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Agriculture 1 1 25 25 36 46 56 59 65 76 76 84 86 86 87 96 105 105 112 119 131 131
History of agriculture Neolithic Revolution Domestication British Agricultural Revolution Selective breeding Green Revolution
Crop Cultivar Plant breeding
Intensive farming Sustainable agriculture Permaculture
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 139 143
Agriculture (also called farming or husbandry) is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. Agriculture is also observed in certain species of ant and termite,  but generally speaking refers to human activities. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures, and technologies. However, all farming generally relies on techniques to expand and maintain the lands suitable for raising domesticated species. For plants, this usually requires some form of irrigation, although there are methods of dryland farming; pastoral herding on rangeland is still the most common means of raising livestock. In the developed world, industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture has become the dominant system of modern farming, although there is growing support for sustainable agriculture (e.g. permaculture or organic agriculture). Modern agronomy, plant breeding, pesticides and fertilizers, and technological improvements have sharply increased yields from cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological damage and negative human health effects. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry such as intensive pig farming have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal cruelty and the health effects of the antibiotics, growth hormones, and other chemicals commonly used in industrial meat production. The major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels, and raw materials. In the 21st century, plants have been used to grow biofuels, biopharmaceuticals, bioplastics, and pharmaceuticals. Specific foods include cereals, vegetables, fruits, and meat. Fibers include cotton, wool, hemp, silk and flax. Raw materials include lumber and bamboo. Other useful materials are produced by plants, such as resins. Biofuels include methane from biomass, ethanol, and biodiesel. Cut flowers, nursery plants, tropical fish and birds for the pet trade are some of the ornamental products. Regarding food production, the World Bank targets agricultural food production and water management as an increasingly global issue that is fostering an important and growing debate. In 2007, one third of the world's workers were employed in agriculture. The services sector has overtaken agriculture as the economic sector employing the most people worldwide. Despite the size of its workforce, agricultural production accounts for less than five percent of the gross world product (an aggregate of all gross domestic products).
The word agriculture is the English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "a field", and cultūra, "cultivation" in the strict sense of "tillage of the soil". Thus, a literal reading of the word yields "tillage of a field / of fields".
Agriculture has played a key role in the development of human civilization. Until the Industrial Revolution, the vast majority of the human population labored in agriculture. The type of agriculture they developed was typically subsistence agriculture in which farmers raised most of their crops for consumption on farm, and there was only a small portion left over for the payment of taxes, dues, or trade. In subsistence agriculture cropping decisions are made with an eye to what the family Clark's Sector Model (1950): The percent of the human population working in needs for food, and to make clothing, and primary sector activities such as agriculture has decreased over time. not the world marketplace. Development of agricultural techniques has steadily increased agricultural productivity, and the widespread diffusion of these techniques during a time period is often called an agricultural revolution. A remarkable shift in agricultural practices has occurred over the past century in response to new technologies, and the development of world markets. This also led to technological improvements in agricultural techniques, such as the Haber-Bosch method for synthesizing ammonium nitrate which made the traditional practice of recycling nutrients with crop rotation and animal manure less necessary. Synthetic nitrogen, along with mined rock phosphate, pesticides and mechanization, have greatly increased crop yields in the early 20th century. Increased supply of grains has led to cheaper livestock as well. Further, global yield increases were experienced later in the 20th century when high-yield varieties of common staple grains such as rice, wheat, and corn (maize) were introduced as a part of the Green Revolution. The Green Revolution exported the technologies (including pesticides and synthetic nitrogen) of the developed world to the developing world. Thomas Malthus famously predicted that the Earth would not be able to support its growing population, but technologies such as the Green Revolution have allowed the world to produce a surplus of food.
Many governments have subsidized agriculture to ensure an adequate food supply. These agricultural subsidies are often linked to the production of certain commodities such as wheat, corn (maize), rice, soybeans, and milk. These subsidies, especially when instituted by developed countries have been noted as protectionist, inefficient, and environmentally damaging. In the past century agriculture has been characterized by enhanced productivity, the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, selective breeding, mechanization, water contamination, and farm subsidies. Proponents of organic farming such as Sir Albert Howard argued in the early 20th century that the overuse of Norman Borlaug, father of the Green Revolution, is pesticides and synthetic fertilizers damages the long-term fertility often credited with saving over a billion people of the soil. While this feeling lay dormant for decades, as worldwide from starvation. environmental awareness has increased in the 21st century there has been a movement towards sustainable agriculture by some farmers, consumers, and policymakers. In recent years there has been a backlash against perceived external environmental effects of mainstream agriculture, particularly regarding water pollution, resulting in the organic movement. One of the major forces behind this movement has been the European Union, which first certified organic food in 1991 and began reform of its Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in 2005 to phase out commodity-linked farm subsidies, also known as decoupling. The growth of organic farming has renewed research in alternative technologies such as integrated pest management and selective breeding. Recent mainstream technological developments include genetically modified food. In late 2007, several factors pushed up the price of grains consumed by humans as well as used to feed poultry and dairy cows and other cattle, causing higher prices of wheat (up 58%), soybean (up 32%), and maize (up 11%) over the year.  Food riots took place in several countries across the world.   Contributing factors included drought in Australia and elsewhere, increasing demand for grain-fed animal products from the growing middle classes of countries such as China and India, diversion of foodgrain to biofuel production and trade restrictions imposed by several countries. An epidemic of stem rust on wheat caused by race Ug99 is currently spreading across Africa and into Asia and is causing major concern.   Approximately 40% of the world's agricultural land is seriously degraded. In Africa, if current trends of soil degradation continue, the continent might be able to feed just 25% of its population by 2025, according to UNU's Ghana-based Institute for Natural Resources in Africa.
Agricultural practices such as irrigation, crop rotation, fertilizers, and pesticides were developed long ago, but have made great strides in the past century. The history of agriculture has played a major role in human history, as agricultural progress has been a crucial factor in worldwide socio-economic change. Division of labor in agricultural societies made commonplace specializations rarely seen in hunter-gatherer cultures. So, too, are arts such as epic literature and monumental architecture, as well as codified legal systems. When farmers became capable of producing food beyond the needs of their own families, others in their society were freed to devote themselves to
A Sumerian harvester's sickle made from baked clay (ca. 3000 BC).
Agriculture projects other than food acquisition. Historians and anthropologists have long argued that the development of agriculture made civilization possible. The total world population probably never exceeded 15 million inhabitants before the invention of agriculture.
Further information: Neolithic Revolution The Fertile Crescent of Western Asia, Egypt, and India were sites of the earliest planned sowing and harvesting of plants that had previously been gathered in the wild. Independent development of agriculture occurred in northern and southern China, Africa's Sahel, New Guinea and several regions of the Americas. The eight so-called Neolithic founder crops of agriculture appear: first emmer wheat and einkorn wheat, then hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax. By 7000 BC, small-scale agriculture reached Egypt. From at least 7000 BC the Indian subcontinent saw farming of wheat and barley, as attested by archaeological excavation at Mehrgarh in Balochistan in what is present day Pakistan. By 6000 BC, mid-scale farming was entrenched on the banks of the Nile. This, as irrigation had not yet matured sufficiently. About this time, agriculture was developed independently in the Far East, with rice, rather than wheat, as the primary crop. Chinese and Indonesian farmers went on to domesticate taro and beans including mung, soy and azuki. To complement these new sources of carbohydrates, highly organized net fishing of rivers, lakes and ocean shores in these areas brought in great volumes of essential protein. Collectively, these new methods of farming and fishing inaugurated a human population boom that dwarfed all previous expansions and continues today. By 5000 BC, the Sumerians had developed core agricultural techniques including large-scale intensive cultivation of land, monocropping, organized irrigation, and the use of a specialized labor force, particularly along the waterway now known as the Shatt al-Arab, from its Persian Gulf delta to the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates. Domestication of wild aurochs and mouflon into cattle and sheep, respectively, ushered in the large-scale use of animals for food/fiber and as beasts of burden. The shepherd joined the farmer as an essential provider for sedentary and seminomadic societies. Maize, manioc, and arrowroot were first domesticated in the Americas as far back as 5200 BC. The potato, tomato, pepper, squash, several varieties of bean, tobacco, and several other plants were also developed in the Americas, as was extensive terracing of steep hillsides in much of Andean South America. The Greeks and Romans built on techniques pioneered by the Sumerians, but made few fundamentally new advances. Southern Greeks struggled with very poor soils, yet managed to become a dominant society for years. The Romans were noted for an emphasis on the cultivation of crops for trade. In the same region, a parallel agricultural revolution occurred, resulting in some of the most important crops grown today. In Mesoamerica wild teosinte was transformed through human selection into the ancestor of modern maize, more than 6000 years ago. It gradually spread across North America and was the major crop of Native Americans at the time of European exploration. Other Mesoamerican crops include hundreds of varieties of squash and beans. Cocoa was also a major crop in domesticated Mexico and Central America. The turkey, one of the most important meat birds, was probably domesticated in Mexico or the U.S. Southwest. In the Andes region of South America the major domesticated crop was potatoes, domesticated perhaps 5000 years ago. Large varieties of beans were domesticated, in South America, as well as animals, including llamas, alpacas, and guinea pigs. Coca, still a major crop, was also domesticated in the Andes. A minor center of domestication, the indigenous people of the Eastern U.S. appear to have domesticated numerous crops. Sunflowers, tobacco, varieties of squash and Chenopodium, as well as crops no longer grown, including marshelder and little barley were domesticated.  Other wild foods may have undergone some selective cultivation, including wild rice and maple sugar. The most common varieties of strawberry were domesticated from Eastern North America.
Agriculture By 3500 BC, the simplest form of the plough was developed, called the ard. Before this period, simple digging sticks or hoes were used. These tools would have also been easier to transport, which was a benefit as people only stayed until the soil's nutrients were depleted. However, through excavations in Mexico it has been found that the continuous cultivating of smaller pieces of land would also have been a sustaining practice. Additional research in central Europe later revealed that agriculture was indeed practiced at this method. For this method, ards were thus much more efficient than digging sticks.
During the Middle Ages, farmers in North Africa, the Near East, and Europe began making use of agricultural technologies including irrigation systems based on hydraulic and hydrostatic principles, machines such as norias, water-raising machines, dams, and reservoirs. This combined with the invention of a three-field system of crop rotation and the moldboard plow greatly improved agricultural efficiency. In the European medieval period, agriculture was considered part of the set of seven mechanical arts. "Between 1413 and 1635, the top 5 percent of villagers tripled the amount of arable land they held, (Duplessis). The wealth getting wealthier.
Further information: British Agricultural Revolution and Green Revolution After 1492, a global exchange of previously local crops and livestock breeds occurred. Key crops involved in this exchange included the tomato, maize, potato, manioc, cocoa bean and tobacco going from the New World to the Old, and several varieties of wheat, spices, coffee, and sugar cane going from the Old World to the New. The most important animal exportation from the Old World to the New were those of the horse and dog (dogs were already present in the pre-Columbian Americas but not in the numbers and breeds suited to farm work). Although not usually food animals, the horse (including donkeys and ponies) and dog quickly filled essential production roles on western-hemisphere farms. The potato became an important staple crop in northern Europe. Since being introduced by Portuguese in the 16th century, maize and manioc have replaced traditional African crops as the continent's most important staple food crops. By the early 19th century, agricultural techniques, implements, seed stocks and cultivar had so improved that yield per land unit was many times that seen in the Middle Ages. Although there is a vast and interesting history of crop cultivation before the dawn of the 20th century, there is little question that the work of Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel created the scientific foundation for plant breeding that led to its explosive impact over the past 150 years.
The Harvesters. Pieter Bruegel. 1565.
This photo from a 1921 encyclopedia shows a tractor ploughing an alfalfa field.
With the rapid rise of mechanization in the late 19th century and the 20th century, particularly in the form of the tractor, farming tasks could be done with a speed and on a scale previously impossible. These
advances have led to efficiencies enabling certain modern farms in the United States, Argentina, Israel, the United Kingdom Germany, and a few other nations to output volumes of high-quality produce per land unit at what may be the practical limit. The Haber-Bosch method for synthesizing ammonium nitrate represented a major breakthrough and allowed crop yields to overcome previous constraints. In the past century agriculture has been characterized by enhanced productivity, the substitution of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides for labor, water pollution, and farm subsidies. In recent years there has been a backlash against the external environmental effects of conventional agriculture, resulting in the organic movement. The cereals rice, corn, and wheat provide 60% of human food supply. Between 1700 and 1980, "the total area of cultivated land worldwide increased 466%" and yields increased dramatically, particularly because of selectively bred high-yielding varieties, fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, and machinery. For example, irrigation increased corn yields in eastern Colorado by 400 to 500% from 1940 to 1997. However, concerns have been raised over the sustainability of intensive agriculture. Intensive agriculture has become associated with decreased soil quality in India and Asia, and there has been increased concern over the effects of fertilizers and pesticides on the environment, particularly as population increases and food demand expands. The monocultures typically used in intensive agriculture increase the number of pests, which are controlled through pesticides. Integrated pest management (IPM), which "has been promoted for decades and has had some notable successes" has not significantly affected the use of pesticides because policies encourage the use of pesticides and IPM is knowledge-intensive.
Satellite image of farming in Minnesota.
Infrared image of the above farms. To the untrained eye, this image appears a hodge-podge of colours without any apparent purpose. But farmers are now trained to see yellows where crops are infested, shades of red indicating crop health, black where flooding occurs, and brown where unwanted pesticides land on chemical-free crops.
Although the "Green Revolution" significantly increased rice yields in Asia, yield increases have not occurred in the past 15–20 years. The genetic "yield potential" has increased for wheat, but the yield potential for rice has not increased since 1966, and the yield potential for maize has "barely increased in 35 years". It takes a decade or two for herbicide-resistant weeds to emerge, and insects become resistant to insecticides within about a decade. Crop rotation helps to prevent resistances. Agricultural exploration expeditions, since the late 19th century, have been mounted to find new species and new agricultural practices in different areas of the world. Two early examples of expeditions include Frank N. Meyer's fruit- and nut-collecting trip to China and Japan from 1916-1918 and the Dorsett-Morse Oriental Agricultural Exploration Expedition to China, Japan, and Korea from 1929-1931 to collect soybean germplasm to support the rise in soybean agriculture in the United States. In 2009, the agricultural output of China was the largest in the world, followed by the European Union, India and the United States, according to the International Monetary Fund (see below). Economists measure the total factor productivity of agriculture and by this measure agriculture in the United States is roughly 2.6 times more productive than it was in 1948.
Agriculture Six countries - the US, Canada, France, Australia, Argentina and Thailand - supply 90% of grain exports. Water deficits, which are already spurring heavy grain imports in numerous middle-sized countries, including Algeria, Iran, Egypt, and Mexico, may soon do the same in larger countries, such as China or India.
Crop production systems
Cropping systems vary among farms depending on the available resources and constraints; geography and climate of the farm; government policy; economic, social and political pressures; and the philosophy and culture of the farmer.  Shifting cultivation (or slash and burn) is a system in which forests are burnt, releasing nutrients to support cultivation of annual and then perennial crops for a period of several years. Then the plot is left fallow to regrow forest, and the farmer moves to a new plot, returning after many more years (10-20). This fallow period is shortened if population density grows, requiring the input of nutrients (fertilizer or manure) and some manual pest control. Annual cultivation is the next phase of intensity in which there is no fallow period. This requires even greater nutrient and pest control inputs. Further industrialization lead to the use of monocultures, when one cultivar is planted on a large acreage. Because of the low biodiversity, nutrient use is uniform and pests tend to build up, necessitating the greater use of pesticides and fertilizers. Multiple cropping, in which several crops are grown sequentially in one year, and intercropping, when several crops are grown at the same time are other kinds of annual cropping systems known as polycultures. In tropical environments, all of these cropping systems are practiced. In subtropical and arid environments, the timing and extent of agriculture may be limited by rainfall, either not allowing multiple annual crops in a year, or requiring irrigation. In all of these environments perennial crops are grown (coffee, chocolate) and systems are practiced such as agroforestry. In temperate environments, where ecosystems were predominantly grassland or prairie, highly productive annual cropping is the dominant farming system.
Farmers work inside a rice field in Andhra Pradesh, India.
Workers tending crop fields off of the highway from Dharwad to Hampi.
Banaue Rice Terraces, Ifugao Province, Philippines
The last century has seen the intensification, concentration and specialization of agriculture, relying upon new technologies of agricultural chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides), mechanization, and plant breeding (hybrids and GMO's). In the past few decades, a move towards sustainability in agriculture has also developed, integrating ideas of socio-economic justice and conservation of resources and the environment within a farming system.  This has led to the development of many responses to the conventional agriculture approach, including organic agriculture, urban agriculture, community supported agriculture, ecological or biological agriculture, integrated farming and holistic management, as well as an increased trend towards agricultural diversification.
Important categories of crops include grains and pseudograins, pulses (legumes), forage, and fruits and vegetables. Specific crops are cultivated in distinct growing regions throughout the world. In millions of metric tons, based on FAO estimate.
Top agricultural products, by crop types (million tonnes) 2004 data Cereals Vegetables and melons Roots and Tubers Milk Fruit Meat Oilcrops Fish (2001 estimate) Eggs Pulses Vegetable Fiber 2,263 866 715 619 503 259 133 130 63 60 30
Source:  Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Top agricultural products, by individual crops (million tonnes) 2004 data Sugar Cane Maize Wheat Rice Potatoes Sugar Beet Soybean Oil Palm Fruit Barley Tomato 1,324 721 627 605 328 249 204 162 154 120
Source:  Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Livestock production systems
Animals, including horses, mules, oxen, camels, llamas, alpacas, and dogs, are often used to help cultivate fields, harvest crops, wrangle other animals, and transport farm products to buyers. Animal husbandry not only refers to the breeding and raising of animals for meat or to harvest animal products (like milk, eggs, or wool) on a continual basis, but also to the breeding and care of species for work and companionship. Livestock production systems can be defined based on feed source, as grassland - based, mixed, and landless.
Ploughing rice paddies with water buffalo, in
Grassland based livestock production relies upon plant material such as Indonesia. shrubland, rangeland, and pastures for feeding ruminant animals. Outside nutrient inputs may be used, however manure is returned directly to the grassland as a major nutrient source. This system is particularly important in areas where crop production is not feasible because of climate or soil, representing 30-40 million pastoralists. Mixed production systems use grassland, fodder crops and grain feed crops as feed for ruminant and monogastic (one stomach; mainly chickens and pigs) livestock. Manure is typically recycled in mixed systems as a fertilizer for crops. Approximately 68% of all agricultural land is permanent pastures used in the production of livestock. Landless systems rely upon feed from outside the farm, representing the de-linking of crop and livestock production found more prevalently in OECD member countries. In the U.S., 70% of the grain grown is fed to animals on feedlots. Synthetic fertilizers are more heavily relied upon for crop production and manure utilization becomes a challenge as well as a source for pollution.
Tillage is the practice of plowing soil to prepare for planting or for nutrient incorporation or for pest control. Tillage varies in intensity from conventional to no-till. It may improve productivity by warming the soil, incorporating fertilizer and controlling weeds, but also renders soil more prone to erosion, triggers the decomposition of organic matter releasing CO2, and reduces the abundance and diversity of soil organisms. 
Road leading across the farm allows machinery access to the farm for production practices.
Pest control includes the management of weeds, insects/mites, and diseases. Chemical (pesticides), biological (biocontrol), mechanical (tillage), and cultural practices are used. Cultural practices include crop rotation, culling, cover crops, intercropping, composting, avoidance, and resistance. Integrated pest management attempts to use all of these methods to keep pest populations below the number which would cause economic loss, and recommends pesticides as a last resort. Nutrient management includes both the source of nutrient inputs for crop and livestock production, and the method of utilization of manure produced by livestock. Nutrient inputs can be chemical inorganic fertilizers, manure, green manure, compost and mined minerals. Crop nutrient use may also be managed using cultural techniques such as crop rotation or a fallow period.  Manure is used either by holding livestock where the feed crop is growing, such as in managed intensive rotational grazing, or by spreading either dry or liquid formulations of manure on
Agriculture cropland or pastures. Water management is where rainfall is insufficient or variable, which occurs to some degree in most regions of the world. Some farmers use irrigation to supplement rainfall. In other areas such as the Great Plains in the U.S. and Canada, farmers use a fallow year to conserve soil moisture to use for growing a crop in the following year. Agriculture represents 70% of freshwater use worldwide.
Processing, distribution, and marketing
In the United States, food costs attributed to processing, distribution, and marketing have risen while the costs attributed to farming have declined. This is related to the greater efficiency of farming, combined with the increased level of value addition (e.g. more highly processed products) provided by the supply chain. From 1960 to 1980 the farm share was around 40%, but by 1990 it had declined to 30% and by 1998, 22.2%. Market concentration has increased in the sector as well, with the top 20 food manufacturers accounting for half the food-processing value in 1995, over double that produced in 1954. As of 2000 the top six US supermarket groups had 50% of sales compared to 32% in 1992. Although the total effect of the increased market concentration is likely increased efficiency, the changes redistribute economic surplus from producers (farmers) and consumers, and may have negative implications for rural communities.
