'~
~ ~

~~ ~


Clfit ~

3i1,+u91 "d

&1d1~ ~

ticn,dl 1"1 ~,q,~151 qft

'e4'~lf~1411' ~

ijlt~n~ "dlI ~,~f~r6 ,q ~ ~



~I~ ~

-qrn&q,q~1'dhlll(~II'II' 'rl~ dt"le6 .~

l=i I~ 'Ch'~ ~ ~


I' ~

-m" "\iIT!t,. q;ff

51 iii ~a1!, fa til

qfr 7l11~11''~ afq ~' ~

m~ ~
~ "


II '11141 f~;;;q

\l1i5 i lIit

F!I~ ~ iq.~

aq q '{1l1l

~J1P:;d ~


t ~I\ij ~


q; ft;rl '~ ~ ~


'F~ ,l{',. tij


'q #11 ,q~

it ~


{q'i1lr++=h f-q;91

q:IT 3tlq~~i.1nr

J .5 2 q, I ~.51

'If'l '8 ~w;IFR1



p ~~


If;fi~ 1!if1

r~ijiji (cr.~") ~~

iI1rm (~l'.) .m111~ ~ 'Iff.:2 ]. 3'1"1

2. ~ {~'es(fqi'q1'q ~

~q.\i-r~~f~, ~

3. 'f-i'Oi9 141 {EJ 'iJTfff 'tUN 11df1l.t I
. , ....ll{fT .l
$I ~KI itI ~




,stilht~m'·~'1I'f.lI ~ f~"{gfqf'qtD!~ ~m~

4nH"1 (l,.:l·.~. )3=lif1i1?45tt1'~ 1tfl'Fh,1 .( rq"f.)


3UEJ:{tFff:~{fl1ffffi iIi\lJ~ ~i~·'11[tfll I ?f. 11/93,I'i

ra +II 4<1 ifl "..I a'~ "a".lfi. ) (~H

44ld~iil<l'14Ff ~1!flHlI"[

.aiffi1"'9~G1J "1.6-7



~ l"1htf'M ~~~;::;(d£F1 UCf)INYlltftt'~ 3i1qF~?""SIIii6l:tirCl~th1~q

SFfil,~lriI a~lfq+F4l'ld""{ij~~Htt.








"1"111 i$1~rnr~ lifilll


c~.;rr.R., ) ~ U'i q
''Pt,t{~'d I ~


'i@ftir~~Ch· ~f~U.1k'4r~'

~1}t"1ltJ'ij ~

"if ~

AfIir ~ ~ ~lil~::r.{ij'~J ~

Hf.ij)' ~:



,~qf1l4IHII~i~tl'iitlF-il' ~~



i:h U8 ~~'.4 '-5

!i;I q;!1 ~ 11;n~1m

Y ~ ~~~llll"'i d 1 TIt;:- III¥hl:4! III~ : I ~: r
~ 3{~r§lf'lil ij~:t1\'9hl"

I ~ I~ IiFrit~~(ft1.l~,1f. ) 'F~rq~rllll (f(T'.1.)


a-rq if[ J '~.14 8:

7~ ~

\i~1f '1" 'eH'dlti~~~~ CA1fBfrt, 3{1ilI1~iht"iUii. ~~ ~~sn~x;qr1fil"Ifcillrnri:p:r~111"~.'l[[)~ (
'q ~~,~ill

!."I~m"ffli ~


ifu $Iifil,~I'I,I'1&rl4 .;;'fIj"'1~qttr1d~Fq{j11l4¥fqR'@f~

'll.l ~.5g-59'
~'vmr~dA~'65'qql '!!Ii\hf~liciiqBl,fq" ~t:;jI'~qq\1"lflt'4
i:i, ; ~tF1"q N~)f~rfJ)'f"''t=iq;q1 "'IClloqCi4~~ .. 1 '1T. 'O.~,' ~,,2631 J 'ti~I:H~~': I~

8. ~ ~

&~ •

'ijQT ~


31rW ~f4 ~4i 1 [1~(1[Jirr~~ ':I:~Jf. ~'~t qr. I, ~~61-162 ~ ~;

9~ r~JJitl~~ "Wfili~il4 ~ ft

~ 1;q'I!fiOt;lciljqf2U ~,

IO~'~H~TIf\t ~'t1ij !2,. 3'lfi1~~~If,(~·
I 3.

~q;(tfrq Ji'I,i:j1~~R1 ~Irtir"l" ~'RT ~"d"tfq~rq '~iiifJ,t'r~1 '~1~eI;
,~ 'rqfi4{1W 'St ~:'

,~qrq' ~~


II", if"P'lI~1(P~1iiQ]!lIIf~Hmf~f4~ilfft41'llTCfNif~:

q<4r~f~: \1l1~11 ~

!;I'q;I~trl ~;wf


l.,J.r.,~'.~,. ~.g, m.,1

~>ifN. iqJ;, 1~il .

