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Comme'ntary by lshwarswaroop Swami lakshma-njloo

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Theories of Truth and KnDwledge· with Specil'al Reference to Ka,s,hmi'r' Sha'ivism and Kas:hmiri Sufi'sm~2
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ealend,a r D,f Events'

The VieU1S expresse! in the articles published her. in do not necessarily represen! the vieUls of Malini

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.18ft anniversary of Ishwarswaroop Swami Lakshmanjoo s Mahlisamadhi was observed with deep d votion by' his numerous devotees and followers in the country and abroad. As smoke rosefrom the sacredfires lit at the annual mahdyajiias performed at the Srinagar; Jammu, Delhi and Mumbai centres of the Ishwar Ashram in India and the Universal Shaiva Fellowship in the US along with chants oj the ltymns and mantras recited on the occasion, so did sincere prayersfrom the devotees ~ hearts rise to the sky requesting their great mas te I' for hi's' continued compassion of guiding them in every moment of their lives: And as the fragrance of the joss sticks and flowers filled the air; so did the aura of his divine presencefill their minds and souls with its divine glow eighteen years after his departure from his physical body. The occasion lVlas also marked by the need felt at Ishwar Ashram Trust of its engagement with greater dedication and a more intense resolve in spreading the philosophy of Kashmir Shaivism of which. SWlamiji was the greatest representative in modern times.
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It wlas Ishwarswar. op Swami Lakshmanjoo s firm belief, as. w,e all know, that non ... dual Shaivism of Kashmir has all the pote tial to bring about IU spiritual transformation in the fragmented and strife-tom world ~ttoday and create a new [orm ofsociety based on the Trika vision of the unity of identity between man, God and the world. It is a vision that integrates transcendence and immanence and' conceives the ultimate reality as one undifferentiated and indivisible consciousness that pulsates and th obs in every atom and is the ground and essence: of everything. There' is nothing that exists outside consciousness which though. one also appears in the form of diversity; the phenomenal world and all its entities being but its manifestations. It is' this one pure consciousness that unfolds itself, the Shaiva philosophers hold through' the thirty -ix categories of existence from Paramshiva to Prithvi ali the cosmos. And the casinos is nothing out there but within consciousness. The sun, rises the' moon shines; the galaxies shimmer forms appear and disappear and eve" time and space dance within the immensity ofconsciousness. It tras scends all and yet includes all. Infact, it is the ALL This experience of'nDn~dualiry, of realizing that individual consciousness is not different from the consciousness that envelops the whole cosmos. is what constitutes spiritual transformation. Awareniess of this identity, this essential oneness CQ'nrelease the individualfrom the bot tis offinitude, with his consciousness expanding to'the extent that 't includes the entire world and touches ~nfi'ni't:y. Thisis what KashmirShaivism . means by' liberation, this sense ,o/identity with Shiva lor cosmic consciousness. Kashmir Shaivism thus makes Its feel one with. the 'world instead of isolated and alienated individuals. Perhaps that is why Swamiii regarded it as a universalphilosophy and made' its universalization his core

concern.
Isn't itfor us now to pay tribute to his hallowed memory by trying' to w',ork towards implementation l?f this spiritual agenda set by' him?

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with commentety by

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WARSAROIOP
' AKSHMANJOO
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SWAMI

_. .. FKssbm: ~L_:" Revealed tO tbe Sage VSsugupta the Shiv« Siicres form a seauns 1text D'1s» snaur cJHiJ1Vlsm~SWlUnlJl S English rendering of the ,Siitras untold their inner secrets snd mysteries, helping us to fathom the . .. ,L .. ~ oceanic depths oi' their mesmng; epnonsm br sp hori .. . zonsm
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His uirtuous oehaoior is t111f' maintenance of his body~
hat ~ virtuous be havi or? For s ordinary beings, virtuous behavior may involve special ways of acting and being. For example, there is the special .-ehavior that some ple,op e observe during tr e eclipse of the moon, These people fast and perform special ceremonies during tile eclipse and continue these special ac ..ons until the' ~ eclipse has ended, For these people acting in this wa,y during an eclipse is a. virtuous act,

these assorted actions compris the virtuous
b shavior L·eadopts for the remaining period of his life.
l

This is what this sutra 8a'ys~ such a YOg 1, who For is just like Siva, which means whose 1consciousness is just like Siva. consciousness, existing in his physical frame is his virtuous Bu.-for such. a 'yOgI." behaving virtuously is Just behavior, Therefore, just to exist in his body is to re ,-. in in, his body as -t .- ~For him", virtuous a s a virtuous act, This is because while he .r .mains behavior involves g,e.ring ~p from bed at fo r in his body; hie is intent on_y on performmg the _ ,. 0' clock in the morning, going to the bathroom, supreme worship of Lord Siva in each and ev· ry taking bed tea, g,Oling,for a walk, having lunch, action of his life ~ whileeating, while d inking, garldenin'IS taking a nap'., cleaning up his livi . ,g' while talking, while taking 'te'a, while eating quarters and so on. Other than these ordinary lunch, and so forth, Although everyone around daily' actions, there is. no, 'need. for him tO adop _ him experiences that Ie is acting just like an any other virtuous behavior, So routine talk, ordinary human being, he is not, he is 'taking tea, going for a walk, going to the cinema; somewhere else ..
I

About this, 'the Soacchanda Tantra says:
VJbenever a. fire is kiGdled pn the ground where, are the flames seen? The flames are steen, in the h sky ..In the same way, a lth'.o'ug- t hiIS:yOgI S b d -'o'-y ~ ., ~ ~ ne ·'....... ~ c 'i is esisnng In 'thi mrenor fi- eI-d 0 f m divid mahty this, yogi is actually established in Godconsciousness, (Svscchsnds Tsntm ,4..389)
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to stand still, These energies will not allow the individual to, enter into 'the state of Codconsciousness, The sup .eme class. of energies are known as aghtJr,c1' energies, In. the next verse from the Kulap,aiicaSika Sastra, the ag110r ii' class of energies are clarified and explained,
The ~rupreme ,agh'oIli e'nergies 0'£ GIOI,dconsciousness always em-brace that. yogI who livesin such a way that he remains abso-lutely unknown as a yo,gi..,They carry him [0 'Godconsciousness, where he is forever established .. This is, the secret. of rising, be- cause this state of God-consciousness has come. forth, from a secret point and he is residing in a secret way of life, That 'yogf, on the other hand, who is known ' 0 everyone as an elevated ·yog'l[l is not embraced by these aghorii energies. They shun 'him and sequently he' ~'S- car ""'';i ed I::lWr:Ji'y fro illi G' ad ,', con',-0.1,;,;."_
,'!,;;;;, '" , " ~ '. Q .l. JIl~' ~"', ibl. ,',.' ,', .',
ii.

The yogi is established ill that G,old~ consciousness. just like a flame in the, fire. . Although he is residing ill the inferior states of 'waking, dreaming, and deep sleep, he has ~ already attained entry into' 5iva~And yetbccausc his actions are just like ours" you mustnot think he isnot fully' aware of his God-ccnsciousuess and. therefore he is just like us, Even if 11,e does all the same things we do, he is somewhere else: consciousness, 'he is above, There are no other virtuous actions for' him, to adopt except to remain in. this physical frame and perform actions, In talking about the yogi 'who is, hidden and " embraced by the supreme energies of Lord Si va, It is said in 'the Trika Sastra:;' everyone says that be.. cause he walks and talks just as they.' do and seems to be' an enjoyer of The one. who is always stamped by the various poses associated with thebody, such. as taking; sensual 'pleasures, he is an ordinary persont It tea, going 'tOI bed. resting, talking, joking, having is worthwhile, therefore, for a yogi to behave lunch, walking and resting, is the real holder of in such a way that he is 11,0 t known as a yogt' by all the 'postuJes (mudrss) ofyoga, All other yogis, the outside world. He must keep it a secret and who are not like him" only hold a bundle of not publicize it, He must be known to the''world bones, as an ordinary person" As long as, be does not The ycgi's 'body has no flesh, no bones, You pub licize his spiritual state, he is there. must not think that he is in a body with flesh Otherwise, he is carried away' from God-consciousness 'This is the secret of rising. and bones, 'Being one with God-consciousness, he is supreme'~ Even the disciple must not know the depth of ~ The energies of Lord. Siva are classified in three his master's realization, The master must also ways: the supreme class of energies, the hide 'his powe'f of' spirituality from the disciple, medium class of energies, and the inferior class He must absolutely conceal 'his, spirituality ~'Th!-f'· 1 " n f energies." ,', ~emrerior crass 0'f energies, within his nature and not expose it to anyone. known as ghorafarl' energies, are determined bo The disciple lTI,US.t possess and maintain blind cause an individual to enter into the depths of faith, This is. the manner of the Siva ~tnras. 'the darkness of ignorance, The medium class f .rus s of energies, known as ,ghora' energies, cause lone For thi,. 'kind 0'- yog],
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,3~,,27
.ktithii japallli
OTldinary talk of life is tIle recitation t?f mantra.

A .gam, it IS sa lid _ .. '
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He recites mantra when he laughs with yo'o, when he .. mbraces you and .a '.s to you, when e he ,goes with 'Y'ou ." ' . e· theater. All of this is, 0 for him, 'the'real recitation (j,tlpafJ) of mantra, So, for him" the ordinary talk of daily life is recitation of mantra because,
In talking; he experiencesand
fullness of (SVaCichanda Tsntrs)
is aware of his l"'c:on-si,ciousness of GOd,~1,1

By going out he utters (884"" by coming in he utters ~.h,a~') n this way he recites the manr a i I.. -~ I.. ~ nsmse, repeating sa .lI!'L" ~ so .nsm, so '1.. - dIa.y nsm, nsm s .. h ,IS d 1 an.d mgn .,' Th'" sacrec recitatron 1S always existing for him .. (Vijiiana.bh'airava Tsntrs, 155)
,II
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And again, it is said in the VijD5nabhairava Tantra.~
H~' recites, this mantra with breath twenty-one thousand six hundred times in a day and a night. This. recitation, which is, of that supreme energy of'Ccd-consciousness, is very easy for those: who are aware and 'very difficult for those who are not, (Vi;nana'bh,air-a~a Tsmtre, 156)

This is explained in Soacchanda Tanira in this way:

The daily _r mtine of the YO,gI who is im . ersed .. t m .....:L,::' kindof automa ic reelittation (.. .... Ll~US·'· .' 101 ClJapagayaffrl)::11 is as follows:
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,~"'_~ ,_an.a,fflllLliia}Danam' 1'1 i d~
For him, wh.o is one with that: mpreme cognitive state of the Lord, that supreme energy is awareness (vimsrss) and it is filled and, shining with all knowled.,ge~

3.2"',8'··, ..

His only purpose for remain.in.g in, his body is to impart l1i's know'ledge to othere.
"' d ne . -_S . Dunn,g th remamner 0 fhis lifte, his reason f or his IVIng' IS glvlng r .. rea 1-kId xnow et ge 0 f G 0 d ... _' consciousness to others. This is the meaning of t .is, sutra ..
'10
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II

It IS explained in the ,Sri Ka1.ik,akrama that the daily conversations of the yogi, who is established in that unartificial awareness (vimar ia.{J),. which is self-g rierated and span aneous, become th" recitation (ja,pap) of the real mantra of th self"

It also said in the Vqiiifnabhai'r,llva Tanira:
Est albIishin g, the state of awareness in. the state of God consciousness repeatedly withou b eak al ~ or pause IS rea recitation 0"f"- mantra, F -rom t hi us recitation which. is full of universal «'I"~ real "P consciousness automatically flows fa th, (Vij1iina.bh'sir.ava' Tsntrs 145)
II ,I

The Sanskrit word dana found in t c siitra has many -earrings. 'Whate'ver this y'ogI, who has become one with Cod-consciousness experiences, which 'means, whatever he sees in his IO\V11 self, that is dana for him, The word ,dma can also r iean that which gives him fullness of consciousness .. Moreover, dana can mean that which. destroys the differentiated perception. of the universe, Dana can also be referring to that which remains when Ilh sion ends. And, it is that state whe e the nature of his Cod-

27..In this, verse from the Svtlc,r::handa. Tantra; it is the "I-consciousness of God," not Indlvidual t'l-consclousness," that is referred to ..Therefore, we cannot call it "Lconsciousness" because "l-consciousness" can also be. individual consciousness, I't is not individual "l-cunseiousnsss"; it is {1 God conscious-ness.'

consciousness ~ com -letely protected. This is s how he acts during the remainder of his life,

The definitions of' ana given above are in reference to his own person, There is another meaning of diina. In this case, diina is .xplained in reference to another and it means "whatever is given to another .. So" those w110 are his " devoted disciples get the owledge of the self from him .. This same thing is said in some
tantr as
I

bound -0 obey them, But he is not like that ..He • -1=""'11; d .." d malTIU.i.uLb I..IOffillUon ove'f th'lese eneIlgles an·'. so . hie 'becomes the cause, of inser-ting real knowledge into others. his is the meaning 0 £
'I!"'Ii ot"!J
iii

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Those yogic heroes who are established in the Kula system re-veal the reality of Godconsciousness to others by merely looking (darsana) or touching, By this reve1a .ion, all of their disciples cross over to the other side of the bondage (saIiJSilraJ of repeated births land deaths and a liberated.
'I'

this sutra, Ju ~ hei Th ose W· "0 a e llgnoran an protected In tl ell own way ..y this wheel of energies. These sakti : cakms protect these ignorant souls by providing th m with taste: with form, with touch, with smell, and withwha .ever else they nee' ... This so-called protection isnot really protection because it provides them with thesesensual pleasures.
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In fact, only rat person who, has become just lie Siva)2S being' always busy in, his daily routine with internal recitation (ajaplii) and ruling Iris own wheel of energies, can beelpful in illuminating others, --.-explains this in the next surra:

In. sutra 19 0: this Third Awakening of the Siva Slutrlus, the "eenergies are said to be the mothers of these ignorant seopl ~ In that sutra, these energies are called miiJle~varya,di sakiicakran: which means those energies, miiheivatll' knecar; gocarJ~ dikcarl; bhikur]; etc., c ncerned with the organic f eld,
~

To say that a rna ·ter has sovereignty over these energies is to sayhe is tot p ayed by them On the contrary he is the player and he becomes the cause 10£ inserting knowledge into others,

.

3.29
yolvipast.ho j iiihetuica 1/ TIle one lv,ho rules tlte wheel of energiee becontes the cause 10/ inserting knowl.edge in oihere.
The master who has established sovereignty over the wheel of energies, (iakticakraJ is not played by these en rgies but is i- stead the player; Th,B wheel of energies is classified in two segments: the energa s p -. taining to cognition r (iifiinendriyas), and. the energies pertaining to action tkarmendrisas). This master is the player of both these kind of energies. They do not play with him as they do with US~ Whatever our se sua energies ask for Of' demand, we' are

In the present sutra, the Sanskrit word jfiameans the 'energy of knowledge (jniina ·llkti). For those who a ~'Iehis disciples. this master becomes the source of knowledge' and by the energ'Y of t -.at knowledge, he becomes successful in inserting knowle . ge into his disciples,
The person who is influenced by the wheel of energies, whic means who is dependent on his sense i not able to protect himself, so '. ow C01Ild he possib.ly protect 0 thers? He is. COIlS trained to follow the demand of his senses, so how could he possibly elevate others? He co' ld not, It is impossible.
I

In this siltra, you will also find the Sanskrit word yo w ich is derived from the Sanskrit pronoun ytlt (who). In Sanskrit, whenever yat is found,

~B~ we've se n above in surra 25 this ylogt is not one with Siva:' he is "just like Siva." Hie will become one with As Siva immedtau Iy upon I aving hi physical body,
1

then the' prOnO Ul1. tat must also be added to complete the sentence, Therefore, '~o'ytl,m avi'paslha.!J, "the one who, governs this wheel. of h energies· sa, tat ,- In aster jiiana,prabodJ1tlHahe'tt{, "becomes the cause of inserting knowledge into, others.I' So it is. well. Ild-" ._. ' sara In sutra 28' 0'f thi TL,· d A k ~ lJS, 11LIYW,3_enlng, Idan.a,milf,mo.jDannm_t, "he gives knowledge of the self to others,"
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Some commentators explain this sutra in another way, They say this sutra must be explained according tOI the words and letters as follows .. Take the first word yo'vipaS't}lo~ Because of the yo sound inyogihdra "llD indicates YDgmldra, the foremost yog ~L\Ii indicates viiiitiJ1am "knowledge,' pa indicates "state," stha refers to 'tithe one who is established, in that- state." Now the last word j iiailetuscll. [iia means /,I'who knows that." He indicates heyalj, "what is to be abandoned," Tu indicates tucchaiii, that 'which . is abandoned is differentiated perception." And the v'isarg,ap (11) refers to visarga ,sukti'fJ, creative energy ..The word ca does not mean "and" here but rather indicates "one who does this."
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Fori such a master, this universe is the collection of his own energies, He perceives that this universe is the embodiment of and not separate fr 0m, his innumerable collective energies. So just as that master is said to be just like Siva, this whole universe is his own collective energy.' ~
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And by saying this whole universe is nothing butSiva'senergy'.J'" . i . in ow: 'av this -l ~... '_ . J' . universe is not only the collecticn of Sivais energies but also for the yogi, because 'he is one . ~.. a' .... . ,,',.' :", ,';"., ,. WIth th ..' ·t G" "d',-c,onSClousness, rlJUS universe IS ,.0 the' collection and, expansion of his ener-gies, It is said inM,itytljitabhat!lir{J,kn:'
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in mind, this meaning now em,erges from this su tra:

That yogmd,ra who (oimarsa &lkty'aJ, by the energy' alms awareness (svarup5tmtlviiiianapadasthafJ) is established in his OW',n nature of God.consciousness becomes the knower and the doer. He can perceive and differentiate whatis to be achieved and what is to be' discarded, and he does 'not 'O\VIl that which is to be discarded,
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ThisLord Sivu is filled, 'with knowledge mid that knowledge is, the inrrumerable-? knowledge found in the universe. Real knowledge is, universal knowledge. The knowledge that frees 'you, from the limited knowledge of the universe is called, netrs. By holding and possessing only one class of this limitless universe of'knowledge, and by not possessing universal knowledge] 'yo,u are bound with limitation. When yOlur master reveals, the universal truth to, you, then ynu em.erge from limitarlon and [he whole universe becomes yo·ur possession ..To possess the whole universe as YC)UI' own self is real knowledge and that is netm and that is liberation, (Netr» Tentrs