Crop alteration and biotechnology
Crop alteration has been practiced by humankind for thousands of years, since the beginning of civilization. Altering crops through breeding practices changes the genetic make-up of a plant to develop crops with more beneficial characteristics for humans, for example, larger fruits or seeds, drought-tolerance, or resistance to pests. Significant advances in plant breeding ensued after the work of geneticist Gregor Mendel. His work on dominant and recessive alleles gave plant breeders a better understanding of genetics and brought Tractor and Chaser bin. great insights to the techniques utilized by plant breeders. Crop breeding includes techniques such as plant selection with desirable traits, self-pollination and cross-pollination, and molecular techniques that genetically modify the organism. Domestication of plants has, over the centuries increased yield, improved disease resistance and drought tolerance, eased harvest and improved the taste and nutritional value of crop plants. Careful selection and breeding have had enormous effects on the characteristics of crop plants. Plant selection and breeding in the 1920s and 1930s improved pasture (grasses and clover) in New Zealand. Extensive X-ray and ultraviolet induced mutagenesis efforts (i.e. primitive genetic engineering) during the 1950s produced the modern commercial varieties of grains such as wheat, corn (maize) and barley.  The Green Revolution popularized the use of conventional hybridization to increase yield many folds by creating "high-yielding varieties". For example, average yields of corn (maize) in the USA have increased from around 2.5 tons per hectare (t/ha) (40 bushels per acre) in 1900 to about 9.4 t/ha (150 bushels per acre) in 2001. Similarly, worldwide average wheat yields have increased from less than 1 t/ha in 1900 to more than 2.5 t/ha in 1990. South American average wheat yields are around 2 t/ha, African under 1 t/ha, Egypt and Arabia up to 3.5 to 4 t/ha with irrigation. In contrast, the average wheat yield in countries such as France is over 8 t/ha. Variations in yields are due mainly to variation in climate, genetics, and the level of intensive farming techniques (use of fertilizers, chemical pest control, growth control to avoid lodging).  
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) are organisms whose genetic material has been altered by genetic engineering techniques generally known as recombinant DNA technology. Genetic engineering has expanded the genes available to breeders to utilize in creating desired germlines for new crops. After mechanical tomato-harvesters were developed in the early 1960s, agricultural scientists genetically modified tomatoes to be more resistant to mechanical handling. More recently, genetic engineering is being employed in various parts of the world, to create crops with other beneficial traits. New research on woodland strawberry genome was found to be short and easy to manipulate. Researchers now have tools to improve strawberry flavors and aromas of cultivated strawberries as stated in a publication by Nature Genetics. http:/ / www. isaaa. org/ kc/ cropbiotechupdate/ article/ default. asp?ID=7160
Herbicide-tolerant GMO crops
Roundup Ready seed has a herbicide resistant gene implanted into its genome that allows the plants to tolerate exposure to glyphosate. Roundup is a trade name for a glyphosate-based product, which is a systemic, nonselective herbicide used to kill weeds. Roundup Ready seeds allow the farmer to grow a crop that can be sprayed with glyphosate to control weeds without harming the resistant crop. Herbicide-tolerant crops are used by farmers worldwide. Today, 92% of soybean acreage in the US is planted with genetically modified herbicide-tolerant plants. With the increasing use of herbicide-tolerant crops, comes an increase in the use of glyphosate-based herbicide sprays. In some areas glyphosate resistant weeds have developed, causing farmers to switch to other herbicides.  Some studies also link widespread glyphosate usage to iron deficiencies in some crops, which is both a crop production and a nutritional quality concern, with potential economic and health implications.
Insect-resistant GMO crops
Other GMO crops used by growers include insect-resistant crops, which have a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which produces a toxin specific to insects. These crops protect plants from damage by insects; one such crop is Starlink. Another is cotton, which accounts for 63% of US cotton acreage. Some believe that similar or better pest-resistance traits can be acquired through traditional breeding practices, and resistance to various pests can be gained through hybridization or cross-pollination with wild species. In some cases, wild species are the primary source of resistance traits; some tomato cultivars that have gained resistance to at least 19 diseases did so through crossing with wild populations of tomatoes.
Costs and benefits of GMOs
Genetic engineers may someday develop transgenic plants which would allow for irrigation, drainage, conservation, sanitary engineering, and maintaining or increasing yields while requiring fewer fossil fuel derived inputs than conventional crops. Such developments would be particularly important in areas which are normally arid and rely upon constant irrigation, and on large scale farms. However, genetic engineering of plants has proven to be controversial. Many issues surrounding food security and environmental impacts have risen regarding GMO practices. For example, GMOs are questioned by some ecologists and economists concerned with GMO practices such as terminator seeds,  which is a genetic modification that creates sterile seeds. Terminator seeds are currently under strong international opposition and face continual efforts of global bans. Another controversial issue is the patent protection given to companies that develop new types of seed using genetic engineering. Since companies have intellectual ownership of their seeds, they have the power to dictate terms and conditions of their patented product. Currently, ten seed companies control over two-thirds of the global seed sales. Vandana Shiva argues that these companies are guilty of biopiracy by patenting life and exploiting organisms for profit Farmers using patented seed are restricted from saving seed for subsequent plantings, which
Agriculture forces farmers to buy new seed every year. Since seed saving is a traditional practice for many farmers in both developing and developed countries, GMO seeds legally bind farmers to change their seed saving practices to buying new seed every year.  Locally adapted seeds are an essential heritage that has the potential to be lost with current hybridized crops and GMOs. Locally adapted seeds, also called land races or crop eco-types, are important because they have adapted over time to the specific micro-climates, soils, other environmental conditions, field designs, and ethnic preference indigenous to the exact area of cultivation. Introducing GMOs and hybridized commercial seed to an area brings the risk of cross-pollination with local land races Therefore, GMOs pose a threat to the sustainability of land races and the ethnic heritage of cultures. Once seed contains transgenic material, it becomes subject to the conditions of the seed company that owns the patent of the transgenic material.
Modern agriculture is a term used to describe the wide majority of production practices employed by America’s farmers. The term depicts the push for innovation, stewardship and advancements continually made by growers to sustainability produce higher-quality products with a reduced environmental impact. Intensive scientific research and robust investment in modern agriculture during the past 50 years has helped farmers double food production. 
The agriculture industry works with government agencies and other organizations to ensure that farmers have access to the technologies required to support modern agriculture practices. Farmers are supported by education and certification programs that ensure they apply agricultural practices with care and only when required.
Technological advancements help provide farmers with tools and resources to make farming more sustainable. New technologies have given rise to innovations like conservation tillage, a farming process which helps prevent land loss to erosion, water pollution and enhances carbon sequestration.
The goal of modern agriculture practices is to help farmers provide an affordable supply of food to meet the demands of a growing population. With modern agriculture, more crops can be grown on less land allowing farmers to provide an increased supply of food at an affordable price.
Food safety, labeling and regulation
Food security issues also coincide with food safety and food labeling concerns. Currently a global treaty, the BioSafety Protocol, regulates the trade of GMOs. The EU currently requires all GMO foods to be labeled, whereas the US does not require transparent labeling of GMO foods. Since there are still questions regarding the safety and risks associated with GMO foods, some believe the public should have the freedom to choose and know what they are eating and require all GMO products to be labeled. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) leads international efforts to defeat hunger and provides a neutral forum where nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate food policy and the regulation of agriculture. According to Dr. Samuel Jutzi, director of FAO's animal production and health division, lobbying by "powerful" big food corporations has stopped reforms that would improve human health and the environment. The "real, true issues are not being addressed by the political process because of the influence of lobbyists, of the true powerful entities," he said, speaking at the Compassion in World Farming annual forum. For example, recent proposals for a voluntary code of conduct for the livestock industry that would have provided
Agriculture incentives for improving standards for health, and environmental regulations, such as the number of animals an area of land can support without long-term damage, were successfully defeated due to large food company pressure.
Agriculture imposes external costs upon society through pesticides, nutrient runoff, excessive water usage, and assorted other problems. A 2000 assessment of agriculture in the UK determined total external costs for 1996 of £2,343 million, or £208 per hectare. A 2005 analysis of these costs in the USA concluded that cropland imposes approximately $5 to 16 billion ($30 to $96 per hectare), while livestock production imposes $714 million. Both studies concluded that more should be done to internalize external costs, and neither included subsidies in their analysis, but noted that subsidies also influence the cost of agriculture to society. Both focused on purely fiscal impacts. The 2000 review included reported pesticide poisonings but did not include speculative chronic effects of pesticides, and the 2004 review relied on a 1992 estimate of the total impact of pesticides. In 2010, the International Resource Panel of the United Nations Environment Programme published a report assessing the environmental impacts of consumption and production. The study found that agriculture and food consumption are two of the most important drivers of environmental pressures, particularly habitat change, climate change, water use and toxic emissions. Agriculture accounts for 70 per cent of withdrawals of freshwater resources. However, increasing pressure being placed on water resources by industry, cities and the involving biofuels industry means that water scarcity is increasing and agriculture is facing the challenge of producing more food for the world's growing population with fewer water resources. Scientists are also realising that water resources need to be allocated to maintain natural environmental services, such as protecting towns from flooding, cleaning ecosystems and supporting fish stocks. In the book Out of Water: From abundance to scarcity and how to solve the world's water problems, authors Colin Chartres and Samyukta Varma of the International Water Management Institute lay down a six-point plan of action for addressing the global challenge of producing sufficient food for the world with dwindling water resources. One of the actions they say is required is to ensure all water systems, such as lakes and rivers, have water allocated to environmental flow. A key player who is credited to saving billions of lives because of his revolutionary work in developing new agricultural techniques is Norman Borlaug. His transformative work brought high-yield crop varieties to developing countries and earned him an unofficial title as the father of the Green Revolution.
A senior UN official and co-author of a UN report detailing this problem, Henning Steinfeld, said "Livestock are one of the most significant contributors to today's most serious environmental problems". Livestock production occupies 70% of all land used for agriculture, or 30% of the land surface of the planet. It is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases, responsible for 18% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalents. By comparison, all transportation emits 13.5% of the CO2. It produces 65% of human-related nitrous oxide (which has 296 times the global warming potential of CO2,) and 37% of all human-induced methane (which is 23 times as warming as CO2. It also generates 64% of the ammonia emission. Livestock expansion is cited as a key factor driving deforestation, in the Amazon basin 70% of previously forested area is now occupied by pastures and the remainder used for feedcrops. Through deforestation and land degradation, livestock is also driving reductions in biodiversity.
Land transformation and degradation
Land transformation, the use of land to yield goods and services, is the most substantial way humans alter the Earth's ecosystems, and is considered the driving force in the loss of biodiversity. Estimates of the amount of land transformed by humans vary from 39–50%. Land degradation, the long-term decline in ecosystem function and productivity, is estimated to be occurring on 24% of land worldwide, with cropland overrepresented. The UN-FAO report cites land management as the driving factor behind degradation and reports that 1.5 billion people rely upon the degrading land. Degradation can be deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, mineral depletion, or chemical degradation (acidification and salinization).
Eutrophication, excessive nutrients in aquatic ecosystems resulting in algal blooms and anoxia, leads to fish kills, loss of biodiversity, and renders water unfit for drinking and other industrial uses. Excessive fertilization and manure application to cropland, as well as high livestock stocking densities cause nutrient (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) runoff and leaching from agricultural land. These nutrients are major nonpoint pollutants contributing to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems.
Pesticide use has increased since 1950 to 2.5 million tons annually worldwide, yet crop loss from pests has remained relatively constant. The World Health Organization estimated in 1992 that 3 million pesticide poisonings occur annually, causing 220,000 deaths. Pesticides select for pesticide resistance in the pest population, leading to a condition termed the 'pesticide treadmill' in which pest resistance warrants the development of a new pesticide. An alternative argument is that the way to 'save the environment' and prevent famine is by using pesticides and intensive high yield farming, a view exemplified by a quote heading the Center for Global Food Issues website: 'Growing more per acre leaves more land for nature'.  However, critics argue that a trade-off between the environment and a need for food is not inevitable, and that pesticides simply replace good agronomic practices such as crop rotation.
Climate change has the potential to affect agriculture through changes in temperature, rainfall (timing and quantity), CO2, solar radiation and the interaction of these elements.  Agriculture can both mitigate or worsen global warming. Some of the increase in CO2 in the atmosphere comes from the decomposition of organic matter in the soil, and much of the methane emitted into the atmosphere is caused by the decomposition of organic matter in wet soils such as rice paddies. Further, wet or anaerobic soils also lose nitrogen through denitrification, releasing the greenhouse gases nitric oxide and nitrous oxide. Changes in management can reduce the release of these greenhouse gases, and soil can further be used to sequester some of the CO2 in the atmosphere.
International economics and market reports
Differences in economic development, population density and culture mean that the farmers of the world operate under very different conditions. A US cotton farmer may receive US$230 in government subsidies per acre planted (in 2003), while farmers in Mali and other third-world countries do without. When prices decline, the heavily subsidized US farmer is not forced to reduce his output, making it difficult for cotton prices to rebound, but his Mali counterpart may go broke in the meantime. A livestock farmer in South Korea can calculate with a (highly subsidized) sales price of US$1300 for a calf produced. A South American Mercosur country rancher calculates with a calf's sales price of US$120–200 (both
Agriculture 2008 figures). With the former, scarcity and high cost of land is compensated with public subsidies, the latter compensates absence of subsidies with economics of scale and low cost of land. In the Peoples Republic of China, a rural household's productive asset may be one hectare of farmland. In Brazil, Paraguay and other countries where local legislature allows such purchases, international investors buy thousands of hectares of farmland or raw land at prices of a few hundred US$ per hectare.   To promote exports of agricultural products, many government agencies publish on the web economic studies and reports categorized by product and country. Among these agencies include four of the largest exporters of agricultural products, such as the FAS of the United States Department of Agriculture, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), Austrade, and NZTE . The Federation of International Trade Associations publishes studies and reports by FAS and AAFC, as well as other non-governmental organizations on its website GlobalTrade.net.
List of countries by agricultural output
Below is a list of countries by agricultural output in 2010.
Global agricultural output from 1970 to 2008. This time covers the effects of the Green Revolution.
Agricultural output in 2010 (Nominal)
Rank — 1 — 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 World China European Union India United States Brazil Indonesia Japan Turkey Nigeria Russia France Country Output in billions of US$ 3,585.829 599.582 293.080 284.524 161.236 142.141 108.130 76.424 71.218 65.041 58.603 51.651
Agricultural output in 2010 (PPP)
Rank — 1 2 — 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 World China India European Union United States Indonesia Brazil Nigeria Pakistan Turkey Iran Russia Country Output in billions of US$ 4,233.098 1,028.742 751.173 273.068 161.236 157.572 147.700 113.385 101.348 92.209 90.052 88.918
Energy and agriculture
Since the 1940s, agricultural productivity has increased dramatically, due largely to the increased use of energy-intensive mechanization, fertilizers and pesticides. The vast majority of this energy input comes from fossil fuel sources. Between 1950 and 1984, the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the globe, with world grain production increasing by 250%  as world population doubled. Modern agriculture's heavy reliance on petrochemicals and mechanization has raised concerns that oil shortages could increase costs and reduce agricultural output, causing food shortages.
Agriculture and food system share (%) of total energy consumption by three industrialized nations Country Year Agriculture Food (direct & indirect) system 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.5 11 10 14 13
  
2005 1996 2002 2000
United States of America United States of America Sweden 
Modern or industrialized agriculture is dependent on fossil fuels in two fundamental ways: 1) direct consumption on the farm and 2) indirect consumption to manufacture inputs used on the farm. Direct consumption includes the use of lubricants and fuels to operate farm vehicles and machinery; and use of gas, liquid propane, and electricity to power dryers, pumps, lights, heaters, and coolers. American farms directly consumed about 1.2 exajoules (1.1 quadrillion BTU) in 2002, or just over 1 percent of the nation's total energy. Indirect consumption is mainly oil and natural gas used to manufacture fertilizers and pesticides, which accounted for 0.6 exajoules (0.6 quadrillion BTU) in 2002. The energy used to manufacture farm machinery is also a form of indirect agricultural energy consumption, but it is not included in USDA estimates of U.S. agricultural energy use. Together, direct and indirect consumption by U.S. farms accounts for about 2 percent of the nation's energy use. Direct and indirect energy consumption by U.S. farms peaked in 1979, and has gradually declined over the past 30
Agriculture years. Food systems encompass not just agricultural production, but also off-farm processing, packaging, transporting, marketing, consumption, and disposal of food and food-related items. Agriculture accounts for less than one-fifth of food system energy use in the United States.  In 2007, higher incentives for farmers to grow non-food biofuel crops combined with other factors (such as over-development of former farm lands, rising transportation costs, climate change, growing consumer demand in China and India, and population growth) to cause food shortages in Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Mexico, as well as rising food prices around the globe.  As of December 2007, 37 countries faced food crises, and 20 had imposed some sort of food-price controls. Some of these shortages resulted in food riots and even deadly stampedes.   The biggest fossil fuel input to agriculture is the use of natural gas as a hydrogen source for the Haber-Bosch fertilizer-creation process. Natural gas is used because it is the cheapest currently available source of hydrogen.  When oil production becomes so scarce that natural gas is used as a partial stopgap replacement, and hydrogen use in transportation increases, natural gas will become much more expensive. If the Haber Process is unable to be commercialized using renewable energy (such as by electrolysis) or if other sources of hydrogen are not available to replace the Haber Process, in amounts sufficient to supply transportation and agricultural needs, this major source of fertilizer would either become extremely expensive or unavailable. This would either cause food shortages or dramatic rises in food prices.
Mitigation of effects of petroleum shortages
In the event of a petroleum shortage (see peak oil for global concerns), organic agriculture can be more attractive than conventional practices that use petroleum-based pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizers. Some farmers using modern organic-farming methods have reported yields as high as those available from conventional farming.    Organic farming may however be more labor-intensive and would require a shift of the workforce from urban to rural areas. The reconditioning of soil to restore nutrients lost during the use of monoculture agriculture techniques also takes time.   
M. King Hubbert's prediction of world petroleum production rates.  Modern agriculture is totally reliant on petroleum energy.
It has been suggested that rural communities might obtain fuel from the biochar and synfuel process, which uses agricultural waste to provide charcoal fertilizer, some fuel and food, instead of the normal food vs fuel debate. As the synfuel would be used on-site, the process would be more efficient and might just provide enough fuel for a new organic-agriculture fusion.  It has been suggested that some transgenic plants may some day be developed which would allow for maintaining or increasing yields while requiring fewer fossil-fuel-derived inputs than conventional crops. The possibility of success of these programs is questioned by ecologists and economists concerned with unsustainable GMO practices such as terminator seeds.  While there has been some research on sustainability using GMO crops, at least one prominent multi-year attempt by Monsanto Company has been unsuccessful, though during the same period traditional breeding techniques yielded a more sustainable variety of the same crop.
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History of agriculture
Agriculture was developed at least 10,000 years ago, and it has undergone significant developments since the time of the earliest cultivation. The Fertile Crescent of Western Asia, Egypt, and India were sites of the earliest planned sowing and harvesting of plants that had previously been gathered in the wild. Independent development of agriculture occurred in northern and southern China, Africa's Sahel, New Guinea and several regions of the Americas. Agricultural practices such as irrigation, crop rotation, fertilizers, and pesticides were developed long ago but have made great strides in the past century. The Haber-Bosch method for synthesizing ammonium nitrate represented a major breakthrough and allowed crop yields to overcome previous constraints. In the past century, agriculture has been characterized by enhanced productivity, the replacement of human labor by synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, selective breeding, and mechanization. The recent history of agriculture has been closely tied with a range of political issues including water pollution, biofuels, genetically modified organisms, tariffs, and farm subsidies. In recent years, there has been a backlash against the external environmental effects of mechanized agriculture, and increasing support for the organic movement and sustainable agriculture.
Scholars have proposed a number of theories to explain the historical development of farming. Most likely, there was an abrupt transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies after a period during which some crops had to be deliberately planted to make up for shortages of large game and other foods obtained in the wild. Although localised climate change is the favoured explanation for the origins of agriculture in the Levant, the fact that farming was 'invented' at least three times elsewhere, suggests that social reasons may have been instrumental. When major climate change took place after the last ice age (c. 11,000 BC), much of the earth became subject to long dry seasons. These conditions favoured annual plants which die off in the long dry season, leaving a dormant seed or tuber. These plants tended to put more energy into producing seeds than into woody growth. An abundance of readily storable wild grains and pulses enabled hunter-gatherers in some areas to form the first settled villages at this time. The Oasis Theory was proposed by Raphael Pumpelly in 1908, and popularized by Vere Gordon Childe who summarized the theory in his book Man Makes Himself This theory maintains that as the climate got drier, communities contracted to oases where they were forced into close association with animals which were then domesticated together with planting of seeds. The theory has little support from contemporary scholars, as the climate data for the time does not support the theory. The Hilly Flanks hypothesis, proposed by Robert Braidwood in 1948, suggests that agriculture began in the hilly flanks of the Taurus and Zagros Mountains, and that it developed from intensive focused grain gathering in the region. The Feasting model by Bryan Hayden suggests that agriculture was driven by ostentatious displays of power, such as throwing feasts to exert dominance. This required assembling large quantities of food which drove agricultural technology. The Demographic theories were proposed by Carl Sauer and adapted by Lewis Binford and Kent Flannery. They describe an increasingly sedentary population, expanding up to the carrying capacity of the local environment, and requiring more food than can be gathered. Various social and economic factors help drive the need for food.
History of agriculture The evolutionary/intentionality theory, advanced by scholars including David Rindos, is the idea that agriculture is a co-evolutionary adaptation of plants and humans. Starting with domestication by protection of wild plants, followed specialization of location and then domestication. The domestication theory put forth by Daniel Quinn and others states that first humans stayed in particular areas, giving up their nomadic ways, then developed agriculture and animal domestication.