~ tE*'IN'~qr ~

r'1~~'M M"i1~1



,11 I1IT& ~\fi{1

\IT.'lT'.1, ~.'2r7


~F~*W'8i rfijij;qll~"~ ~~Jgtt'3jill~ "
~lijtJ~) ~. ~P~ffi 4,'


s, '~~;
l:llt EHII

'l t.t

~r~ 'tlIJ'Ct~f~ I 1.l1~4,1Fi;J% (I~ "i,~
'\iFra::rftl~ ~

~1fi!ifd~ifS1,q~,~'~JiI~: &Wi4EtIq;tJ'" m~li~~~9S II, qlifiR:,~lldn ij'~~ llf*~fq,R~~~ ~ "*'~: ~': ~ ~ 1l~' o~n 1M.~.~/5 •
air~t,~'i@IHfr{:$I+ntl~f~:; ~:III

q' ~ c:Cijf~etl<m I ~ ~'4'tfBh;:;qf~itl ~
~; !!~F-f~~i'''1AR9}kql

Ifhl'H (1;]' :q;;t ) ~ a t"4,{1, 1/11/3

17..~ ut ~~


i~Y.~ .• 1=11.1 .209 ~ ~ q\l~{~dFd ~11{'fil~!l1I 'tf.l;r. ~II -;:jt

"n 'tftl'\1'~HI~ I'

19,. l'n~ "'Iiffiii ~t<.iR4Rtlot~i1~r~64ttJ
20. ;Jit~ it; 11111~tH;::ilj]:

I ij~ ~f~~,O:Hq'r1','
~llT. J! 156 ,q~i~liio:aq'ilJl ..qf~ ~

~I'ii~~1~j€1da ":11' ~ I

ti1'f't!'\tI-pf 'SI1~E6-1~' f~11~rt"tlll

ftT·,i. 3/31=:31

-{q~u:1 fi!' ~

21. 23.

n1~ ~ rG;q~~1I;:nfw.,


[H~~~fllt ,it:aRq;11 ~141aj~,G1 C'O'
~riff"q ~ '~:

2,2.. 11 ~

itf'~~,~eti 1~IF1~~9Ir~ijl'6h~f'i:

~i1't11rt1'h::lU"I,I)~'!.1!' '~I?I","lI~fd

qfDfdlf.ll, 44l.d-';>".ffZJqf\tq~I;q:


1Pi -qf(\t;&

i;;(\i~~iMiilIYJ(H14q :11 11.13JU)4-


i1t~[f'(r~F~q ~·~ 4

~:WS<'9l1·tItMe4ff2rI=t{tI"iI{lttrfl*: ~l:sffi'1Ill:,11 3ilffl(~Eflr~Ii'4~rrflifH 2 _II ~~


r~,~I .l'I;;rm {1f&!4i I, ~. ':I 2 28. J:l1'~ ;q,~ r~t41m 3mtt~' tlifUl f91 rq..n ~fll ~
~ ..... J

8l~n\ijj "1.4 25,. Q(if.,tiH: ~fN1fij.lirn' ar.It1~,.rurn~~Pi\)qlcf1ri1: 1R:T'~eFir{fNfii{5Il1'5finijt1J:t+iIU~: ~I 26. rq~ qJ4 4I,i;frlQ\4l(uf 'i! ~) ~q-~~fq ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ij 3lf~ rthlqi1J '~.'V.~. tn. I ~'.3S 27. ~~fI~ij' "=i fllteI€l~ Ft~di iV~~ m • ~~ if: ~.., ~'~ m~,~@"4:trfrt1F~~I'1
24. 8f~~1:1! ~~
l1Q ~"if
ij ~

m.;. ~.29
fs1~).:UJiili5'1S£i~ ~:iisPIii1rlufq'~IIi4l~"

m rlihf~\ ~

lfr '~IOI



¥il;qjJl4 HI ~.~

ij,1ti If.;-~f~i"1':: '}(J ..=tIn

r:,YJLJ Ifll' ~·fI(R1 ~

~~ rft I t~. 'rq. ~ fei.

29., (!$4ri Q41u];;J' 'H6I16~ !l{iiilcip~d: l "iTff ~'P?,~; ~


2 ~~

.5ffijq'flll \~T#l4'1111 ~.{Jj"1 ~.


£f'E41ftl'1qlq""llilfi:J'"€fT l-m,,~. 7J5,-15

31. ~:

Ji1~n'If~(1~BijJ ~q,(I~GtfiiHfi~m~'~ ri]~'~'H~4d~~(1+q II f~:~n"1(~n:qrtt,m ~'I'~.) (1it, fC1d'i1'lf"lijiX(E\q ~ ~1~'IIMI ~~,: IItiqYidl~1Shlaf~JIIGI"!t\=1iRih: II tf. 1Jet ~{JJ 1tm ~\!I~~'~i~
~Fn 3fC1~1

32. ~~~rli"q(f!ff

fi. '113, ~.L.40

]3. '~

-q ~Tfft


fdl:ijtlr~fef,I.~': ~'1M,q'lll ~SI!:n1ffrF", 'm
?f:'11 Of g~I'Uit1qr «~Cfj,("iI1' am