We" however, donot accept this exp la 11a tion, So, if we dOl not accept this explanation then why include it? From m,y point of view, K~mltlria should not have included it. After all, if one begins mcluding incorrect explanations then they could, be introduced for ev'ery sntra, I am only including itbecause it is part of Ksemer ;_1ja's commentary;

9~12)

If Y'oupick only' one class of knowledge out of 'this universe and hold and p,olssess only that one class, that is, ignorance. But if you possess this 'whole universe as y'our own self, then Y'IO,ll are liberated. This is what is meant by this verse 'of the Netra TantrQ:~

2:9..Thisl knowledge is said. to be innumerable because it Is the endlessly divisible knowledgs of the particular, It is knowledge of a tree, a 'lock, a person, a second person, a third person, etc, -

3,.31
~,~' kn owlec .gre.IS 1 d-:-- '.' loan d:-everyw h ere ~lnSl e ancd C' insid 1. ,111S, kn outside, because without knowledge, an, object cannot exist" "rh.is entire universe is, therefore, filled wit'h that knowledge. And that knowledge, which may be objective knowledge is, in 'fact"mo'wI,edge of God-consciousness.
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s,thitiZayau II This unioerse is the expansion of his energy in objective impressum« and in tlte dissoluti,aH of those impressions.
Not only is this universe the expansion of his e'ner"gy in its creation, it is also the expansion of his energy' in the impressions of the objective world left in. your mind, Isthiti) and in the' void state where these impressions are absorbed (laya)~

No one has ever perceived an object without 'that knowledge, Thatknowledge, which is the real knowledge of God-crmsciousneas, has taken the form of the object. Objective knowledge is not separate' from that knowledge of God ... consciousness. It is 'by that knowledge d .h ~ ," 1 -- f 10 f G-oa-consciousness ". that. thi kn owietd ge o· _,IS objects takes place. ~
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If you think, that in practicing yoga, Godconsciousness is to be possessed and that which, is other than God-corrsciousuess is to be discarded, 'that is not the p:rop:e'r understanding, The correct understanding is that you must unite these two together. Cod ... consciousness must he' united 'with objective consciousness and objective consciousness must 'be united with Cod-cnnsciousness. 'I'his [leal ity of knowledge, this reality 10£ God ... consciousness, is established in the objective world because throughmedi-tation all 'these objects are found as, one with God-consciousness. As long as yo'u meditate 'upon and are aware that this objective world! is not separate from. God-consciousness, it will be just like God-consciousness. And sa'! you will, nat find any difference 'be.... tween Godconsciousness and obJec'tive consciousness, Wh,en, yo,u simultaneously' possess this kind of knowledge, then knowledge and. the known will be not separated. Known will become knowledge and knowledge willbecome known,

When this objective world is shining 'vividly in your sphere of organs, that is the state of creation (8.r¢:~id,lle/a). But it is not only in the state of creation that this universe is"one' with his real energies of G'od"'cons,cioll9I_leSSj 'This universe is also one with his energies 'Yhe'n only Impressions of this objective world remain (stI1iti'daia) or when these impressions melt in voidness (layadasiJ at the time of death or deep sleep, lor when one is rendered unconscious, When only impressions remain, in those impressions you will find God -consciousness prevailing. And. in. the state, D,E dissolutton when there is no impression, 'when the impression is dissolved in, voidness, pure Cod-consciousness prevails, God .... consciousness is,never in any' w,a:y' absent from being.
Initially, this universe is revealed to you by the erner'gy of action, And after this, universe shines before y'o'u the knowl-edge of the, universe remains for ,B'0me time as Ianimpression in yOUI' objective consciousness, That is what is meant by the' word sthiti.
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(Kram« Stotra)
Not only is 'this universe the expansion, of. his energies in, the created sphere of 'the' world, 'but it is also the expansion of his energies in impressions and In the void, state (laya)~

Thien the impression of this universe in 'your objective consciousness also melts a'way and all that is left is the 'void state where there is no thing, That is what is meant by the word IICliy_.-ah. And 'this state where there is nothing is also held in consciousness.
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For such an, elevated soul, these two states are only the expansion of His energies and nothing else, For him, this objective' world may be-created in 'his sensual world, or it may be stored inhis impressions} or it may be taken away from his impressions; but this threefold world is nothing more than the expansion of his Codconsciousness everywhere. Otherwise, if this threefold 'world was, not existing in his God ... consciousness, then Ute impressions 'would not arise from that nothingness and from those impressions, this objective world would not arise. For example, when you go to sleep and enter 'the dreaming state and after dreaming, you enter the dreamless state and after some time youwake up, throughout allof these states 'God consciousness is existin,g. If Glod,consciousness were not existing throughout, thenhowwould you be able, to travel from one' state to the next, from, the dreaming state to the state o,f deep s ee'pJ and from the state of deep sleep to the waking' state'? Between each of these ~ '_ ';__bJ, , _'!C.=' ' ..~" a' gap' states 'there is ,~, I,.r,,':~ a .. ' 'm"..I. w here on _. state p"o' - Il '.' ...., e' . has, ceased 'to exist and the next state has yet to begin. Wh"en you direct your consciousness from, waking state to the dreaming state and from the dreaming state to the dreamless state, there is a point, a ga,p, when your consciousness, having left one world, has, not yet entered the next world, How' could 'Y'ou travel through that ga,p if God-consciousness did not exist in that gap?' SOl God, .... consciousness must exist
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throughout all three states, then the continuity of 'memory' would :not be possible and I would not remember to ask you for the money or even that I had given you this money to hold for me, Itis God-consciousness existing in all states that maintains the continuity of awareness and rnelmory~ It is said in the

Sri Kalikilkriama:

That which exists, that which does not exist: this differentiation of existence and nonexistence and their connection [is only ., , " mamramecd b G' d-consctousness J ,~, uY'·· 0.::_
'This whole, 'universe' is absolutely ,purf!.,without any support." and one with the 'knowledge of the consciousness of'self Ifthat consciousness of self is revealed and perceived, '[hen at that very moment, he is without a doubt liberated "n this ' ts» uxssreme ij''lIstrB/1 f rt: 6'-' vel)' l1· e, .~~;:-J. -lw._
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throughout .. It' is why the commentator Ksemara]a says" "there would 'be disconnection
of y:: O·CU'l· conscio usn ess
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The previous sntras state that this 'whole universe is the expansion 10£ his own ,glory, not only in ere,a lion, (sr~.ti)~ but also in protection (sthiii) and destruction (s[alhharg)~ But now the: question can be asked" "If this, yogi feels that ~ ~, -~ ~ dm thie universe, ill, creation, In protec tion, ano i r destruction, is the expansion of his own nature, then would not 'his nature bile changeable? It would definitely change, In creation it would 'be one way:, in protection anotherway, and in destruction another way", Therefore, as his original state of being would occasionally change, the essential nature ot the self would not remain unchanaeable, 'The next sutra 10 answers. th IS ques tion. I
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As an, example, consider that 1. am, staying with, yOlu and, before going to bed, 1 give you some mone'y to keep :fOI me. Ithen go tOI bed and enter the dreaming state and after that, I enter the state of dreamless sleep and after that}, I wake up and again en tel the' waking state. And, after ... ,~',-O I' ask... ou f o.r LI:L~j m ...... 'y::.: I~-' . rakin."g,_' ' y' me _ ave y.,. -',0'" u t-o' W keep for me, If God,.... consciousness did not persist in every moment, did not travel
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tatpravrtitoapyani'riisa,l' s·alimetttflh,IoM II
Althou,gh, he is ,det'ermine'd in creating, protecting, and des.troyin,g the universe, even then he is not separated. from the real state of hi's lsubjectivity, .

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universe, for him the reality of the sell remains the same in ere ation, 11rotection and destruction, This yOlgl' is never separated from, the state of the knower, which is that state where he holds. the bliss of turya' (camatksre). This subjectivity is the real state of being of the kn e'r In' th e"s'e"hreefold actions 0" f- cr eation "'O"'W" t protection, and destruction, he is always one with that state.
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'For example, a 'young' 'woman gives birth, That baby is the outcome of Y'Oll,r effort towards abjectly] ty~ that baby is destroyed, whyshould If that woman say that she is destroyed? She is never destroyed. But at that time, ignorant people think that they are also destroyed,", In the absence of the, other agency, Y'o'u can't sa;y theintroverted state is destroyed, If in the state of '],g"',norancevo'll arenot aware of y~.·~our realitv ~,J of self, you cannot say that tile self is destroyed, It is not destroyed but, because YOlu are not aware of it" 'you remain away from it. (Spanda Karika 1~16)
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H in these actions, he was separated :from the reality of 'tile self, then 'the state of creation.the state 0,£ protection and the state 0 £ destruction would not exist, The existence of these three states comes from the p'ower of the reality of . ai' fukn - o.w:·· er
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Although the expansion of ignol'";~rnce is destroyed, the being of the self'Is never Ides' zoyed because that self is beyond creation and destruction, There is no creation and there is no destruction of that self Therefore" if that being is one with this universe, then in reality, nothing is destroyed, is created and ignorance is, destroyed but ignorance itself cannot exist without the knowledge of truth, So ignorance cannot be created. or destroyed because it is one with the real 'nature ofthe self. "When. ,it is the nature of the self that il is never destroyed, then how can it be: destroyed in creation, protection arid destruction? (_KaJikiikram,a Sastra)
1m: is imagined that ignorance

suk,hadu.fIkhayorbahirmanan'am

//

He experiences IIi'S joy and hi: cadneee jus'lt like an obiect, witJt'l this-conscious ness n separatefrrJ,n1. his being.
Such a yogi experiences the state of pleasure (sukna) and pain (d'u{iklIUJ with "this ... consciousness," not "I.... consciousness ~ For n example.ihe does not experience joy thinking 1'£1 am jIO'YIOLlS" and sadness thinking III am sad." Rather, he experiences "this is sadness" and "this is joy,l! just as an ordinary person experiences external objects' inhis daily life. He h'" experiences trus-consciousness" not 'l.... , consciousness," thinking' "this is a pot" lor "this Is a bottle,' So, this 'y'o;g']! experiences his joy and sadness just like an object, separate from his being,
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This is written in Spanda:
In the two states which are termed "doer" and "done," the aspect known as done is destroyed while the asp'e1etknown as doer always remains and can never be destroyed,

Only that force, which is the effort. to create that which is to be done, is destroyed, But when that force is destroyed, :ign,orant people cry, saying, "we tao are" also destroyed ..~,[Spends , Karikfi i. 14~15)

For this YOlgI, these two states of pleasure and pain" thoug'h touched, by the krtown, are without the touch of the kn,QWe'T'!1 He experiences his pleasure and pain just Ii10e other objects such as stoves or pots, He experiences pleasure and pain with "this-consciousness." He does not experience pleasure and pain like

ignorant people do, by putting their I~. mess ~- th'- t exp~ 1": e ience S .. -g "l am co n scior sn nt )aym::1 .... happy," ,III am sad}," or (#1am never happy," "I am never sad." On the contrary, this yogt experiences, III am always in myself, the same in happiness and sadness,
I 11

them 'because the cause o,f the rise of pain and pleasure is [nd.ividual ity and they have destroyed individuality, They are apart from that and so, in the experience of pleasurE and ... in they experience the realstate 'of supreme a beatitude, supreme bliss (a.n,anda)JI which is actually more [han bliss .. (PratY3.'bhljiiii)

As explained in sutra 30 of this Itird Awakening, "For him" this .' riiverse is, tl e embodiment 0'- his collective energies," so for such a yogi, this universe is the expansion of his own ene "gy~This explanation reveals '0 us that he experiences this wholeuni verse with 1consciousness and hie experiences his individ . ality with this-co' sciousness, Because .- is never individual being', he is always e .. uruversa 1- b emgJ.' hae expene'nceos, his na tu re as .. ~ ,__ i universal bei .g ,and. not as individua being. If he were to ... rience his nature as indivi dual ·"PI.. 'being" then. 'he 'would become sad and. happy,
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This ~ explained in S'pmtda in this verse: s
Rea ity exists in that universal state where there is no pain, no pleasure, 010 object, no subject and not even the negation of these .. (Spande K8rika~

1.5)
The YOgl who has crossed 'the individual state of f-consdous-nesa is never -ouch d by pleasure
and pain, So,

The present sutra is not concerned Ion y with pleasure and. pain. Here, "pleasure and pain';" is a.metaphor for leverything ._'at exists in' . is world, This yogi experiences whate ver ex ists :in this world in the individual mode as thisconsciousness and when he remains in the universal.mode he experiences everything with I.... consciousness. III am everything," Because this yogt 'has destroyed the attachment of his state of l-ness with puryR~lakaJ 30 found in the waking state, dreaming state, and the state of deep sleep, how can he be touched by the two states of pleasure and pain?
In the commentary said; of ,s,'i=Pratyabhij'ija, it
IS

ta.dvimuktl4stu ,kevalill

Separated from pleasure and pain, he is ,establislzed in real seclusion.
What is Ileal seclusion? Real seclusion is actually the state; of I.... consciousness where his consciousness (as the opposite of 1consciousness) does not arise. When 'you are established in J-consctousness thisconscious" ess is absent, As .0 ',S as f-conSCiIQUSneSs, prevails, t. is-consciousness is excluded, Whelre this-consciousness is not excluded, then t ~ consciousness is also is , absorbed in Lconsciousness. That is ae sta e of seclusion (k~valj,bh.Dua) where 'there is, nothing, It is 'rightly said in Ilpanisads:

also

Those yo,gis who have crossed the boundary of d~ d d lln·J.Vl~.ua 1- W h 0 hlave ac -h'" lty'l . - ll:eve.:, t h.e' reaJllstate 1.:: ... . of- ~ al- b e:1ng an d .are. esta b.:tlli ·h d '". estate uruverss . _ - ,e'1m'.
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ofuniversality, although in their daily lives they experience pleasure rand pain, these experiences. do not affect them at all, There is no ' d lll applreh ension h'at pain anap 1easure wu nse m
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In the' beginning, there was only one Lord, and because he was olnly one there being no other" he became afraid,
The Upani~d is telling 'us that 'this is the reason why nose w.. 0 are alone become afraid. They

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30~Here" 'the wo'rd.pury!a~~rakddoesnot onl.y refer to the eightfold subtle body~consisting of mind" intell· ..ct, ego, and the five Ifanm,iiras (subtle ele --ents) which exists in the dreaming state r(sv'ap'H,a). Here, the word pU'fyt!f.Plka is, 'mean to include the body (d'ha) existing in.thestate of wakefulness (j(J'gralt) and ,t.he void state (/ihfya) existing in the state

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become frightened because inthat state of being alone, this-ness is excluded, This is the state of (Jvit,lJ/a brahma. 'Whe this-ness is not excluded, then YOIU, are only one and there is nothing to fear, 'That is what is delineated by the word "seclusion" (kevalJ)~This is the' state of seclusion (kevalil' bhavl1.)~ The one who is absolutely freed from pleasure and pain is solely established (kf'val) in the form-ation of God-consdousness ..In Kd1ikakrama, it is said:
All those states Iike the perception of pleasure, and pain and the thoughts associated with them, have arisen by Imagination, That diffe:ren,tiatio,n is actually the great illusion of duality. Herein, one distinguishes between two opposites, such as the, differentiation between pleasure and, pain, thinking pleasure is welcome and pain is to be avoided. The 'yogi who has destroyed this kUld of illusion, actually attains the real fruit of yoga, (JaliJalcram'lJ Stotts}

illusion of duality, he thinks, "This is pain, and it Is not good. 'This ispleasure and it iSI better than pain ..I have a, good jobwhich is very nice" I have been fired and I am very sadl" This is the' state of individual being.

The Sanskrit word mo1.1JI means ignorance (ajiitll1a)~ The words praii samhcftap mean "who is constricted by this ignoral1ce:, this illusion" (moha). He is not 'the player of 'pain and pleasure as a yogi is. Being shrunk by illusion, he is pain and pleasure's plaything, He is said to be the embodiment of action (karmiifma) and as such, 'he its dependent upon action, Actions 'will control him, He is always stained (kalankitaJ by good and bad actions.
This, is well said in the Kilikiikrama Sastra:
Mien tlris yogfdoes not maintain awareness of God-consciousness, having his God ... consciousness covered by' ignorance, then because of his differentiated perception, of the world, 'he does not experience the thirty-six elementary states of the universe beginning 'with tbe element el,va and ending with the element earth, in a supreme lor universal manner. Only the, states of goad and 'bad ap'pear . h' --.-:.r:' .I, - -:-.. '·d··'·~hi·c.. ...h [0,h~- . w·· hicare -,-. unlO rru- Ita.! e"an.' .w, ~. h W . en , , ]lm,~'. ',' , .... ~ ~ h~ ~ !EXpenen.ced cause s,upreme palll to SIne WI.·th-. ill 'him .. Because of this, he has become an absolutely unfortunate being, (KiiJikiikra'J1l'JI. Sastra)
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In the 'present siitra the wordtu is not meant to indicate separation, but to indicate supremacy; tOI indicate that he is above the state' of individuality;

And now, contrarily, 'the author will, in the next sutra, explain the state of individuality that is
absolutely the opposite, of this state.