Identifying the exact origin of agriculture remains problematic because the transition from hunter-gatherer societies began thousands of years before the invention of writing. Anthropological and archaeological evidence from sites across Southwest Asia and North Africa indicate use of wild grain (e.g., from the c. 20,000 BC site of Ohalo II in Israel, many Natufian sites in the Levant and from sites along the Nile in the 10th millennium BC). There is even evidence of planned cultivation and trait selection: grains of rye with domestic traits have been recovered from Epi-Palaeolithic Sumerian harvester's sickle, 3000 BC, made from baked clay. (10,000+ BC) contexts at Abu Hureyra in Syria, but this appears to be a localised phenomenon resulting from cultivation of stands of wild rye, rather than a definitive step towards domestication. Previously, archaeobotanists/paleoethnobotanists had traced the selection and cultivation of specific food plant characteristics in search of the origins of agriculture. One notable example is the semi-tough rachis (and larger seeds) traced to just after the Younger Dryas (about 9500 BC) in the early Holocene in the Levant region of the Fertile Crescent. However, studies have demonstrated monophyletic characteristics attained without any sort human intervention, implying that what some may perceive as domestication among rachis could have occurred quite naturally. In fact, the timescale insisted upon for rachis domestication (approx. 3000 years) coincidentally has been demonstrated to directly coincide with the statistically generated timeframe numerically modeled that would be required for monophyly to be reached if a population were simply abandoned and left to only natural demands, implying that if any sort of human intervention had occurred at all then the timescale insisted upon should be considerably shorter (than 3000 years). It was not until after 9500 BC that the eight so-called founder crops of agriculture appear: first emmer and einkorn wheat, then hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax. These eight crops occur more or less simultaneously on PPNB sites in the Levant, although the consensus is that wheat was the first to be grown and harvested on a significant scale. At around the same time (9400 BC), another study argues, parthenocarpic fig trees appear to have been domesticated. The simplicity associated with cutting branches off fig trees and replanting them alongside wild cereals owes to the basis of this argument. By 7000 BC, sowing and harvesting reached Mesopotamia, and there, in the fertile soil just north of the Persian Gulf, Sumerians systematized it and scaled it up. By 8000 BC farming was entrenched on the banks of the Nile River. About this time, agriculture was developed independently in the Far East, probably in China, with rice rather than wheat as the primary crop. Maize was first domesticated, probably from teosinte, in the Americas around 3000-2700 BC, though there is some archaeological evidence of a much older development. The potato, the tomato, the pepper, squash, several varieties of bean, and several other plants were also developed in the New World, as was quite extensive terracing of steep hillsides in much of Andean South America. Agriculture was also independently
History of agriculture developed on the island of New Guinea. In Europe, there is evidence of emmer and einkorn wheat, barley, sheep, goats and pigs that suggest a food producing economy in Greece and the Aegean by 7000 BC. Archaeological evidence from various sites on the Iberian peninsula suggest the domestication of plants and animals between 6000 and 4500 BC. Céide Fields in Ireland, consisting of extensive tracts of land enclosed by stone walls, date to 5500 BC and are the oldest known field systems in the world.  The horse was domesticated in Ukraine around 4000 BC. In China, rice and millet were domesticated by 8000 BC, followed by the beans mung, soy and azuki. In the Sahel region of Africa local rice and sorghum were domestic by 5000 BC. Local crops were domesticated independently in West Africa and possibly in New Guinea and Ethiopia. Evidence of the presence of wheat and some legumes in the 6th millennium BC have been found in the Indus Valley. Oranges were cultivated in the same millennium. The crops grown in the valley around 4000 BC were typically wheat, peas, sesame seed, barley, dates and mangoes. By 3500 BC cotton growing and cotton textiles were quite advanced in the valley. By 3000 BC farming of rice had started. Other monsoon crops of importance of the time was cane sugar. By 2500 BC, rice was an important component of the staple diet in Mohenjodaro near the Arabian Sea. By this time the Indians had large cities with well-stocked granaries. Three regions of the Americas independently domesticated corn, squashes, potato and sunflowers.
By the Bronze Age, wild food contributed a nutritionally insignificant component to the usual diet. If the operative definition of agriculture includes large scale intensive cultivation of land, mono-cropping, organized irrigation, and use of a specialized labour force, the title "inventors of agriculture" would fall to the Sumerians, starting c. 5500 BC. Intensive farming allows a much greater density of population than can be supported by hunting and gathering, and allows for the accumulation of excess product for off-season use, or to sell/barter. The ability of farmers to feed large numbers of people whose activities have nothing to do with agriculture was the crucial factor in the rise of standing armies. Sumerian agriculture supported a substantial territorial expansion which along with internecine conflict between cities, made them the first empire builders. Not long after, the Egyptians, powered by farming in the fertile Nile valley, achieved a population density from which enough warriors could be drawn for a territorial expansion more than tripling the Sumerian empire in area.
Agricultural scene from Ancient Egypt.
In Sumer, barley was the primary crop; wheat, flax, dates, apples, plums, and grapes were grown as well. Mesopotamian agriculture was both supported and limited by flooding from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, as floods came in late spring or early summer from snow melting from the Anatolian mountains. The timing of the flooding, along with salt deposits in the soil, made farming in Mesopotamia difficult. Sheep and goats were domesticated, kept mainly for meat and milk, butter and cheese being made from the latter. Ur, a large town that covered about 50 acres (20 hectares), had 10,000 animals kept in sheepfolds and stables and 3,000 slaughtered every year. The city's population of 6,000 included a labour force of 2,500, cultivated 3,000 acres (12 km²) of land. The labour force contained storehouse recorders, work foremen, overseers, and harvest supervisors to supplement labourers. Agricultural produce was given to temple personnel, important people in the community, and small farmers. The land was plowed by teams of oxen pulling light unwheeled plows and grain was harvested with sickles in the spring. Wagons had solid wheels covered by leather tires kept in position by copper nails and were drawn by oxen
History of agriculture and the Syrian onager (now extinct). Animals were harnessed by collars, yokes, and headstalls. They were controlled by reins, and a ring through the nose or upper lip and a strap under the jaw. As many as four animals could pull a wagon at one time. The horse was domesticated in Ukraine around 4000 BC, and was in use by the Sumerians around 2000 BC.
Further information: Agriculture in ancient Greece and Roman agriculture In classical antiquity, Roman agriculture built off techniques pioneered by the Sumerians, transmitted to them by subsequent cultures, with a specific emphasis on the cultivation of crops for trade and export. Romans laid the groundwork for the manorial economic system, involving serfdom, which flourished in the Middle Ages. The farm sizes in Rome can be divided into three categories. Small farms were from 18-88 iugera (one iugerum is equal to about 0.65 acre). Medium-sized farms were from 80-500 iugera (singular iugerum). Large estates (called latifundia) were over 500 iugera. The Romans had four systems of farm management: direct work by owner and his family; slaves doing work under supervision of slave managers; tenant farming or sharecropping in which the owner and a tenant divide up a farm’s produce; and situations in which a farm was leased to a tenant. There was a great deal of commerce between the provinces of the empire, all the regions of the empire became interdependent with one another, some provinces specialized in the production of grain, others in wine and others in olive oil, depending on the soil type.
European agriculture underwent a number of significant changes during the Middle Ages. Tools including the scythe and plow were improved from classical versions, a three field system of crop rotation was invented, and the moldboard plow and wheeled plow were increasingly used. Draft horses were bred and increasingly used as a working animal in many parts of Europe, while oxen continued to be used for this purpose. Metal horseshoes were widely adopted. Much of Europe had low population densities during this period, to which extensive farming was well-suited. In parts of Southern Europe, more intensive farming combined techniques continued from classical Roman agriculture and those transferred from Islamic regions. In the late Middle Ages, the use of manure as fertilizer increased, which in turn decreased the necessity of regular fallowing of fields.
Records from the Warring States (481 BC-221 BC), Qin Dynasty (221 BC-207 BC), and Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD) provide a picture of early Chinese agriculture which included a nationwide granary system, and widespread use of sericulture. However, the oldest extant Chinese book on agriculture is the Chimin Yaoshu of 535 AD, written by Jia Sixia. Jia's writing style was straightforward and lucid relative to the elaborate and allusive writing typical of the time. Jia's book was also very long, with over one hundred thousand written Chinese characters, and it quoted 160 other Chinese books that were written previously (but no longer survive). The contents of Jia's 6th century book include sections on land preparation, seeding, cultivation, orchard management, forestry, and animal husbandry. The book also includes peripherally related content covering trade and culinary uses for crops. The work and the style in which it was written proved influential on later Chinese agronomists, such as Wang Zhen and his groundbreaking Nong Shu of 1313 AD. For agricultural purposes, the Chinese had innovated the hydraulic-powered trip hammer by the 1st century BC. Although it found other purposes, its main function to pound, decorticate, and polish grain that otherwise would have been done manually. The Chinese also innovated the square-pallet chain pump by the 1st century AD, powered by a waterwheel or oxen pulling a on a system of mechanical wheels. Although the chain pump found use in public
History of agriculture works of providing water for urban and palatial pipe systems, it was used largely to lift water from a lower to higher elevation in filling irrigation canals and channels for farmland.
Ancient Papuans are thought to have begun practicing agriculture around 7000 BC. They began domesticating sugarcane and root crops. Pigs may also have been domesticated around this time. By 3000 BC, Papuan agriculture was characterized by water control for irrigation.
Wheat, barley, and jujube were domesticated in the Indian subcontinent by 9000 BCE; Domestication of sheep and goat soon followed. Barley and wheat cultivation—along with the domestication of cattle, primarily sheep and goat—continued in Mehrgarh culture by 8000-6000 BCE.  This period also saw the first domestication of the elephant. Agro pastoralism in India included threshing, planting crops in rows—either of two or of six—and storing grain in granaries.  By the 5th millennium BCE agricultural communities became widespread in Kashmir. Cotton was cultivated by the 5th millennium BCE-4th millennium BCE. Archaeological evidence indicates that rice was a part of the Indian diet by 8000 BCE. The Encyclopedia Britannica—on the subject of the first certain cultivated rice—holds that: A number of cultures have evidence of early rice cultivation, including China, India, and the civilizations of Southeast Asia. Irrigation was developed in the Indus Valley Civilization by around 4500 BCE. The size and prosperity of the Indus civilization grew as a result of this innovation, which eventually led to more planned settlements making use of drainage and sewers. Archeological evidence of an animal-drawn plough dates back to 2500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilization.
In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was transformed through human selection into the ancestor of modern maize, more than 6000 years ago. It gradually spread across North America and was the major crop of Native Americans at the time of European exploration. Other Mesoamerican crops include hundreds of varieties of squash and beans. Cocoa was also a major crop in domesticated Mexico and Central America. The turkey, one of the most important meat birds, was probably domesticated in Mexico or the U.S. Southwest. In Mesoamerica, the Aztecs were active farmers and had an agriculturally focused economy. The land around Lake Texcoco was fertile, but not large enough to produce the amount of food needed for the population of their expanding empire. The Aztecs developed irrigation systems, formed terraced hillsides, and fertilized their soil. However, their greatest agricultural technique was the chinampas, or artificial islands, also known as "floating gardens". These were used to make the swampy areas around the lake suitable for farming. To make chinampas, canals were dug through the marshy islands and shores, then mud was heaped on huge mats made of woven reeds. The mats were anchored by tying them to posts driven into the lake bed and then planting trees at their corners that took root and secured the artificial islands permanently. The Aztecs grew corn, squash, vegetables, and flowers on chinampas.
History of agriculture
In the Andes region of South America the major domesticated crop was potatoes, domesticated perhaps 5000 years ago. Large varieties of beans were domesticated, in South America, as well as animals, including llamas, alpacas, and guinea pigs. Coca, still a major crop, was also domesticated in the Andes. The Andean civilizations were predominantly agricultural societies; the Incas took advantage of the ground, conquering the adversities like the Andean area and the inclemencies of the weather. The adaptation of agricultural technologies that already were used previously, allowed the Incas to organize the production a diversity of products of the coast, mountain and jungle, so them could be able to redistribute to villages that did not have access to other regions. The technological achievements reached to agricultural level, had not been possible without the workforce that was at the disposal of the Sapa Inca, as well as the road system that was allowing to store adequately the harvested resources and to distribute them for all the territory.
Eastern North America
The indigenous people of the Eastern U.S. appear to have domesticated numerous crops. Sunflowers, tobacco, varieties of squash and Chenopodium, as well as crops no longer grown, including marshelder and little barley, were domesticated.  Other wild foods may have undergone some selective cultivation, including wild rice and maple sugar. The most common varieties of strawberry were domesticated from Eastern North America. Two major crops, pecans and Concord grapes, were utilized extensively in prehistoric times but do not appear to have been domesticated until the 19th century. 
From the 8th century, the medieval Islamic world underwent a transformation in agricultural practice which has been described by some as the "Arab Agricultural Revolution". This transformation was driven by a number of factors including the diffusion of many crops and plants along Muslim trade routes, the spread of more advanced farming techniques, and an agricultural-economic system which promoted increased yields and efficiency. The shift in agricultural practice led to significant changes in economy, population distribution, vegetation cover, agricultural production, population levels, urban growth, the distribution of the labour force, cooking and diet, clothing, and numerous other aspects of life in the Islamic world.  Muslim traders covered an expansive area of the Old World, and these trade routes enabled the diffusion of many crops, plants and farming techniques across the Islamic world, as well as the adaptation of crops, plants and techniques from beyond the Islamic world. Historian Andrew Watson has argued that this diffusion introduced a number of crops of major importance to Europe by way of Al-Andalus, along with the techniques for their cultivation. Important crops involved in this transfer included sugar cane, rice, and cotton. A number of additional fruit trees, nut trees, and vegetables were also transferred. Agricultural technologies that were widely adopted during this period included intensive irrigation systems, crop rotation systems, and use of agricultural manuals. A sophisticated system of irrigation made use of norias, water mills, water raising machines, dams and reservoirs. Some irrigation infrastructure and technology was continued from Roman times, and some introduced by Muslims.
Between the 16th century and the mid-19th century, Great Britain saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. New agricultural practices like enclosure, mechanization, four-field crop rotation and selective breeding enabled an unprecedented population growth, freeing up a significant percentage of the workforce, and thereby helped drive the Industrial Revolution. By the early 19th century, agricultural practices, particularly careful selection of hardy strains and cultivars, had so improved that yield per land unit was many times that seen in the Middle Ages and before.
History of agriculture The 18th and 19th centuries also saw the development of glasshouses, or greenhouses, initially for the protection and cultivation of exotic plants imported to Europe and North America from the tropics. Experiments on Plant Hybridization in the late 19th century yielded advances in the understanding of plant genetics, and subsequently, the development of hybrid crops. Increasing dependence upon monoculture crops lead to famines and food shortages, most notably the Irish Potato Famine (1845–1849). Storage silos and grain elevators appeared in the 19th century.
Age of Discovery
The history of agriculture in the Age of Discovery and Early modern era was closely tied to the processes of European exploration and colonization. After 1492 the world's agricultural patterns were shuffled in the widespread exchange of plants and animals known as the Columbian Exchange. Crops and animals that were previously only known in the Old World were now transplanted to the New and vice versa. Perhaps most notably, the tomato became a favorite in European cuisine, and maize and potatoes were widely adopted. Other transplanted crops include pineapple, cocoa, and tobacco. In the other direction, several wheat strains quickly took to western hemisphere soils and became a dietary staple even for native North, Central and South Americans. Agriculture was a key element in the Atlantic slave trade, Triangular trade, and the expansion by European powers into the Americas. In the expanding Plantation economy, large plantations producing crops including sugar, cotton, and indigo, were heavily dependent upon slave labor.
With the rapid rise of mechanization in the late 19th century and 20th century, particularly in the form of the tractor, and later the Combine harvester, farming tasks could be done with a speed and on a scale previously impossible. These advances, joined to science-driven innovations in methods and resources, have led to efficiencies enabling certain modern farms in the United States, Argentina, Israel, Germany and a few other nations to output volumes of high quality produce per land unit at what may be the practical limit. The development of rail and highway networks and the increasing use of container shipping and refrigeration A tractor ploughing an alfalfa field in developed nations have also been essential to the growth of mechanized agriculture, allowing for the economical long distance shipping of produce. While chemical fertilizer and pesticide have existed since the 19th century, their use grew significantly in the early 20th century. Until the development of chemical fertilizers, Guano was widely used as a fertilizer, though expensive. The Haber-Bosch method for synthesizing ammonium nitrate represented a major breakthrough and allowed crop yields to overcome previous constraints. It was first patented by German chemist Fritz Haber. In 1910 Carl Bosch, while working for German chemical company BASF, successfully commercialized the process and secured further patents. Norman Borlaug and other scientists began developing crops for increased yields in the 1940s in Mexico. Their work lead to the Green Revolution, which applied western advances in fertilizer and pesticide use to farms worldwide, with varying success. Other applications of scientific research since 1950 in agriculture include gene manipulation, Hydroponics, and the development of economically viable biofuels such as Ethanol.
History of agriculture
Though the intensive farming practices pioneered and extended in recent history generally led to increased outputs, they have also led to the destruction of farmland, most notably in the dust bowl area of the United States following World War I. As global population increases, agriculture continues to replace natural ecosystems with monoculture crops. Since the 1970s, western farmers and consumers have become increasingly aware of, and in some cases critical of, widely used intensive agriculture practices. This growing awareness has led to increased interest in such areas of agriculture as organic farming, permaculture, Heirloom plants and biodiversity, the growth of the Slow Food movement, and an ongoing discussion surrounding the potential for sustainable agriculture.
• • • • Neolithic Revolution Muslim Agricultural Revolution British Agricultural Revolution Green Revolution
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History of agriculture
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• Bowman, Alan K. and Rogan, Eugene, eds. Agriculture in Egypt: From Pharaonic to Modern Times (1999). 427 pp. • Cohen, M.N. The Food Crisis in Prehistory: Overpopulation and the Origins of Agriculture (1977) • Collingham, E. M. The Taste of War: World War Two and the Battle for Food (2011) • Crummey, Donald and Stewart, C. C., eds. Modes of Production in Africa: The Precolonial Era (1981). 256 pp. • Federico, Giovanni, Feeding the World: An Economic History of Agriculture 1800-2000 (2005) 416pp. highly quantitative • Grew, Raymond. Food in Global History (1999) online edition (http://www.questia.com/read/ 99923753?title=Food in Global History) • Habib, Irfan. Agrarian System of Mughal India (2nd ed. 1999). • Heiser, Charles B. Seed to Civilization: The Story of Food (1990) • Kerridge, Erik. "The Agricultural Revolution Reconsidered." Agricultural History, 1969 43:4, 463-75. in JSTOR (http://www.jstor.org/stable/4617724) in Britain, 1750–1850 • Ludden, David, ed. New Cambridge History of India: An Agrarian History of South Asia (1999). excerpt and online search from Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0521364248); also online edition (http://www. questia.com/library/book/an-agrarian-history-of-south-asia-by-david-ludden.jsp) • McNeill, William H. "How the Potato Changed the World's History." Social Research 1999 66(1): 67–83. Issn: 0037-783x Fulltext: Ebsco, by a leading historian • Mazoyer, Marcel, and Laurence Roudart' A History of World Agriculture: From the Neolithic Age to the Current Crisis, New York: Monthly Review Press, 2006, ISBN 1-58367-121-8, Marxist perspective • Mintz, Sidney. Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History (1982)
History of agriculture • Prentice, E. Parmalee. Hunger and history: the influence of hunger on human history (1939). online edition (http:/ /chla.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=chla;cc=chla;q1=history;rgn=title;view=toc;idno=2727319) • Reader, John. Propitious Esculent: The Potato in World History (2008), 315pp a standard scholarly history • Salaman, Redcliffe N. The History and Social Influence of the Potato, (1949) • Tauger, Mark. Agriculture in World History (2008)
• Ambrosoli, Mauro. The Wild and the Sown: Botany and Agriculture in Western Europe, 1350-1850 (1997). 460 pp. • Bakels, C. C. The Western European Loess Belt: Agrarian History, 5300 BC - AD 1000 (2009) • Brown, Jonathan. Agriculture in England: A Survey of Farming, 1870-1947 (1987) • Dovring, Folke, ed. Land and labor in Europe in the twentieth century: a comparative survey of recent agrarian history . 1965. 511 pp • Gras, Norman. A history of agriculture in Europe and America, (1925). free online edition (http://chla.library. cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=chla;idno=2845579) • Harvey, Nigel. The Industrial Archaeology of Farming in England and Wales (1980). 232 pp. • Herr, Richard, ed. Themes in Rural History of the Western World (1993). 277 pp. • • • • • • • • • Hoffman, Philip T. Growth in a Traditional Society: The French Countryside, 1450-1815 (1996). 361 pp. Isager, Signe and Jens Erik Skydsgaard. Ancient Greek Agriculture: An Introduction (Routledge, 1995) Kussmaul, Ann. A General View of the Rural Economy of England, 1538-1840 (1990). 216 pp. Langdon, John. Horses, Oxen and Technological Innovation: The Use of Draught Animals in English Farming from 1066 to 1500 (1986). 331 pp. McNeill, William H. "The Introduction of the Potato into Ireland," Journal of Modern History 21 (1948): 218–21. in JSTOR (http://www.jstor.org/pss/1876068) Murray, Jacqueline. The First European Agriculture (1970) Slicher van Bath, B. H. The agrarian history of Western Europe, AD 500-1850 Thirsk, Joan, et al. The Agrarian History of England and Wales (8 vol 1978) Williamson, Tom. Transformation Of Rural England: Farming and the Landscape 1700-1870 (2002)
• Cochrane, Willard W. The Development of American Agriculture: A Historical Analysis (1993) • Fite, Gilbert C. American Farmers: The New Minority (1981) • Gras, Norman. A history of agriculture in Europe and America, (1925). online edition (http://chla.library. cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=chla;idno=2845579) • Gray, L.C. History of agriculture in the southern United States to 1860 (1933) Volume I online (http://chla. library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=chla;cc=chla;q1=gray;rgn=book author;view=toc;idno=2944804_1944); Volume 2 online (http://chla.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/ text-idx?c=chla;cc=chla;q1=gray;rgn=book author;view=toc;idno=2944804_1945) • Hart, John Fraser. The Changing Scale of American Agriculture. U. of Virginia Press, 2004. 320 pp. • Hurt, R. Douglas. American Agriculture: A Brief History (2002) • Mundlak, Yair. "Economic Growth: Lessons from Two Centuries of American Agriculture." Journal of Economic Literature 2005 43(4): 989-1024. Issn: 0022-0515 Fulltext: in Ebsco • Robert, Joseph C. The story of tobacco in America (1949) online edition (http://chla.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/ text/text-idx?c=chla;idno=3136323) • Russell, Howard. A Long Deep Furrow: Three Centuries of Farming In New England (1981) • Schafer, Joseph. The social history of American agriculture (1936) online edition (http://chla.library.cornell. edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=chla;idno=2712484)
History of agriculture • Schlebecker John T. Whereby we thrive: A history of American farming, 1607-1972 (1972) • Weeden, William Babcock. Economic and Social History of New England, 1620-1789 (1891) 964 pages; online edition (http://books.google.com/books?id=JUJaNzIMr44C&pg=PA1&dq=inauthor:weeden&num=30& as_brr=1) • Yeargin, Billy. North Carolina Tobacco: A History (2008)
• Early Agricultural Remnants and Technical Heritage (http://acl.arts.usyd.edu.au/projects/earth/) is a multidisciplinary project investigating the development of non-industrial agricultural techniques, with a focus on Europe. • Tracing the Evolution of Organic/Sustainable Agriculture (http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/pubs/tracing/ tracing.shtml) A Selected and Annotated Bibliography. Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, National Agricultural Library. • history of the UK countryside (http://www.ukagriculture.com/countryside/countryside_history.cfm''The) The history of the UK countryside, farming and agriculture, a unique 3D animated guide chronicling the last 15000 years in 20 key stages.