3f=t 3niQq't""'qtttl




; ~,.p:mHJ~~


~.~.~,F-f., ~'.1

35. '~' ~ 3/209-210

+.Pim t~qll"PH4~~ wq : I 'ij~ r ~' f~

1'fRt ~

~ ~c""Gll.r<*"~I m1';tp;£q

fip I" ~


+q "'(4Fr~ I a'i r f.~~ I Fcik'I:' ~


fl41~'i I"'!tlil 3i I""1"<>' I~ : 11Ef1 *1.1



't4 E<til



36., ;Q«4ti1' q,,«t"'"4q'~LlI.&4'Sd ~ ~~~'fqV2lY(f(M


'4""'"fl1ftft'f~"'i &I;;;I~~rqqtFi1 F~\~qll1 ~I

tll4 1@'il~~~h;ir-4ie:4'\'1Piq$lijil"?lM,i$


·g·qW~HtftC"'".JrFq{11l~(qlf-9'l1iji'1r;-JrII ~,ri1:t4 HrPJm~1~qq1oqf~ lfPITQ1"l ..11m.l. I 1:l1-] 2

37 .. '~rfi4i~3-1tlaict~


... I~ ~qmll1fdlll[61~fijq1r*11{q_~

1 S., ~ ~1'o."f 't{m:
4(1.. ~~


~'Iilea If~!li ('""'i1::n'tf<ii;ft ~,¥J1i1.~aJIlf«~C2V4~ q M1;1' 'Of ~ f~C1Cde:H~ i~l~nill A I ~'.1t.f6L.,. I 20 1i! J'
~'w ~

39., ihiip~~'I~(4~~afJrr jF~,{I,~i~mtql(I!t1'R1f~'tj~fij~Ff:q1 ~ lfGei: I 'ij.~. ill. :2

¥jlti Ifj{i~fl<q-~ Ilt;:;ijJ ~' rtt"q;;

11 ~:


r~ ~bt,~~ql'f'll "1~

'lfiiIi";f ijI

FJ1nfif 'tfAf.r:l1fR


1t ff1r{il


1fEU ftfr;. ~ '~lcifil(r~qfiHfII~~(·*,i~'


fk4dT I ~:~

-m gtf'ijr1i1~ ~~'

l1t=tr 1f~m



Lf~r~ ~


\1lR ~\4

r~;f91Pi ~ ,::1 ~
~I ~ al:JijRr~~

~,i\ta~~M€5ri:ffi"~,ij1'*1(tn~j': .,





(~ 11"


1 )

1f1'iI'l'til+iQffi4t (OIt'lur aflflt980 ~ J'jUJ aU\EllI~ 31:vrIl'fl'i1f1 Qld dllt5t1l ... iti)ftru q I i{II ~,t=lt' Iffll' I It,it~ ~1111ft1 a GJ I~ II ~Q 'u ''11~ "c"ll 'fZJt; ill '111 ~.. '\ill rr'" ''11'21 £I iP1til i'f)'"I i."'t it aU"flf flpJ C1!II (siU '"f i4) Rd~ &I dill till I flili tft ,«~::iI «. 31 jq "I ifi1(If ifjft" Iltq~ ''ti¢itil'1 ~tt \ij'ii ~",q=l 3TTJ3tI''11 '1993 ~ 'I:fUJ -Ilitllfil: i(ijql'tl q'ijj __ -I flIq- ui I t9Q l'"f fU 31 ~ 118.I'it "CfJR..-:'ifIft 'n Pc?! ;fl ~ II i1I lR"1 q 1CilI Wi fff 111<1"'11ij.-q I

"~"1 m



4d1~t1 ~


MIUj,f~ !il2fi'~q-







":Jf1q~lq~,H I ~ ~ ~

am' 7[0('


~ ,IIIPQ ~llqSl11J1 ill LJ H4 ~ alii ~ {a\

1lW ";( q,1'a


,1::r6qq"' ~$lJ1(j~'lurw-t:"t1 51:1 unq 11 ~i1II;a(~1

1(1~ "I'~~ I






atFq"cit -q--(n~

~{Cfi,d ~


't~ fq1l%·ft




fer llfil'';f



itltU1 ~

a:n~-iil£I iI~ PfltfRfr

q 'd rE2f



qIi14fl' fir 1JJ~ {

:ijci1 F1~ .31: bIi£f §"ijf ql {q I '+,<: ~"tI1

3ffJi~ ·iJ J "q1MU t.i'~'1tls~-

,,;q; '-s:I ~U iI iq11 'Q2ID~(


411,d"J(?' aUc::lU'4, ~11 $! ilR.-ti T·r ~~

m~ ~
~~"' ~



Yftl 11{ 3i ~ 'kiJ4





"SITlXlfr ~ 31, q Flt1

'~fI q;;;uq 51uollirq ;...b


Li4 6 CJ ijR1'lIF1[ -d6~11 ~



-afil ~~ (11it1(4l1 " ~1ifJ·~U ~?fii ~ ~SI]IJHlU4 "5~"1'~ ~ 'F't1 q l1t~,' ·w:~r (0 i~ ~rl[tB ~ rt q ~ ~ at "9T cit 1:11 ~ am:~ ~~ ~ 3{~ cliiitlJdtq ~~ fu 3I~4~ In;q~1 ;'2h 3lf(fl t!i40 311'4 '61 - TTl G1 ~ ~ lffi! ";f Bh J6 ~ I ~ ~ ~ at 61;q I =q ~161;:q it ~~I fli '~ '\tp nul < (f tP=Id~ ;eJ~ '€I,t"H11~ I 3i(§i ~'n6 fir 1flf~ ~ "Pqdl i1:r ~ ~~ ~ (VIOfU4IPi -q~I~() !;Irul tr ~qI1rTJI, ~ a:r;zrq( 11lff'~ • "SrI0[1 fi;: ~~ ~ ('If '91' 'qr~ fu T('qf fsr '~IIIIJr arqT~ ~I qfu '~fuf<4i -q~ !ilu'~,~ "Gqd, lU'I' ~ ~'t1~Etlj~~'~
a:J 1+111a:Uff 1 1fq l' 'i1~I« ~I ~p;:rflii8fi'fl1~:~