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The ,ya,gi whose Gcd-conscioueneee is Idestroyed by 'i'hisstate of illusion is' dependent an his action. On the contrary, the' 'yogI 'whose GOldconsciousness is destroyed by this state 0'£ illusion is dependent on his action. The past, 'present and future actions tkarmas) of this, yogi, whose, GOld -consciousness 'has been des troyed by the illusion of duality; will control him and make him their plaything ~He is jus t an ordinary human being, He is not capable as a yogt, Having his state of being destroyed by this

So, although such a 'yogi has become dependent on, his past actions, as ignorant pers,onSt are! when] by the means of the absolutely independent gra.ce of Lord Siva, his state of · rf ct ,'." de nd e i , ~~. ,-.. hi th . P ec - m epen ,e.nce agarn is Ille'Slt en]
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In this verse 'we are told, "He drives away the fie ld 0,f ' diff erenna t~e' perception,, 'u' Thi means ti d,~ - ,,"18 "" 1 the d erenna te,d p,--rceprti ,,', "of th a s bier ti ". ' ''''," ions c a ' at sUJecve e being are kept apart from his self. This subjective being is that indi vidual who is residing in, the sakal« !andpt,ala'yt;tkala states b ecause h h dte fme d-'' IS ego m relation l h~ in re. ation to ne nas the body (iartrtt), the vital breath {prapa), 'the sell of the dreaming state (punja~"!lk(J}J! and 'the self of deep sleep (suny a), and not in relation to his ,,wn "'" '" " reo ",0" '-, o '. " rea,'1 naatu" "'f IG' ,-" d........'",', cons~10usnessll,
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When you fIX your awareness not only in two, but in three, yC]U are carried, [0' God consciousness and you become one wirh ,Sva.'cchaT1da~33(Svacch'sD!da Tantrs)

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The Sanskrit wOlrdtiraskare, which I lam, deri 'ren''- 'e' 'rID' " a·,g, ud- I'-ltV" "~'~ a"'l'A:l"a'V," d -- Tl ot me: an." h 'e,'" ' .Ji. totally igno,res this differentiated perception, Her e -"drives awa indica tes that he ign' "ores it "through the mind, Although, internally :he does everything that other individuals do, he is not attached, to those differentiated perceptions, So, although he Iives irt these differentiated
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What is the' meaning of "triple awareness"? The verse tells, us there must be triple awareness, not just awareness of two, Awareness of two is the awareness of two actions, such as inhaling and exhaling, Triple awareness includes the junction, the gap, between any two actions" between inhaling and exhaling and between d ,~J tng, Itis ' ae i · between exh .21.lin ,g ana inh. alin I the junction b . one' step and another step, between IO:Il,e' 'thought and another thought, between one sensation and another sensation etc.When 'yolu are aware of the' three centers, then YOL1l are carried to Soacchund», to Cod-consciousness.
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God= these

Then, successively, he, enters into the world of 'mantra pram at,i, manlresoara ,pramal a and mantramahesoar« ,prlam,ata, which consecutively; the st a"t' e~ '-':J' su.. ddhn v:, 'd'.'Y"t4, Idvltr n , ",G - , ,.c;., ',d ea- d ~IJ!". .'" .31 ,~ tot.;v" UL ·t Here 'he attains his, own, 'real glory of Go,d,-, . consciousness.
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And so it is explained in this verse in the Suacchanda Tan-lra, as he becomes one with Suacchand« (with .BhairavIQniith:a), then - ltd '" ' "'f-' ...• m dif,terentia :e,~ perceptions d 0 not exist. I another verse in the' same Tantra, we are told:
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Then, ignoring theprevious state of degraded individual consciousness, he (sargsntura .... .: ,- ,-: w k-,-,",: ,t· . -~'~,.en t ers' In t-"0 ,a n e' war ·ld'.. 0, G':,' rd- ' arma_VallLJ . ,' . f :0·_ @h'"hththink'" consciousness w' erem wnatever e .... -,St' 'W h atever h ,'.-sires, comes true, Thi S IS a I .e d e _ .reacd'y Illustrated inSuacchand,Q. 'Tantr,Q;~
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and Indrs, the Slddhlls Dsityss, and those who rule the ,grea:'t deities, garu~~JJ etc .. He causes , th em to be fearful, or if he is sat isfied with, them ~ drives fear away from. them, He is the bestower of boons and curses, Even the Lord of Death cannot stand, before him, By the power of his will, hie can level gIiea:t mountains. (Svacchanda Tantra 6~54 55)
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dh " ani~t· e expenencer, T h ,e Sanskrit word, for the obJect ef ,p'e.~ceptionis p'r'Qmeya~The word for the' means 'of e,xperience is piriln~s~, the, word for the subject of the: expe'rj,ence' is;prt.tmm:r'o'r ,p.rarnaiii. To further clarify, the pfCl'miitr is the state of 'the knower where the knower is:attached to the- known-s-toths object, In iuddhavi,dyil tattua, you find the state of U1J1.f! tra pr,g,m,ita,~ w'hich is also called, §UddhaoidyitJra1}1.,itf: In iSvIfl,a tattva, you find, the state of mantresnar« p.,amiit~, 'whic.h is also called i1vara p,aT,miitr~And in ISQdaSi'v\(l tatto«, 'you, experience the state' of' mantra mahesoara ,pram m ii., In the above three states, you :fin,dthatboth the state and the state hclder=-the state and the experieneer lof 'that state=- exist together simultaneously, 32~Svacchanda Is that Bhairaxm who .iSI absolutely filled 'with free will,
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KAS,HMIR SHAIVISM
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(Continuted tram the previous issue)

cDr. Navjtvan (j{asto{ji
{This' is' the second part of the psperpersented as' the Keyno£e Address st the Nstionsl Seminar organized by th,e Department of SIHBkritJl University of Kashmir at SrirJagar on Oct 28-31" 2007. We

are grateful to the author IDT:,Civ.ipg U$ the permission to reproduce it:J

word mightbe found in pla-ce here, Just as the Vedantin find Bha!J¥a view a , ompatible with their stand (c.i:I CJ 51 ~ ~lg~U:)L Saivists t -0 look ipon Nyliya as. suitable to com.mon sense ('~'lfTftrcnwl1~1tcr 111~Tq~ q:I~IiI'fijCf)fCI't IPV, 1, 'P'E 43). However there is a serious, difference between th Saivists and Naiyayikas, The problem how knowledge itself is known has been hotly debated by Indian philosophers", Indian r alists, specially Nyaya and Mirnarnsa theore ticians, believe that knowledge can be known jus t like an object, holding cognition to be para-praka~ (illu min a le by other). According Y' Naiyayikas, inve t a sub ... category of cognition called anU-IJytl"Ousayn., afrer-ascertainmen t," and Bhatta Mirnamsists .... think that ccgnitic ~ is inferr d . mploying cognizednes ([liata ta)l, born ill. : e o'bject at ne time of cognition, as hetu ($1It1fHfC;t~:I.tj~n~~)~ As " against this Saivistsfind themselves in the league of their arch opponents, Buddhi . subjectivists (vijniinaV'iid'ins), and Vedantinswho s bscribe to the notion of self-luminosi y of knowledge indeed with different valuations of the ontological .nature of consciousness. In Kashmir Saivism knowledge has always been deemed to be a part of the knower, the subjectas subject it can never become an objec ~1 If at
II
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all such a. hypoth ..sis is accepted, i will open floodgates o ~.finite regres _2 Kashmir Saivists followi g B dd hists, prefer the 'terms soasamoedena (s elf-awareness) to svapral(a~nn (seif-i.l1llmination) . .tL~S such levery consciousness is constituti ely bi-dimensional, It . veals object and at the same tim it also reveals itself as the _ knowing subject. Hence the 'professed adhereno of Saivis to Nyaya III the plragm itic realm ne' d not be acceptedliterally, '. 0 doubt, the acceptance of fiv'e-ti r syllogistic process, consequent projection of the Isvara-pratyabhijna:~c . tra as c nstituting parart1LanU.rnana a ~ d t eatmr nt of the 11 ti ns of action, r lation, univ rsal etc ..as practically real and efficacious is ta atamount to accepting fina ity 0 £ th N aiyayi .... .osition in the 0 d ~~ life.' But it a ary really m an that these' real (such as actio relation, universal etc.') which fail tlu . rigorous scrutiny by the Buddhists and yet are necessary for th worldly., ansacticn, acquirr ~ acceptability in the Saiva context only after passing and having been modulated through ~ t e Saiva logical frame,'
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the 'strictly epistemological sense prt!ty.abl1ijiiii is neit . '.r pramii, no,f pram.a{1Cl,·ut as the generalized mode of cognitio - it underlies all the cognition.- sources and respective resulting

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2" Vide Kashrni'r Skaivisll1:, ](~ .~. Misra, 'pp. ·1-58~
4~~~4l4t1Iii4iCfjfli4' ~111\*"5i4Qc;g;cq RlQH51~ I ~lUfl1ibmJitJtq 'B~ln4a q~~Ii~~ihti"l,! ~ (~.,1T~.2.1) ~\~~~t\l!! 2

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In this metaphorical sense ,pratyabhijiia may b," understood to stand for bo rlgl, _ kn ow, e"dg"" anc means th - -' ','f ,,'fVILa_ oth .ht ~':-,,'---:-,] -__ -," ',--<e ' J,lereo" IA. n.,. ,t is singularly important is, that the Saivists d ,_ d "",,. th p'rolponn-_ uruityo, f' pramssm ann prtlma~ll"'e means and fruit 0:[' result thereof. In the ideolog.ically s,eminal kar'ika 10.£ Utpala Il~~-~I~fclitifi\!UI,;'q' ~!'6Q~~Jq(f~Qft (1111,,",3) the phrase ~lCf(t1Irt1itq)~u\~'i1' ("tmoll,g'h discovering or noticing the powers") represents the 'p'ram5r}J2' element and the phrase M,fl1~ r~ltl c;:t:rt demonstra non or ~ t T showing of pratyab.1:ijiiU (that is knowledge or 'realization) the prama element, However this view is a.Saivist appropriation Q,£, the Buddhist ~- ~·,ccc:or.dh to: '..armo tt.ara the mter se t no tion, A _mg" 'D"h. t ~- ,~ differences of the various theories of knowledge pertain 't'OI four areas, namely, num.ber of sources, their definition, their o'ject land their result". Pocussing on the last two for the moment we find that all other philosophical schools treat cognition and source o,r act of cognition as different whereas the Buddhist logicians alone advocate their non-difference .. From, this perspective the Saivist logician's. closeness to the Buddhist position assumes special significance, Buddhists hold that cogmitioni1S one an d Its" d- rvision into prams ann on . ,~ _, fl 11 £ ti " prama.pa rrows oruy ..rom our vls1-1ng ] t analytically, it cannot be held that they are bound by causal relation" because it would entail assumption of realdifference between the two, 'In the Buddhistic terminolo ,g}j' this relation IJII.... . ... courld b e d e'· cr-.ib..ed._. as CZI q ~ 1l:;Q=' s t~Jhe relation of 'being determined [as a content] t and of determining' it [as a process"] ~16~owever" A• .ne thte Saivists pre fer th expression, 'o.~''_:rl'~~I'~f Urelationshi'p of cause and result", to, CtI:tI tlfIILQ-ClffR:llfI'Q . Cf) 1ffij'- since they entertain an _. . - - -- - 1,' entirely' conflicting assessment of the inner -~,It ~ .. ..." ' f activity ch iaracterizing cogrutioru B Becauae 0'. their adherence to the theory of flux the Buddhists, are led to deny action (lJyaparaJ 'as
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such, Whate'ver semblance of action is seen, is but projected or imagined, (savyiip'aramiv'ft) ..On 'the contrary; for the Saivists action (vy'ifpm'tl) is the soul of cognition and it is precisely this point 'that p,aves the w'ay for the unity between pr-amti and pram5!JD.c~ In fact Abhinava renders pram if in terms of action which is one with the subject who acts and also with r J1f'amlina which is made ~ to act (by the subject)." Hence, the MO are' the are n,on... different in tile prim.ary se'nse .. But it does not mean that they are synollymous~ In fact, the determining cognition happens to 'be plr'amiip€l in its one aspect as extroverted )•. .. '" obi ~, 1.: 'h- (.,(411$1, i~!it!SlYlifj~,~'!'tijqt1I~ani d prama In jectrve ,u,g .t •.•. its another aspect as introverted reflective consciousnes ..s delimited 'by that object (aj r!1'5(§lRl ~I~ffij q (41) ~ \ From the foregoing formulation one can safely conclude that in Kashmir Shaivism knowledge is considered an activity. By contrasting it with, the' Vedantic notion of knowledge as a.state of passivity' or with the Bu.ddhistic idea of cognition as logically constructed activity the ~ rn t S~~V:l~III:1'~rnotio g',' 'e' s s till cIea re r Thi··8' seems t0":' be the reason why Utpala and Abhinava deal 'with the epistemological is-Slues in Kriyadhikara, confining Jftana"dhlk,a:ra to th,e examination IQf meta-epistemological concerns, The, theory' of knowledge is rendered in terms of relation between the one that makes (something) known and the other that is made known (~I:ii~f-Wqq7l)nc(t. the relation as such being an offshoot of the (Godly) power of action, As an a!ctivi~. and real activity at that, it must belong to the agent of action, that is subject in the cognitive context, Interestingly it automatically renders the whole cognitive process as dependent 'upon the subject, purusa-tanira. "Therefore knowledge is actually knowing'", cognition is cognizing. In Indian philosophy 'we come across two sets of approaches: in one, the' objective knowledge' is
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said to 'be dependent upon the source of knowledge ('1I~IEfI:I1li' tI~'R9ft:) and in the other~ knowledge depends upon the object (~lll~""I1 J:i!Flfti~,:/q~~:ei?l)9rna'm'pioned in the main by Nyaya and Buddhist llogilcians respectively with necessary theoretical implications into whose details we need not, in fact cannot, go' right now. With the former approach are associated tile' ideas of' the difference 'between source of cognition and resulting cognition, existence of the endurfng self and the convergent appltcabitity of the different sources of cognition ('Q"llTnnEJ'l&1q);with the latter are associated those of the non- difference between source/action of cognition and resu'lting cognition, denial of soul and radically distinct applicability of the sources of knowledge CQ"41IUlc~)'1 What is "interesting" is that Kashmir Saivisrn stands apart in a class of its own ..Though, on the face, it shares the Nyay,a thesis that knowledge is ,prama.pa~deplenden'tlO an,d thus drifts away from, Vedanta (qttlf1'~· ~GS11 rrsn 11 and Buddhism ~ fa~a ~ftltt,~~,f2it)qICl)12 the W' -h Ie cogni tive proc e~c to' 1-t reduces subject-dependence b'y according a radical interpreta tion to cognition in terms of subjective activity, And, under the' compelling pressure of such a logic, 1 deduction it gives lip the Nyaya posifion altogether by upholding nondifference between actand fruit of cognition, a position that' is formally akin to the Buddhist stand but substantially divergent having been nourished on conflicting logical premises- This drifts gets further accentuated 'when we notice the Saivists abandon Nyaya's doctrine of the convergent applicability of the sources of knowledge (g~lu~ti~4) as arising from their faith
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in p'ram&~-de,pendlenc,e, (~li~11~1i11 tltgfftf~r:) in, fav ,,-- 0-f ULe .L:L, y'.,., avour uLeory of d-.. ' c t app.J.ea. b "'tI_' o.f' 0 ._IS rtin .. .." ilic knowledge-sources ("I;fJ:l i VIG:ijq ~lT) based on object-dependent cognition.though again with radicallv transposed CClnc:ep'tions of the two types of object nam,ely universal and particular." This problem calls for deeper attention of the scholars, hence it 'will be better to leave it here,
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The belief in, the differentiated objective reality entails hierarchiza tion of the variety of cognition .... sollrces .. Though the definition of means of knowing proffered 'by Abhinavagupta is in fact also the general definition of perception" the agan1.a occupies the tOIP position ""in the Saivist scheme acting as the, life-giving principle of even perception and in erence, also called experience and reasoning, in the' system, Justifying his adherence to the Agamic tradition, he defines rfgama ,as expression of something which is already contained in the supreme reali ty itself! it is the intrinsic activi ty ill the nature of the mast firmly rooted self-referring reflection identical with the inner speech of the Lord, who is pur'e ideality. Therefore whatever is revealed in the ,ag£l ma, it is without doubt true". The problem how to coherently' resolve tile ,gap between original revelation and historical one is answered by taking the letter as revcrberting the loriginal since t;7,gama is construed as descent of Para.,the transcendental, into, Vaikhaf'i, the spoken speech, Uncontradicted universal convention .. 'dd! ~ it, . -111· bl . h d'" (aoigituprasida tE, 1- "b··emg well-estab ished ) and intuition in, the nature of subtle word (,~fd'1i'~'4c;t,af1Jn ~Lil',iSet~'I~2f~I) two other alternative are
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12,. Pramane-tsariikain ,2,.1-',2 13~00' &fI"11f1i1I~I~~' ~ .. '~iHt1ul·~ t1~I11I\9flP""lI"'ll1 ~qr(u~ li~ntl~'4~ 3IT1~lItI'I'Ft11~~ ~"ifj1 31~ ~q '~ ~ '~Q~lqr yl'uul'1l - TP'V, II~, 'p., 76-77 p 14·~ ~ 3f~I~t1~raSjr 3m ~ 3HJlHe;i1~'1qrtlqd -mJ1~fQjcl ~ lfr! '"e1"fln;~l'~~ti ~'U£fI1~·~qlf2t~' tpq'~u,~''1';Fcll '" ibid., ,P, 83~ , 15. aWI.~ ~ ~ Iiij"i{~1<'1 ~ 'i(!illl~ ifffl11l Rtl1ifJ CI1M t:zl'l "IflI 3l"i1 '('(11 ~ ~II q I't, !kllt'il ~\! rq "GfiFcIt'l Q) Ciq: ffi :m'{. l:E~ i41te d1[ ~ ~ - Ibid., p~84~85~
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predications of ~gam,a,~ Thus all the agalnas are ],6 beginningless and what is important in contemporary setting is that they provide framework for resolving plurality of scriptures comprising both innate and external-cultural ,aspectsfl17~Depending on the context, pratibha stands for an epistemological or mystical situation where knowledge stems not from any external source but from the deindividualized inner self.