↑ Mesolithic Europe Boian culture Cucuteni-Trypillian culture Linear Pottery Culture Malta Temples Sesklo Culture Varna culture Vinča culture Vučedol culture China Tibet Korea South Asia Mehrgarh farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic religion ↓ Chalcolithic
The Neolithic Revolution was the first agricultural revolution. It was the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture and settlement. Archaeological data indicates that various forms of plants and animal domestication evolved independently in six separate locations worldwide circa 10,000–7000 years BP (8,000–5,000 BC). The earliest known evidence exists in the tropical and subtropical areas of southwestern/southern Asia, northern/central Africa and Central America. However, the Neolithic Revolution involved far more than the adoption of a limited set of food-producing techniques. During the next millennia it would transform the small and mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that had hitherto dominated human history into sedentary societies based in built-up villages and towns, which radically modified their natural environment by means of specialized food-crop cultivation (e.g., irrigation and food storage technologies) that allowed extensive surplus food production. These developments provided the basis for high population density settlements, specialized and complex labor diversification, trading economies, the development of non-portable art, architecture, and culture, centralized administrations and political structures, hierarchical ideologies, and depersonalized systems of knowledge (e.g., property regimes and writing). The first full-blown manifestation of the entire Neolithic complex is seen in the Middle Eastern Sumerian cities (ca. 3,500 BC), whose emergence also inaugurates the end of the prehistoric Neolithic period. The relationship of the above-mentioned Neolithic characteristics to the onset of agriculture, their sequence of emergence, and empirical relation to each other at various Neolithic sites remains the subject of academic debate, and seems to vary from place to place, rather than being the outcome of universal laws of social evolution. 
The term Neolithic Revolution was coined in the 1920s by Vere Gordon Childe to describe the first in a series of agricultural revolutions in Middle Eastern history. The period is described as a "revolution" to denote its importance, and the great significance and degree of change affecting the communities in which new agricultural practices were gradually adopted and refined. The beginning of this process in different regions has been dated from perhaps 8000 BC in Melanesia  to 2500 BC in Subsaharan Africa, with some considering the developments of 9000–7000 BC in the Fertile Crescent to be the most important. This transition everywhere seems associated with a change from a largely nomadic hunter-gatherer way of life to a more settled, agrarian-based one, with the inception of the domestication of various plant and animal species—depending on the species locally available, and probably also influenced by local culture.
Map of the world showing approximate centers of origin of agriculture and its spread in prehistory: eastern USA (4000–3000 BP), Central Mexico (5000–4000 BP), Northern South America (5000–4000 BP), sub-Saharan Africa (5000–4000 BP, exact location unknown), the Fertile Crescent (11,000 BP), the Yangtze and Yellow River basins (9000  BP) and the New Guinea Highlands (9000–6000 BP).
Knap of Howar farmstead on a site occupied from 3500 BC to 3100 BC
There are several competing (but not mutually exclusive) theories as to the factors that drove populations to take up agriculture. The most prominent of these are: • The Oasis Theory, originally proposed by Raphael Pumpelly in 1908, popularized by Vere Gordon Childe in 1928 and summarised in Childe's book Man Makes Himself. This theory maintains that as the climate got drier due to the Atlantic depressions shifting northward, communities contracted to oases where they were forced into close association with animals, which were then domesticated together with planting of seeds. However, today this theory has little support amongst archaeologists because climate data for the time actually shows that at the time, the climate of the region was getting wetter rather than drier. • The Hilly Flanks hypothesis, proposed by Robert Braidwood in 1948, suggests that agriculture began in the hilly flanks of the Taurus and Zagros mountains, where the climate was not drier as Childe had believed, and fertile land supported a variety of plants and animals amenable to domestication. • The Feasting model by Brian Hayden suggests that agriculture was driven by ostentatious displays of power, such as giving feasts, to exert dominance. This required assembling large quantities of food, which drove agricultural technology. • The Demographic theories proposed by Carl Sauer and adapted by Lewis Binford and Kent Flannery posit an increasingly sedentary population that expanded up to the carrying capacity of the local environment and required more food than could be gathered. Various social and economic factors helped drive the need for food.
Neolithic Revolution • The evolutionary/intentionality theory, developed by David Rindos and others, views agriculture as an evolutionary adaptation of plants and humans. Starting with domestication by protection of wild plants, it led to specialization of location and then full-fledged domestication. • Peter Richerson, Robert Boyd, and Robert Bettinger make a case for the development of agriculture coinciding with an increasingly stable climate at the beginning of the Holocene. Ronald Wright's book and Massey Lecture Series A Short History of Progress popularized this hypothesis. • The postulated Younger Dryas impact event, claimed to be in part responsible for megafauna extinction, and which ended the last ice age, could have provided circumstances that required the evolution of agricultural societies for humanity to survive. The agrarian revolution itself is a reflection of typical overpopulation by certain species following initial events during extinction eras; this overpopulation itself ultimately propagates the extinction event. • Leonid Grinin argues that whatever plants were cultivated, the independent invention of agriculture always took place in special natural environments (e.g., South-East Asia). It is supposed that the cultivation of cereals started somewhere in the Near East: in the hills of Palestine or Egypt. So Grinin dates the beginning of the agricultural revolution within the interval 12,000 to 9,000 BP, though in some cases the first cultivated plants or domesticated animals' bones are even of a more ancient age of 14–15 thousand years ago. • Andrew Moore suggested that dawn of the neolithic revolution originated over long periods of development in the Levant, possibly beginning during the Epipaleolithic. In "A Reassessment of the Neolithic Revolution", Frank Hole further expanded the relationship between plant and animal domestication. He suggested the events could have occurred independently over different periods of time, in as yet unexplored locations. He noted that no transition site had been found documenting the shift from what he termed immediate and delayed return social systems. He noted that the full range of domesticated animals (goats, sheep, cattle and pigs) were not found until the sixth millennium at Tell Ramad. Evidenced by arguments such as those by Maria Hopf regarding cultivated emmer and barley at Jericho, along with the earliest emmer suggested by Willem van Zeist at Tell Aswad, Hole concluded that "close attention should be paid in future investigations to the western margins of the Euphrates basin, perhaps as far south as the Arabian Peninsula, especially where wadis carrying Pleistocene rainfall runoff flowed." In contrast to the Paleolithic (2.6 million years ago to 10,000 BC) in which several hominid species existed, only one (Homo sapiens) reached the Neolithic.
Domestication of plants
Once agriculture started gaining momentum, human activity resulted in the selective breeding of cereal grasses (beginning with emmer, einkorn and barley), and not simply of those that would favour greater caloric returns through larger seeds. Plants that possessed traits such as small seeds or bitter taste would have been seen as undesirable. Plants that rapidly shed their seeds on maturity tended not to be gathered at harvest, thus not stored and not seeded the following season; years of harvesting selected for strains that retained their edible seeds longer. Neolithic grindstone for processing grain Several plant species, the "pioneer crops" or Neolithic founder crops, were the earliest plants successfully manipulated by humans at sites such as Tell Aswad. Some of these pioneering attempts failed at first and crops were abandoned, sometimes to be taken up again and successfully domesticated thousands of years later: rye, tried and abandoned in Neolithic Anatolia, made its way to Europe as weed seeds and was successfully domesticated in Europe, thousands of years after the earliest agriculture. Wild lentils present a different challenge that needed to be overcome: most of the wild seeds do not germinate in the first year; the first evidence of lentil domestication, breaking dormancy in their first year, was found in the early Neolithic at Jerf
Neolithic Revolution el-Ahmar (in modern Syria), and quickly spread south to the Netiv HaGdud site in the Jordan Valley. This process of domestication allowed the founder crops to adapt and eventually become larger, more easily harvested, more dependable in storage and more useful to the human population. Figs, barley and, most likely, oats were cultivated in the Jordan Valley, represented by the early Neolithic site of Gilgal I, where in 2006 archaeologists found caches of seeds of each in quantities too large to be accounted for even by intensive gathering, at strata dateable c. 11,000 years ago. Some of the plants tried and then abandoned during the Neolithic period in the Ancient Near East, at sites like Gilgal, were later successfully domesticated in other parts of the world. Once early farmers perfected their agricultural techniques, their crops would yield surpluses that needed storage. Most hunter gatherers could A Sumerian harvester's sickle dated to 3000 BC not easily store food for long due to their migratory lifestyle, whereas those with a sedentary dwelling could store their surplus grain. Eventually granaries were developed that allowed villages to store their seeds longer. So with more food, the population expanded and communities developed specialized workers and more advanced tools. The process was not as linear as was once thought, but a more complicated effort, which was undertaken by different human populations in different regions in many different ways.
Agriculture in Asia
The Neolithic Revolution is believed to have become widespread in southwest Asia around 8000 BC–7000 BC, though earlier individual sites have been identified. In China, foxtail millet, broomcorn millet and rice were important domesticated crops. Although archaeological evidence provides scant evidence as to which of the genders performed what task in Neolithic cultures, by comparison with historical and contemporary hunter-gatherer communities it is generally supposed that hunting was typically performed by the men, whereas women had a more significant role in the gathering. By extension, it may be theorised that women were largely responsible for the observations and initial activities that began the Neolithic Revolution, insofar as the gradual selection and refinement of edible plant species was concerned. The precise nature of these initial observations and (later) purposeful activities that would give rise to the changes in subsistence methods brought about by the Neolithic Revolution are not known; specific evidence is lacking. However, several reasonable speculations have been put forward; for example, it might be expected that the common practice of discarding food refuse in middens would result in the regrowth of plants from the discarded seeds in the (fertilizer-enriched) soils. In all likelihood, a number of factors contributed to the early onset of agriculture in Neolithic human societies.
Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent
Generalised agriculture apparently first arose in the Fertile Crescent because of many factors. The Mediterranean climate has a long dry season with a short period of rain, which made it suitable for small plants with large seeds, like wheat and barley. These were the most suitable for domestication because of the ease of harvest and storage and the wide availability. In addition, the domesticated plants had especially high protein content. The Fertile Crescent had a large area of varied geographical settings and altitudes. The variety given made agriculture more profitable for former hunter-gatherers. Other areas with a similar climate were less suitable for agriculture because of the lack of geographic variation within the region and the lack of availability of plants for domestication.
Agriculture in Africa
The Revolution developed independently in different parts of the world, not just in the Fertile Crescent. On the African continent, three areas have been identified as independently developing agriculture: the Ethiopian highlands, the Sahel and West Africa. The most famous crop domesticated in the Ethiopian highlands is coffee. In addition, khat, ensete, noog, teff and finger millet were also domesticated in the Ethiopian highlands. Crops domesticated in the Sahel region include sorghum and pearl millet. The kola nut, extracts from which became an ingredient in Coca Cola, was first domesticated in West Africa. Other crops domesticated in West Africa include African rice, African yams and the oil palm. A number of crops that have been cultivated in Africa for millennia came after their domestication elsewhere. Agriculture in the Nile River Valley developed from crops domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. Bananas and plantains, which were first domesticated in Southeast Asia, most likely Papua New Guinea, were re-domesticated in Africa possibly as early as 5,000 years ago. Asian yams and taro were also cultivated in Africa. Prof. Fred Wendorf and Dr. Romuald Schild, of the Department of Anthropology at Southern Methodist University, originally thought to have found evidence of early agriculture in Upper Paleolithic times at Wadi Kubbaniya, on the Kom Ombos plateau, of Egypt, including a mortar and pestle, grinding stones, several harvesting implements and charred wheat and barley grains—which may have been introduced from outside the region. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) dating since their first reports has invalidated their hypothesis. Many such grinding stones are found with the early Egyptian Sebilian and Mechian cultures and evidence has been found of a neolithic domesticated crop-based economy dating around 5000 BC. Philip E. L. Smith writes: "With the benefit of hindsight we can now see that many Late Paleolithic peoples in the Old World were poised on the brink of plant cultivation and animal husbandry as an alternative to the hunter-gatherer's way of life". Unlike the Middle East, this evidence appears as a "false dawn" to agriculture, as the sites were later abandoned, and permanent farming then was delayed until 4500 BC with the Tasian and Badarian cultures and the arrival of crops and animals from the Near East.
Agriculture in the Americas
Corn, beans and squash were among the earliest crops domesticated in Mesoamerica, with maize beginning about 7500 BC, squash, as early as 8000 to 6000 BC and beans by no later than 4000 BC. Potatoes and manioc were domesticated in South America. In what is now the eastern United States, Native Americans domesticated sunflower, sumpweed and goosefoot around 2500 BC.
Domestication of animals
When hunter-gathering began to be replaced by sedentary food production it became more profitable to keep animals close at hand. Therefore, it became necessary to bring animals permanently to their settlements, although in many cases there was a distinction between relatively sedentary farmers and nomadic herders. The animals' size, temperament, diet, mating patterns, and life span were factors in the desire and success in domesticating animals. Animals that provided milk, such as cows and goats, offered a source of protein that was renewable and therefore quite valuable. The animal’s ability as a worker (for example ploughing or towing), as well as a food source, also had to be taken into account. Besides being a direct source of food, certain animals could provide leather, wool, hides, and fertilizer. Some of the earliest domesticated animals included dogs (about 15,000 years ago), sheep, goats, cows, and pigs.
Domestication of animals in the Middle East
The Middle East served as the source for many animals that could be domesticated, such as goats and pigs. This area was also the first region to domesticate the Dromedary Camel. The presence of these animals gave the region a large advantage in cultural and economic development. As the climate in the Middle East changed, and became drier, many of the farmers were forced to leave, taking their domesticated animals with them. It was this massive emigration from the Middle East that would later help distribute these animals to the rest of Afroeurasia. This emigration was mainly on an east-west axis of Dromedary Camel caravan in Algeria similar climates, as crops usually have a narrow optimal climatic range outside of which they cannot grow for reasons of light or rain changes. For instance, wheat does not normally grow in tropical climates, just like tropical crops such as bananas do not grow in colder climates. Some authors, like Jared Diamond, have postulated that this East-West axis is the main reason why plant and animal domestication spread so quickly from the Fertile Crescent to the rest of Eurasia and North Africa, while it did not reach through the North-South axis of Africa to reach the Mediterranean climates of South Africa, where temperate crops were successfully imported by ships in the last 500 years. The African Zebu is a separate breed of cattle that was better suited to the hotter climates of central Africa than the fertile-crescent domesticated bovines. North and South America were similarly separated by the narrow tropical Isthmus of Panama, that prevented the andes llama to be exported to the Mexican plateau.
It is often argued that agriculture gave humans more control over their food supply, but this has been disputed by the finding that nutritional standards of Neolithic populations were generally inferior to that of hunter gatherers, and life expectancy may in fact have been shorter, in part due to diseases. Average height, for example, went down from 5' 10" (178 cm) for men and 5' 6" (168 cm) for women to 5' 3" (165 cm) and 5' 1" (155 cm), respectively, and it took until the twentieth century for average human height to come back to the pre-Neolithic Revolution levels. The shift to agricultural food production supported a denser population, which in turn supported larger sedentary communities, the accumulation of goods and tools, and specialization in diverse forms of new labor. The development of larger societies led to the development of different means of decision making and to governmental organization. Food surpluses made possible the development of a social elite who were not otherwise engaged in agriculture, industry or commerce, but dominated their communities by other means and monopolized decision-making.
Andrew Sherratt has argued that following upon the Neolithic Revolution was a second phase of discovery that he refers to as the secondary products revolution. Animals, it appears were first domesticated purely as a source of meat. The Secondary Products Revolution occurred when it was recognised that animals also provided a number of other useful products. These included: • hides and skins (from undomesticated animals) • manure for soil conditioning (from all domesticated animals) • wool (from sheep, llamas, alpacas, and Angora goats) • milk (from goats, cattle, yaks, sheep, horses and camels) • traction (from oxen, onagers, donkeys, horses, camels and dogs) • guarding and herding assistance (dogs) Sherratt argues that this phase in agricultural development enabled humans to make use of the energy possibilities of their animals in new ways, and permitted permanent intensive subsistence farming and crop production, and the opening up heavier soils for farming. It also made possible nomadic pastoralism in semi arid areas, along the margins of deserts, and eventually led to the domestication of both the dromedary and bactrian camel. Overgrazing of these areas, particularly by herds of goats, greatly extended the areal extent of deserts. Living in one spot would have more easily permitted the accrual of personal possessions and an attachment to certain areas of land. From such a position, it is argued, prehistoric people were able to stockpile food to survive lean times and trade unwanted surpluses with others. Once trade and a secure food supply were established, populations could grow, and society would have diversified into food producers and artisans, who could afford to develop their trade by virtue of the free time they enjoyed because of a surplus of food. The artisans, in turn, were able to develop technology such as metal weapons. Such relative complexity would have required some form of social organisation to work efficiently, so it is likely that populations that had such organisation, perhaps such as that provided by religion, were better prepared and more successful. In addition, the denser populations could form and support legions of professional soldiers. Also, during this time property ownership became increasingly important to all people. Ultimately, Childe argued that this growing social complexity, all rooted in the original decision to settle, led to a second Urban Revolution in which the first cities were built.
Domesticated cow being milked in Ancient Egypt.
Throughout the development of sedentary societies, disease spread more rapidly than it had during the time in which hunter-gatherer societies existed. Inadequate sanitary practices and the domestication of animals may explain the rise in deaths and sickness following the Neolithic Revolution, as diseases jumped from the animal to the human population. Some examples of diseases spread from animals to humans are influenza, smallpox, and measles. In concordance with a process of natural selection, the humans who first domesticated the big mammals quickly built up immunities to the diseases as within each generation the individuals with better immunities had better chances of survival. In their approximately 10,000 years of shared proximity with animals, Eurasians and Africans became more resistant to those diseases compared with the indigenous populations encountered outside Eurasia and Africa. For instance, the population of most Caribbean and several Pacific Islands have been completely
Llama overlooking the ruins of the Inca city of Machu Picchu
Neolithic Revolution wiped out by diseases. According to the Population history of American indigenous peoples, 90% of the population of certain regions of North and South America were wiped out long before direct contact with Europeans. Some cultures like the Inca Empire did have one big mammal domesticated, the Llama, but the Inca did not drink its milk or live in a closed space with their herds, hence limiting the risk of contagion. The causal link between the type or lack of agricultural development, disease and colonisation is not supported by colonization in other parts of the world. Disease increased after the establishment of British Colonial rule in Africa and India despite the areas having diseases for which Europeans lacked natural immunity. In India agriculture developed during the Neolithic period with a wide range of animals domesticated. During colonial rule an estimated 23 million people died from cholera between 1865 and 1949, and millions more died from plague, malaria, influenza and tuberculosis. In Africa European colonisation was accompanied by great epidemics, including malaria and sleeping sickness and despite parts of colonised Africa having little or no agriculture Europeans were more susceptible than the Africans. The increase of disease has been attributed to increased mobility of people, increased population density, urbanisation, environmental deterioration and irrigation schemes that helped to spread malaria rather than the development of agriculture.
In his book Guns, Germs, and Steel, Jared Diamond argues that Europeans and East Asians benefited from an advantageous geographical location that afforded them a head start in the Neolithic Revolution. Both shared the temperate climate ideal for the first agricultural settings, both were near a number of easily domesticable plant and animal species, and both were safer from attacks of other people than civilizations in the middle part of the Eurasian continent. Being among the first to adopt agriculture and sedentary lifestyles, and neighboring other early agricultural societies with whom they could compete and trade, both Europeans and East Asians were also among the first to benefit from technologies such as firearms and steel swords. In addition, they developed resistances to infectious disease, such as smallpox, due to their close relationship with domesticated animals. Groups of people who had not lived in proximity with other large mammals, such as the Australian Aborigines and American indigenous peoples were more vulnerable to infection and largely wiped out by diseases. During and after the Age of Discovery, European explorers, such as the Spanish conquistadors, encountered other groups of people who had never or only recently adopted agriculture, such as in the Pacific Islands, lacked domesticated big mammals such as the people of the New Guinea Highlands.
The dispersal of Neolithic culture from the Middle East has recently been associated with the distribution of human genetic markers. In Europe, the spread of the Neolithic culture has been associated with distribution of the E1b1b lineages and Haplogroup J that are thought to have arrived in Europe from North Africa and the Near East respectively.  In Africa, the spread of farming, and notably the Bantu expansion, is associated with the dispersal of Y-chromosome haplogroup E1b1a from West Africa.