m '\I.~ 'cnsr ~q;:r





~; ~



~~"m'~, ~~~ ~
11!.:!i1 I
it ~




om~l~ 'ciW~




'fiI'1i1fu' ~di ~'~' -'~J" JAI~' &I~I~a I ~ ~' 'f!'i d I ~ '~ ~ ~~ 'Ff! ;q l& ~ ~txt ~' ~ IG:t +! q~ 1111 ':q151£1' T)'i:f' y-P] IP4 pLU ;q 11et1' ~'Zne' 'W 'fl q Kt1r ~ ";f -q-er ~ t6 {:~il '"lf~ ~:f (i@f ! (411 '~1 i'~,'rJI~r:r1
'rijJ~,it'1 -~1'ci11''1 ~~ ~ Ydfil~'


g 't;tI~

'~lq2tlkl'''LI lI1I:'U'



l1"lq lLFC\,'i1~ ~.

fij1~, di!II+l1h!1

CQd ~

-rp5f .'~

'Jt'li< 'fq

Jir~14~ mllli~:ft SUunliP=i ~' f4d~ . ~
~ f{~rll ~ d~'~~' 4U1

~qijfn fq' ~

mfCfiq "

(11661 '!=I6'M
3i Ll;;u. {q idh '6 '11

Y:I ~l'~ q l1Er !€I ~; ~ IItil t{,:q'

rn -rrq

I ':q ~ I"i\,;q ~;u 1II,lU 't fI 9tI d 0

~1~(q1 ~



'qIR~q ,'tn t111": ;q §6'I~ql:p:lqr.~ ~I~ il~'~

s:'n "ti'lltfi': 1
'~d~I~~lcifi( ) 7

·f~~:~GPIUila' ''tf~ft:,t (~rql'

'ra,4~ ~

4~' . .n'111' cn~:-1 ~
'S{lTI '~

'-Rn f.4~r f.l1 ~lW-ffI<6f ral~~IC11'fg' S,i§'i~'61ftn~ ~ ~,~) I

'~;fifi,d '\·ut1IFq Froth rt? it fiji ';rT, 'R~r F~fi

it21" 5I1'a~fI '4,8'



3l1T( ~~@1 'ij'I'I;1-3fm"

~1611l41 ~ d114[1(d'lj ~~ l!iRr 41~~q iRH ~, ~'~ awareness 'U' Ttf{~m~::=3i~R-r:tl~4::,~ 1tR-7Ift W(44d ~ :\ P4'~ fl n ~ at~ Fe ~~11 ',til'S'\.., ;q'Sti F,~qi 3fJ,~'"1(H~~'-l-!SZ -~"P4~'~'-="~f\'i I~
-~ft ~

1JEi at ~ -qr -

l n'li

5it ~' ~ till~II



'Cf'li ~~, lfil,at

d1T~~r~ ~'~ ml .~ jriihFi~ $~'~'~ ~-'SijI411IFtf ~'';l;;.~ 'qF.JH~.,~1 ~ ¥.... .~t£t ~ 3i'ij 3i[ft'it4' tq,afits,~' ~III '~~"Cfiql' 'iff;( ~ 'r~ri5;t{ 3flTl'tf'TJ' '~~ II 311F~ ~ 'allr~ ~~ ~ ~I~ ''tflIf,qf~'&1~I , _


6fH61 Et'ftq:1


ft{ il'~II'£U'~' Ffift: "rCA G Fti'lt: '-~I4H "'if 11 {1~ (i1q


u ~'~

lJl di'd1q~-J~I;q5t'! ,Qlol~~~,t1 '+401 ~

Sflcih~ ill

'31Q q~~ ~!'fi!€1' ;qq:;G4 '


',~~Ul!~ 'lq;cq~'Ef(: ~ 'MrFliCC {111141I trqii' f~,qI1 fi;q~1-q'~ .cqqp:r ';:;q{1I(1 ~' ~";f ~111,{J1rfq 1,~l1i1''fdntq~rC.url='1rfC1=qr ~ f~1 ~ t ,5l1rqsi 1 g§:~ iiIJ~'9,;S~lqlcl' f~rqi''ft~ tt16'111 ~ TnSi;;qq 'iil9hl~lI I41UT1i1~'~ ~~H:f ~'Q1'~ '~' ~~ JII'~ ~ ~ (j'ln the £\J IIJ?~r 1j '!Pi 'ifi'R ~ fffl,~'• 'iJ11'i -;r lIT~ li~' ~!1;6 3frr~ s' n d ), ~ ~. tU-.',j ~PC!"3t~ '~~' R I ij I pq 1111~ '6fdlu Q'I 'Cfil: 'on ~' 1i1fb: ~ ~ Sfi ~ fiil' 'I~J~~'~ Ol~-qllj'_'-I iI~7H l' '-r~t(=f 31lff1,~'-~d ~' Cfi 1q;"!l~g6;l mz erll!toFti' ~ dijl4~, ~rq,~' u--~ ~ (f iI'~''iin '8'E)'~1lJCi u~ . a1~.t4''1t1' 'LQd ~' 'i!ll'~l-£11 11~ 'q'tat;w-' i;;q](S 'oml f1;' ~ 1" f;{Fe'q I .al2t $[1 e'=ffI-' tqdI!II II![I •




"*'II ~ -

r[q' I ~

iii fd fl'

'ijl 'Iri~~~~' 'i( ~ '.....