I

natu~ ,I w··hi·· -', is svnth esis o f:'- kn0"" Ied gle an'd ich. -. . u _'.re -' 'J freedom, through its own integ-ral dynamism. .'y king' .' . nan h h Broacell spea- ::. Indi t· ouig-' tsystemo ff ers MO alternative viewpoints, According to lone, represented by Madhyamika and Yog,aca.ra. ddhi .."' ,~ b '' BU·· •.•... sts, cognitive ex,perlen,c,e 1.Serroneou,s-'y' nature (O:···:··th, ; '. . .' """1 ·d·' IlLS very na .. Ire~: .'. iers, mosny represen e..yb I the Indian realists, hold that lit is likely to be erroneous under certain conditions outside the .. ., ". .",' ..-. .·1··d :;:r . ICl .. ' d omam oif our kn owie ge tpara t· b apr if;1m8!1Y&l·)'1.., The Saivists represent the third option, if one With ·the ongoing discourse Abhinavagupta could call that, which accepts the intrinsic; puts everything in perspective an.. that explains d di" va li~. ity OI'f' kn II'ed ge an d yet h 0 IdS th causesl •.. >O'W c i _tat why he is 'traversing an entirely new route. of error are its, own creations by granting From purely' epistemological angle he deduces empirical reality to them, In the wholistic Savia that perception arises, from the innate capacity absolutism of Kashmir, reality is treated asa of the object (thatis why the' form in knowledge synthesis of being and consciousness, praka~ comes from object and not from senses"}, and »imarsa. TI,US the objective manifold, like inference fr:o···m- inn c a,"p·.·a·-·C!.' ~'ty'..,- o· ifthe ..··o..th e'r'" ..'. the :' tate . ·" its subjective counterpart, depends upon tile object (as in the case of inference of fire on prakaSa aspect for its being and 'upon. the uimar sa mountain, from, the perception of smoke), iigama aspect for' its mutual distinction and unification .. from the autonomy of +he subject or the The objective reality is divided into two typesdifferent subjects boasting' relative degree of ti ,ar~' ne '.' b~ uruversa 1- d 'par'. co1 Th uruversa I object, ano autonomy- Q(iQ ..' .c. 3ijl=JI'1BIlITOifI'N"iI~UlYq., '=1 1 .. f ca '1'Ieu, sam any son as C1., IS tota 11 f . .:J ~,_y rree : rom ·a:lI4I19:$4'i:~,rtti l:q~ftl'~~ Rltld :~fCfd~~]?I~r~fi 1'19zultf, referenceto 'time and space etc, This constitutes, ~ fClSl~fEr:: p~ ifagtlmcl' is posited as 'the most the, basic unit of knowledg'e and is designated fundamental source from which other sources by a specific word, The' particular object, called derive their sustenance, all pram,al}QS ipso facto svala,ksanabhasd is a sort of common locus have to be' ultimately assigned to the subjective (samanaa:l1ika.ra,!JY,abhasa) of different automony rendering all cognition subject~ '. hi b: ~ c'h taracteristice wr ch cornome to :glve us an dependent (purusa-iantra or kar'tr-i(ll1.tra iiiiilr objective entity.,20 What is important is that tile " tanira) to be precise, Saivists deliberately reverse the 'Buddhist designations and 'thereby assign a diametrically Kashmir Sa'ivist shares the gen,lera] consensus among the Indian philosophers 'that- the' test of opposite roles to the two classes of objects, Thus '. f I ·:.J'h· "''J.... zation .·s,amarl,iM. ·zKaf'apyfl ) ... validlty of knowledge lie's in, its unmca tii Ionor co-toea Ii .· (in nothing but the linking of these abhasas to uneontradicedness, The Saiva view: is known as apuma khya.fi" which. means imperfect or this common locus, The synthetic, activity of ibkasas cr their individuality is result of incomplete knowledge. Thus the' Saiva theory d .. biecti carre'span dimg determmate subjective activity of error is a corollary of the Saiva metaphysics .called uimar Sa and is geared to a particular of ignorance e.. ,~.1gnorance is imperfection gi brought out 'by the obscuration of one's real formation governed 'by a particular purpose." .
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17,., spects of Abhinavegupta's Theory of Scripture in, Pol,yl:og"David 'p~ A Lawrence, p, 3. 18. f2ltflnijfl~dl''15' 31%lfq" YJ ~-'~ lUt't] - IPV~ ill, pp. 74., 19 ~Ibi d,~" Il 'p..182 n
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It ma.,y, however!' be kept in.mind that only abhllSas, which are' not mutually opposed, get united guided the law of absnlufic determinism (niyati)..22 It is the continuity of the determinate cognition ilia tis. responsible for the unity of the principal abhma which constitutes the' locus of the component abhiisas~2j Thus the cogn'·. iti vie unification of being and consciousness reflected in the synthetical judgementevinces the' recognitive process involved within. It is, therefore, natural to deduce that erroneous knowledge too must depend, llpon the reversal of recognitive unification. There must b~ a lack of recurrence (anutntti), continuity (sthllzry,a) or correspondence (sanw,;ida) in the judgement with respect to illusory experience. It wUl be quite logical to conclude that the "comnlinglin.g process" ~tlTlcliil(4iCfj \Aft)Jlll) in the system IS not exclusive to the recognitive knowledge alone, but is a necessary corollary of the concept of libhasa being applied tatll.e field of epistemology, It is w'hy, ab/ta5'Cl (ontologies entity) and prameu« (epistemic entity) a~e l'\~t distinguished. That is why, cancell~_~lO~ 1£ always addressed to the element of unification · ~ (melanamsi1), because :it is the pre cisepolll', t 0f error." This is achieved by removing the continuity of erroneous Judgement e.g~utl~ is silver' o:r "there are two moons' ~Correction or cancellation is a constructive activity on the part of the subject. It is called a real subjectiv~ construction in the sense that the knowledge of nacre or non-silver by itself is ineffective 'unless

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It Ieads (lS to the definition of reality' in the system. Whereas Pratyabhijfi.a defines reality as shining ol'r figuri.ng' In consciousness (prakasamanllta)/S Buddhist defines it as fu 11.'C tiorial ity or causal efficiency" (nrth.akr.iYt.lkaritva), '26 and Naiyayika as "inherence of being or Is-ness" (the highest universal). lAIhi.lerefuting both," 'Utp ala. and Abh iriava distingu ish between real and empirical or actual on the one hand land between object and content on the other, According to them (silver-in-nacre) is real as a content of knowledge, but it is not:: actual or empi rical as Buddhist seeks to estahlish. Bec-ause as a datum in experience, as a content, it is not denied, it is derried as an actual/ empirical object and it is where the error res. The content may be 'real', but not lern:pirical'_ While {serving the purpose' (upa,!Jogll) may' 'be criterion of empiricity~2! 'figuring in cognition' (i.e., st11ai'rya)29 that of reality~30 TIlLe function of vi'nlar&l is. to restore the unity of the real (i~e'i' content: (silver-in-nacre) with the actual/ empirical (i.e., object: it-is-nacre-tha t-wasviewed-as-silver) ~It is tile' implication of saying that error lies :i11. unification of the objective components a 11.d. it is this aspect of the whole episode that is sought to be, corrected, neither the content nor the object.
i. •. l' II

I'll

the two cognitions (this-is-silver and this-is-notsilver/this-is ... nacre) are coordinated mutually by a dependence relation of negation by'

It is time to' wind, up. The scope of the, seminar is so extensive that it would be presumptuous on my part tOI think that all the. relevantissues have 'been covered, I have certainly' tried in my'
r

2.2. t[q iiI~ ~'H f{1,.;tt ~'1' '~~ lP-H :ISH Rt k1 tt- ~tt I~ ~~ '~ lH"l1 - ib' d P,. 128.. 23~ Ibid., pp. 117',-118 . 24~ ~ f ~) TI~ ~,:~n f1qRl f1-l '1 Jlij1r ~L. ~ 'fai ~ 21I: ~ rrv H' p~125 25,., ~~ tid,"?:ijQ~ ·QCbI~'rl1l iit11 Qijj~~I~~~~9 I ~ ]"PV, I" p~ 203
"1
I~ ~

I

26. <I1~rns'lll tll"~&lei Uliil !t:tg'1:1 - N.B. 1. L5

27~ 1111t1liril' ~

r['

tiii ~~mtiu~tii"iflOf, 316q~qtb1Ci11i1 31~~~I~lI~'n~m q Iq, o;:r ~

. < q~{q;;u~(:qJq~'~ ~trif)If\lfiqr flcl,Ltt~ ftGl,Et~n'~~"1lq

... .

- IPv:, III p,p. 58-59; also 3it$ffi;JlUsf(f '!1i5\jfl~~ IPK 2.~3.~2 1 2B~ fib £IIfi?J\t1 fll Ji Irq, 6Q fG qQj Iii1J-G_'tflf: I fl'r-'Q r: mltflTl ~r~ I~ Chl4 ifj! I!~ 1tclT: I - IPK .2 2,.1 ~
2.9~ QJiiatrqrir:m~'Mqf\Q ~ I - IPV,

rr,p~ 34~
~ ~"""""""'IIt!~"'T""I""I'~· tf{tr~ II - ibid., p. 60

30. 1:lq}I!ffttl~~Gf & j~6lIql~ltt~1~rrf2lii,:tfqr.tttl~

This journey 10£ the' timeless is history and every SO'UI'Cles of knowledge: commonly agreed part of history is therefore historical ancillary theories concerrung metamanifestation of the a historical truth, This is epistemological issues such as sJ1IiJVi'tpraka'~value-discovering. If we slip' out here, if we vada" jiima1cara-'va"da, vi~ayatll~ViJdalpr,atnlil[1yamistake the fragmented and the relative' for 'the usda, pf,ipya-aprt1pya,-karftva-'Viid'l1; pram ll[lBnabsolute, it instantly unleashes clash, between ·f,arb h soa- vida, 1(1b 11,aiJ'(li iianC1 etc .; exclu si ve asp ects rationality' and experience, history and, of the Sai.va epistemology' and ontology such philosophy, timeless and temporal, Abhinava's as mutual dependence of knowledge-sources remark, is 'v'ery apt: "Integral vision flowing (4 ,<,ttl~ Ij,~5d ~ fCI~), collocation of-knowledgefrom our encounter 'With the absolutic truth is sources as cause, of human action t:g''irO'ltil~15T~-' aprecondition for evolving holistic society, With ~) etc.: precise role of psycho-physiological the' fractured vision it sets on the devastating apparatus in knowledge-generation ~these and course of exploiting and oppressing the rest of many other issues call for in-depth deliberation humankind in order to cater the self-serving 'by' the scholars ~ agenda: ~S!.~~G,lftllfliG'1I~,q '10fidl(il"i&'i': '~i: ~ , I may now eloise my lecture by saluting t;[EI" 1% 'Rli ~ Iij mf d: t;l'1ll1lStfi fiq ~ffi tj 'lii1:1 tfhtYfit Kahsmir, the seat of Sarada (Saraldiide&l.).r 31 the 4lq'Cfj~I,fd ~ err nrft ~: I (IPV~ I, p. 27),We seat of learning' (v'idy3pl{haJ,32 for being can interpret Utpala's marg'o n'lIDO (new' path) in birthplace to such a. spiritually' surcharged" this light andharness theseideas towards logically cohesive, aesthetically creative and, developing a new phi osophy 0,( life, Kashmir intellectually challenging system of thoughtas Shaivism is a philosophy of joy;, philosophy of' '" Kashmir Saivism and thinker Iike supreme valuation, of life and philosophy of Abhinavagupta who ranks among' the' best unswerving faith, in human potentialities and world has produced to this day; The sharp-edge sensibilities, It is a festival of life and celebration hie,provides to the cultural glo.ry of Kashmir is of being, 1 call upon you all to come and join, 1 something for which Kashmir and whole India, fondly 'recall Iqbal 'who 'beseechingly asks for needs be proud of, To me pratyabllijiIlfre'mains nothing less: . a relevant conceptual paradigm even today. q ~ ~-'~Ii1i,~t if t, 41~~r "fft ~~Yl Awareness, freedom and value-> these are <rr ~ 6,~f¢;'1I't' ~~ m ~ df?b11P~, '~' II central issues that could invigorate a~y cultural thought movement, Values halve no origin other Thank y'o' 'U" ' .·c: -: :,'., (Concluded )

humble way and subject to my limited insight into the proposed areas of discourse to invite attention of scholars gathered here to certain issues to begLin'\vith~I am conscioua.of the iS811,es that I could not colver, though they' ~~ve:re equally .. , I important. Filthinstance, ,- eOlry 0fkn owe: dgel ,or _r : _ if an'y as propagated by' Kashmir Sufists ]11 the context of pan-Indian mysticism and the extent of formative influence cast on it by Saivism of Kashmir; Iinguistic, aesthetic, and tantric dimensions of the Saiva epistemology: critical appraisal of other strands of Indiari philosoph'y' and the precise theorizations under their impact; definition and 'proeess of· the specific
. ·1 ..

than free consciousness, Reality in Pratyab,hijfia is conceived as autonomous, complete and harmonious. Pratyabhijiia marks an ever-going voyag'e for perfection in knowledge; in, action, in being by' an affirmative interpretation of experience, by reflection upon reality as a

datum of consciousness.

Integration. is the

.ii'

process of value ... discovering in the sense 'that the real is incessantly trying te recognize itself byunfolding its O'V\1ll potential by grasp,ing' itself as an object of self-validating reflection and subjecting itself to expansion and retraction due to its internal dynamism,

*

l

.:C

I~

31..Vikramankadeva-caritam, Bilhana, 1,.2l ~:tl""Tantralokavtveka, Ja'y,ar'13rtha£ eo,ncluJ1!i'~'verse 7

spinitual methods are not 50 envisaged as to have its u.ltirnate goal of obtaining freedom from the transmigratory fetters of bondage, 'The basic goal of the methods is to obtain such a state of inward absorption (sm[(()e:saJ as to result in the attainment of the state of Siva, which is to say' 0.£ eliminating
Trfka
I

hie

and thought is depend'ent' on the intensity of one's po,wE'r of wi ll (ifc:haSitkti)~ I . the intensity of will is quite strong and forceful, there will be a, spontaneous realisation of the state' of absorption, which is to say' that absorption will be so' spontaneous as is the flash of lightening, are, however, such highly' evolved rndiv idtrals who, without resorting to the power of will, attain perfect absorption in, Paramaaiva. Such individuals are 'not at all dependent either on physical exer+ion or on mental contemplation. Such individ uals need merely an Indication concerning' the nature of Reali ty from their preceptor, So it would be sufficient for them to be told by There'

thought

the state Oil dependence (paraiuntrut by gairUn.g perfect identity with the Absolute, which is Paramasiva, 'Thus the state 'of absorptton is, so interpreted as to be equated ith th ta I.,~ I wit . tne ~r te 0 f orva '],,,t [9, so because it is in and through absorption that the last
,I. ,

vestiges

of the sense of dependence or limitation is overcome by leting the state of '" Sivahood emerge, ' t is the total absorption or submergence in Siva, that is given the highest priority in the over-all spiritual scheme of Trika. Thus whatever be the spir'itual

method,

is always S,O oriented as to lead to some
it'

kind. of absorptive repose, The atta.inment of the state of absorption can be realised either through the technique of non-thought or through the use of such thoughts that ultimately terminate in the transcendence of thin'king process itself. The success in

the preceptotthat YOIl are essentiall y nothing else than pu-re Consciousness (samoii). As 'pure Consciousness, y10u shine with the lustrous ligh,t of Cons ciousnes s, winch means that there is no need of' any such method that would
l

illumine YO'UI. It is SQ 'because you are basica Iy full of divine illumination on account of being identical with ICon-

the use of methods of non-

sciousness, No method can illumine you, 'because of them being defective", So you must, without 'esorting to any of the

means, delve deep within y'our benl,g in order to know who you are, Upon listening to such a discourse from the preceptor, the disciple is so blessed by the .grace of the preceptor as to Ie ad him to spontaneous realisation of absorption in Siva, The preceptor imparts grace either by looking into the' eyes, or by touching the body" or by offering a portion of 'his foodl. Consequently the disciple is so blessed as to have the experience of the beingness of Siva~ While repeatin g' 'the trans cend ental experience of absorption in Siva, the experiment ultimately gains the convictio 1af being 'nothing else than Siva, While conducting the affair s of life in the world, he continuously and uninterrup tedly experiences the wonder (camatkaraJ of his Sivahood. This kind of absorption is known, as that of an=ltpaya viz, absorption that eventuates without the cultiva ti 0- n--0' f a"y m"ethod! " -n'" -- "'.' The absorption that occurs through Non-method so em'power's the aspirant' as to, make 'him cut asunder the ra'peB of bondage in such a manner as to make him completely free while' still b _' e:-ea "~ 1 dimg an em- 0 d I~ d'-f orm of existence (jivan=,mllkta)~ The, Trika considers this NO.n-' method as being' the most excellent precisely because not
1
_.C_,. ' .. -' "'" ., .._. I

only does one havre Sel ., realisation (alma-vyapti), br t also realises the U-, ai ,_:' of Being in, terms of identity with the Absolute (~VQ~v,yapt.i), And for this reason it is spoken of as
being identical with divine bliss (,iinanda)5~

While bel ' 'g spoken of as the way of b ·5S (iiittl'nd,opr9ya), itis at the same time also be ng referr sd tOI as the way of recognition (praty,abhiiiiopaya)fl,~ It is so' spoken because recognition constitutes as a means of Self-realisation that is not dependent up'o such outer prolps as irutiation". Insofar as recognition of h SeU is concerned, it consists in apprehending the fact at the power of the' Se .f is characteris "d by its f ee will, which iSI to say t, at the Absolute, a, the Self is ide", tical with freedom (s'vaiantrya) itself. The individual self" bei 'g covered 'by the veils of ignorance, is unable to recognise he essentialnature of the Self, whi .,is that of free' MII~ It is through tile proc'ess of rec 'gni.tion that' 'these veils of lgnorancc are cut asunder, resulting in the realisation of identification of the individual self with the' universal SeIfS ..
r •

the other hand, is affirmed tha 'the phenomenal manifestation .s the result of divine f_ ee wi of the 'Lord..It means that the Lord is unr er no compulsion" external lor internal, while a, lowing the emanation of the universe to occur, "Freedom, thus is seen as the embodime it "of the supreme Energy of the su ,-reme Lord and i eludes all the powers tha't can be attrib rted to him'" ..Ksemaraja expresses this very idea thus: "By His own will, Ion imself as the screen, Hie unfolds the univen 10..
II
i,

f.r

The Absolute as absolutely free, ,nay freedom. itself, forms the core of phi'losophical thinking of Pratyabhijfia

thought, It is such a philosophical viewpoint in terms, of which, on the one and", the absoluteness of e Absolute is, stablished and.on