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• Bailey, Douglass. (2000). Balkan Prehistory: Exclusions, Incorporation and Identity. Routledge Publishers. ISBN 0-415-21598-6. • Bailey, Douglass. (2005). Prehistoric Figurines: Representation and Corporeality in the Neolithic. Routledge Publishers. ISBN 0-415-33152-8. • Balter, Michael (2005). The Goddess and the Bull: Catalhoyuk, An Archaeological Journey to the Dawn of Civilization. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-4360-9. • Bellwood, Peter. (2004). First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies. Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-20566-7 • Cohen, Mark Nathan (1977)The Food Crisis in Prehistory: Overpopulation and the Origins of Agriculture. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02016-3. • Diamond, Jared (1999). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton Press. ISBN 0-393-31755-2. • Diamond, Jared (2002). "Evolution, Consequences and Future of Plant and Animal Domestication". Nature, Vol 418. • Grinin, L. (2007). Periodization of History: A theoretic-mathematical analysis. In: History & Mathematics (http:// urss.ru/cgi-bin/db.pl?cp=&page=Book&id=53184&lang=en&blang=en&list=1). Moscow: KomKniga/URSS. P.10–38. ISBN 9785484010011. • Harlan, Jack R. (1992). Crops & Man: Views on Agricultural Origins ASA, CSA, Madison, WI. http://www. hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/history/lecture03/r_3-1.html • Wright, Gary A. (1971). "Origins of Food Production in Southwestern Asia: A Survey of Ideas" Current Anthropology, Vol. 12, No. 4/5 (Oct.–Dec., 1971) , pp. 447–477 • Bartmen, Jeff M. (2008). Disease. • House of Anansi Press page (http://www.anansi.ca/titles.cfm?pub_subid=237) for the book • CBC Radio, Ideas, page on the Massey Lectures 2004 (http://www.cbc.ca/ideas/massey/massey2004.html) also includes streaming audio of Chapter 1 of 5 • Chapter I - Gauguin's Questions (http://www.ucalgary.ca/~eslinger/crss/200/200_read/02.Wright,R. _Gaugin'sQuestions_ShortHistoryOfProgress(2004)1-26.pdf) • Stu’s Notes #11 (http://www.transportplanet.ca/Stu'sNotes11.pdf) a useful summary of many selected passages from the book • Civilization is a Pyramid Scheme (http://www.awok.org/civilization-is-a-pyramid-scheme/) an online copy of Wright's earlier short article • Chapter I (http://firstname.lastname@example.org/ 1400-1-20041124-Ronald_Wright_-_Short_History_of_Progress_-_1_-_Gauguin__s_Questions.mp3) podcast at http://www.radio4all.net (note this site is notoriously unreliable but it does come back up eventually) • Chapter II (http://email@example.com/ 1400-1-20041125-Ronald_Wright_-_Short_History_of_Progress_-_2_-_The_Great_Experiment.mp3) podcast at http://www.radio4all.net • An Interview with Ronald Wright (http://www.radio4all.net/pub/archive/09.01.05/philippe@bainbridge. net/1374-1-20050410-Ronald_Wright.mp3), April 10, 2005, EcoTalk on Air America podcast at http://www. radio4all.net • Evidence for food storage and predomestication granaries 11,000 years ago in the Jordan Valley (http://www. pnas.org/content/early/2009/06/19/0812764106.full.pdf).
Domestication (from Latin domesticus) or taming is the process whereby a population of animals or plants, through a process of selection, becomes accustomed to human provision and control. In the Convention on Biological Diversity a domesticated species is defined as a 'species in which the evolutionary process has been influenced by humans to meet their needs' . Therefore, a defining characteristic of domestication is artificial selection by humans. Humans have brought these populations under their control and care for a wide range of reasons: to produce food or valuable commodities (such as wool, cotton, or silk), for help with various types of work (such as transportation, protection, and warfare), scientific research, or simply to enjoy as companions or ornaments. Plants domesticated primarily for aesthetic enjoyment in and around the home are usually called house plants or ornamentals, while those domesticated for large-scale food production are generally called crops. A distinction can be made between those domesticated Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated plants that have been deliberately altered or selected for special desirable characteristics (see cultigen) and those domesticated plants that are essentially no different from their wild counterparts (assuming domestication does not necessarily imply physical modification). Animals domesticated for home companionship are usually called pets while those domesticated for food or work are called livestock or farm animals.
Charles Darwin described how the process of domestication can involve both unconscious and methodical elements. Routine human interactions with animals and plants create selection pressures that cause adaptation as species adjust to human presence, use or cultivation. Deliberate selective breeding has also been used to create desired changes, often after initial domestication. These two forces, unconscious natural selection and methodical selective breeding, may have both played roles in the processes of domestication throughout history. Both have been described from man's perspective as processes of artificial selection. The domestication of wheat provides an example. Wild wheat falls to the ground to reseed itself when ripe, but domesticated wheat stays on the stem for easier harvesting. There is evidence that this critical change came about as a result of a random mutation near the beginning of wheat's cultivation. Wheat with this mutation was harvested and became the seed for the next crop. Therefore, without realizing, early farmers selected for this mutation, which would otherwise have died out. The result is domesticated wheat, which relies on farmers for its own reproduction and dissemination. Mutation is not the only way in which natural and artificial selection operate. Darwin describes how natural variations in individual plants and animals also support the selection of new traits. It is speculated that tamer than average wolves, less wary of humans, selected themselves as domestic dogs over many generations. These wolves were able to thrive by following humans to scavenge for food near camp fires and garbage dumps. Eventually a
Domestication symbiotic relationship developed between people and these proto-dogs. The dogs fed on human food scraps, and humans found that dogs could warn them of approaching dangers, help with hunting, act as pets, provide warmth, or supplement their food supply. As this relationship , humans eventually began to keep these self-tamed wolves and breed from them the types of dogs that we have today. In recent times, selective breeding may best explain how continuing processes of domestication often work. Some of the best-known evidence of the power of selective breeding comes from an experiment by Russian scientist, Dmitri K. Belyaev, in the 1950s. His team spent many years breeding the Silver Fox (Vulpes vulpes) and selecting only those individuals that showed the least fear of humans. Eventually, Belyaev's team selected only those that showed the most positive response to humans. He ended up with a population of grey-coloured foxes whose behavior and appearance was significantly changed. They no longer showed any fear of humans and often wagged their tails and licked their human caretakers to show affection. Fascinatingly, these foxes had floppy ears, smaller skulls, rolled tails and other traits commonly found in dogs. Despite the success of this experiment, it appears that selective breeding cannot always achieve domestication. Attempts to domesticate many kinds of wild animals have been unsuccessful. The zebra is one example. Despite the fact that four species of zebra can interbreed with and are part of the same genus as the horse and the donkey, attempts at domestication have failed. The factors which influence 'domesticatability' of large animals (see below) are discussed in some detail in Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs, and Steel (1999). Surprisingly, in human history to date, only a few species of large animal have been domesticated. In approximate order of their earliest domestication these are: dog, sheep, goat, pig, cow, horse, donkey, water buffalo, llama, alpaca, bactrian camel, Arabian camel, yak, reindeer, and elephant.
According to evolutionary biologist Jared Diamond, animal species must meet six criteria in order to be considered for domestication: 1. Flexible diet — Creatures that are willing to consume a wide variety of food sources and can live off less cumulative food from the food pyramid (such as corn or wheat), particularly food that is not utilized by humans (such as grass and forage) are less expensive to keep in captivity. Carnivores by definition feed Hereford cattle, domesticated for beef production. primarily or only on animal tissue, which requires the expenditure of many animals, though they may exploit sources of meat not utilized by humans, such as scraps and vermin. 2. Reasonably fast growth rate — Fast maturity rate compared to the human life span allows breeding intervention and makes the animal useful within an acceptable duration of caretaking. Large animals such as elephants require many years before they reach a useful size. 3. Ability to be bred in captivity — Creatures that are reluctant to breed when kept in captivity do not produce useful offspring, and instead are limited to capture in their wild state. Creatures such as the panda, antelope and giant forest hog are territorial when breeding and cannot be maintained in crowded enclosures in captivity. 4. Pleasant disposition — Large creatures that are aggressive toward humans are dangerous to keep in captivity. The African buffalo has an unpredictable nature and is highly dangerous to humans; similarly, although the American bison is raised in enclosed ranges in the US West, it is much too dangerous to be regarded as truly domesticated. Although similar to the domesticated pig in many ways, the American peccary and Africa's warthog and bushpig are also dangerous in captivity. However one must keep in mind that most modern large domestic animals were
Domestication descendants of extremely aggressive ancestors, the wild boar is certainly renowned for their ferocity , other examples include the aurochs, horse, Bactrian camels and yaks, etc; all of which are extremely dangerous in their wild state. On the other hand humans have managed to tame dangerous species like the elephants, bears and cheetahs whose failed domestications had little to do with their aggressiveness. 5. Temperament which makes it unlikely to panic — A creature with a nervous disposition is difficult to keep in captivity as it may attempt to flee whenever startled. The gazelle is very flighty and it has a powerful leap that allows it to escape an enclosed pen. Some animals, such as the domestic sheep, still have a strong tendency to panic when their flight zone is encroached upon. However, most sheep also show a flocking instinct, whereby they stay close together when pressed. Livestock with such an instinct may be herded by people and dogs. 6. Modifiable social hierarchy — Social creatures that recognize a hierarchy of dominance can be raised to recognize a human as the pack leader. However, this list is of limited use because it fails to take into account the profound changes that domestication has on a species. While it is true that some animals, including parrots, whales, and most members of the Carnivora, retain their wild instincts even if born in captivity, some factors must be taken into consideration. In particular, number (5) may not be a prerequisite for domestication, but rather a natural consequence of a species' having been domesticated. In other words, wild animals are naturally timid and flighty because they are constantly faced by predators; domestic animals do not need such a nervous disposition, because they are protected by their human owners. The same holds true for number (4)—aggressive temperament is an adaptation to the danger from predators. A Cape buffalo can kill even an attacking lion. Zoologist Marston Bates devoted a chapter on domestication in his 1960 book The Forest and the Sea, in which he talks a great deal about how domestication alters a species: Dispersal mechanisms tend to disappear for the reason stated above, and also because people provide transportation for them. Chickens have practically lost their ability to fly. Similarly, domestic animals cease to have a definite mating season, and so the need to be territorial when mating loses its value. What he says suggests that the process of domestication can itself make a creature domesticable. Besides, the first steps towards agriculture may have involved hunters keeping young animals, who are always more impressionable than the adults, after killing their mothers.
The earliest human attempts at plant domestication occurred in South-Western Asia. There is early evidence for conscious cultivation and trait selection of plants by pre-Neolithic groups in Syria: grains of rye with domestic traits have been recovered from Epi-Palaeolithic (c. 11,050 BP) contexts at Abu Hureyra in Syria, but this appears to be a localised phenomenon resulting from cultivation of stands of wild rye, rather than a definitive step towards domestication. By 10,000 BC the bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) plant, used as a container before the advent of ceramic technology, appears to have been domesticated. The domesticated bottle gourd reached the Americas from Asia by 8000 BC, most likely due to the migration of peoples from Asia to America. Cereal crops were first domesticated around 9000 BC in the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East. The first domesticated crops were generally annuals with large seeds or fruits. These included pulses such as peas and grains such as wheat. The Middle East was especially suited to these species; the dry-summer climate was conducive to the evolution of large-seeded annual plants, and the variety of elevations led to a great variety of species. As domestication took place humans began to move from a hunter-gatherer society to a settled agricultural society. This change would eventually lead, some 4000 to 5000 years later, to the first city states and eventually the rise of civilization itself. Continued domestication was gradual, a process of trial and error that occurred intermittently. Over time perennials and small trees began to be domesticated including apples and olives. Some plants were not domesticated until recently such as the macadamia nut and the pecan.
Domestication In other parts of the world very different species were domesticated. In the Americas squash, maize, beans, and perhaps manioc (also known as cassava) formed the core of the diet. In East Asia millet, rice, and soy were the most important crops. Some areas of the world such as Southern Africa, Australia, California and southern South America never saw local species domesticated. Over the millennia many domesticated species have become utterly unlike their natural ancestors. Maize ears are now dozens of times the size of those of wild teosinte. A similar change occurred between wild strawberries and domesticated strawberries. Domesticated plant species often differ from their wild relatives in predictable ways. These differences are called the domestication syndrome, and include: • • • • • • Higher germination rates More predictable & synchronous germination Increased size of reproductive organs A tendency for ripe seeds to stay on the plant, rather than breaking off and falling to the ground Reduced physical and chemical defences Change in biomass allocation (more in fruits, roots, or stems, depending on human)
Due to elephants' slow growth, the boundaries between surviving wild populations and domestic clades can be vague. Similar problems of definition arise when domesticated cats go feral. A classification system that can help solve this confusion surrounding animal populations might be set up on a spectrum of increasing domestication: • Wild: These populations experience their full life cycles without deliberate human intervention. • Raised in Captivity/Captured from Wild (in zoos, botanical gardens, or for human gain): These populations are nurtured by humans but (except in zoos) not normally bred under human control. They remain as a group essentially indistinguishable in appearance or behaviour from their wild counterparts. Examples include Asian elephants, animals such as sloth bears and cobras used by showmen in India, and animals such as Asian black bears (farmed for their bile), and zoo animals, kept in captivity as examples of their species. (It should be noted that zoos and botanical gardens sometimes exhibit domesticated or feral animals and plants such as camels, mustangs, and some orchids.) • Raised commercially (captive or semidomesticated): These populations are ranched or farmed in large numbers for food, commodities, or the pet trade, commonly breed in captivity, but as a group are not substantially altered in appearance or behavior from their wild cousins. Examples include the ostrich, various deer, alligator, cricket, pearl oyster, and ball python. (These species are sometimes referred to as partially domesticated.) • Domesticated: These populations are bred and raised under human control for many generations and are substantially altered as a group in appearance or behaviour. Examples include pigs, ferrets, turkeys, canaries, domestic pigeons, budgerigars, goldfish, silkworms, dogs, cats, sheep, cattle, chickens, llamas, guinea pigs, laboratory mice, goats and (silver) foxes This classification system does not account for several complicating factors: genetically modified organisms, feral populations, and hybridization. Many species that are farmed or ranched are now being genetically modified. This creates a unique category because it alters the organisms as a group but in ways unlike traditional domestication. Feral organisms are members of a population that was once raised under human control, but is now living and multiplying outside of human control. Examples include mustangs. Hybrids can be wild, domesticated, or both: a liger is a hybrid of two wild animals, a mule is a hybrid of two domesticated animals, and a beefalo is a cross between a wild and a domestic animal. A great difference exists between a tame animal and a domesticated animal. The term "domesticated" refers to an entire species or variety while the term "tame" can refer to just one individual within a species or variety. Humans have tamed many thousands of animals that have never been truly domesticated. These include the elephant, giraffes,
Domestication and bears. There is debate over whether some species have been domesticated or just tamed. Some state that the elephant has been domesticated, while others argue the cat has never been. Dividing lines include whether a specimen born to wild parents would differ in appearance or behavior from one born to domesticated parents. For instance a dog is certainly domesticated because even a wolf (genetically the origin of all dogs) raised from a pup would be very different from a dog, in both appearance and behaviour.
Selection of animals for visible “desirable” traits may make them unfit in other, unseen, ways. The consequences for the captive and domesticated animals were reduction in size, piebald color, shorter faces with smaller and fewer teeth, diminished horns, weak muscle ridges, and less genetic variability. Poor joint definition, late fusion of the limb bone epiphyses with the diaphyses, hair changes, greater fat accumulation, smaller brains, simplified behavior patterns, extended immaturity, and more pathology are a few of the defects of domestic animals, All of these changes have been documented in direct observations of the rat in the 19th century, by archaeological evidence, and confirmed by animal breeders in the 20th century. One side effect of domestication has been zoonotic diseases. For example, cattle have given humanity various viral poxes, measles, and tuberculosis; pigs and ducks have given influenza; and horses have given the rhinoviruses. Humans share over sixty diseases with dogs . Many parasites also have their origins in domestic animals. The advent of domestication resulted in denser human populations which provided ripe conditions for pathogens to reproduce, mutate, spread, and eventually find a new host in humans.
Dates and places
Since the process of domestication inherently takes many generations over a long period of time, and the spread of breed and husbandry techniques is also slow, it is not meaningful to give a single "date of domestication". However, it is believed that the first attempt at domestication of both animals and plants were made in the Old World by peoples of the Mesolithic Period. The tribes that took part in hunting and gathering wild edible plants, started to make attempts to Early domestication: cow being milked in ancient domesticate dogs, goats, and possibly sheep, which was as early as Egypt. 9000 BC. However, it was not until the Neolithic Period that primitive agriculture appeared as a form of social activity, and domestication was well under way. The great majority of domesticated animals and plants that still serve humans were selected and developed during the Neolithic Period, a few other examples appeared later. The rabbit for example, was not domesticated until the Middle Ages, while the sugar beet came under cultivation as a sugar-yielding agricultural plant in the 19th century. As recently as the 20th century, mint became an object of agricultural production, and animal breeding programs to produce high-quality fur were started in the same time period. The methods available to estimate domestication dates introduce further uncertainty, especially when domestication has occurred in the distant past. So the dates given here should be treated with caution; in some cases evidence is scanty and future discoveries may alter the dating significantly. Dates and places of domestication are mainly estimated by archaeological methods, more precisely archaeozoology. These methods consist of excavating or studying the results of excavation in human prehistorical occupation sites. Animal remains are dated with archaeological methods, the species they belong to is determined, the age at death is also estimated, and if possible the form they had, that is to say a possible domestic form. Various other clues are taken advantage of, such as slaughter or cutting marks. The aim is to determine if they are game or raised animal, and more globally the nature of their relationship with humans. For example the skeleton of a cat found buried close
Domestication to humans is a clue that it may have been a pet cat. The age structure of animal remains can also be a clue of husbandry, in which animals were killed at the optimal age. New technologies and especially mitochondrial DNA, which are simple DNA found in the mitochondria that determine its function in the cell provide an alternative angle of investigation, and make it possible to reestimate the dates of domestication based on research into the genealogical tree of modern domestic animals. It is admitted for several species that domestication occurred in several places distinctly. For example, research on mitochondrial DNA of the modern cattle Bos taurus supports the archaeological assertions of separate domestication events in Asia and Africa. This research also shows that Bos taurus and Bos indicus haplotypes are all descendants of the extinct wild ox Bos primigenius.  However, this does not rule out later crossing inside a species; therefore it appears useless to look for a separate wild ancestor for each domestic breed. The first animal to be domesticated appears to have been the dog, in the Upper Paleolithic era. This preceded the domestication of other species by several millennia. In the Neolithic a number of important species such as the goat, sheep, pig and cow were domesticated, as part of the spread of farming with characterises this period. The goat, sheep and pig in particular were domesticated independently in the Levant and Asia. There is early evidence of beekeeping, in the form of rock paintings, dating to 13,000 BC. Recent archaeological evidence from Cyprus indicates domestication of a type of cat by perhaps 9500 BC.   The earliest secure evidence of horse domestication, bit wear on horse molars at Dereivka in Ukraine, dates to around 4000 BC. The unequivocal date of domestication and use as a means of transport is at the Sintashta chariot burials in the southern Urals, c. 2000 BC. Local equivalents and smaller species were domesticated from the 2500s BC. The availability of both domesticated vegetable and animal species increased suddenly following the voyages of Christopher Columbus and the contact between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. This is part of what is referred to as the Columbian Exchange.
Approximate dates and locations of original domestication
Species Dog (Canis lupus familiaris) Sheep (Ovis orientalis aries) Pig (Sus scrofa domestica) Goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) Cow (Bos primigenius taurus) Cat (Felis catus) Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) Donkey (Equus africanus asinus) Date between 30000 BC and 7000 BC between 11000 BC and 9000 BC 9000 BC 8000 BC 8000 BC 7500 BC 6000 BC 5000 BC 5000 BC                   Location East Asia and Africa Southwest Asia Near East, China, Germany Iran India, Middle East, and North Africa Cyprus and Near East India and Southeast Asia Peru Egypt China India, China  Eurasian Steppes Arabia
Domesticated duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) 4000 BC Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Horse (Equus ferus caballus) Dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) 4000 BC 4000 BC 4000 BC
3500 BC 3000 BC 3000 BC 3000 BC 3000 BC 2500 BC 2500 BC Unknown Unknown 1500 BC 1500 BCUnknown Unknown Unknown 500 BC Unknown AD 600   Peru China Russia Mediterranean Basin Egypt Central Asia Tibet Southeast Asia, Java Island Southeast Asia Peru Europe South America Africa East Asia Mexico China Europe
Llama (Lama glama) Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) Rock pigeon (Columba livia) Goose (Anser anser domesticus) Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) Yak (Bos grunniens) Banteng (Bos javanicus) Gayal (Bos gaurus frontalis) Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) Ferret (Mustela putorius furo) Muscovy Duck (Cairina momelanotus) Guineafowl Common carp Domesticated turkey Goldfish European Rabbit
Species Zebu (Bos primigenius indicus) Honey bee Asian Elephant Fallow Deer Indian Peafowl Barbary Dove Japanese Quail (see Quail) Mandarin Duck Mute Swan 8000 BC 4000 BC Date Location India Multiple places
2000 BC(Possibly Endangered Indus Valley civilization 1000 BC 500 BC 500 BC 1100–1900 Unknown 1000–1500 Mediterranean Basin India North Africa Japan China Europe Canary Islands, Europe
Canary (Serinus canaria domestica) 1600
Species Fancy rat Fox Mink Budgerigar Cockatiel Zebra Finch Hamster Silver Fox Muskox Corn Snake Ball python
Date 1800s 1800s 1800s 1850s 1870s 1900s 1930s 1950s 1960s 1960s 1960s
Location UK Europe Europe Europe Europe Australia United States Soviet Union United States United States
Madagascar hissing cockroach 1960s Red Deer Hedgehog Sugar Glider Skunk Kinkajou 1970s 1980s 1980s 1980s New Zealand United States Australia United States
date uncertain Central America
A project is underway to find the genetic basis for taming. Researchers at the Max Planck institute in Germany have obtained two sets of rats bred in Russia. One set was selected for aggressiveness and another for tameness, mimicking the process by which neolithic farmers first domesticated animals.