I ifi"ZI

'ii tat' 'ip;il¥f

'~f~~q<,~-~j,it' 4l:Sll1J
&1,1 Wi R4

'ritfi(~~141 '"If T.~ ql~ fiJ


the ~' ttFi q·'CI1 (fir

Giij j;:qi1ti
dl FQ Ed

'\iI q <:1 (J4@i4I¥'" 1ft: U •
d1.~ q 1'- J n;q 3i1: '$U tl Uti F4 19f 1ft


aJil19,d ~ ~"CJAdti1rH:a)~

'1(11 J

It411 g: '6Fi ~1,=,Ifi"
", I :.


.,eJ,\q~lq::t'qif.: (;q1P1'r(l:ift "\lIfq{~I:a'1

,tlj~ '~

flQ'5';n 3iq &l1'flHt+J
~.' ill

~a 'l'lfu: ~


.iFQ: l.J ~::

t"lfltEi?i'"q d dt;&:!4IIi1~'l,1 ~,
~,~~ ~~q"

'-~"\ ~I

~ftHii 01~

-~1(' ~ ~ ~



tH'q "~~91'~ ~n,{;;q'11
ill ~ "!!!


'I ' q ~ ~ql 3:~ ' :efiq "llfiJ'41'1 =4 \1lf ·-11 ~ tortoise flre:r ~~' ~~ ~, 'qjJ~

ai~ l' c.e: ;;ffl~ 1111

q;;~ ~'






~''1(~qI11 'ir

,;q'idt\R ! m~
U;; ('Hlftf1tt£i')
a:f1:tllff' '~


YOId' '7jj~,B)JdF.,« 31:t1~' QJ(O: ~

fqtf' 1:ff'?;q ~
a:I=\lrqr-'-~l!pqit ~
~J :~.


-m~;tJt:r '~'

• ~l


111 ~i :J;··l~ "qf=Q1'q lJEf' an(i'11-~ ~!

'3l]'1C1 \! iRq~11 ~.

3i~ ':Cfi'(1Jfff '~



31'~'2."lf 'lUild !4',('N'q<:~i fq~ ''Jr~

~ ~~ II ~,''flicH

qs,'!t!lI 4if~r~ c;'~'~~
~ .



'dfilclfi':L!71ijgl 'r~d1'qtl air1=rfl~,t\~~}'H


1lf~'~. '~

RP; "~'l~rg ' t,-fti ~t¥4



'rnf-g ~ 3i\i1lql'=JI~lq~~~ J;I~OlP41''I Tflg;:;qf.fll' ifi.(F-i 01l1.~ 1Fi {?i~ 'rita' ~ ~ '"fffiT ':q~~~~'lif aJhR11J{ ~I ~
~ II!!! o!!

' -r~s'~ ~g'41'~~,ii" ',Qlf~1 'e'ql<iJ~1'~~1til-'1llCf ~-Sll ll'itilll!1q: 1


'r~R~1 ~tIlltt



'3I'iidH, '~


01 \11 st-11 rlf;tl ih ~



'iEtiile;,;q' ~,.





I'I, ~


'~-r~ I

Ishwar Ashram Trust (Founded by Ishwar Swaroop Swami Lakshman 100 .. aharaj) Srinagar: Guptaganga, Ishber (Nishat)- 191 021 (Kashmir .Iarnmu: 2-,Mohind,er Nagar, Canal Road, Jammu-ISO OiOl2 Delbi: R-S, Pocket D, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi __10 076 ·



MilO hia

rio, Loksh rnoruoo M"'h- olroJ .OJIS .o Jul,y 29 (Slunday) AU,giust 218 (Tuesday) September 3 (Monday) Septe'mb'er 281 (Fridoiy) Sleptemb,er 29 (Satulrday)

March 19 A 'prill 14
" 1····'·· '. :.' ..'..

(Mondov) (S,lcturda,y)
'.:., "1" "1·· !I!