This way of Non-method is considered to' b the most excellent one on account of it being so,synthetic as to ~ iclude all other methods into, its ambit", As already ,o'~nt'd out, there i.SI no, effort of any' kind involved i this method, In th is N on-method the Individual receives divine rgtac,', of such intensity as would lead to the immediate Self-realisation'", Being nondependent on human effort, thi S N o'n'""'me th0 dl seems to b 1. : ,', •. ,. , the only cause :0.£ Selfrealisation in terms of Selfrecognition". he nondependent 'nature of gra,ce means that it is uncond tioned and. indeter-mina tel' which is to' say that it is such an uncaused cause that causes the deliverance of the individual s -',1£ from the tethers of bondage W, at initially seems to be the condition of grac.e' is, in fact, the! result of it, It would be contrary to attribu :,e some

kind of q ialification to grac because such an attribution would undermine the absolute free will of the Lord, which is s. en as playing the gla,me of both bondage and release, In, this context it would mean that the very opening up of the lu rt towar _- God is the esult s of divine grace~ It wo ld also mean that the irrdivid usl obtains imm.ediate release from bondage ill ter ' 'S 0' realisation of identity with Siva the moment grace (§aktipata) descends upon him, Even though still lied to the body; the individual attains what techi 'ically is called t ie Ineffable State (bhQ'irav,auastha), w ich is charactefised by' the pervasion of bliss that is cosmic (jfl.gaaanand,a) in natur '14'~And the ultimate goal of Iiberation consists in assimilating the entire objectivity within the Self-sand in it lies the true and autt entic

freedom. Abhinavagupfa expresses this urgency thus:
The Master of the universe, eve though continuously shining within as our Self, remains, nevertheless, unrecognised (ins,lofar as) his " (... essentra 1 nature is concerned), (which is 'to say in terms of his) transcendence and sovereignty, I( t is at condition in which) ..'he heart is not full 0' the plenitude 0 his lighr, But (as, soon as) '[he self is, made aware of the true freedom of the S elf and of its liberation ro this (bound) life, perfection will be'attained ~5,,,
I

.,

It is well to remember at this point that it is on1.y the aspirant of the' Nort-rnethod- path who is so blessed and elevated spiritu,laIly' that hie enjoys

perfect identity with Siva,
While enjoying perfect unity with Siva, he also is simultaneouslyendowed with his Energy, which in the language of Pratyabhijfia denotes Self-awareness (ahad» oimarsa). It means that such an, .. aspirant is replete with selfconsciousness as well as with the power of freedom, In 'mystical language it means 'th-at the aspirant is endowed with cosmic plentitudc, in terms of which is expressed his Sivahood. The loy that flows from this state ~ is the result of ~ 'the' unity with Siva and Sakti-« and it is this state thatis called the Ineffable State 16~ Accordingly, such a, person, who has unin.terrupted ly practised himself (what may be called) submergence: (samavesa)· in ,Siva and h,8,S perfectly recognised his powers of knowledge and action as being the pur1e freedom of the Lord can then know and d a all he' desires even though he is still associated with the body, He is not only Iiberated-in-life (jlV'anmukta),. in the ordinary sense 10£' the word, but he is basically free 'because he uses at will the d ivi.ne powe·rs belonging 0 the Supreme Lord (Paramesvara) and lives in eternal freedom 1'7~,
it .
,

of Non-method" or what is called the yoga of bliss (anllndu ,yo:ga), are' asked to cultivate the path of Siva (§ambl!Qva up';1J.ja), which is onestep below the an~lplayai This, method of Siva is also known as the method Of 'wiI] (icchii-upaya) lor the method of non-difference
_ _ ~J

,(n'b' ,~Ii-

.'

he, d~ a ,.1pa'yn),l_S
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a.'.,

m b'-'h~ "va
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Such aspirants as are unable to steady themselves in. the path

upaya is such a, method, In which the body, mind 'or intellect is not at all made use 10£ for reaching the: goal of inward absorption. Instead of making any' kind of mental or physical effort, the aspirant should so tranquilize the mind as to attain steadiness that is firm. 'This practice of steadiness of the mind should become SOl easeful as. to be na tural and spontaneous, ,Al tho Ugh the light of the' Self viz. of Consciousness, is continuously and by itself shining within, yet it remains hidden under the debris of irieas th at continuoualy emerge and, dissolve ill the' stream that Ismind, It is the a:ppearance (ilbh,asa) of the reflection of ideas in themind that co,n,cea]t'he selfillumi.nating light 0',£ 1-, consciousness, which is the Self, Just as the purity of' CIJ!Stal is suppressed due to the reflection ofvarious colours in it, and its purity is made to shine again upon the removal 0'£, the reflection of colours, likewise the light of I,-, consciousness shines by itself when the stream of ideas (v,ika.lpa~s) are so tranquilized as would -rtot arise again,

Consequen'tIythe Self so shines as tOI be cognitive object to' itself, Inother words, it· is the Self that has the' direct and mediate (aplarO',k,~) cognition of itself as being of the nature 10£ Iight (praka;~lamay,l)i In this proc,ess of Self-cognition is recognised the fact that it is the Self that is the doer, the deed as welt as the instrument for accomplishing the deed, Thus the aspirant, white remaining in the perm,IDlen. self-abiding state of the Self does 0.0 make use of Ius body, life force or mind, nor does he renounce ~ their llse~ The method of Siva (s9tn,bhava-up3y(J;} is, thus, such, a method las would not 'be dependent 011 any external or mental prop~, If 'is a method, that stabilises the mind in such manner as would lead to the cessation, of the emergence of ideas, and thereby would blrr'ng to a standsrill the' appearance of reflection of ideas, The Self through its, own power 0,£ 'will accomplishes this task! w hich is to sa:y tha t the goal of this method is to gain the state 'of self.-?abiding'
-

(sv',a·=~sthcrti)19J

Thus iambhava

upaya terminates into an-up,~a the: moment deficiency of instability of the mind is overcome, 'which means that this method of Siva attains the status of Non-method 'upon the attainment of such perfection that results in the
stabil ~ of the mind, in terms ty of the dissolution of thoughts,

However, there is such an aspect of famb,havQ "l"paya in terms of which the power of

wi 1(1~ccha-Slkti)i propped up by the pow'er of lQ)owledge ""k~) Jiimta-sa'-.tt ~ E . 'ven ~n sue' h a situation it is the power of 'will tha emains predominant in the over-all spiritual scheme" It is a meth id in terms of which '- e as. ':irant initially is asked to reflect ove·r such like, statements as, for examp e, tins objective 'universe, which is ou side there, exists within 'my consciousness as reflection, The reflector and the reflected are, thus, non-different fro me, which 'means that the world as reflection do' s not exist as a separate entity from the' reflected Also the r fleeter of thereflection is 'not an entity . hat .exists apart f om reflection, It is the infinite number of divine powers 'within me that appear, 'while being reflected in'my own pure Consciousness, as the thirty-six categories of existence (tattvas), 'The aspirant is asker to conduct his metaphysical thinking in such a manner as would enable him to have the cognition of the reflection of various powlers within. The form of the 'powers in. this practice, on the lone hand, e:me '~ges the shape of letters in from a to ha, which constitute t . e enti ety of Sanskrit
( II~

bh soa). A .d the wonderful process of manif .station is further carried out, hrough the power. of [emanation (visi€irga &lkti) of Siva.by giving rise to consonant 1 tters f 'om IrQto ha, which through.reverse ord r explains the order 0.£ manifestation from the element Earth to Sakti, What it means is that the process of mai ifestation app1e:ars in reverse order, which is from bottom to top, It is like looking in a mirror where the right side appears tOI be the left and the left as the right. t is exactly the, same thing that happens when the image of the elements is reflected in the mirror of Consciousness. It is because' of this .eason that the reflection of the powers of Siva begins to a.ppear oot from e category , of Sakti but from 'the category of Earth, In relation to the a.ppearance of letters it would mean tha t the letter ka 'appe'ars as the [element Earth, whereas the letter tta appears as Sakti, The letters between ka and hal through reverse s quence, begin the order .of manifestation from the element Water un to the category of S,adasiva21 The' experiential cognitio ,of one's Self, of one's divine powers, lor [alphabet, and, on. the other the g~_.ar and of letters (narna~ hand, appear as categories of mal s), 'of a -1 the ca tegories existence from Siva. to earth.~o~ oceu s simultaneously in terms The first sixteen vowel letters, of identity o.r non difference .. viz from a to' !J are seen as This garland of let ers, in its reflecting he' various reverse order, is known as wonderful cogrrittve miitrkaor mothers, These let ers ,. experiences of what m,ay be as mothers are directly called the mode of Siva (5iva apprehended in terms of
I .

.

-

;I-.

-

I

.

perfect identity betw 'en Siva and S akti by one who is following. the p ath of sam.bhava u,paya,. This exp ri ence of identity is no' the r· sult of' 'cognitive reflection, but occurs 'by itself which is to say that it is a method in w ,. h will plays c the predominant role. 'This does not m .can tha t knowledge has no role to play. In this context it is well to remember that the Five powers off Consciousness - bliss, con~ sciousness will, knowledge, and action - are so 'mixed up with each other that they clan. never be separate' InIact, whaf happens is that a par'ticular state 'is always domirratcd by a particular power" which means that the othc .,four powers remain in a, subdued condition, Thus a particular state is Imo'wn by the' name of the power tha - is predominant in that state .. In fac JaIl these five powers together perform whatever deed, or action . as to be accomplished". According to' this reasoning, it' is the power of bliss (ananda iakti) that is predominant in an-upiiya, and so this method 'is also known a,s, that of ananda upaya~ Likewise in the method of Siva it is the pow[er of 'will ticch» ~kti) that is predorni-nant, and for this reason is referred to las the method of 'will (iccha
1-1

,.

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i

-

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u'piiiJ,a)~

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As already pointed out, in this, method it is will that plays such a p edominant role as would' result in the

abandonment of such externa yogic discipline as, for example, concentr ion and medi atiorr" Insofar as the sensorial or intellectual activities 0'£ the self are concerned, they' are totally introverted not through the method of concentration or 'meditation, rather introversion occurs by itself and spontaneously" The thru st towards Siva iSI so ardent and passionate tha-t no doubts of any kind are entertained. Consequently, there. su_rges .u·p from the inner cen ter the intuitive illumination of the Self automatically, which terminates in the realisation of Ilber ation in terns 10£ attainment of the transcendent state of ineffable God",
t

alone ~ available to' USIl25, This S doctrine of the Buddhiststhat believes in the existence of a singlemome.nt has greatly influenced the thinking', of the Trika Saivites. The Trika thinkers a.rrived. at the conclusion that the outer phenomena in terms of ernana tion, p reserva tion, ,d·.struction and ineffability is
I .
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;fI'

One 0,' the most important concepts that theTrika S ai vites ... have used in the' path. of Siva. is that of Emptiness (sUnya-lii)., Origtnally the Mahayana Buddhists made 'use of it in relation to 'the Abso ute in such a manner las to affirm. its absolute transcendence, which would mean that the Absolute is so transcendent as to be beyond any kind of predication, The concept was also used in relation to the phenomen,a to establish it's non ... , existence, The philosophical background for the em1ergen.ce of this idea lis in the perception that maintains that ~lallour experIence is co nfin e-..1" '"' ~ d ai . essential 'y to the realm of chance or becoming. The transitory and. the momentary

the ~VJ. UJ. ~ ,", a con "_';''Jj'lUOUS pTione S?6 and- 'til'," source of it is but tile Self", This process of emanation and dissolution of phenomena. eventuates at such a rapid speed tha it is impossible to observe if. While agre. fig with th Buddhist concerning the existe . ce of a single instant lor moment, the rika rejects the realistic notion of time lastbeing real and th -r'eby serving as the' substratum .f instants in terms o ' conn,' cting them to each other. In tile absei ce of' time, the yogi through deep absorption so disconne c s the'
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I.'&I:.·~

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Act (spanda) of Consciousness which is linked to the undifferentiated Energy that is characterised by free,dom (svarantrya)'F The identification of the Self' with the Void explains the idea of the absence of the body intelligence and life-force which accordingly IS link d to "the expanse of ether"28• It is, this ether which; according to Abhinavagu ~tal" is experienced as rnptiness by Consciousne ss. This experinee of Emptiness by Consciousness is in terms of t . is not, no, i is not," and for the' yogi it embodies th . supreme sta te of transcendence-? ~
U

frames of tim as to be table to P netra e t. _,e void (ma,dhya) that lies between two instants, In this manner the yogi SID destroys tim ..,asto 'become th . master 0" time by residing in instants. T 1. as fhe~ yogi immobilises time and in erms of wh ~ ht resides in tan ch eternal present, The co. cepit 0·£ Emptiness is so u . d by the Trika thinkers as would explain and" xpr' 58 the ineffable na ur of e Abs du -who, however, ·S said to be 110 thin g' else than fulln .5S itself, The Void when considered in term of its abso .... Iuteness, is said 1'0 be tlu Pure

The id entification of the Absolute with the Void is basically an idea that explains the nan -dua -.nature of R,eali~. which. would mean that tl e Absolute is completely devoid of all determinations, Thus by plunging into the non-dual void, the.re accordingly eventuates the illumination of the Self. It would mean that the Absolute is itself Void in tile sense of being beyond and. above d ualrty as well las discursive forms of thought, Thus the employment of Void is such a means as would free R,e'ality from all Iimitations". It is because of this reason that the absolute condition of the Absolute is tea led the Void
(.'tmyati_)(iinya)31

hi Th· aspirants 'W':O are unab 1 e ."' e to ~u]tivate the sup rior path of Siva are asked to take to the

path of Energy (IAkta upaya), which is one step below the

of the world out there Thus the mind through. various types of nature of pure knowledge is meditation. These concepts characterised 'by an orientation represent substances that are in terms of which the Self is, to be seen as having their cognised as bein.g nonexistence in the Lord. As different from the Absolute, substances, they are offered, at which at th.e practical level of the' plane of the mind, to the thought would mean that the Lord, It is the proce,s,s 0'£ so-called objectivity, too, is of.flering of the substances las non .... different from the' Self, It oblations at the mental level, that 'is known as yaga3,6~ In is so because it is the Self from which. proceeds the objective contrast to yag", we have homa, world, which is characterised by' such thinking as 'would. result in the The aspirant 'who on account realisation of the substances as of deep influence of impure 'thoughts is unable to stay in being nothing but the forms of divine light. In affirming that the path of Siva, is accordingly advised to take to the' path of the substances are nothing else that the pure forms of divine Sakti, There are no props the aspirant so' available in the path of Siva, light" net even the so.... called mind, It transforms them. in thefurnace is so because the mind is so of the fire of consciousness dissolved as 'not to have lany (ci'd'agniJ as to be identicalwith 'kind of proip'~It ]s because of Consciousness it tself ~Insofar as the repetition of the sacred this fact that the sprr.itual practice that 'the: path of Siva name (japaJ is concerned, it consists of reflecting over and provides is devoid of supports (nirilamba)~ In the path of S~ak.ti over again 'with regard to intellectual viewpolnt that it Isthe pure concepts tha t are oneself as being identicalwith taken las supports or aids by the intrinsic nature (sva,rllpa) of does 'not view the pure the Absolute, which is said to Consciousness as t-he "the' mind, 'Thus the mind of an substr atum 0'£ wha t 'we are ~ aspirant engages itself in the be perfect, ptu'e unrestricted and unconfined". Likewise file Whlle, considering the world as practice of such conceptual aspirant must develop firm. know ledge as is free from being separate from the Self it taints. Accordingly these .p·ure conviction t(vmtnJ "With regard Iooks upon itself as having to ail the insentient substances knowledge that is limited, as ideas concerning the nature of (ia ¢l padlarth.a) as being 'nothing Reality Ieave their desired having powers that are imprint u.pon the intellect of but the' expressions 0''£ divine limited, and as belng noner the aspirant", This pure 'but Consciousness, In oth.. words, ' divine, In. contrast with impure factual knowledgemakes its the aspdrant has to see the knowledge (aludd,hajiiana)'i'we entitles of the imprint upon. the- mind in a substantive have pU'r,e knowledge (iuddha variety of ways~ The 'main 'war lid as 'being the emission of ,;ii:ana) which thinks of the Self mode of this knowledge is the 'Lord himself". 'Lastly" as being pu.r,e Consciousness, expressed by such terms as, for comes the practice of y agum The as being identical with rhe Trika 'understanding- of the example, y,5ga homa; ja,pa, v mta perfect u ltimate Divine and ,yogn:5~,All such concepts Absclute is such as would Principle as well as the source are .firmly established in the make it: impossible for "the
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samb.1~Qva 'tpily·a:. Since in this path much mentalexertion is needed, BO it is also known as the path €l.f knowledge (jRon,a U,Pay'u)" It is a path that 'terminates In such knowledge as lis characterised both by duality as well as unity.;, and so this knowledge has appropriately been called a IS, that o:f difference-in-nondifference (bhediibheda)32'~It is a path m which the practice of meditation is so oriented as to be directed towards such concepts that are pure and free from the taints of any kind ..The cultivation of pure thoughts is considered to be necessary because the impure thoughts are seen as the source of bondage'", The impure thoughts are such. thoughts as are either' non-intelligent or are based upon such beliefs that the i.ndividual existent is identical with the bodily apparatus, It Is such IB,n.

