Sensory Input & Responses (Part 2

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Why have a nervous system?
  Communication from one portion of the body to another, regulation of bodily activities Also involved in sensing, transmitting, and processing outside information o Respond quickly and appropriately

Nervous System Based on Establishing Circuits
 With increased complexity of sensory, motor capacity o Increased number of circuits o Increased centralization of processing neural nets  ganglia  brains

Only 3 cell types respond directly to nerve impulse:
   other neurons  relaying information glands  secretions muscle cells  contraction, movement

Only 10% of nervous system are neurons
 Rest are “glial” or “neuroglial” cells o Aid in functioning i.e. Schwann cells (around axons), oligodendrocytes (around dendrites in Central Nervous System)

How do neurons transmit information?
  Changes in electrical potentials across plasma membrane Generated by changes in ion concentration

To begin, using a very small area of Axon

 

No stimulus, neuron at rest  has a “resting potential” Cell interior more negative than exterior

1. Membrane Na+:K+ pumps use ATP to move ions across membrane o 3 Na+ out for every 2K+ o charge imbalance 2. Open K+ ion channels o K+ diffuses from inside to out 3. Cl and negatively charged proteins are retained in the cells  Overall result, at rest:

o Membrane is “polarized”, negative charge on the inside, positive charge on the outside. o Resting “potential” of ~-60 mV

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