Novreh (New 'Year)

BIJrth ,Jlyonti Swami May '9 (Wednes1day) Sr~ Guru Purnlrno

Lakshman Joo Vorsh Siwaml,


Shrovono Purnlrno Jonrno Ash omt . S·· ... M _ b K·' k JII 'r'oplQsJ J . Pit· . .k h .. aglh·1.::·lwam~". e ht '·~.11 ' - . ..can 111-1I' earl', ,_IIOg ... . NIlrvo'n J Y -. f \1 ~yJI. Ih >- .. Hls Hollne··S"5 Sw'am·; to kshimo n' JIO:·O·Me horol J Jonrno Jovontt Swami Mehrob Kok]












I ~. ...... .•..1






Jonuorv Febuorv

March 5 _ lore···· M··-'· h'·'9:" AprU7

(S,oturd,oy) (Tues,day) (Wedn,esday) (SundoIY) (Mondov)

-S········.·······HWI·f"A·R"·_.. ..' .. - .\~ ..... .. ..... ·-S·····-······Ti . .. ~..... ft. ..'. , .. .. ... - -' ..
u. :, -


A... ·S-H-R·-····A·······M-··T-··R·····-U· ·-· '·



shber Nils'hat. PiO,. Br,e~n" Srin·ag,or CKoshlmir)- 1'9 0 021 Tel.: 01 9,4-246' 0,5·7
1 1

Jornrnu Ashrorn:
2~. ohinder Nagar:, M

Conol Road~ ,Jammu (Jaw~)"·18IQ 002 Tail,: 10191-2553179,255,5755,

'0(':: .... 8:, R5 P··-k·-t-'iO·' Sarita Vih'CL
- I ~'~ I·

Del:hl Ashrorn:

New Delhi-lila Ol6 Te'~'.:1011- .2695B30B '9,Sl 0009-95

10, The Secretorv lsbwor Ashram

D ot e "........,., " '..





• 'I· ••


I' .'




Trust Dei hlj,

ii herebv request you kin,dly 'to enrol rne as 10 rnernoer of the SRIINAGAR/JA_M'M,U/DELHII/M,UMBAI IKen,dlre of the Trust in the category lnolcoted bellow: 1 Donor onetlrne donotion OlflRs. 1JJO Lor'kh. " Patron one tlme.donotlon ot Rs; ·10 ;00Q.00 .ljfe Mem,belr one tlrne ooncnonot Rs. 3 ~OOO.OO Assoclote IM,sm'ber Armucl Rs,! 300.00



Enclos~9d pleose ffnd Drott/Cheque/Ccsn
, ; •• ,j

i ; ; ;. i' '. ; •• i •• ; ; !






." .•






i' ••••



drown o:n

Srli;'nag'or IJ'ommul De~,hi'. No,m.e '.

(R'.s,. ,,.

ii, • ,



Ru IPe as ... ,,,,"'..~ ..,;.~ ..... , ,..; ...;.~

11 ••






II •




II •
















P a~'y b '19' to a

Ish war

As h rc, m rrust at




I ••••

, 'I




II •••


I, •







, ••







I. ,


II ••


, •••••••

I, ••



·1· •••

'I' ••••






'i ••

, • ; ••






'0 ;







•• ,.




I , •;



• -

,I. ;






Address (in block letters) ...,'........."....'''',.,.,,,. ••• ' "'"i·


i ••••



, •••





•• ,.,.,.~;;.,


••• ';;"

•• "'.,'


... ,.,;



·1'.·... "'.




·-T· -. '~ (...-R)···
", . '.

e ....... :'

•, •

,I, •••

II •••

I, II •••

ii, •••••••



,- 0" . -:.)..
. ., .-. .'.:.





'II •••








i • of

C'M· . ')
. .

•. ' .. ~


i ; ••; ... , • ,;'.', •., .' ••

; " , • ,! ; •







I. d,


• ,~

. -; e-m 011
' •. " . "11

Ii i


I. ,










n ••


! • ~ •• ,; ii'



~ :p,l'edgeto obldeby the rules &, regu!llat~olnsof:th'e Trustond willi be de~ighted to' contribute enid work fro

th,s Trust in, the oreos of·'f:o~~,ow~nl'g area's:' (a,) Orga·nisdt~olin of conterences, sernlnors. le,ctUlre's~ studv c'irC~'B·s,et,c'. (b) Audlo-vldec presentotlons. (0) pubncoti'ons (d) Sa~:e' books/cossettes, photoqrophs, CDls 9 tCt of (E) Pro cureme nt of advertisements.

(F) I(G}

(Pleas,e tick

Publicity Medical, charitab le '&, social welfare activhies.
,'l'(,IJ"'/{ (",,)

the opt ions)'

(S'ignature ) ..'. 0' ...


-. -,


A Quarterly Publication ofIshwar Ashram Trust


E ........ ., , • ~,' .,

Ii M auu·

The Circulation Manager

Kindly' enroll me. as a subscriber of'Malini

F'or 8 issues Name .,~~,;,' "'~~~. ~~~,"
"''',"1. ""',. •••• ~ .,.,' .~," ",~'I ",."". """ I .,., ~~I" ""~~ I "~II I I !!" ....... ,."'

•• , ••

for12issues ~
~~'I"I .,~II'I I .~I' •• ,.,. E •• ' ""'"' .,~~."''" •. ~~~. "~I' •• ,•• , •••••• ,.~,""~~"". ~'"""I" "".~'.'.'.E •••••• ,' "'~ ..


A ddres S



.. " I ••

' ~ ~ '" 'I


'" .' .. o!!! ,















' ii ••

OJ ..



"' •

I, .. ,"' '" • I' ...

! ! .. ;; iii ,

II Ii ,. iii '" ,.....

OJ II ..



'" 'I' I

I' "


~ .. o!!! "







I' "' '" '1 .. 'I 'I

I' .. 'I .' ~ .. " I .....