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intellect to have any kind of grasp of it, 'which would. mean that the nature of theAbsolute is such as would be' beyond the

l,ang,e of intellectual thinking.
The Absolute, instead, always shines in itself and by itself and it is the intrinsic nature of the Absolute to shine in and through its own light, It is this kind of reflection in which is affirmed the self-shirting nature of the Absolute that is constitutive of what is known as yoga40,., There are certain other aspects of 'this method of know ledge (jliina u,pmja), such as bathing

worship (puja.Ra) and meditation (df'ty'an,a) which
(snsna),

need to be explained briefly; The g'aining of awareness ~ tId conc:e:rnl,ng~"th' e actual an, . factual sta te of existence in terms of being neither bound nor free is such a step that removes sum tainted thoughts that become the source of our

in water removes the dirt from the bO dy41,. Similarly should reflection be directed towards worship (puja~:in terms of such thinking as would maintain. that I am appeased neither by the kind of worship I perform nor am Ldissatisfied by its nonperformance. It is I the. 'worshipper (p,Ujaka) who really is present both in the act of worship (pl1j a) as; well as in the worshipped (pl1iya)~ Since: I am identical wi th both the worship and the worshipped, so it is I who really is being worshiped contirrueusly+", Likewise the aim of meditation too is nothing but tOI discover the presence of Siva in everything that is being apprehended by the sense' or g ans. Whatever a sense organ :may apprehend, it is to be viewed as being Siva itself, It is such a kind of vigilan t awareness that is called meditation (dh,yilnQ)4l~
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to ilgtlorance,whl.ch. means that ignorance as doubt is t,otally

eradicated, As a result 0'£ this firm conviction in the non-dual AbJ30111'te,'there accordingly is: attained the absorpfion (srfnt3De.m) that 'results in the riddance of impure thinking',
The basic aim of this 'method is to concern itself with the states of' consciousness in such a manner as would facilitate the use of psychelogical practices for the purpose 0:1 obtaining immeraion of individual consciousness in the Divine, It is basically done through the process of correct reasoning (bhavanaJ, which 'ultimately leads-to the removal of the, "veilof' ignGllance in terms of the revelation of Reality, Thismethod is so devised as would serve' the point of ,'transition between the Inferior and Superior Way's. It accomplishes this, task through the arousal of energy, which occurs either on account of intense love for Siva, or because of the intensity' of such. emotions as} for example, love, passion" terror, fear, ang'ef', etc.. Also the method of elimination is so used as would. lead. to the absorption in a singlethought, This deep absorption in a single thought results in the emerlgence of en1ergy in its purest form, The initial requirement that an aspirant is 'asked to fulfill is to abandon the method of concentration on concrete objects. Instead of concrete objects, hie must cultivate his

Iimitations, Insofar las one subjects himself to such dtalcctical thinking that reflects only in terms of pairs 'of opposites, one would never know who one is. It is, therefore; asked of us to transcend such forms of thinking through such analysis as would ,giv'e rise to the perception that view's the individualexistents as being neither bound nor free ~ This process 0.£ thirtkirig is technically called bathing (snana)'-'precisely because it removes the impurity of ideas in the same manner as a 'bath

TIle aim of the methnd of knowledge is to,engage in such practices as are oriented towards the attainment of knowledge that is pure, free from the taints o.f impu.re concepts that arise in the mind, It is the repeated practice of concepts that reveal the nondual nature of ,Reality which, at the conceptual level of thought, becomes firmly rooted in the mind, Once.such thinking transforms itself into a firm conviction, then the aspirant succeeds in destroying the knots of difference that come about due

imaginationin SUIUl a manner as would be rooted ~n firm convictior ~ t is wit _. _ such a frame of mind that the intellect is stabilised, land according y concentration is focussed upon the primal e'nergy in its e-mergent manifestation, As a result of such practice, the aspirant may undergo a
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variety of' experiences, which could. be in the form of b iss" knowledge, awakening. of thr kundali'.nl or resonance in the interior of the spinal cord The aspirant accordingly enters into contact with th undifferentiated energy; and as a result obtains sponta .'ous re.pos'e that comes to b .dr e to natural detachment,
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that have b'ee' , caused by the sub-conscious tendench s. I ' this manner is recas the personality of the aspirant, and s,o he gains peace and rep10se that is p rmanent, Through r'e . ea ted contact with Reali ty" tho aspirant attains a state in terms of which is reveal' d to him the essence that is constitutive of a conscious subjec ~and thh state is giv'en the nomcnclatu e of the ineffable sta e. This ineffable state is not a' experience in

of opp,o .ites. This cosmic transcend. nee is experienced at the' point when, the mystical union between Siva and Sakti I '-.' :,,'. 0'- -, _. : ::11 '..-:;;, in the' yo' ei's b- rain. tal<'es place which is. spoken of as eing the abod. ' of Siva"
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This en ering ~ to n he undifferentiated energy signifies such de,ep absorption las would lead to the de'S:-t~IU' C"tion 0"'[ limitatio ns anid structures of the individual's
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terms of transo ndence, but is characterised by immanence, It is an experienc in which conceptualisatio is not transcended, rather j t is existence that invites the yog.i at its source - and it is at the source of 'life. where confli cts are' resolved fo ever,

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There Is another asnect 0'£ practice of this pa th that is both esoteric and Tantr ic in

The yogi gains the experience of transcendence by focus, .. : g r on.such mystical centers in. the body that are believed to be c '.ntaining the cosmic f .····rce8~ The transcendence of cosm s is achieved by arresting timer viz. by eliminating it from consciousness. The, practices that a yogi employs in this path a -e far advanced. H· S,Q meditates on 'the mystical centers as to arouse the latent forces that are said to be esi .ing' therein. These centers (cakra-s), according to . .antric thinking, are located along the spinal cord=- and th total number of them is believed to be seve'n..
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personality,

orientation, And it concerns transcending itself with the awake- ing structures, there fla ,hes forth. kumkilint; The entin doctrine of kundalin i is base .•. P'Oll the _ suddenly such intuition, that comp etely frees the individual notion that the particular and f . romt th limit anons ot d 1'"", .he u riversal are id mtical, .Ienrru ti "ua 1~11 thereby maintaining the Whi} In re 1ation to hurnan en ~ : awareness with rega,rd ro body means that W· atever nptiness·.ISI, Ho- ··:e- ". , m 'e're'. exists In. tile cosmos exists , "w ve .. E,mm mystical intuition cannot bring potentially in the body, The ~ about repose that is lasting ... ., thus is to cosmocise the unless motivated by a body mainly t - rough such powerful suggestion like==-·"iI absorptive practices that ~ am Siva, omnipresent and Tantricism has devised, Alsc ·t omruporen t~" II,t 18 suerh a there is initiated, through ')e _,;;' powerful g,ugge' .tion that process of awakening of the penetrates the' source of ,energy k7l.-P¢alipi; the' experience of a and thereby loosens the cosmic transcendence by -o,u· _'Ie uruncation brmgmg, ab t th ~,,,,,._!.t:.! complex knots of personality
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The initial circle or wheel is known as the Basic: Support tm llladhiira), and, is, locaf d t the base of the rectum. It is at this center where the Coiled Energy; called ku.p¢llipl, lies in the state of slumber, 'which is. to say in a latent state, It rests in SLICh a manner at this center as to block the opening tlO the GraciousVein (suSLlmna-nam145~ The next circle is known as the 0¥Jn Place (sv'a"dllisthana)j and is loca ted at the base of the male genital organ,~ The third mystical center, called the Jewel 'City (n1.a.pipluriA), is loca ted in the region of the 'nav'el, whereas the four th
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center, known as the Unstruck ;iha' et S'0' un d: ia u., t-a) .;;' '10" c a'te d opposite to the heart, which is considered to be the center for exhaled breath ~p'rilpa)~ Insofar as the fifth circle is concerned, i.t is called. by the name of Immaculate (t~isudd.hr!), and. is, said to be existing at the base of the throat" The Command ( ;fj fill) Wh.eet is the sixth. whose location is said to be between 'the eyebrows, It is considered to be the' seat of cognitive faculty as well las 01£Siva, The last center is knownas the one that has Thousand Petals (sahasr,ara)~ It is 'believed to be existing at the top of the' head, which is considered to be the '" abode of Siva, It is at this place! where 'the Coiled Energy upon ascending through these various centers along the spina] cord ends 'her journey by merging in Siva ..'This center; however, is not related to the body on account 01' it being the plane of transcendence, It is because of this reason that most of the Tan.trikas think that there are only six centers and. 'not seven, which; means that the ,sa.hasraracakta does not pertain to the body" ~
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These mystical centers are provided with. necessary nourishment by the various channe s that run through various parts 0 ,£ the body. Among them the most important are the three channels of which two run to the right and left sides of the Gr-acious Vein along the spinal cord. The right side of the
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spirral cord}, which is considered as the' region of Siva" contains what is called the Yellow (pitigalaJ channel, which is the' carrier of the descendent o:r inhaled breath (ap,ait,a) and it is through this breath that the centers are activated. Insofar as the left side: of the: body is considered, it represents the region of Sakti, and the channel that car ries the a,sce.n.dan·t or exhaled breath fp'r 3paJ is krrown las the 'Vital (i¢,f)~In order to awaken the Coiled Energy in.the center, called the Basic S,upplort, 'the aspirant is asked, through the technique of breath control, to neutralize the two breaths that flow through the piiigrala and i(ia/ channels, thereby forcing the vital air into the Gracious 'Vein.4711''Upon pushing the vital air into the Gracious Vein, there then occurs the awakening of the Coiled Energy, and which, 'upon its awakening, is sent upwards by penetrating the mystical centers along the spinal cord, These centers}, whenactivated, are heated up b,y' the return p,a,ssage of the Energy" ~It is through this flaming heat that all forms of limitations a reconsumed, and thereby the realisation of the Supreme Self is facilitated. While pie cing one center after another, the Coiled 'Energy, on her w'a'Y, cleanses, absorbs, and devours the elements, in tile body. Accord inglv, the yogi · 'expe'flences them, ifIlea.ti rn e ptlfl, non 0f' " consciousness in proportion to
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the level each center represents 'until there takes place mystical union between Siva and Sakti in the higher center of the b.rain, which results in the' davouring of all d ualized forms of thought,
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Thus the ultimate goal of mystical realisation is reached when complete union between , Siva and Sakti occurs and in terms of whichthe yogi has the experience oflabsor.ption (SQ,nltll)f&l) in Siva, Once perfect absorption between the conscious subject and the Lord is realised, "there remains nothing more to be accornplishedvbeceuee the
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arrives at a state of identity "'. with Siva, (in terms of) the totality of categories. Wh,a't sorrow 'what delusion shall descend upon him who (has been so empowered as to have) the perception of all a.sl(being identical with) the

Brahman".
Accordingly the yogi offers as oblation all (forms of) mental duality in the effulgent flames o.f the Self (viz., of consciousness) and (accordingly) becomes one with the Li,gh'to°
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'Las tly, 'we have the method which, according to the Trika thinking, is meant for such aspirants who have not been successful in any of the above three' means, It is maintained that this method is appropriate for such aspirants whose mind

is s.o congealed by impurities as would need lot of mental

and physical effort for its removal. Si ,- this method is ce at the lowest w ung, so it is accordingly t, rmed as the Ind ivid.ual Method (anav'a up.iiya) ~ It is also known as the
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transformed of En' rgy. However, there is a fundamental difference b .tween the two methods, in that the purity of conceptual knowledge is given priori ty in practitioner who follows the the Method of Energy, whereas path of Siva does not need any in the Individual Method the such meams las support upo ,- P' iority, however; iSI accorded whichthe 'mind would fix its to such objects that are attentio t, land thereby gain external, In the .tethod of stability For this reason this nergy the omniprese lee of excellent method is said to be the Self is so reflected upoln as devoid of support (niratamba)", would, allow the aspirant to Insofar as the, ethod of have the' vision of t e entire 'Energy is concerned, i. is such universe as existing wit in a method in which the mind is one's own consciousness purified from. the di oss of However, in the Individ _. l a conceptual impurities. While M thod .e knowable ob] ects the mind is acti vely engag" d in are so coritempl ated as to the task of actualizing the envisage their 'separateness. It , purity 0'£ conceptual know- is because of this reaso ... that ledge, it, viz. the mind, resorts this method has .een equated to the Self as its support. It is with action, Moreover, th e · so b ecause m t h~ methocd 'effort has to be persister t and 'IS reflection concerning the continuous. T er is 'the nature of one's own-being (sva- dang -r of lapsing Ion the way rupa, s.vlab1haua) always plays a or remain suspended in the very dominant role, Rare- are mid-course, ]f such a situation 'the aspirants who are qualified arises} then the yogi will have to cultivate the two superior to beborn again so that he may ways of Non-method and Siva attain the state of Sivahoodf'. M th ,0,':; ,0 f spiritus ali ".•e' - d Ity~ As the go,al of becoming Siva The Indi vid ual Method, (i111ava- is difficult to attain for them upa!/ra), 'in contrast WIth, the who follow this path, the most
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method. of action (kriYlrZlpHy'a) because in this method the aspirant 'has to exert himself energetically. This method is also known as that of difference (bheda 'up',iya) Ion account of its functioning within the ambit IQ dualistic thought structure", As already pointed out: above, the

above m thods, i· so restricted in its o erations that there is, ,.···0, other way fOIT' the aspirant 'Ulan to take the sui port for the stabilisation 10£ the mind lof objects that are other than itself, The' support of external objects is taken in such a manner a '0 'thin ,", f th ern ,,'s o being the appearanc'E.~'of the Lo 'd. In this manner this

they can achieve is the purification of dualized thought in terms of 'what rna}' be, cal led the state' of the pacification of thOUghf53i It is not the i· trinsic nature of the Self that is made as the

contemplative support for the
mind in this method, Instead th support is sought in such objects that are outside the, Self The objects of meditation are mainly the' aspirant's own intellect, life force, body and th external world of objects" ~ 'Wh~enever an external obj set is taken as a support for the pr rpose 10£ concentration by utilizing' the services of the intellect, then we are in the realm of meditative conce -_ tration Cdhyiinn yoga). Th. ~ .. ~ hi aspirar t, W hil.e initiating this ., prolgr'am of meditation, will have to bring tog ther th subj .ct (p'f'll'mata), object (pramev«) and the means of knowle .•. (pramapa). In, this ge way the divine effulgence of the self-shining Consciousness is so ignited, as to be of ineffable nature (bhai.ravifmakaJ. Afterwards the aspirant is asked to apprehend the entire cluster 0 objects through the pathways 0,( the senses as well as through the mystical circle of powers (5itk·ti cakra). The devouring of obj ectivity 'has to be such as to 1 tit _S' t,ay 'WIithun SOl th at the h iei I,' ,i entirety of externality is dissol veld in the effulgence of
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ultimately into th Method

Consciousness. this practice the practitioner has Ieexperh nee of emanation of objectivity

absolute Through

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objectivity by reposing it on the equalising breath (samana), and the, result that is obtained the aspirantrealises his divine is in terms of the experience of nature (bhuircoa bhsua), in bliss known as b)~ahlnananda59~ terms of which he gains access 'While ascending the planes of to the limited absorption r apav,Q bliss, the aspirant nQ'W is in a eamiioesa) that iSI pervaded by position to dissolve all forms of conceptual objectivity as the experience SivahoodS5,~ well as the means of Insofar as meditation with regard tOI life' force Is knowledge into the intrinsic concerned, it, is directed up,on nature of 'the Self b'y means of resting u:port udiin«. In doing the L,atBgory oipurusa as well SOil the aspirant has the bliss, as on fhe five aspects of that is called the mRh inand'a60. Th arumation. _-roug hd •.eep -, d suer h The aspirant now reaches such concentration is galn,e'~ aposition whereby he while' repose' (vi§ran'i'i) as, would . re'p'oslng on vyana, so sequentially result in the, contemplates as to be tree from experience of different p lanes all forms of adjuncts ("Llp,iid.hi'~), of bliss, The bliss that results Iimitatlons and attributes, As from concentration on subjectia resul t of such contemplation vity (prnmat!~ tattv'u) or on the he experiences accordingly 'the category of purusa (puru sa bliss called cldimanda. A,t this tuttna) is termed as self-bliss ,plalle of bliss dependence tniitmanda)". 'There emerges (allamban,a) on the so-called the experience of bliss, called insen tien t obj ectivi ty nirsnanda, 'when meditation is c-ompletely' falls off", Upon devoid of an object". The next having traversed tile six planes step that the aspirant has to of bliss (anaJ1dabh iimi-s), the take is that u pan the aspirant reaches a. state emergence of the exhalirtg whereby he is so empowered breath (p'r B(1Il) he has to fix his as to have the direct cognition attention upon its objectivity ofhis pr,apa ,Mlkti, viz ..the power and up'on the infinite of animation. The bliss that 'he objectivity that lies within its experiences at this final stage ra-n·g·· :.t.:l;..',....ough the P.roc es 0'£ is limitless in the sense that it lU U. ' the inhaling breath (npiina). does not suffer from at'ly kind Upon the completion of this of limitation or division, The prioress, the aspirant has to nature 10£ thebliss is such that repose his attention Ion 'both it shines as an uninterrupted ,- II"1p" qHQ pr'~"a an d.: I~...."' As a result of presence in the' en trre this repose emerges the bliss objectivity that is constitutive as ,,,I, " m anda 58 nara that l~ kn, " ~~. '.:'__' of the world, The absorption is Having become fully ill ... easeful, spontaneous and umined, the aspirant a c.cor- na tural, which means that at dingly unifies multi tudinous this stage a.ll types of
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as well as 0,£ its dissolution (sam'hm:a).. As a Icolnsequeflce 0 fthi ex.pe;rllencle ' :-'S
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-ditati t: medrtative practices are completely abandoned. 'This unlimited bliss that is experienced at. the seventh plane is ao universal as to 'be called iag-adananda62 ~ 'While stationed in the repose 0£ iagadanand,a, the aspirant simul taneously takes note of the emergence of life-force in the heart-s-and the process that is involved is,technically called either uccara yoga or priipa yoga" As to' whether one has ga1in,ed proficiency in this method depends upon the manifestation of six signs, If these six signs manifest themselves externally; then the aspiran t 'has been successful in his task, The signs are (a) the experience of bliss", (b) the' experience of spilling over of bliss", (c) the experience of trembling 0 £ the body, (d) the experience of sleep as well as (e) of inebrlation=, All these experiences emer,ge 'when the life-force is made as the basis 0£ contemplative practice. This yogic practice 'concerning the life-force is in no way identical with, the practice of breath control (pr.aiJayama) precisely because it is not considered as an in ternal practice that terminates in the realisation of the state of absorption, The kind of bliss that is experienced is dependent on the nature of absorption. The level of bliss" thus" would be measured in terms ofthe degree of depth that absorption has gained,~ It is because of this reason that there everrtuate s variatioh
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insofar as the levels of bliss are concerned.