Some species are said to have been domesticated, but are not any more, either because they have totally disappeared, or since their domestic form no longer exists. Examples include the Jaguarundi, the Kakapo, the Ring-tailed Cat, Cheetah, Caracal and Bos aegyptiacus.
Hybrid domestic animals
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Alpaca: DNA evidence shows that alpacas are a llama/vicuña hybrid Beefalo Bengal cat Cama (animal) Chausie Cheetoh Coydog Dzo Sheep-goat hybrid Hinny Huarizo Iron Age Pig Mule Savannah (cat)
Domestication • • • • • • • • • Tiglon Wolfdog Wolphin Yakalo Zeedonk Zetland Zorse Zony Zubron
Animals of domestic origin and feral ones sometimes can produce fertile hybrids with native, wild animals which leads to genetic pollution in the naturally evolved wild gene pools, many a times threatening rare species with extinction. Cases include the mallard duck, wildcat, wild boar, the rock dove or pigeon, the Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) (ancestor of all chickens), carp, and more recently salmon. Another example is the dingo, itself an early feral dog, which hybridizes with dogs of European origin. On the other hand, genetic pollution seems not to be noticed for rabbits. There is much debate over the degree to which feral hybridization compromises the purity of a wild species. In the case of the mallard, for example, some claim there are no populations which are completely free of any domestic ancestor.
    See Article 2 (Use of Terms) of the Convention on Biological Diversity Diamond, Jared (1999). Guns, Germs, and Steel. New York: Norton Press. ISBN 0-393-31755-2. Zohary, D. & Hopf, M. (2000). Domestication of Plants in the Old World Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. Lyudmila N. Trut (1999). "Early Canid Domestication: The Farm-Fox Experiment" (http:/ / www. hum. utah. edu/ ~bbenham/ 2510 Spring 09/ Behavior Genetics/ Farm-Fox Experiment. pdf) (PDF). American Scientist (Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society) 87 (March-April): 160–169. . Retrieved 2011-06-25.  Clutton-Brock, J. (1981) Domesticated Animals from Early Times. Austin: Univ. Texas Press.  Diamond, Jared (1998). Guns, Germs, and Steel. Vintage. pp. 169–174. ISBN 9780099302780.  Hillman G, Hedges R, Moore A, Colledge S, Pettitt P (2001). "New evidence of Lateglacial cereal cultivation at Abu Hureyra on the Euphrates" (http:/ / hol. sagepub. com/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 11/ 4/ 383). Holocene 11 (4): 383–393. doi:10.1191/095968301678302823. .  Erickson DL, Smith BD, Clarke AC, Sandweiss DH, Tuross N (December 2005). "An Asian origin for a 10,000-year-old domesticated plant in the Americas" (http:/ / www. pnas. org/ content/ 102/ 51/ 18315. full). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (51): 18315–20. doi:10.1073/pnas.0509279102. PMC 1311910. PMID 16352716. .  http:/ / www. plantsciences. ucdavis. edu/ gepts/ pb143/ lec08/ pb143l08. htm  Virányi Z, Gácsi M, Kubinyi E, Topál J, Belényi B, Ujfalussy D, Miklósi Á (2008). "Comprehension of human pointing gestures in young human-reared wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris)". Animal Cognition 11 (3): 373–387. doi:10.1007/s10071-007-0127-y.  Berry, R.J. (1969). "The Genetical Implications of Domestication in Animals". In Ucko, Peter J., Dimbleby, G.W.. The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals. Chicago: Aldine. pp. 207–217.  http:/ / hcs. osu. edu/ hcs/ TMI/ HCS210/ HortOrigins/ BrDomestic. html  Troy CS, MacHugh DE, Bailey JF, et al. (April 2001). "Genetic evidence for Near-Eastern origins of European cattle". Nature 410 (6832): 1088–91. doi:10.1038/35074088. PMID 11323670.  Wendorf F., Schild R. (1998). "Nabta Playa and its role in ortheastern African prehistory". J. Anthropol. Archaeol 17 (2): 97–123. doi:10.1006/jaar.1998.0319.  "Oldest Known Pet Cat? 9500-Year-Old Burial Found on Cyprus" (http:/ / news. nationalgeographic. com/ news/ 2004/ 04/ 0408_040408_oldestpetcat. html). National Geographic News. 2004-04-08. . Retrieved 2007-03-06.  Muir, Hazel (2004-04-08). "Ancient remains could be oldest pet cat" (http:/ / www. newscientist. com/ article/ dn4867. html). New Scientist. . Retrieved 2007-11-23.  Walton, Marsha (April 9, 2004). "Ancient burial looks like human and pet cat" (http:/ / edition. cnn. com/ 2004/ TECH/ science/ 04/ 08/ cats. cyprus/ index. html). CNN. . Retrieved 2007-11-23.  Dienekes' Anthropology Blog : Dog domestication in the Aurignacian (c. 32kyBP (http:/ / dienekes. blogspot. com/ 2008/ 10/ dog-domestication-in-aurignacian-c. html))  MSNBC : World's first dog lived 31,700 years ago, ate big (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 27240370/ )
 Scott & Fuller 1974, p. 54 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=2D3IS1tDFcsC& pg=PA54)  Krebs, Robert E. & Carolyn A. (2003). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions & Discoveries of the Ancient World. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-31342-3.  Simmons, Paula; Carol Ekarius (2001). Storey's Guide to Raising Sheep. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing LLC. ISBN 978-1-58017-262-2.  Giuffra E, Kijas JM, Amarger V, Carlborg O, Jeon JT, Andersson L (April 2000). "The origin of the domestic pig: independent domestication and subsequent introgression" (http:/ / www. genetics. org/ cgi/ pmidlookup?view=long& pmid=10747069). Genetics 154 (4): 1785–91. PMC 1461048. PMID 10747069. .  G. Larson, K. Dobney, U. Albarella, M. Fang, E. Matisso-Smith, J. Robins, S. Lowden, H. Finlayson, T. Brand, E. Willerslev, P. Rowley-Conwy, L. Andersson, A. Cooper (March 2005). "Worldwide Phylogeography of Wild Boar Reveals Multiple Centers of Pig Domestication" (http:/ / www. sciencemag. org/ content/ 307/ 5715/ 1618. full. pdf). Science 307 (5715): 1618. doi:10.1126/science.1106927. PMID 15761152. .  Melinda A. Zeder, Goat busters track domestication (http:/ / web. utk. edu/ ~persian/ goat. htm) (Physiologic changes and evolution of goats into a domesticated animal), April 2000, (English) (summarizing research done in Ganj Dareh).  Late Neolithic megalithic structures at Nabta Playa (Sahara), southwestern Egypt. (http:/ / www. comp-archaeology. org/ WendorfSAA98. html)  Source : Laboratoire de Préhistoire et Protohistoire de l'Ouest de la France (http:/ / palissy. humana. univ-nantes. fr/ LABOS/ UMR/ serveur/ recherche/ pruvost. html), (French).  (http:/ / news. nationalgeographic. com/ news/ 2004/ 04/ 0408_040408_oldestpetcat. html), domestication of the cat on Cyprus, National Geographic.  West B., Zhou B-X. (1989). "Did chickens go north? New evidence for domestication" (http:/ / www. adelaide. edu. au/ ANZCCART/ publications/ dom_chicken. pdf) (PDF). World’s Poultry Science Journal 45 (3): 205–218. doi:10.1079/WPS19890012. .  History of the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) in South America, a summary of the current state of knowledge (http:/ / cavyhistory. tripod. com/ )  Beja-Pereira A, England PR, Ferrand N, et al. (June 2004). "African origins of the domestic donkey" (http:/ / www. sciencemag. org/ cgi/ pmidlookup?view=long& pmid=15205528). Science 304 (5678): 1781. doi:10.1126/science.1096008. PMID 15205528. . [ New Scientist Donkey domestication began in Africa (http:/ / www. newscientist. com/ article. ns?id=dn6032) Lay summary].  Roger Blench, The history and spread of donkeys in Africa (http:/ / www. animaltraction. net/ donkeys/ donkeys-blench-history. pdf)PDF (235 KiB) (English).  The Domestication of the Horse (http:/ / www. imh. org/ imh/ kyhpl1b. html); see also Domestication of the horse  Domestication of Reindeer (http:/ / explorenorth. com/ library/ weekly/ aa080798. htm)  Geese: the underestimated species (http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ V6200T/ v6200T0n. htm)  Nice Rats, Nasty Rats: Maybe It’s All in the Genes (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2006/ 07/ 25/ health/ 25rats. html)  .Sometimes it is because these animals don't breed well in captivity (http:/ / www. lioncrusher. com/ animal. asp?animal=54)
• • • • • • Discussion of animal domestication (http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1499.htm) Guns, Germs and Steel by Jared Diamond (ISBN 0-393-03891-2) News story (http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2004/0408cats.shtml) about an early domesticated cat find Belyaev experiment (http://www.devbio.com/article.php?ch=23&id=223) with the domestic fox Use of Domestic Animals in Zoo Education (http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/domestic.htm) The Initial Domestication of Cucurbita pepo in the Americas 10,000 Years Ago (http://www.sciencemag.org/ cgi/content/abstract/276/5314/932) • Cattle domestication diagram (http://www.geochembio.com/biology/organisms/cattle/) • Major topic "domestication": free full-text articles (more than 100 plus reviews) in National Library of Medicine (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=DetailsSearch&Term=domestication[Title]+ AND+"loattrfree+full+text"[sb]) • Why don't we ride zebras? (http://www.lifeonterra.com/episode.php?id=191l) an online children's film about animal domestication
British Agricultural Revolution
British Agricultural Revolution
British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of development in Britain between the 17th century and the end of the 19th century, which saw an epoch-making increase in agricultural productivity and net output. This in turn supported unprecedented population growth, freeing up a significant percentage of the workforce, and thereby helped drive the Industrial Revolution. How this came about is not entirely clear, but the post-Renaissance advances in science, engineering and elementary botany likely encouraged the progression of the Agricultural Revolution in Britain. In recent decades, enclosure, mechanization, four-field crop rotation, and selective breeding have been highlighted as primary causes, with credit given to only a relatively few individuals.
Prior to the 18th century, agriculture had been much the same across Europe since the Middle Ages. The open field system was essentially feudal, with each farmer subsistence-cropping strips of land in one of three or four large fields held in common and splitting up the products likewise. Beginning as early as the 12th century, some of the common fields in Britain were enclosed into individually owned fields, and the process rapidly accelerated in the 15th and 16th centuries. This led to farmers losing their land and their grazing rights and left many unemployed. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the practice of enclosure was denounced by the Church, and legislation was drawn up against it; but the developments in agricultural mechanization during the 18th century required large, enclosed fields so as to be workable. This led to a series of government acts, culminating in the General enclosure Act of 1801, which sanctioned large-scale land reform. While small farmers received compensation for their strips, it was minimal, while the loss of rights for the rural population led to reduction in their diets and an increased dependency on the Poor law. Surveying and legal costs weighed heavily on poor farmers, who sometimes even had to sell their share of the land to pay for its being split up. Only a few found work in the (increasingly mechanized) enclosed farms for good. Many relocated to the cities or colonies to try to find their fortune or work in the emerging factories of the Industrial Revolution. By the end of the 18th century the process of enclosure was largely complete.
Jethro Tull made early advancements in agricultural technology with his seed drill (1701) — a mechanical seeder which distributed seeds efficiently across a plot of land. It took a century and a half after the publication in 1731 of his Horse hoeing husbandry for farmers to widely adopt the technology. (Although a pioneer in Europe, Tull was not the first to invent a seed drill; its origins can be traced back thousands of years to the East and Asia.) Joseph Foljambe's Rotherham plough of 1730, while not the first iron plough, was the first iron plough to have any commercial success in Europe, combining an earlier Dutch design with a number of technological innovations. Its fittings and coulter were made of iron and the mouldboard and share were covered with an iron plate making it lighter to pull and more controllable than previous ploughs. It remained in use in Britain until the
The Leader of the luddites, engraving of 1812
British Agricultural Revolution
57 development of the tractor. It was followed by James Small of Doncaster and Berwickshire in 1763, whose 'Scots Plough' used an improved cast iron share to turn the soil more effectively with less draft, wear, or strain on the ploughing team. Andrew Meikle's threshing machine of 1786 was the final straw for many farm labourers, and led to an uprising that became known as the Swing Riots, it began with the destruction of a threshing machine in the Elham Valley area of East Kent in the summer of 1830, and by early December had spread throughout the whole of southern England and East Anglia. The name was derived from the so called leader of the rebellion a Captain Swing (probably a mythical character comparable to the Luddite's Ned Ludd).
An agricultural engine, towing a living van and a water cart: Ransomes, Sims & Jefferies Ltd 6nhp Jubilee of 1908
In the 1850s and '60s John Fowler, an agricultural engineer, pioneered the use of steam engines for ploughing and digging drainage channels.
Three-field crop rotation
During the Middle Ages, the open field system had employed a three year crop rotation, with a different crop in each of two fields, e.g. wheat and barley, and with the third field fallow. Over the following two centuries, the regular planting of legumes in the fields which were previously fallow slowly increased the fertility of croplands. The planting of legumes helped to increase plant growth in the empty field due to their ability to fix nitrogen in the soil. Other crops that were occasionally grown were flax and members of the mustard family. The farmers in Flanders (in parts of France and current day Belgium) discovered a still more effective four-field rotation system, using turnips and clover (a legume) to replace the fallow year. In addition to improving soil fertility, clover was an ideal fodder crop, so the improved grain production simultaneously increased livestock production. Farmers could grow more livestock because there was more food of higher quality, and the manure was an excellent fertilizer, so they could have even more productive crops. Charles "Turnip" Townshend (2nd Viscount Townshend) learned the four-field system from Flanders and introduced it to Great Britain in 1730.
In England, Robert Bakewell and Thomas Coke introduced selective breeding (mating together two animals with particularly desirable characteristics), and inbreeding (the mating of close relatives, such as father and daughter, or brother and sister, to stabilize certain qualities) in order to reduce genetic diversity in desirable animals programs from the mid 18th century. Robert Bakewell cross-bred the Lincoln and Longhorn sheep to produce the New Leicester variety. These methods proved successful in the production of larger and more profitable livestock.
Technology from Flanders
The British Agricultural Revolution was sparked in part by advancements in Flanders, including the aforementioned four-crop rotation. Due to the large and dense population of Flanders, which forced farmers to take advantage of every inch of usable land, the country had become a pioneer in drainage and reclamation technology. Many Flemish experts went to the Dutch Republic (the modern-day Netherlands) and reclaimed land there. Finally, Dutch experts like Cornelius Vermuyden brought the technology to Britain.
British Agricultural Revolution
Effects on history
Sound advice on farming began to appear in England in the mid-17th century, from writers such as Samuel Hartlib, Walter Blith and others, but the overall agricultural productivity of Britain started to grow significantly only in the period of the Agricultural Revolution. It is estimated that the productivity of wheat was about 19 bushels per acre in 1720 and that it has grown to 21-22 bushels in the middle of the eighteenth century. It declined slightly in the decades of 1780 and 1790 but it began to grow again by the end of the century and reached a peak in the 1840s around 30 bushels per acre, stabilising thereafter. The Agricultural Revolution in Britain proved to be a major turning point in history. The population in 1750 reached the level of 5.7 million. This had happened before: in around 1350 and again in 1650. Each time, either the appropriate agricultural infrastructure to support a population this high was not present or plague or war occurred (which may have been related), a Malthusian catastrophe occurred, and the population fell. However, by 1750, when the population reached this level again, an onset in agricultural technology and new methods without outside disruption, and also the effects of sugar imports, allowed the population growth to be sustained. The increase in population led to more demand from the people for goods such as clothing. A new class of landless labourers, products of enclosure, provided the basis for cottage industry, a stepping stone to the Industrial Revolution. To supply continually growing demand, shrewd businessmen began to pioneer new technology to meet demand from the people. This led to the first industrial factories. People who once were farmers moved to large cities to get jobs in the factories. The British Agricultural Revolution not only made the population increase possible, but also increased the yield per agricultural worker, meaning that a larger percentage of the population could no longer work in agriculture but could and/or had to work in these new, post-Agricultural Revolution jobs. The British Agricultural Revolution was the cause of drastic changes in the lives of British women. Before the Agricultural Revolution, women worked alongside their husbands in the fields and were an active part of farming. The increased efficiency of the new machinery, along with the fact that this new machinery was often heavier and difficult for a woman to work, made this unnecessary and impractical, and women were relegated to other roles in society. To supplement the family's income, many went into cottage industries. Others became domestic servants or were forced into professions such as prostitution. The new, limited roles of women, dubbed by one historian as "this defamation of women workers", (Valenze) fuelled prejudices of women only being fit to work in the home, and also effectively separated them from the new, mechanised areas of work, leading to a divide in the pay between men and women. Towards the end of the 19th century, the substantial gains in British agricultural productivity were rapidly offset by competition from cheaper imports, made possible by advances in transportation, refrigeration, and many other technologies.
    The Rotherham Plough (http:/ / www. rotherhamweb. co. uk/ h/ plough. htm) Harrison. The Common People. pp. 249 -253 ODNB entry for Blith: Retrieved 2 September 2011. Subscription required. (http:/ / www. oxforddnb. com/ view/ article/ 2655) http:/ / eh. net/ bookreviews/ library/ 0529
• Harrison, L F C (1989). The Common People, a History from the Norman Conquest to the Present. Glasgow: Fontana. ISBN 000686136. • Kagan, Donald (2004). The Western Heritage. London: Prentice Hall. pp. 535–539. ISBN 0-13-182839-8. • Overton, Mark (19 September 2002). Agricultural Revolution in England 1500 - 1850 (http://www.bbc.co.uk/ history/british/empire_seapower/agricultural_revolution_01.shtml). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56859-5.
British Agricultural Revolution • Valenze, Deborah (1995). The First Industrial Woman. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. p. 183. ISBN 0195089812.
Selective breeding is the process of breeding plants and animals for particular genetic traits. Typically, strains that are selectively bred are domesticated, and the breeding is sometimes done by a professional breeder. Bred animals are known as breeds, while bred plants are known as varieties, cultigens, or cultivars. The cross of animals results in what is called a crossbreed, and crossbred plants are called hybrids. The term selective breeding is synonymous with artificial selection. In animal breeding techniques such as inbreeding, linebreeding, and outcrossing are utilized. In plant breeding, similar methods are used. A Belgian Blue cow. The defect in the breed's Charles Darwin discussed how selective breeding had been successful myostatin gene is maintained through linebreeding and is responsible for its accelerated in producing change over time in his book, Origin of Species. The first lean muscle growth chapter of the book discusses selective breeding and domestication of such animals as pigeons, dogs and cattle. Selective breeding was used by Darwin as a springboard to introduce the theory of natural selection, and to support it.
Animals with homogeneous appearance, behavior, and other characteristics are known as particular breeds, and they are bred through culling particular traits and selecting for others. Purebred animals have a single, recognizable breed, and purebreds with recorded lineage are called pedigreed. Crossbreeds are a mix of two purebreds, whereas mixed breeds are a mix of several breeds, often unknown. Animal breeding begins with breeding stock, a group of animals used for the purpose of planned breeding. When individuals are looking to breed animals, they look for certain valuable traits in purebred stock for a certain purpose, or may intend to use some type of crossbreeding to produce a new type of stock with different, and, it is presumed, superior abilities in a given area of endeavor. For example, to breed chickens, a typical breeder intends to receive eggs, meat, and new, young birds for further reproduction. Thus, the breeder has to study different breeds and types of chickens and analyze what can be expected from a certain set of characteristics before he or she starts breeding them. Therefore, when purchasing initial breeding stock, the breeder seeks a group of birds that will most closely fit the purpose intended. Purebred breeding aims to establish and maintain stable traits, that animals will pass to the next generation. By "breeding the best to the best," employing a certain degree of inbreeding, considerable culling, and selection for "superior" qualities, one could develop a bloodline superior in certain respects to the original base stock. Such animals can be recorded with a breed registry, the organization that maintains pedigrees and/or stud books. However, single-trait breeding, breeding for only one trait over all others, can be problematic. In one case mentioned by animal behaviorist Temple Grandin, roosters bred for fast growth or heavy muscles did not know how to perform typical rooster courtship dances, which alienated the roosters from hens and led the roosters to kill the hens after reproducing with them. The observable phenomenon of hybrid vigor stands in contrast to the notion of breed purity. However, on the other hand, indiscriminate breeding of crossbred or hybrid animals may also result in degradation of quality.
Plant breeding has been used for thousands of years, and began with the domestication of wild plants into uniform and predictable agricultural cultigens. High-yielding varieties have been particularly important in agriculture. Selective plant breeding is also used in research to produce transgenic animals that breed "true" (i.e., are homozygous) for artificially inserted or deleted genes.
Selective breeding in aquaculture
Selective breeding in aquaculture holds high potential for the genetic improvement of fish and shellfish. Unlike terrestrial livestock, the potential benefits of selective breeding in aquaculture were not realized until recently. This is because high mortality led to the selection of only a few broodstock, causing inbreeding depression, which then forced the use of wild broodstock. This was evident in selective breeding programs for growth rate, which resulted in slow growth and high mortality.