Ii .. '" '" .......

II I, '", ~ II I

"' OJ ~



.' ~ '" ~ '" .....

, .. I ••


.ii.,.. '. ' '" ..





.i "' .. '" I



.. '" ....



... ,"





'" • '., ...



~ ~ I' ~ '" ••

~ .•• , ~ ...


Iii" .....




E-,m,ail ......
i • ~~ i .. " ~

" ~ , .• ~ •• " I, ~ Iii ..... I I'" "" ,.,. .. , ,. ~",. "' .. " • il II •• , .. OJ; I II '" I" .. 'I I "' ~ 'I

II, ....

i i ..'" '" ! ;;;;; ! ! ~ iii I~

ii '" I

• Ii ~,,, '" ,I I

I' ~

Iii 'i


~ I' ~ ~ "' ..

iii I

'R}' eI (,.: "', .

II •

II " II ..



.. ~ • ,. " ~

~ ~ ,i i

ii Ii " .' .,

"' .. "

;; 'I

.' • '••


II • OJ ..




M-0 :.iI .;~ -, .. .; _'..,

. ",'




II • .,







.. Ii "

I' I


, ~ • I'"


OJ "



! ~ 0;



~ Ii ii •


.' " ii ~ il I


• ",.



SuhseriptieuRates 4lssij;es Rs, 150
(1 year)

(In ndia) 8 Issues Rs ..300

12 Issues Rs~450 (3 years)

Payment Details, C,:heq ue/ C ash/D D I(N0 i) .'

OJ "


' '"





FI •

OJ •


., ,.


I' I' .. I. '

I II .. " II ..

Ii .,

0; ,.

,I I

I' OJ II '" .' "

~ iii iii •

II ~ • ~

D ate '
.' ' ,I' .'. . I I,~ ill

!I I















c'.. :~, Banl'....





!Jl II!!

ii • ~ I!I


iI .i ill itl i



ill iI '.


!I! I! •


!t! [I!

!I ~


ill II






















' !I!


(I !!I !'





I' iii •

Iii oil




Ii '.'






!I !Il !13


!II! !!l I!I !II!







il iii


Ii ill Ii iI [Ii iI I'


Note: 1.. ,A,IICheques/Dl) 2.

'to be in favour of'Tshwar Aslu31D Trust" payable at Srinagar/Jammu/Delhi/Mumbai

For subscription and correspondence, pl. as ..•contact (i) the Circulation Man' ager IshwarAshram Trust: R-5" Pocket ... D~'Sarita Vihar, NewDelhi-l l 0 076 (for outside J&K State) andfii) Circulation Manager,


F-mai : iati:shber:@red-" ftmail. com~Tel, 0] 1,.. 6~)5830,8 ,.193 122647'89 9.810549976 .2

Life Mem_ ers Ishwar Ashram Trust Delhi Kendra)'




S~NIIO~ P'f'efix

'! " .





M'~ddl II: ,: Ie

Leela IC.L,


Mr~ Mr~

'2 3,

M---s., ___ r
Mrs. Capt.

Bh-n.. ~"_.,a


Montano Ja~[a~ii'
J aailr II



IRaj S;hei lender


Ka,chru R,'a~na


40 4,1 42


J ata rI I J aa rI -1J aaJ ll ~I~

Jyotl Mi23Jil,ene Preet~ Sulochana

S '6, 7

Mr. Mlr. Mrs. Mr. Mlr. Mrs,. Mrs,. Mrs,.



She·ela M'~l.,
Krishan Hari

Mrs. Miss

Dhar Dhar


46 ~,7








MilS,S Mr:. Mr.

SM ' '. ,I-;,CJIVI N,ath IB,riJ

'11 1'2, '1:3 14



'. Sadhu
. .


50 5,1






,S,uni'ta R,akash


V'ijay IRaji'Bev
_ '." III ",'" III

Mr. Mlrs _""

Bhan uhar

Mr," Mr~

S(J:_"dh UI Khe'f Sum b'ley




Dlu~a:Fl] Laksh~mi D1hsr
.~ iii ",

5,3 54

R.. , L Re·nu


Mlrs. Mr.

V~ijay Dhar
K a;k

Mrs., Mr,. Mr.,. Mrs. Dr.,

'1 9'


56 57 58
I., ,"

Zutshl J-II-a a lKau~




K ra:, k





a.'; '. .J" .


22 23



IQ;szi, Munshi

M,.L. Devinder PiN
iii . II


Mr., Mrs. Mrs,.
\~, r S'ml(.

Patro:n (110:1'000) Col, :Kuda Mrs .. Mr.

~lm~ R_IQ_"_I" g


Ka,u~1 Nenru h Bhat TapHu Zuts·hi' Zluts,hl Kaul' Dhar
Wa~iko'o Lal

Chetna Abha Lalita Dlilar'l
_. SN ..


27 28I ,'."'~


_ • _I ~


3:0 311

SimI:. MiIii.

O-::-nD~ Donor """1 .U,-II nD' I ........'.

K.un.dan RK
~!t '..".:_ Ii!




33 34 35 36


Asha '. SK ::.