The asp irant has also the
possibility of engaging in such a yogic practice that is more concrete than the above one ~ This concrete form of spiritual practice is known as karana .. yog'a~ It is such a practice in terms of which the aspirant looks at his b 0_dy aSL'" e di '. th _clVlne temple of God, aud aCCOf-' dingly so contemplates the various mystical circles/wheels in the body as, to visualise the actuality of the entire universe, The visualisation is such as would terminate in the realisation of the universe as being' but the d isp lay of absolute divine power of the Lord. Thus the aspirant has the experience of his 0,"1:(1. body as well as of the universe as being' nothing else than the selfmanifestation of the glory of the Lord'" Tl1.e so called mystical awakening of ,lru9tjal'i'pi',comes 'within the framework of this conternplative practice .. Although in some Tantric schools the yoga of kU,!1¢lipI is highly' valued as a spiritual method, yet in the Trika system it is considered as one of lowest' spiritual method, and accordingly is 'placed at the third plane on. the spiri tual ladder of ii(Jav'Q u.p,aya'~ As the ka rana yoga is ex.ternal in dimension, S,O the techniques that are used are also of physical nature. It is because of this reason that the handgestures tmudrii-s) are extensively .. ··used in th IS · '. '.
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method as it is, believed that their L1.Se results in the im med iate attainment of absorp tion,

There ·s an another form 'of pr~ctiC',e'J which is, one step' below that of karana yoga" and which is known by S11c:h names, as the varm yoga or the dhnani yog,(~". It is believed that there occurs, d..ueto the influen ce f the power' of life force (pr fina lhktiJl within the body a ~d 0 £ sound (tl ada) that is of wonderful and amazi ng nature". This. inward sound can 'be heard upon closing the o'petling of the ears. The aspirant can attain the state of absorption by contemplating the in audible sounds that are occurring constantly inside the body, All the letters of alphabet h~ have their source in tlais iriwar d sound, and it so because it is within the crucible of this sound that the unity (siin1arasya) of all the letters can be discovered I t is through the reflective concen-tration on this inward. sound that the seed syllables (1J11a,-m'R'n tras) concerning emanation and dissolution of the universe' can 'be contemplated ·upon.~ This practice among a 1 the practices 0'£ .va u,P is the 81J'Q easiest one, because the aspirant, without much effort, can fix. his mind upon the mystical sound.
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The aspirant who is 'unable firmly' to fix his mind 'upon the intellect, life force, body and the inward sound, is asked to engag'e In SLIt: h an external
~l

I

practice that would be easy to fol ow' and such a. practice, according .. to the Tr ika c ·. known as s-thiifla prkalpana. The centers 'OJ the p aces (stJ1iin,a) of practice are said to be mainly three, namely; the breathing air (p'ra{1a vayu.J, gross body (Sf/iiiin sarira), and. the external . '. . wor,;Id'68.'" It~IS ,cons].d ered 'ilia t .... the p,owe~r of life force is characterised by the pentad of exhalation (pr5paJ, exhalation (apana), equa lising breath (eamsna), ascending breath tudsna), and by' th.e pervasive breath (vyiina). However, the breath that is directly related to the s·t·h5n.a. prak&llpana is the' breath that arises in. the space of the heart from a distance of Mel ve finge rs (dviid'a :,~iiI1a) ~ It t is this breath that is exhaled through. one of the nostrils, When. expelled, the breath ends at a. distance of twelve fingers outside in the space" and it is from this point from where the breath that is inhaled arises, which ends 'I'd ' iebody at a distanceof mSl . e th b twelve finger's from the heart, These MO places are known as the outer end 0'£ the twelve (dlliidnsanta) BlI1.d the inner enid. of the twelve, It is within. the .... ,_ rr -~ae ILWO en d SO" f space'' of these f twelve that concentration has, tOI 'be fixed upon. 'the outgoing breath. (prfipa) and tile incoming breath (apanQ)~ The concentration really has to be on. the void (suny'a) that comes about between the moments when reposing of concert .... t· ti rranon on. pra,pa and ap sna occurs. This veld really
= :.1 .

I

1'" ~

III

measured is quite uncer ain, The Trika accepts the id a concerning tim. as being sequential, which is to say that it is so oriented as to, be cognised in terms of, eries ..The subtlest moment of time is depende -.t on vibration in the rn irtd, wh ich amounts to saying' that a moment lasts to tho . measure a thought lasts '~n the mind70 ~ We know that the Apart from the above spiri al 'vibratory velocity of the mind methods of apavrl 1 piiyul' there in the S' ates of waking (j§grat), tstmpna) and. is, an another method of dreaming . the state of Siva, .~ .' leeping (susupti) is different, recog ismg and the method is known as In the waking state it is dim, that of the Six Paths (sadiidh·va). 'whereas in he dreaming sta te .. This method consi ts of two it is fast, Incomparison to these parts, namely, word (~~abdaJ two states, the vibration in tho and it's object (artha).,. which in state of sleep is fast r. The the language of Vedanta is other two states, which a re tho embodied 'by such terms as Fourth (turya) and beyond the name (narrla) and form (r upa) ~ Fourth (h~r,y'iitita), the speed IQf Insofar as the word is pulsation is very -ast ..In these concerned, it consis s of the two last states the process of triad of ·var.pa, III an tra and pada, time, although eventuating whereas the object consists of sequren tially is not experienced the triad 0 kalil" tattVQ and at all. It is because of th -s bhuoana, Both these t iads in reason that these two states are, the Trika system are given said to be of the nature of nonrespectively the, nome ... time-in-time". It would mean clature of the Path of Timr that time is so subtle at 'higher (kalddhava) and the Path of planes that its enumeration is Space {desadhva). Since each impossible to cor duct, path consists of a triad, so the total number of paths, th Sf is The enume ation of time six, and each path has to be so begins with the moment, and! the duration of the 'moment ls contemplated as would terminate in the .'.quired said tOI be' that of one thought. The perception of the rnomen result, Let us, Iirst, take into falls within the ambit of consideration the Path of ime, knowledge, and knowledge is The most subtle and t e a' ways actualised in terms of smallest. -nit of time is said to linguistic formulations, which be the mome It tksna). A8 to means that it is always in terms .. '"' There, is no how a. mo nent may be 0'£ worlds,
emerges when the appearance and disappearance of two breaths, ever tuat at the =..J ,u-',. " . .. ......:_ porn-ts ofdv- i4l,a im.:.,t~9 Thr.ough this .. rractice is achi ve' _ in steps the dissolution of thoughts in the mind. As a. consequenc: of the disappearance of thoughts there occurs the absorption (samiioe§l) 'that ~. app opriate to the ,apava up,aya~
.: .... ,I.

,~'iI',

possibility of knowledg. to occur apart from words, In the context of time it would man that the understanding of time

n

.

~

~

~

~

,

is dependent on linguistic formulatior s, which is to say that the contemplation on time is characterised by words. It is the letter (vur(IaJ that explains or ex' rresses the transcendent form of the word. It is through the association. of the letter with the word .( sabdaJ that giv,es rise to the formation of seed mantra (b~a mantra). And it is th power of mantra that terminates in the formation of a 'en ence (pada). tis t trough the refl rctive contemplation of the word, letter a -'-d sentence that the aspirant is able to' per lad the entirety of time ... sequence. T'om a moment t . an. aeon, Accordi ,gly does the aspirant absorb the vast expanse of time by focussing separately upon the Pi .rtad of animation tillhe finally is able convincingly to pervade over tho time process of such realms (tattva~s) a _are presided ov,er by Brah - ..a, Visnu, Rudra, Srikanthanatha, Isvara, and Sad,asiv,a72~ Finally, r e reaches such a stat of accomplishment whereby he obtains complete fr edom from the co . trac ~,on r(saIi1koca) that time initiates, which means that . e is so enabled as to have ,t_ Ie absorptive experience of the infini ' lordship of the timeless Lord.
I.I_ I'

The subtle form (stl/csm.aikira) of the thi ty-six categories
Ii!

(tattva-s) consists of five planes,

and extends from the nionti" ,kalato ~'{ant'atJ1a,kala In each are contained a number realms (bhu Vantl=s) and the total number of the realms is said to be one hundred eighteen, An aspirant is asked to bring into contemplative' -(lOCUS the various realms" categories as well as the kalal-s, viz, the container 0'£ the realms, Through contemplative absorptlonthe aspirant has the experience of each realm as being theform of the Supreme Lord. While in deep contemplative absorption, the aspirant dissolves the pathway of space (de iadhv(l) into the body, body into the breath, breath into the intellect, intellect into the void, and void into consciousness isastmid). Through this process of dissolu tion the aspiran t u lrimarely has such an experience of recognition in terms, of which hie realises his essential nature as being nothing' elise but pu're Consciousness". This realisation of being essentially p'ure Consciousness results in the, experience of freedom from the' contractton that tile Path of Space imposes. In this mariner is .remov,ed the formation of contraction that these two pa thways initiate and actualise,

seven experiential states are known as being subjective (p~'ran11,iit£~tattvaJiThus the seven subjects, viz, from sakala to ,«kala, and their corresponding powers (&z,kti-s) are recognised by the aspirant wh iIe lin coriternplaticn as 'being ide,ntical with his essential nature, Technically it is known as the knowledge of the fifteen (p,aiicada.,{j vidya-;. 'The next step the asp.iran t is asked to undertake is to abandon the sakaln subject and contemplate only' upoln the six subjects and their powers, 'which is from ,prlaY'iikala to akala. This p'rocess has to be repeated till at last he reaches the akala subject, ItT this 'w'ay are thus contemplated the various categories, whether objective or subjective
,

~

between the two' fades away the moment both of them abide in the supreme' state of non-difference. The disciple achieves such a state by identifying himself with the accomplished master. and through him with Siva,
#c

Insofar as the categories are concerned, they are o£two types", namely; objective and subjective, The thirt.y-six categories, however. may be termed as being objective (prameya.-tattva=s),wh,ereas the

In order to achieve success in a'ny one of the sp iritu al methods, it is necessary for the aspirant to take shelter under the wings of a spiritual master (guru) who abides: in the undifferentiated state of Siva ~ Although the Trika thinks Siva to be the real master and the Iiberator of the cosmos", yet it ~ is this very Siva who comes to the rescue of the disciple in human form. Frorn the doctrinal point of view there is no essential difference between the teacher and the disciple as both of them are essentially of identical nature. However, difference between the two remains to the measure the
-

The spiritual unfoldment of the disciple begins' the moment he approaches Ian accomplished master, In doing so, he opens up to the possibility of receiving divine grac.e as 'the best antidote, against the disease of bondage ~ The transmission of grace could either be intense, moderate OT_ dim" depending on the preparedness of the, disciple. Those upon whom grace is intense follow the superior paths of sainbhavCl l~fp'~1Yaand an-llpiIJ.11l1 whereas those w110 follow tile inferior paths of 1ilkta upay,n. and amu« 'lllp'aya can havegrace either moderate or dim An accomplished maste is said to be the one who has the pOlwer of conferring full consccra tion f ab,hiseka) Up ·.·011 the disciple. It must be kept in mind that} according to the Trika thinking, consecration must be. distinguished from initiation (d1k~a)., The precess 0 £ initiation is such as to 'be d'ependent 'upon the yogic practice's and ri tuals. The spiritual master while initiating' the disciple, initially establishes cer tain iden tifications in the disciple/which means that the master Identlftes h'imself with the
I
. ..' I I
1

disciple has not attained the undifferentiated state of idenfity. The difference

disciple and hereby introduces the discip to the spiritual path that' he master considers appropriate. Thus there is established such a kind of interpenetration between the master, the eli -ciple and th ' universe as would 'ultimately terminate in the fusion 'M th the Ultimate _Ie Ijty, It is this fusion w: th Reality that delivers tho disciple from the entang ement 10£ bondage. Consecrationy however, may be compared to the anointing of a king. It is in and through consecration that th -. master confer full i lu . ination as well as the powers of omniscience and omni potence ltpOn the discipl thereby making him a jlVan,mllkta., viz. Iiberated in-life. 'Thus the disciple attains the status of a master,
i
'.1

The next st "p that the aspirant has tOI_ ake co'ncerns .~ such th meditative, practices as woul. result in the quietude of thoug in terrris of its purification. An, thest practio s are based upon the a priori notion that the en' .~gy ilia activates the cosmos xists potentially in the body, It is this idea that is confirmed by this ;, aphorism of the Siva SutrrR which s,ays, "As in the yogi's body so also elsewhe e"'5 ~. tis upon the arousal of thi s latent energy in the body that the aspirant can obtain f eedom from the ignorance .at is ~.e cause of the bondage of transmigration, Whether the exercise concerns itself wit.
-

the concentration on an object o image, or with the identification wi th the deity, or with the various bodily postures, lor with the u ification of t -,. current of thought, or with breath corttr o - a] of them are directed at pacifyingt .,0 _ ght in term of effec ing inward purification. Once th consciousness of duality is overcor e, tlu re ensues the undifferentiated state of absoi ptiDe' in Siva, However the re.pose of absorption that is attained through ~va Ilp~1JIas i that of tranquility of thought" . It is such a state 0'£ mentalcalm in terms of which the mind is so pu ified ilia' it does not succumb any more to duality Thus min rests in itself and . her -'by checks such motivation, as gives .~s, to transmigra tion,
One of the redeeming features "f the Trika practices is t .' t a they are not so ascetically or iented as are the yogic practicl s that have b.n prescribed by the ¥ogasiItrra of Patafijali, It because of this reason that Utpaladeva gave to .he Trika spiritual practices the nomenclature of such a path t .at is '.asy as well as new? ..

sens s that is conside 'ed 0 be essentia in tho yoga of Patafijali. In the yoga of Patafijali the practices are SD d vised as would result in the suppre .sion 0 the modificatior s f the' mind". Stich is not the aim of the!Y'oga that 'Irika has prescrib d. The rika yoga, bell 'v -s that the suppres, sion in any form of the mind would make the mind mo e unstable and prone to de lusiorr". Instead of suppressing the mind, the T -ika prescribes such contemplative m thuds as would eng,age the mind in such a manner that would lead to the emergence of what may be ca led t -e moor of Siva, which, in other words, , ieans that the mind, in a graduated manner, attains camp ete m rg' r writh S"'" .. uva
1
_ ~1 -

'0. ' ce h' Introvertive ~. sorpt ~ becom ·.s easeful b on

nd spontaneous, there accordingly is reached the state whereby the use of any kind of method automatically fa S off It is a statr in which the fluctuations of the mind in th rir entirety are dissolved, through deep a', sorption, into the indeterminate state of Conscio sness. Thus it is not the dissolution of the I' is beca ,s,e of sue' an modi'. ~ cations of 'the mind that orientation that these practices i~ the Trika is referred to as come within the, ambit ofwhat yoga,,,, It is, instead, the is call, d th royal yoga (r aja~ attainment 0£ the state of YO,g·a)., AI] these practices, from reco81 i: ion in terms 0 £ p ,. fect r ilJ}llva up'aya to an-'upatJtl are so identity with Siva thatis called spoken because of they are "Tee yoga .. , from such deprivation of the
1

1

l

References
1 ~ISl;aytl,p ratytl.bhiJ iii-kant a' (hence forward IplK) i .3.2,,, 12: J'nukllyatvQ,1p kartrtayii5 ca bodlf4sya en f:idit'm{frLalJI ,iiiJzyiidQU trJdgu.(1t jfin nam It,Q t 5elln mie.sa ,la'k$tl[l(J;1Jlll 2~ Tel1ltras,5ra (hence fim.vtlrd TS)~ cIt., 1~'5,aJnas;ta1p-'idaJ!r ekam cinmstra- tatteuc m k slen iikali:tam ~ ~ ~ d e sen iiparit: chan f.1 aql iikrt i'l1h iran iy.a n tv i ttl' (n
l ••

19 .. T'S, p, 10, sv iitlarlfr~la=,.iaktim=eva~adlzik
Iii

,iJ]JI

pctiyart
• ~ •

niroikalpam-eua bl1..(:l.ir'Qv(l SaUl8JJe'sfll}<l'-tll1Ubhavati' I See also Anu"ttaraS_lRka~ 'Vi 2: In,a kiJilci,t tva}~,fi.11t,;i g- "maDll :J oirama soastho yt1.thiinQ's ti1it{l!J11
III
j

,

S v IQ: ,f ant ram 111UI' 11, ria g 1"a 11,a tat tv am tad - e tl a~, h. a 1]1 I a ftJrraiva;=Qll tart1.nuryi vii soam pratib.imb'i ta!p erltlJ!l Qrt;/nI!' vfvill~inQn'ny" .ilmad-'fV[l' pa-r1neSlUl:yu!1I'arn;iiVesho nirupmjoka evA: I fflSytl. i(_~Q mamantra-p ~'5-iih.y5na-'carylf,idi n iY',{l;n fran ii'~k iici t .II See a lso Tanir il'aka-vi'vek'fl (he.nre/onvard TAV), 2~2.~ Uyllir' 'nfl' .fiva "bhii:l'i h'hiin;ti te up tat p:ra~lid'atap I saev.a ,ana(n sv.aprakiiSo b'h,i'se vi.'('va-

'0'. TA'V: 1.42: sa ( .._iirnbhulul) eoa ( an-'ffp ifyll iti-uccaya1te I 21~TS, ch.
3

PO:'13fn

k~;t.lhanl p'Yiipta ca

22.. Si1Jf1dr~li(henceforwardSlz), 1~2,4~25:: ,ghaJa-iidi-glf1akiile-ttpi gh61JLlIF' jafl,iil sfi kriya I jan ali. jli&juun-atr(;n~'lJn

svat ItptlkO,!l:' I
3j TA,'l~ 2.1;' .sid:dl1.liuiiJ!1 ,ya.g.inih,im ell dar Sa~itlf!1 carubhltJJ~lma:m'II' kathsnam sarhkrum.o/l fist re sid~tun(f.m guru seuenam I ityidyD ni~"~'1lp,ayn5y(l' SrlDlke!fP(J$Yf1I]7 v.ar iii! ane II
III

niricchoroedtmk ~n ti /1/1 aun m li.kh ya-abhifuf1-·,tastasya nirv,!ttir-uirvlti vin:i I d'lie.~S1jepmoartme naioa na en oetti uin i en tasu I ..
23,. Sharma 2,4·~, B, V

op, cit, p, 3-53. 'OP~cit, PiP. 162J.' 164.
,m

VV~ 140~44.

til

I!