Researchers at the USDA have selectively bred carrots with a variety of colors.
Control of the reproduction cycle was one of the main reasons as it is a requisite for selective breeding programmes. Artificial reproduction was not achieved because of the difficulties in hatching or feeding some farmed species such as eel and yellowtail farming. A suspected reason associated with the late realisation of success in selective breeding programs in aquaculture was the education of the concerned people – researchers, advisory personnel and fish farmers. The education of fish biologists paid less attention to quantitative genetics and breeding plans. Another was the failure of documentation of the genetic gains in successive generations. This in turn led to failure in quantifying economic benefits that successful selective breeding programs produce. Documentation of the genetic changes was considered important as they help in fine tuning further selection schemes.
Quality traits in aquaculture
Aquaculture species are reared for particular traits such as growth rate, survival rate, meat quality, resistance to diseases, age at sexual maturation, fecundity, shell traits like shell size, shell colour, etc. • Growth rate – growth rate is normally measured as either body weight or body length. (Gjedrem 1985). This trait is of great economic importance for all aquaculture species as faster growth rate speeds up the turnover of production (Gjedrem 1983). Improved growth rates show that farmed animals utilize their feed more efficiently through a correlated response (Gjedrem 1985). • Survival rate – survival rate may take into account the degrees of resistance to diseases (Gjedrem 1985). This may also see the stress response as fish under stress are highly vulnerable to diseases (Gjedrem 1983). The stress fish experience could be of biological, chemical or environmental influence. • Meat quality – the quality of fish is of great economic importance in the market. Fish quality usually takes into account size, meatiness, and percentage of fat, colour of flesh, taste, shape of the body, ideal oil and omega-3 content (Gjedrem 1985). • Age at sexual maturation- The age of maturity in aquaculture species is another very important for farmers as during early maturation the species divert all their energy to gonad production affecting growth and meat production and are more susceptible to health problems (Gjerde 1986). • Fecundity – As the fecundity in fish and shellfish is usually high it is not considered as a major trait for improvement. However, selective breeding practices may consider the size of the egg and correlate it with survival and early growth rate (Gjedrem 1985).
Finfish response to selection
Salmonids Gjedrem (1979) showed that selection of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) led to an increase in body weight by 30% per generation. A comparative study on the performance of select Atlantic salmon with wild fish was conducted by AKVAFORSK Genetics Centre in Norway. The traits, for which the selection was done included growth rate, feed consumption, protein retention, energy retention, and feed conversion efficiency. Selected fish had a twice better growth rate, a 40% higher feed intake, and an increased protein and energy retention. This led to an overall 20% better Fed Conversion Efficiency as compared to the wild stock (Thodeson et al.1999). Atlantic salmon have also been selected for resistance to bacterial and viral diseases. Selection was done to check resistance to Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV). The results showed 66.6% mortality for low-resistant species whereas the high-resistant species showed 29.3% mortality compared to wild species (Storset et al. 2007). Rainbow trout (S. gairdneri) was reported to show large improvements in growth rate after 7-10 generations of selection (Donaldson and Olson 1957). Kincaid et al. (1977) showed that growth gains by 30% could be achieved by selectively breeding rainbow trout for three generations. A 7% increase in growth was recorded per generation for rainbow trout by Kause et al. (2005). In Japan, high resistance to IPNV in rainbow trout has been achieved by selectively breeding the stock. Resistant strains were found to have an average mortality of 4.3% whereas 96.1% mortality was observed in a highly sensitive strain (Okamoto et al. 1993). Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) increase in weight was found to be more than 60% after four generations of selective breeding (Hershberger et al. 1990). In Chile, Neira et al. (2006) conducted experiments on early spawning dates in coho salmon. After selectively breeding the fish for four generation, spawning dates were 13 – 15 days earlier. Cyprinids Selective breeding programs for the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) include improvement in growth, shape and resistance to disease. Experiments carried out in the USSR used crossings of broodstocks to increase genetic diversity and then selected the species for traits like growth rate, exterior traits and viability, and/or adaptation to environmental conditions like variations in temperature. Kirpichnikov et al. (1974) and Babouchkine (1987) selected carp for fast growth and tolerance to cold, the Ropsha carp. The results showed a 30-40% to 77.4% improvement of cold tolerance but did not provide any data for growth rate. An increase in growth rate was observed in the second generation in Vietnam (Tran and Nguyen 1993). Moav and Wohlfarth (1976) showed positive results when selecting for slower growth for three generations compared to selecting for faster growth. Schaperclaus (1962) showed resistance to the dropsy disease wherein selected lines suffered low mortality (11.5%) compared to unselected (57%). Channel Catfish Growth was seen to increase by 12 – 20% in selectively bred Iictalurus punctatus (Bondari, 1983). More recently, the overall response of Channel Catfish response to selection for improved growth rate was found to be approximately 80%, i.e., an average of 13% per generation (Dunham 2006).
Shellfish response to selection
Oysters Selection for live weight of Pacific oysters showed improvements ranging from 0.4% to 25.6% compared to the wild stock (Langdon et al. 2003). Sydney-rock oysters (Saccostrea commercialis) showed a 4% increase after one generation and a 15% increase after two generations (Nell et al. 1996, 1999). Chilean oysters (Ostrea chilensis), selected for improvement in live weight and shell length showed a 10-13% gain in one generation. Bonamia ostrea is a protistan parasite that causes catastrophic losses (nearly 98%) in European flat oyster Ostrea edulis L. This protistan parasite is endemic to three oyster-regions in Europe. Selective breeding programs show that O. edulis susceptibility to the infection differs across oyster strains in Europe. A study carried out by Culloty et al. (2001)
Selective breeding showed that ‘Rossmore’ oysters in Cork harbour, Ireland had better resistance compared to other Irish strains. A selective breeding program at Cork harbour uses broodstock from 3– to 4-year-old survivors and is further controlled until a viable percentage reaches market size (Culloty et al. 2004). Over the years ‘Rossmore’ oysters have shown to develop lower prevalence to B. ostreae infection and percentage mortality. Ragone Calvo et al. (2003) selectively bred the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, for resistance against co-occurring parasites Haplosporidium nelson (MSX) and Perkinsus marinus (Dermo). They achieved dual resistance to the disease in four generations of artificial selection. The oysters showed higher growth and survival rates and low susceptibility to the infections. At the end of the experiment, artificially selected C. virginica showed a 34-48% higher survival rate. Penaeid shrimps Selection for growth in Penaeid shrimps yielded successful results. A selective breeding program for Litopenaeus stylirostris saw an 18% increase in growth after the fourth generation and 21% growth after the fifth generation (Goyard et al. 1999). Marsupenaeus japonicas showed a 10.7% increase in growth after the first generation (Hetzel et al. 2000). Argue et al. (2002) conducted a selective breeding program on the Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei at The Oceanic Institute, Waimanalo, USA from 1995 to 1998. They reported significant responses to selection compared to the unselected control shrimps. After one generation, a 21% increase was observed in growth and 18.4% increase in survival to TSV. The Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) causes mortalities of 70% or more in shrimps. C.I. Oceanos S.A. in Colombia selected the survivors of the disease form infected ponds and used them as parents for the next generation. They achieved satisfying results in two or three generations wherein survival rates approached levels before the outbreak of the disease (Cock et al. 2009). The resulting heavy losses (up to 90%) caused by Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) caused a number of shrimp farming industries started to selectively breed shrimps resistant to this disease. Successful outcomes led to development of Super Shrimp, a selected line of L. stylirostris that is resistant to IHHNV infection (Tang et al. 2000). Tang et al. (2000) confirmed this by showing no mortalities in IHHNV- challenged Super Shrimp post larvae and juveniles.
Aquatic species versus terrestrial livestock
Selective breeding programs for aquatic species provide better outcomes compared to terrestrial livestock. This higher response to selection of aquatic farmed species can be attributed to the following: • High fecundity in both sexes fish and shellfish enabling higher selection intensity. • Large phenotypic and genetic variation in the selected traits. Selective breeding in aquaculture provide remarkable economic benefits to the industry, the primary one being that it reduces production costs due to faster turnover rates. This is because of faster growth rates, decreased maintenance rates, increased energy and protein retention, and better feed efficiency (Gjedrem and Baranski 2009). Applying such genetic improvement program to aquaculture species will increase productivity to meet the increasing demands of growing populations.
     *Darwin, Charles (2004). The Origin of Species. London: CRW Publishing Limited. ISBN 1904633781. Grandin, Temple; Johnson, Catherine (2005). [69-71 Animals in Translation]. New York, New York: Scribner. ISBN 0743247698. 69-71. Gjedrem and Moranski 2009 Gjedrem 1985 Gjedrem, 1983
Argue, B. J., arce, S, M., Lotz, J. M & Moss, S.M. 2002. Selective breeding of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) for growth and resistance to Taura syndrome Virus. Aquaculture, 204: 447 -460. Babouchkine, Y.P., 1987. La sélection d’une carpe résistant à l’hiver. In: Tiews, K. (Ed.), Proceedings ofWorld Symposium on Selection,Hybridization, and Genetic Engineering in Aquaculture, Bordeaux 27–30 May 1986, vol. 1. HeenemannVerlagsgesellschaft mbH, Berlin, pp. 447–454. Bondari, K. 1983. Response to bidirectional selection for body weight in channel catfish. Aquaculture 33:73–81. Cock, J., Gitterle, T., Salazar, M & Rye, Morten. (2009). Breeding for disease resistance of Penaeid shrimps. Aquaculture 286: 1 – 11. Culloty, S.C., Cronin, M.A., Mulcahy, M.F., 2001. An investigation into the relative resistance of Irish flat oysters Ostrea edulis L. to the parasite Bonamia ostreae (Pichot et al., 1980). Aquaculture 199, 229–244. Culloty, S.C., Cronin, M.A & Mulchany, M.F. 2004. Potential resistance of a number of populations of the oyster Ostrea edulis to the parasite Bonamia ostreae. Aquaculture, 237:41-58. Darwin, C. 2004. The Origin of Species. London: CRW Publishing Limited. ISBN 1904633781. Donaldson, L.R. and Olson, P.R., 1957. Development of rainbow trout broodstock by selective breeding. Transactions of the Americans Fisheries Society, 85: 93-101. Gjerde, B. 1986. Growth and Reproduction in Fish and shellfish. Aquaculture, 57:37-55. Gjedrem, T., 1979. Selection for growth rate and domestication in Atlantic salmon. Zeitschrift für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie, 96: 56-59. Gjedrem, T. 1983. Genetic variation in quantitative traits and selective Breeding in fish and shellfish. Aquaculture, 33:51-72. Gjedrem, T. 1985. Improvement of Productivity through Breeding Schemes. Geo Journal, 10(3): 233-241. Gjedrem, T., 1997. Selective breeding to improve aquaculture production. World Aquaculture, 28, 33–45. Gjedrem, G & Baranski, M. 2009. Selective breeding in Aquaculture: An Introduction. 1st Edition. Springer. Goyard, E., Patrois, J., Reignon, J.-M., Vanaa, V., Dufour, R & Be´dier, E. 1999. IFREMER’s shrimp genetics program. Global Aquaculture Advocate, 2(6): 26–28. Grandin, T & Johnson, C. 2005. [69-71 Animals in Translation]. New York, New York: Scribner. ISBN 0743247698. Hershberger, W.K., Myers, J.M., Iwamoto, R.N., Mcauley, W.C & Saxton, A.M. 1990. Genetic Changes in the Growth of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Marine Net-Pens, Produced by Ten Years of Selection. Aquaculture, 85:187-197. Hetzel, D.J.S., Crocos, P.J., Davis, G.P., Moore, S.S., Preston, N.C., 2000. Response to selection and heritability for growth in the Kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus. Aquaculture 181, 215–223. Kause, A., Ritola, O., Paananen, T., Wahlroos, H & Mäntysaari, E.A. 2005. Genetic trends in growth, sexual maturity and skeletal deformations, and rate of inbreeding in a breeding programme for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 247: 177–187.
Selective breeding Kincaid, A.L.. Bridges, W.R. and Von Limbach, B., 1977. Three generations of selection for growth rate in fall-spawning rainbow trout. Transactions of the Americans Fisheries Society, 106: 621-628. Kirpichnikov, V.S., IIYAsov, J.I., Shart, L.A., Vikhman, A.A., Ganchenko, M.V., Ostashevsky, A.L., Simonov, V.M., Tikhonov, G.F & Tjurin, V.V. 1993. Selection of Krasnodar common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) for resistance to dropsy: principal results and prospects. Aquaculture, 111:7-20. Langdon, C., Evans, F., Jacobson, D & Blouin, M. 2003. Yields of cultures Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas Thunberg improved after one generation of selection. Aquaculture, 220:227-244. Moav, R.,Wohlfarth, G.W., 1976. Two way selection for growth rate in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Genetics 82, 83–101. Neira, R., Díaz, N., Gall, G., Gallardo, J., Lhorente, J &. Alert, A. 2006. Genetic improvement in Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). II: selection response for early spawning date, Aquaculture,257: 1–9. Nell, J.A., Sheridan, A.K., Smith, I.R., 1996. Progress in a Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea commercialis (Iredale and Roughley), breeding program. Aquaculture, 144, 295– 302. Nell, J.A., Smith, I.R., Sheridan, A.K., 1999. Third generation evaluation of Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea commercialis (Iredale and Roughley) breeding lines. Aquaculture, 170, 195– 203. Okamoto, N., Tayama, T., Kawanobe, M., Fujiki, N., Yasuda, Y & Sano, T. 1993. Resistance of a rainbow trout strain to infectious pancreatic necrosis. Aquaculture, 117: 71-76 Ragone Calvo, L.M., Calvo,G.W & Burreson, E. M. 2003. Dual disease resistance in a selectively bred eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, strain tested in Chesapeake Bay. Aquaculture, 220:69-87. Schäperclaus,W. 1962. Traité de pisciculture en étang. Vigot Frères, Paris Storset A, Strand C, Wetten M, Kjøglum S & Ramstad A. 2007. Response to selection for resistance against infectious pancreatic necrosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 272: 62–68. Tang, K. F. J., Durand, S. V., White, B. L., Redman, R. M., Pantoja, C. R & Lightner, D.V. 2000. Postlarvae and juveniles of a selected line of Penaeus stylirostris are resistant to infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus infection. Aquaculture, 190: 203-210. Thodeson, J., Gisdale-Helland, B., Helland, S.J & Gjerde, B. 1999. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization of offspring from wild and selected Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture 180, 237–246. Tran, M.T., Nguyen, C.T. 1993. Selection of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Vietnam. Aquaculture 111: 301–302.
• Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: In situ conservation of livestock and poultry, 1992 (http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/T0559E/T0559E00.htm). • www.eXtension.org/plant_breeding_genomics (http://www.eXtension.org/plant_breeding_genomics) Educational resources for plant breeding and genomics
Green Revolution refers to a series of research, development, and technology transfer initiatives, occurring between the 1940s and the late 1970s, that increased agriculture production around the world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s. The initiatives, led by Norman Borlaug, the "Father of the Green Revolution" credited with saving over a billion people from starvation, involved the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, modernization of management techniques, distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers. The term "Green Revolution" was first used in 1968 by former United States Agency for International Development (USAID) director William Gaud, who noted the spread of the new technologies and said, "These and other developments in the field of agriculture contain the makings of a new revolution. It is not a violent Red Revolution like that of the Soviets, nor is it a White Revolution like that of the Shah of Iran. I call it the Green Revolution."
Increased use of various technologies such as pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers as well as new breeds of high yield crops were employed in the decades after the Second World War to greatly increase global food production.
The agricultural development that began in Mexico by Norman Borlaug in 1943 (based on Nazareno Strampelli's studies) had been judged as a success and the Rockefeller Foundation sought to spread it to other nations. The Office of Special Studies in Mexico became an informal international research institution in 1959, and in 1963 it formally became CIMMYT, The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center. In 1961 India was on the brink of mass famine. Borlaug was invited to India by the adviser to the Indian minister of agriculture M. S. Swaminathan. Despite bureaucratic hurdles imposed by India's grain monopolies, the Ford Foundation and Indian government collaborated to import wheat seed from CIMMYT. Punjab was selected by the Indian government to be the first site to try the new crops because of its reliable water supply and a history of agricultural success. India began its own Green Revolution program of plant breeding, irrigation development, and financing of agrochemicals. India soon adopted IR8 – a semi-dwarf rice variety developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) that could produce more grains of rice per plant when grown with certain fertilizers and irrigation. In 1968, Indian agronomist S.K. De Datta published his findings that IR8 rice yielded about 5 tons per hectare with no fertilizer, and almost 10 tons per hectare under optimal conditions. This was 10 times the yield of traditional rice. IR8 was a success throughout Asia, and dubbed the "Miracle Rice". IR8 was also developed into Semi-dwarf IR36.
In the 1960s, rice yields in India were about two tons per hectare; by the mid-1990s, they had risen to six tons per hectare. In the 1970s, rice cost about $550 a ton; in 2001, it cost under $200 a ton. India became one of the world's most successful rice producers, and is now a major rice exporter, shipping nearly 4.5 million tons in 2006.
IR8 and the Philippines
In 1960, the Government of the Republic of the Philippines with Ford and Rockefeller Foundations established IRRI (International Rice Research Institute). A rice crossing between Dee-Geo-woo-gen and Peta was Wheat yields in developing countries, 1950 to 2004, kg/HA baseline 500 done at IRRI in 1962. In 1966, one of the breeding lines became a new cultivar, IR8. IR8 required the use of fertilizers and pesticides, but produced substantially higher yields than the traditional cultivars. Annual rice production in the Philippines increased from 3.7 to 7.7 million tons in two decades. The switch to IR8 rice made the Philippines a rice exporter for the first time in the 20th century. But the heavy pesticide use reduced the number of fish and frog species found in rice paddies.
In 1970, foundation officials proposed a worldwide network of agricultural research centers under a permanent secretariat. This was further supported and developed by the World Bank; on 19 May 1971, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research was established, co-sponsored by the FAO, IFAD and UNDP. CGIAR, has added many research centers throughout the world. CGIAR has responded, at least in part, to criticisms of Green Revolution methodologies. This began in the 1980s, and mainly was a result of pressure from donor organizations. Methods like Agroecosystem Analysis and Farming System Research have been adopted to gain a more holistic view of agriculture. Methods like Rapid Rural Appraisal and Participatory Rural Appraisal have been adopted to help scientists understand the problems faced by farmers and even give farmers a role in the development process.
Problems in Africa
There have been numerous attempts to introduce the successful concepts from the Mexican and Indian projects into Africa. These programs have generally been less successful. Reasons cited include widespread corruption, insecurity, a lack of infrastructure, and a general lack of will on the part of the governments. Yet environmental factors, such as the availability of water for irrigation, the high diversity in slope and soil types in one given area are also reasons why the Green Revolution is not so successful in Africa. A recent program in western Africa is attempting to introduce a new high-yield variety of rice known as "New Rice for Africa" (NERICA). NERICAs yield about 30% more rice under normal conditions, and can double yields with small amounts of fertilizer and very basic irrigation. However the program has been beset by problems getting the rice into the hands of farmers, and to date the only success has been in Guinea where it currently accounts for 16% of rice cultivation.
Green Revolution After a famine in 2001 and years of chronic hunger and poverty, in 2005 the small African country of Malawi launched the Agricultural Input Subsidy Program by which vouchers are given to smallholder farmers to buy subsidized nitrogen fertilizer and maize seeds. Within its first year, the program was reported with extreme success, producing the largest maize harvest of the country's history; enough to feed the country with tons of maize left over. The program has advanced yearly ever since. Various sources claim that the program has been an unusual success, hailing it as a "miracle".
Agricultural production and food security
The Green Revolution spread technologies that had already existed before, but had not been widely used outside industrialized nations. These technologies included modern irrigation projects, pesticides, synthetic nitrogen fertilizer and improved crop varieties developed through the conventional, science-based methods available at the time. The novel technological development of the Green Revolution was the production of novel wheat cultivars. Agronomists bred cultivars of maize, wheat, and rice that are generally referred to as HYVs or “high-yielding varieties”. HYVs have higher nitrogen-absorbing New varieties of wheat and other grains were potential than other varieties. Since cereals that absorbed extra nitrogen instrumental to the green revolution. would typically lodge, or fall over before harvest, semi-dwarfing genes were bred into their genomes. A Japanese dwarf wheat cultivar (Norin 10 wheat), which was sent to Washington, D.C. by Cecil Salmon, was instrumental in developing Green Revolution wheat cultivars. IR8, the first widely implemented HYV rice to be developed by IRRI, was created through a cross between an Indonesian variety named “Peta” and a Chinese variety named “Dee-geo-woo-gen.” With advances in molecular genetics, the mutant genes responsible for Arabidopsis thaliana genes (GA 20-oxidase, ga1, ga1-3 ), wheat reduced-height genes (Rht) and a rice semidwarf gene (sd1) were cloned. These were identified as gibberellin biosynthesis genes or cellular signaling component genes. Stem growth in the mutant background is significantly reduced leading to the dwarf phenotype. Photosynthetic investment in the stem is reduced dramatically as the shorter plants are inherently more stable mechanically. Assimilates become redirected to grain production, amplifying in particular the effect of chemical fertilizers on commercial yield. HYVs significantly outperform traditional varieties in the presence of adequate irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers. In the absence of these inputs, traditional varieties may outperform HYVs. Therefore, several authors have challenged the apparent superiority of HYVs not only compared to the traditional varieties alone, but by contrasting the monocultural system associated with HYVs with the polycultural system associated with traditional ones.