Mr., Mr.,



rnentioninq alii reI1e,vanti. particulars inc~udi'ng detai~sof payment made,

This ~i:s:tls be!~ng published for the 'mirst time. ln case t:her,e are some olml~S$i,ons. PI~leasebriing the same to the notice of' the pU!b~ishelr



Ifi1(I 'ft"f(fifl

~ll;J OJ' '.m' if [J~ '1 r~zr~ ail iJQmanr OF-I- II :£ (J F T J E ,E"GISTRA R OF [W _ p' 1P, IL~ ,FOR IN

~ft 'Q<il1llGt U'JIIUJ......j~ CERTJ_.· JCATE·' F' RE', ISTRA l-'ON


'mr ~*


a~ jfR

V,,;fti:fi{UT ~~if.

1»:,7 ~ 3tffi'}Vd'



Ttu,s ~,. ~t; cctlJfy

thaI ~tu~,nt!W'sp~~x.,,,bas OO-~l1rcgL.i1cred undtl1l"' UllC Pres~

R nstruuon

n Ht)( 'H l'tC r. ItN 7

~ fI1Mtit 11 tnI i'fi1 ~

tldc' tjf [the Nl.~!~rntper



H,at~d "1'


fir Q ~iiFll1.if H~r

ENGtt -'Ii

IND1" "ASI"!'" IIt~

r ~,tvl@iU.agcn,.~.nglla~~rn wbu .. u I~ ".uhhshcd l1

·1 ~

Wih1'q_~ i5f ~ ll?lifil" tf1fr ~


,', lf15 QilSlftrn ~

PeriOlh . illy 'r "IS p:ubhcaUDIl land the d.E!\"ldaysi dru:es om, wbiclt it is pu" ,hthed 5 ·fJif'l,i ,itt, q"'( $I IT c ilR ~tlfa Rk~U scilingpriOO':ot tbe new ~apcr.
frr Q',ijiNRn



lit iaJf. 'Ptib~ ~'du:-"'f!sNann~
'!~(t1I .. ~l ufHlhry ttm t Addre~~

& ItS,' Otl " [,



;}{~tifi ~


Oil S,," s; l~OSItK 'NI

trcfrl J.\ rldre~
:H.; ltJll .~~ i5!r' in~tl-lid 11.,00F~ Nun~e

1J7fT I.A4drrc~





fln~ lR
~ ..o.,..._ o·.q~ 011-.










~vbc N :pn 'Idmn~i~ ,t:tlnd uClcJ
~!() lQq;l~fii ill" ~rk~

-I rue and p IOC~SC eeeoun 1 ~:t III V pn.~ fll

1:.;;(,~ :

;" -::wz.t



ABU AN.~ ~N'D. ARJ:::~\ rH ,,\~, Ir: t ~ 1-.

lJl[['.1 U. '!II

IIJ.lf pubJ iQlnrm


115UWAJ!i!$flR"\M TIUJST. PLO''r ~O. H-!\ P()(~JiI(

.n~s._·\FUT \In L-\R.




·,-f:El..;-\t\f, 1f(.!\Pl~R


f.. ,nif)'4:Qit1 ~ ~

N:hl;H';T~i\,R (n;~,NEWSP'/U ER~ Fl1k ,IN'~ll.\

. ..

Florai ffibute to Gurudev

'Making: 'the r pe~ntmlons ere:

Serfl,loo In prwress

WeJcome add~'es.s bV Shri Somnaftih Scpn.'Jo~.Conv,snO'r, Shii 'R"K.Scldhu rBJOOrt:11ng on ShriViijay IKumnr Kaul pmsentnngl a shcrM fo IDr. \(e.d Kuma' 'Ghol Centenary ICe~etnannon prog:rommes

Shu ,Andv

Dr. S.:5. TOlhkhoni

ShiniRomprakash forrnerr ,[GP'

Dr. C.N. Ch[~ngoo

Killhak dance

presen1100an bV child[len


IBnsk sale
nf ~~




A- Savo. we take p,lle., " Ie ., 5'8'.' i" ,9_' o. , with. a simile a:n.,,_ ,lei elco .'lei.




CSln'lralUy loca ,ad ~o·luxury and ccmfoi i s E)'e!llicio, . s food, Ka,glh,mljrli & 01 er ~n,diJaln cuisl e S'p,8clous rooms, iilth aU' e mode n fa,cUiliies


.._. -. • I
• •


Confere "_cs!HaU w~thlopen terrace
;-,for1ed space for Marrlalg,e:s- Ba- quets V8!jn 0 p,8'vii, etc. i
1 1

Spacious lush Ig ee ~ Ilaw-


P'rin'ied and Pub~; 5hri R.K. Ssdhu tor and' on behalf 'of ,Ishwar A s,hram Trust~1R-5, POCkJ3,,-D Sarita Vinar., ,N'ew Delh'i... '10fJ76. 1 tel. : ,21695830B~ Em1ail : ia:fishbe'1@r6diffmajJ~com~Printed a1 ,: Print Art!A-29f2'~ Nar8ina Industrial At&al Phase IJ N,9.W Delhi~ ~M~'t'~r • LI:_.I S:·'halJi:!t'a;.;' s' ·h·~/;,.'~.,o" I'"'!I.r. . -,11,' . Ia..~ 1\~lrUI '. il[_'l'hJ\"'h·!!!:rIn~ l;;'U"lu ~llf'I~CIl J'~


r _.l