!II

25~ Sharma,

4:~ T S~"1.1, U,P aya-i alaq' 'U:l if V Q11.t P rak iljj~Jed, g/ta tena kim bhiti sahasradidhitih ~ I vilu~cayannit ~ them-udsre. d~:rti1fili[J~ s1J'ayaql iIJ;(nniiei,(et kJfl1nllt II
S., Tlultr iiloka (he.nce,fo.nvard TAJ, 1.242:' iaio 'pi paraman: j'iia,t.am-upiiy.a-iidi-,vivtrrijifcnn j mlQndH~mkti-viSk8Jlt.anl~ an u tia ram-ina- u ccay'tl,fe /1
m

2.6.. Pandey, a.p'. ci t. pp 530-31.,

27., M,ahir,flulmai1iarl~ v. 54,1 ~
.28~ VB~ v, 32,., 2'9,. TA,; 6..10

,30., VB,. v, 89
31 .. TA'~ 16,.10 32, L~N~Sharma, IOP~cit., 'pp~54-5S~

6:., 1('. C'" PandeYI Abinavagupta: An Historica Philosophical Study, 2nd rev. ed,
j

1

2l11d

7. L,,,N~ Sharma, Kashmir Sai'vism Varanasi: Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan, 1972, p. vii, See also TA~,,2,39-40~ ,8,70~ Malzt1:Soar,ananda.r. M ahart,thll.~~l1tu1jati~ 64~ 72,. vv, S,. Pand eYI op cit., P ~3'03,.
to

33. TS ell. 4: v iktl.'lp a -,'b.~l.ideva ia P1 t'~~~tl' bad dh run atrn iin am {1
I

abh imanuante, so 'Q'bhi'~flljHa'tl salilsirn.-p~ra ti-bnndh«: lle.[u(1t ottlfJ pra,tidvandarUpo vika:lpa udital) s(ui15~IrahetUJ!l vikcdpalp d~llayat,i ity,Q ,abl1"i-uaaya-hetn[J.l1

A 9: I' .1'\.1· 1'.llllil 7·-'8:,~ .... U .
r
r

34~fbi d.. ch. 4: sa co euam riipa

10 Pta ityabhij nil-Ii piaya.I.!1, s tltra ,2.
ii

11~ TA, 1..1.B2.
12" .PrlYlltniYtnasiita (henceforward P'S), v 96: pa'Pa~1iiYtha= 1'1'1 .irgtUfl ena1l1j.l1a titi Y'l1tJ.'.a guru m ~Jkh se,unabhe ti I at i_, iU tiiJ«m- ~ti-p at al tadairva nirvfgh n am,e7.}Q. s'vn J;1·/1 13'~ TA, 8,173,

pa ri cdi inne -"~r{}ah'h ,avebll,Ya.p .Ii 'lj'iln .teb/1ya' tattt}cbh yo ,y,at u tt ir pt:l1p apari ccn in na-s m'v i1'1' mit ra -y Up aUl ·tad fInl ftl nartuniirfhah. ~" tadeoa ca aham] ato viloot,tlrno Vir!,l;,it1;lii r. ~ ca Iczhnml
ii

tJ- samae

tebhYI1!J

35" Ib id., ch, 4:: ss t t.arka eua s iik,~'i:m ira up aya!l! sa eva ell t« sudha vidy i I sa ell bah UprtIKara tay if stuiJs:~rto btuioa ti I

todya: t,'J a'-, yago ho 1110 japD tuutnm ,YQ~r;: iti I a

14., Pandey, O'p" cit., p ..BO 15.. iiv a rap ra ty,a,bfl'ij iiD.=vinulr sjni (henceforward
4,~2~2,

1.P·V),

36" Ibid .. ch. ,4:,ia ira bh,imiin :nu seroesim peramesoara eva , sithfti!l I na-ensjet uy,tiriktlun-.a,st£ iti tnkaiparudi-

1.6., 'TA, 5~356; see also VijiIannbltait,tlva (henceforward VB'), VV~ is, 65·=6,6 ,72 150, 1.52, 15S~
J

p,"asiddhye paramesoora yiigahll

eva

sarva bhat~la-arptJna1]1

1

17" IP~ 4ml.1S·
l8. Ibid., 1.2.36; ,uhh erla-up',iya.m-ll.tr't1-ukttUfl
o

i_innbhnl'l1m imctaftl.-U cc,ayate I bhed8bh eda at ~naka-upiljarn bheda-

i J'Q'h 37. Ibid., e11" 4:, .scu"ve bn ifvlib p~ a.r{J;~nefljllra. te1011tiJI~1 iti ~ l;o',Orla-7Jika lpll- p r iiptytli paramesa -stuimida na 1£1ejtls i t samas ia-bk iiva'-griisa~r.Cls ikt iI&h.i,H;IQ ie ta,t,tejo-m ,af raiiUiie'~tJ_Ja~slaha-'SRtn.asta bh,iva-'vil~a rlGlp horna!l II
~J

upay'fUtI f~thaha1Jam

.II

3ft Ibid., ch, 4: eoam lridha.tp tat parolJ1' tattv,Q1..n' soes oa bh t1va·~hhiii'I11!l' iti a J lta /1' per mnarsiul aIJ1iapa:&.11

39~ Ibid., ch, 4: Para:n1.eSoara samatiib'himanel ghafa-aderapi avalo,kanu!p' umtam.

a dehsaya-api

4'0. Ibid; ch... : ta:t soar Upa~aJ1U'salildlliJ£itn1 8Ilikalp,a tn:',Se¥O 4

61., Ibid., 5,42: nir=llp,iidhi'r-tnahi-'vyiiptir~vyiln,tI.-akJ-lya;= u,p'fiidhi~1J'Qrjitla I tada khalu cid DrtQ'u do Yf} in (Ian 'U,P'abpnW1 i tn ~' I
62.., Ibid., 5~50-52:

,yogap. I
.l..
mnlat:Denti sams,tl1itaul prat~patt~yiiJ:laya snanerl!}: nimzal#:at, pam
SB'I
1 111()k~llstalt U!

7.. 7:' na me bandho na 8

mataml! ..
42.. Ibid.. 7.92: pqatlJl1tfliisti ,
U!,E?

yatra ko'pi lryavacchedo n,isi'l yad= viSoa.ta,/1 sphura,t l yadmahata samoitti pa'rQntiirn{ta~ brhm hi.tutp I yntriiSti bkiiuanidintl fla mukhya kapi semsithita {I II tedeu« jtlgadanatlda.l[1-aSrl1,ib,hya1p' .sarl1bhuYl,U::ivlin /1 tatre viS'rinti-rlhfya hplya ucC'ira-

b!~ lrnii!lfl k1te,dohi-apiljanat I

yog~ta!lll

pujtlKuirtfoibfu!dclUl s,a.da p Oje.ti p i1jlH1~ll!l11

,43. Ibid., 7.,79,: yenfl y,ena indri,yenartilo

.sa I Si'vat.i'lak#.tll satya tad' dhayan.
44 .. Mi~cea E,liQ.de~ Yogtl: Jn1Mortaiity
'oil

plite tatr« tetra m-ti VptYQ_ e II

:63.. Ibid." 5.1101: aim b'hilua:uayii deha-,gata-"'Upaytl.i!J pare PQth i I v.i vik so 'P ur{1f1to-spar Sl pa~~lin iinandalJ pr:aj j}/a tell
64~ Ibid, 5~102:. toto 'pi vid'au t,8p'ata-sn:pr 65~Ibid .. 5~103-05 r 66", TQHtr81.oka-vi'vektl:1' 6'7", TS, chi, 5: asmin
e.1)'a

and Freedom, 2~Hf ed., Princeton: Princeton 'U~tiversity P"rr5S,. 1969, P~PI.,244-, ,45"

,dhmnni k§tl(lam sam aue,slid' utibhava {l praspl1Lt fJl piu ti~ f
5.129 uccdresphuras:

se' dtlta-varjite I

4S. Ibid., P.'241 46,. Ibi d., p'p. 241-43, 4'7.. Ibid., pp~236~4 ~
,48~,VB', 49~ PSI
VV..26,

a.vyaktiuukl'ti-prByI/O' dhavfli!J vaT patN ~.. tad-abhyasit p(jl~,a-s,aliroitti-l.a1Jlla!.ll

68. Ibi d "/ ch.. 6: sa eva stkiinii-prak,tdp'una-iabdJena
intra ttidhi'sthi11.Q'lJ1-pri{Ja-v.ayufJ

uk:taf11

351 52

/arirll1!l b'ah.YCU11 cia J

v. 52

S.O, Ibid., v, 68 51. T5 ell. 5~' uda tu upiintnral]J asau SV"l~Sftl'i1Ekiiriith.tl_r!J y
,1

69" VB, v.. 51: y«th,if t,atllii yt'lJra tatr« d;uaaaianfJte manab k-m, aet I p·'rati-ksana.N1 ksma-nnter 1},ailnkS1I1Y"ff' dinair~r' b'hutJet II
II ~ ill
II!

vtkalpolpek,~ te. tada bttddhi-pra-{Nl:-,deha~gha,ta-,idi-kiin par,imita'-riipij~ l pay,ahJena g{hnnfl anutoam priipta ~vam jnmraff7-avirbhavayo;, i. I
52~ PS,
'VV,

70." TA~ 7.25: kilusti ,bhedakRstasya sa t~t si1k~na/J k§'10 11lutap'l Stl1tkpnyasya ca auadhir jfiiiJtalll yiirJtlt,= fi..iJtafi sa; ksmh II ... ..
71 ~ TS, ch 6; ya.t tat smnanafry,am sifm,ayam tad-branma I ,a 1nat sinlru1'5~/at ukalyi£t kmaH nime-~~u'1'nne~'-ln8tr.aI,

98-102

53. TA, 3~211 54~ Milin:Fvijaya·-tt1n~t11' 221: ucciir:a-ka.ra{1a~dhyana-t}ar9'if. 5 th8nflp okap'al'ulill Iyo bhavet sa eamdoe ia (J S,Q rtlyag ,8{BIva uccayate II

taya prokti ' ~-kila-prasar.a~v. flaya-uakrtl-bannodnyalll
. • .J ., p-. ~ ..,
fl ~ .!l1

llsan1khy_ iih srsti. raZaly"ah e'k,asmin mah;i15,rBti-rfmeF!.,.,.' prDp(! so 'pi slllimidi sa upiidhau sa cinnt,atre' cinmatrsyaeve~ayaJ!l spanda;(1 ytldaylllp kalodayo nama II
£Ve1U

5,5. 1S, ch .. 5: tatra prQmiit!=p:raln5pa=p'rQ.m,eyfJ~rllp'a5yu vQhni,-tlrka-soma= tri'taytlsy,a ' (lli7gha~~mtn dh.y'ayel yiiDflt asa u mahii-,b,ha iral1a-t!lg nib dll1j ena-u ,ata-samidtl.akarafJ Btl'tttpa.dd"ya te.
56. TA, S~,44:'Hijan.ande prantitrn=QDlia-Jnatare

7'2.. Ibid, ch, 6: evalp akhila..tp Jcalidh,vana 'P" apoday,Q. leva paSlJan 5r~!i-saJi1hiirii1lS en viet-fran lli.p-'samk'hyiin

airuin« akala,Yt:l.Jl Dtma,ua 'V,Q~ parlamesvra,yam pratibh.ijiian,an mukta eva bhctvati ..
73 ~ Ibid., ch, 7: tam san14starl1-udha1)'ana1p de'he ?JiliPYfl dehe ell pr,~~ tam ,dhiyir. tan ,s"U1lye, t,at samoedane llirbilara= parip ,fIr.(1a-stldTlJi t san'lpadda te I
r

hpli purl

sithit,abl 5'7" Ibid., 5,,44: iih1yafii-rnAtra-viiranter-nir,3n,and'a1J1
vibh avaY'f,t ,

74. TA, 13 159

75, ',iva Sii1;-ra, 3~ 7
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58~Ibid, 5~'45,-46: prii{lu-uday2 pr'llmeye tu puran,Q:ndalp

vibh,iWayet J tatf;'Q anan ta pram'fJ}'u- rlmln -p Ur'U{1l}_:up iinanirorta!111 ,par,tmandQ,gat,flsti~!1Jet apanasa'Si-$bh'ita(J I
59~ Ibi.d,,,, 5",64-47: iato ananta-5phu'{lti,-n1.cya=sali~8half,aik,iflta~ nirv!fa!I! sa,n:allabhu mim

76. TA, 3,.. 11 P 2
77" IPK, 4,.1~16: iti pr'aka{ito

igam,Y" br:ahmiinQ1J,du-,

nlahi'" gUYlll'-' tad atr« niUJldhat padtl/!l' bhuvana kartri arnia-itmtt1:l 0,., v'ibhillJytl Sivata-truiyiln an(sam avig;,n sitidhyati II

inay',a s,ugh,a~la miUgo nsuo, bhiruccayQte sma Jiv,a'ffd!~Ii'-sfiSf.,.e yathli I

may'o bhavet II 60 .. Ibid., 547-48~ taio'pi miiru1~me.ya-nu.gha-kalana.gr,iI5a=

78,. Yogasut,a, 1,,2: yogaicitt'av,(ttinirodha/l ,
au viirintO' nUl:n3flanallq1 79'.. Miilinf-v'ijaY'Il-v'iirtik,a" 2.. 09: svaqJ panthmlQ'm 1 ,ha,yasyeua menso ye nirundhate I tesam tat kha.n~nfil yo.g l1d ,dhiillat!/- u tpaJhtl~ko!ibhi~' II
...

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AS, RAM

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(Foulnded by lshwar Swaroop' ,Swami Lakshrnaojoo Ma,haraj) Sr~nagar: IGupta.ganga, Ishber (Nlshat)- 191 02'1 (Kashmir) Jammu: 2,-M,oh~n,de,r agar, Canal Boac, .larnrnu-t 80 002 N D,eln,i:,R ... Pocka" D~ Sarita Vihar, [New 'Delhi-110 07,6 5,

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April 6 Tues,day Friday
Friday Alpril8 May 2

(Chai:tra shuklapaksha p,a·tipa,da).~Navre,h (Ka',shmifi Pandit Ne''N Yes'r'g da'y) (Cha'/'tra s,huklapaksha trifiya): Zanga 'Trs;

Janma Jaya'nti of'/shwarswaroop

Swami (,aksh',manjoo

Swamijrs IVarsh' cetebmtione (Swamini"s b1jrthday la,ccording to solar

celender) June 1'1,
Friday (Jyeshtha shuklapaksha ,a,shtami)~~ Jyss,hth'B Ash'taml (Asha'dhB Pumime): S'h'r/' Guru Pnmims

Jul,y 1'8
Aug. 1iB A,ug~'23

Sa1u'rdflY
,Saturday

(Sh.ravan,B Pumima) Re.ks'ha B\andhan~~lag hoisting at Ashram centres F (B'hadrapada
krl.shnapaksha

septeml/esntemi)

Bnrikristme

denmssbtemi
Sep~16
Se'p 1'8"'1
_ • .' '.

(Ashvin ,krishnaps'ksha prcatipa,daldvitfya),;" Pittjpaksh'ajag (yajna) Swami Me,htBbkak1i
(Ashvin Krishnepeketu: tritiya/chaturth'i),~ S'w8'mi L,aks,hmB',njoo'·s Ma'h'asamadhi Da,Y~~' Varshika Yajfia (A.s'hvin ,krish,n'Bpaksha ttayodashilcha':turdas,hi): Swaim; Ramji
(Ka,rli'ka sh,uklap,aksha oheturdesbt}: Jayanti (birthday) Pitripaksha'jag (yajna):

I

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ISatulrday

Se'pt :2,7
Nov'. 2 Dec, 24

Swsm! Mehts,bkakji's Janma

(Pa.u'sha krishnapaks,h,a dvadashi).~ Swami Ramji's Jenme Jaysn'ti
(birthday)

:SH

,AM TRU........ ,
Calen e·' of vts 2008-200.

Sa1u rday
1

Jan, 24 Feb, 22 Feb,a~:6

(Magha Kris,hn,Q tra~adashilch,aturdashiJ.7 (Phalgun'a

'Varsh'ik:IJag (yajnla) S'wami RB'fr?j;

Su!n,day
T 'urs1day

krl'shnapalksha

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,-rayodashi),: Mahashivaratri

(Pha'guna shuklapaksha dvjtiya)~~ Va'fshlk jag (rajna) Swami Me'htabkak'ji

for fits 6rutafiry e~e'etf.s them. We Iioe 16) th:e aeatli lof others. We are 6'uria£'pCacesl I haoe from an earfy aae a6jurea tnt use of meat, ami tlie time 'wi[[ come wlien. men men las' I tD,O{ upontlie muraer of animals as tliey' 'now foo{ upon tlie murder of men.
. .L ~£,ona;raO
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If man wants jretuiom

wliy Rg,ep 6ircU ana anlma[S' in claBles?'7:rnCy man is the ijng oj6B4.StJ}
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We stopped eattng meat many years ago. r])urino tfil course of a Sunaay (uncli we happened to fn'o(out of tfie ~tclien 'l~ntfow our youno fam6s pfayine nappify in thefoUls,,, qfa,1tcinn at doum at our plates, 'W't suaife.nfy re,aliz;e.atlia't' w:e were' eati1llJ the fea of a,n a'ni~ma{wnlo hal' untie r:ecf1ttCy Been. p£ayz~n8 in a j£eft[ lierse(f 'We CookJ'{{at' eacli other ana said, 'Wait a , minutej we Cove these sfwep-tlieyYe su,li ee1ntfe creatures. ,So 'wliy are we eatino them?" It was the' last time Wlf! ever au! - L.irufa atuf tPa.u(!MclCartney (~usicitJ;ns),
1

"Ihose wno) 6) their ,u~cliases, require' animaCs to 6e {i£ktf nave no rigfi't to be sliieCtfe,,[ram f 'th'es,{o,ugliterliouse orr any other aspect ,ofttie production oJtfie meat tlUry 6uJ. !fit is distasteful for liumans to tfiinta,6o'Ut} wlia.t can it 6'e fi~ for t/UI animau 'to experience it?" --IJ'ete" Si'~er "rr/ie lanimals you eat Qrrenot those w/i'o cUvlJur others; Y'J'u do 'not eat 'the camioorous beasts, you ta~ them as your pattern: ryou on,ey liu1JOle'r fter sweet. anaeentCe creatures who Earm no a ORe:, wliicli. jo[{ow ylOUI) .serve',YfJu)ant! are tfsvo'urea 6y you as tlie rewJart['oj tlieir service". -Joli'n Jacques !l(pussetlu

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Srinag,a,r A.slhram

tahber Nlshat p~o~rein B Srinaga[r (Kashmlr) '"'190 021 Tal~: 0194... 2461657

Jr3m,mu Ashram 2, M[ah[der Nagar

Delhi Ashram

Canal Road Jammlu (Tawi)~180 002 et : 019' w.2553179, 255,5755

R-5 Pockst-D Sarita Viha New D'elhil;oo110 076 Tell: 01 '1..2 6956308
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MEMBERSHI- - FORM
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The Seeretary lshwar Ashram Trust, IDelhi

II he e,blYrequest you k:hldly to enrol me as a rnem oer of _i~,"" ..RJNAGAR/JA ' MU/DELHI/,MUMBAI Kendra of the, Trust i'n tIne ca egory indicated below: .. Donor One Time Donanon of Hs, 1.100 Lakh Patron One TIme Donation, o'f Rs," 1OI,OOO~O[O Llife Memlber One TIme Donation of Hs. 13,0001.0[0
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Associate Member Enclose please find Draft/ChequelCash fo r,"[
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