Cereal production more than doubled in developing nations between the years 1961–1985. Yields of rice, maize, and wheat increased steadily during that period. The production increases can be attributed roughly equally to irrigation, fertilizer, and seed development, at least in the case of Asian rice. While agricultural output increased as a result of the Green Revolution, the energy input to produce a crop has increased faster, so that the ratio of crops produced to energy input has decreased over time. Green Revolution techniques also heavily rely on chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, some of which must be developed from fossil fuels, making agriculture increasingly reliant on petroleum products. Proponents of the Peak Oil theory fear that a future decline in oil and gas production would lead to a decline in food production or even a
Green Revolution Malthusian catastrophe.
Effects on food security
The effects of the Green Revolution on global food security are difficult to assess because of the complexities involved in food systems. The world population has grown by about four billion since the beginning of the Green Revolution and many believe that, without the Revolution, there would have been greater famine and malnutrition. India saw annual wheat production rise from 10 million tons in the 1960s to 73 million in 2006. The average person in World population 1950–2010 the developing world consumes roughly 25% more calories per day now than before the Green Revolution. Between 1950 and 1984, as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the globe, world grain production increased by over 250%. The production increases fostered by the Green Revolution are often credited with having helped to avoid widespread famine, and for feeding billions of people. There are also claims that the Green Revolution has decreased food security for a large number of people. One claim involves the shift of subsistence-oriented cropland to cropland oriented towards production of grain for export or animal feed. For example, the Green Revolution replaced much of the land used for pulses that fed Indian peasants for wheat, which did not make up a large portion of the peasant diet.
Malthusian criticism Some criticisms generally involve some variation of the Malthusian principle of population. Such concerns often revolve around the idea that the Green Revolution is unsustainable, and argue that humanity is now in a state of overpopulation with regards to the sustainable carrying capacity and ecological demands on the Earth. Although 36 million people die each year as a direct or indirect result of hunger and poor nutrition, Malthus' more extreme predictions have frequently failed to materialize. In 1798 Thomas Malthus made his prediction of impending famine. The world's population had doubled by 1923 and doubled again by 1973 without fulfilling Malthus' prediction. Malthusian Paul R. Ehrlich, in his 1968 book The Population Bomb, said that "India couldn't possibly feed two hundred million more people by 1980" and "Hundreds of millions of people will starve to death in spite of any crash programs." Ehrlich's warnings failed to materialize when India became self-sustaining in cereal production in 1974 (six years later) as a result of the introduction of Norman Borlaug's dwarf wheat varieties.
Since supplies of oil and gas are essential to modern agriculture techniques, a fall in global oil supplies could cause spiking food prices in the coming decades. Famine To some modern Western sociologists and writers, increasing food production is not synonymous with increasing food security, and is only part of a larger equation. For example, Harvard professor Amartya Sen claimed large historic famines were not caused by M. King Hubbert's prediction of world petroleum production rates.  decreases in food supply, but by socioeconomic Modern agriculture is totally reliant on petroleum energy. dynamics and a failure of public action. However, economist Peter Bowbrick disputes Sen's theory, arguing that Sen relies on inconsistent arguments and contradicts available information, including sources that Sen himself cited. Bowbrick further argues that Sen's views coincide with that of the Bengal government at the time of the Bengal famine of 1943, and the policies Sen advocates failed to relieve the famine. Quality of diet Some have challenged the value of the increased food production of Green Revolution agriculture. Miguel A. Altieri, (a pioneer of agroecology and peasant-advocate), writes that the comparison between traditional systems of agriculture and Green Revolution agriculture has been unfair, because Green Revolution agriculture produces monocultures of cereal grains, while traditional agriculture usually incorporates polycultures. These monoculture crops are often used for export, feed for animals, or conversion into biofuel. According to Emile Frison of Bioversity International, the Green Revolution has also led to a change in dietary habits, as fewer people are affected by hunger and die from starvation, but many are affected by malnutrition such as iron or vitamin-A deficiencies. Frison further asserts that almost 60% of yearly deaths of children under age five in developing countries are related to malnutrition. High-yield rice (HYR), introduced since 1964 to poverty-ridden Asian countries, such as the Philippines, was found to have inferior flavor and be more glutinous and less savory than their native varieties. This caused its price to be lower than the average market value. In the Philippines the introduction of heavy pesticides to rice production, in the early part of the Green Revolution, poisoned and killed off fish and weedy green vegetables that traditionally coexisted in rice paddies. These were nutritious food sources for many poor Filipino farmers prior to the introduction of pesticides, further impacting the diets of locals. Political impact A major critic of the Green Revolution, U.S. investigative journalist Mark Dowie, writes: The primary objective of the program was geopolitical: to provide food for the populace in undeveloped countries and so bring social stability and weaken the fomenting of communist insurgency. Citing internal Foundation documents, Dowie states that the Ford Foundation had a greater concern than Rockefeller in this area. There is significant evidence that the Green Revolution weakened socialist movements in many nations. In countries such as India, Mexico, and the Philippines, technological solutions were sought as an alternative to expanding agrarian reform initiatives, the latter of which were often linked to socialist politics.
Green Revolution Socioeconomic impacts The transition from traditional agriculture, in which inputs were generated on-farm, to Green Revolution agriculture, which required the purchase of inputs, led to the widespread establishment of rural credit institutions. Smaller farmers often went into debt, which in many cases results in a loss of their farmland.  The increased level of mechanization on larger farms made possible by the Green Revolution removed a large source of employment from the rural economy. Because wealthier farmers had better access to credit and land, the Green Revolution increased class disparities. The rich–poor gap widened due to that. Because some regions were able to adopt Green Revolution agriculture more readily than others (for political or geographical reasons), interregional economic disparities increased as well. Many small farmers are hurt by the dropping prices resulting from increased production overall. However, large-scale farming companies only account for less than 10% of the total farming capacity. The new economic difficulties of small holder farmers and landless farm workers led to increased rural-urban migration. The increase in food production led to a cheaper food for urban dwellers, and the increase in urban population increased the potential for industrialization. Globalization In the most basic sense, the Green Revolution was a product of globalization as evidenced in the creation of international agricultural research centers that shared information, and with transnational funding from groups like the Rockefeller Foundation, Ford Foundation, and United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Additionally, the inputs required in Green Revolution agriculture created new markets for seed and chemical corporations, many of which were based in the United States. For example, Standard Oil of New Jersey established hundreds of distributors in the Philippines to sell agricultural packages composed of HYV seed, fertilizer, and pesticides.
Pesticides Green Revolution agriculture relies on extensive use of pesticides, which are necessary to limit the high levels of pest damage that inevitably occur in monocropping – the practice of producing or growing one single crop over a wide area. Biodiversity The spread of Green Revolution agriculture affected both agricultural biodiversity and wild biodiversity. Increased use of irrigation played a major role in the green revolution. There is little disagreement that the Green Revolution acted to reduce agricultural biodiversity, as it relied on just a few high-yield varieties of each crop. This has led to concerns about the susceptibility of a food supply to pathogens that cannot be controlled by agrochemicals, as well as the permanent loss of many valuable genetic traits bred into traditional varieties over thousands of years. To address these concerns, massive seed banks such as Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research’s (CGIAR) International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (now Bioversity International) have been established (see Svalbard Global Seed Vault).
Green Revolution There are varying opinions about the effect of the Green Revolution on wild biodiversity. One hypothesis speculates that by increasing production per unit of land area, agriculture will not need to expand into new, uncultivated areas to feed a growing human population. However, land degradation and soil nutrients depletion have forced farmers to clear up formerly forested areas in order to keep up with production. A counter-hypothesis speculates that biodiversity was sacrificed because traditional systems of agriculture that were displaced sometimes incorporated practices to preserve wild biodiversity, and because the Green Revolution expanded agricultural development into new areas where it was once unprofitable or too arid. For example, the development of wheat varieties tolerant to acid soil conditions with high aluminium content, permitted the introduction of agriculture in sensitive Brazilian ecosystems as Cerrado semi-humid tropical savanna and Amazon rainforest in the geoeconomic macroregions of Centro-Sul and Amazônia. Before the Green Revolution, other Brazilian ecosystems were also significantly damaged by human activity, such as the once 1st or 2nd main contributor to Brazilian megadiversity Atlantic Rainforest (above 85% of deforestation in the the 1980s, about 95% after 2010s) and the important xeric shrublands called Caatinga mainly in the Northeastern Brazil (about 40% in the 1980s, about 50% after 2010s — deforestation of the Caatinga biome is generally associated with greater risks of desertification). Nevertheless, the world community has clearly acknowledged the negative aspects of agricultural expansion as the 1992 Rio Treaty, signed by 189 nations, has generated numerous national Biodiversity Action Plans which assign significant biodiversity loss to agriculture's expansion into new domains.
The consumption of the pesticides used to kill pests by humans in some cases may be increasing the likelihood of cancer in some of the rural villages using them. Poor farming practices including non-compliance to usage of masks and over-usage of the chemicals compound this situation. In 1989, WHO and UNEP estimated that there were around 1 million human pesticide poisonings annually. Some 20,000 (mostly in developing countries) ended in death, as a result of poor labeling, loose safety standards etc. Pesticides and cancer Long term exposure to pesticides such as organochlorines, creosote, and sulfate have been correlated with higher cancer rates and organochlorines DDT, chlordane, and lindane as tumor promoters in animals. Contradictory epidemiologic studies in humans have linked phenoxy acid herbicides or contaminants in them with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and malignant lymphoma, organochlorine insecticides with STS, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), leukemia, and, less consistently, with cancers of the lung and breast, organophosphorous compounds with NHL and leukemia, and triazine herbicides with ovarian cancer.  Punjab case The Indian state of Punjab pioneered green revolution among the other states transforming India into a food-surplus country. The state is witnessing serious consequences of intensive farming using chemicals and pesticide. A comprehensive study conducted by Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER) has underlined the direct relationship between indiscriminate use of these chemicals and increased incidence of cancer in this region. An increase in the number of cancer cases has been reported in several villages including Jhariwala, Koharwala, Puckka, Bhimawali, and Khara. Environmental activist Vandana Shiva has written extensively about the social, political and economic impacts of the Green Revolution in Punjab. She claims that the Green Revolution's reliance on heavy use of chemical inputs and monocultures has resulted in water scarcity, vulnerability to pests, and incidence of violent conflict and social marginalization. In 2009, under a Greenpeace Research Laboratories investigation, Dr Reyes Tirado, from the University of Exeter, UK conducted the study in 50 villages in Muktsar, Bathinda and Ludhiana districts revealed chemical, radiation and
Green Revolution biological toxicity rampant in Punjab. Twenty percent of the sampled wells showed nitrate levels above the safety limit of 50 mg/l, established by WHO, the study connected it with high use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers. With increasing poisoning of the soil, the region once hailed as the home to the Green Revolution, now due to excessive use of chemical fertilizer, is being termed by one columnist as the "Other Bhopal". Organic farming About four decades after the Green Revolution widely helped the world to be able to produce food in sufficient levels, a small percentage of farmers in India have chosen to employ organic farming methods in response to side effects from their adoption of modern agriculture techniques.
Norman Borlaug's response to criticism
He dismissed certain claims of critics, but did take other concerns seriously and stated that his work has been: "a change in the right direction, but it has not transformed the world into a Utopia". Of environmental lobbyists he said: "some of the environmental lobbyists of the Western nations are the salt of the earth, but many of them are elitists. They've never experienced the physical sensation of hunger. They do their lobbying from comfortable office suites in Washington or Brussels...If they lived just one month amid the misery of the developing world, as I have for fifty years, they'd be crying out for tractors and fertilizer and irrigation canals and be outraged that fashionable elitists back home were trying to deny them these things".
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• Norman Borlaug talk transcript, 1996 (http://www.archive.org/details/BorlaugIARI) • The Green Revolution in the Punjab, by Vandana Shiva (http://livingheritage.org/green-revolution.htm) • "Accelerating the Green Revolution in Africa" (http://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/what-we-do/ where-we-work/africa/accelerating-green-revolution-africa). Rockefeller Foundation. • Moseley, W.G. (May 14 2008). "In search of a better revolution" (http://www.startribune.com/opinion/ 18908939.html?page=1&c=y). Minneapolis StarTribune.
Livestock refers to one or more domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor. The term "livestock" as used in this article does not include poultry or farmed fish; however the inclusion of these, especially poultry, within the meaning of "livestock" is common. Livestock generally are raised for subsistence or for profit. Raising Domestic sheep and a cow (heifer) pastured together in South Africa animals (animal husbandry) is an important component of modern agriculture. It has been practised in many cultures since the transition to farming from hunter-gather lifestyles.
Animal-rearing has its origins in the transition of cultures to settled farming communities rather than hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animals are ‘domesticated’ when their breeding and living conditions are controlled by humans. Over time, the collective behaviour, life cycle, and physiology of livestock have changed radically. Many modern farm animals are unsuited to life in the wild. Dogs were domesticated in East Asia about 15,000 years ago, Goats and sheep were domesticated around 8000 BCE in Asia. Swine or pigs were domesticated by 7000 BCE in the Middle East and China. The earliest evidence of horse domestication dates to around 4000 BCE Older English sources, such as the King James Version of the Bible, refer to livestock in general as "cattle", as opposed to the word "deer", which then was used for wild animals which were not owned. The word cattle is derived from Middle English chatel, which meant all kinds of movable personal property, including of course livestock, which was differentiated from non-movable real-estate ("real property"). In later English, sometimes smaller livestock was called "small cattle" in that sense of movable property on land, which was not automatically bought or sold with the land. Today, the modern meaning of "cattle", without a qualifier, usually refers to domesticated bovines (see Cattle). Other species of the genus Bos sometimes are called wild cattle.
The term "livestock" is nebulous and may be defined narrowly or broadly. On a broader view, livestock refers to any breed or population of animal kept by humans for a useful, commercial purpose. This can mean domestic animals, semi-domestic animals, or captive wild animals. Semi-domesticated refers to animals which are only lightly domesticated or of disputed status. These populations may also be in the process of domestication. Some people may use the term livestock to refer to only domestic animals or even to only red meat animals.
Animal / Type
Time of first captivity, domestication Between 5000 BC and 4000 BC
Area of first captivity, domestication Andes
Current commercial uses
Alpaca Mammal, herbivore Banteng Mammal, herbivore Bison Mammal, herbivore Camel Mammal, herbivore Cat Mammal, carnivore Cattle Mammal, herbivore Deer Mammal, herbivore Dog Mammal, omnivore Donkey Mammal, herbivore Gayal Mammal, herbivore Goat Mammal, herbivore Guinea pig Mammal, herbivore Horse Mammal, herbivore Llama Mammal, herbivore Mule Mammal, herbivore
Southeast Asia, Java
meat, milk, draught
captive (see also Beefalo)
Late 19th Century
Wild Dromedary and Bactrian camels African Wildcat
Between 4000 BC and 1400 BC
mount, pack animal, meat, dairy, camel hair
   Near East 7500 BC 
pest control, companionship, meat
Southwest Asia, India, North Africa (?) North America
Meat (beef, veal, blood), dairy, leather, draught
Meat (venison), leather, antlers, antler velvet
pack animal, draught, hunting, herding, searching/gathering, watching/guarding, meat Egypt mount, pack animal, draught, meat, dairy
African Wild Ass
Dairy, meat, wool, leather, light draught
Mount, draught, dairy, meat, pack animal
light mount, pack animal, draught, meat, wool
Sterile hybrid of donkey and horse
mount, pack animal, draught
domestic Wild boar 7000 BC Eastern Anatolia Meat (pork, bacon, etc.), leather, pet, research
Pig Mammal, omnivore Rabbit Mammal, herbivore Reindeer Mammal, herbivore Sheep Mammal, herbivore Water buffalo Mammal, herbivore Yak Mammal, herbivore
between AD 400-900
Meat, fur, leather, pet, research
Meat, leather, antlers, dairy, draught,
Asiatic mouflon sheep
Between 9000 BC-11000 BC
Wool, dairy, leather, meat (mutton, lamb)
Wild Asian Water buffalo, (Arni)
mount, draught, meat, dairy
Meat, dairy, wool, mount, pack animal, draught
‘Livestock’ are defined, in part, by their end purpose as the production of food, fiber and/or labor. The economic value of livestock includes: Meat the production of a useful form of dietary protein and energy Dairy products Mammalian livestock can be used as a source of milk, which can in turn easily be processed into other dairy products, such as yogurt, cheese, butter, ice cream, kefir, and kumis. Using livestock for this purpose can often yield several times the food energy of slaughtering the animal outright. Fiber Livestock produce a range of fiber/textiles. For example, sheep and goats produce wool and mohair; cows, deer, and sheep skins can be made into leather; and bones, hooves and horns of livestock can be used. Fertilizer
A Brown Swiss cow in the Swiss Alps
Manure can be spread on fields to increase crop yields. This is an important reason why historically, plant and animal domestication have been intimately linked. Manure is also used to make plaster for walls and floors, and can be used as a fuel for fires. The blood and bone of animals are also used as fertilizer. Labor Animals such as horses, donkey, and yaks can be used for mechanical energy. Prior to steam power, livestock were the only available source of non-human labor. They are still used for this purpose in many places of the
Livestock world, including ploughing fields, transporting goods, and military functions. Land management The grazing of livestock is sometimes used as a way to control weeds and undergrowth. For example, in areas prone to wild fires, goats and sheep are set to graze on dry scrub which removes combustible material and reduces the risk of fires. During the history of animal husbandry, many secondary products have arisen in an attempt to increase carcass utilization and reduce waste. For example, animal offal and non-edible parts may be transformed into products such as pet food and fertilizer. In the past, such waste products were sometimes also fed to livestock as well. However, intra-species recycling poses a disease risk, threatening animal and even human health (see bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), scrapie and prion). Due primarily to BSE (mad cow disease), feeding animal scraps to animals has been banned in many countries, at least in regards to ruminants and pigs.
Farming practices vary dramatically worldwide and between types of animals. Livestock are generally kept in an enclosure, are fed by human-provided food and are intentionally bred, but some livestock are not enclosed, or are fed by access to natural foods, or are allowed to breed freely, or any combination thereof. Livestock raising historically was part of a nomadic or pastoral form of material culture. The herding of camels and reindeer in some parts of the world remains unassociated with sedentary agriculture. The transhumance form of herding in the Sierra Nevada Goat family with 1-week-old young Mountains of California still continues, as cattle, sheep or goats are moved from winter pasture in lower elevation valleys to spring and summer pasture in the foothills and alpine regions, as the seasons progress. Cattle were raised on the open range in the Western United States and Canada, on the Pampas of Argentina, and other prairie and steppe regions of the world. The enclosure of livestock in pastures and barns is a relatively new development in the history of agriculture. When cattle are enclosed, the type of ‘enclosure’ may vary from a small crate, a large fenced pasture or a paddock. The type of feed may vary from natural growing grass, to highly sophisticated processed feed. Animals are usually intentionally bred through artificial insemination or through supervised mating. Indoor production systems are generally used only for pigs and poultry, as well as for veal cattle. Indoor animals are generally farmed intensively, as large space requirements would make indoor farming unprofitable and impossible. However, indoor farming systems are controversial due to the waste they produce, odour problems, the potential for groundwater contamination and animal welfare concerns. (For further discussion on intensively farmed livestock, see factory farming, and intensive pig farming). Other livestock are farmed outside, although the size of enclosure and level of supervision may vary. In large open ranges animals may be only occasionally inspected or yarded in "round-ups" or a muster (livestock). Herding dogs may be used for mustering livestock as are cowboys, stockmen and jackaroos on horses, or with vehicles and also by helicopters. Since the advent of barbed wire (in the 1870s) and electric fence technology, fencing pastures has become much more feasible and pasture management simplified. Rotation of pasturage is a modern technique for improving nutrition and health while avoiding environmental damage to the land. In some cases very large numbers of animals may be kept in indoor or outdoor feeding operations (on feedlots), where the animals' feed is processed,
Livestock offsite or onsite, and stored on site then fed to the animals. Livestock - especially cattle - may be branded to indicate ownership and age, but in modern farming identification is more likely to be indicated by means of ear tags than branding. Sheep are also frequently marked by means of ear marks and/or ear tags. As fears of mad cow disease and other epidemic illnesses mount, the use of implants to monitor and trace animals in the food production system is increasingly common, and sometimes required by government regulations. Modern farming techniques seek to minimize human involvement, increase yield, and improve animal health. Economics, quality and consumer safety all play a role in how animals are raised. Drug use and feed supplements (or even feed type) may be regulated, or prohibited, to ensure yield is not increased at the expense of consumer health, safety or animal welfare. Practices vary around the world, for example growth hormone use is permitted in the United States, but not in stock to be sold to the European Union. The improvement of health, using modern farming techniques, on the part of animals has come into question. Feeding corn to cattle, which have historically eaten grasses, is an example; where the cattle are less adapted, the rumen pH changes to more acidic, leading to liver damage and other difficulties. The US F.D.A. still allows feedlots to feed nonruminant animal proteins to cattle. For example, feeding chicken manure and poultry meal is acceptable for cattle, and beef or pork meat and bone meal is being fed to chickens.
Livestock farmers had suffered from wild animal predation and theft by rustlers. In North America, gray wolf, grizzly bear, cougar, black bear, and coyote are sometimes considered a threat to livestock. In Eurasia and Africa, wolf, brown bear, leopard, tiger, lion, dhole, black bear, spotted hyena, and others caused livestock deaths. In Australia, the dingo, foxes, wedge-tailed eagles, hunting and domestic dogs (especially) cause problems for graziers because they often kill for fun.  In Latin America, feral dogs cause livestock deaths in nightfall.
Livestock diseases compromise animal welfare, reduce productivity, and can infect humans. Animal diseases may be tolerated, reduced through animal husbandry, or reduced through antibiotics and vaccines. In developing countries, animal diseases are tolerated in animal husbandry, resulting in considerably reduced productivity, especially given the low health-status of many developing country herds. Disease management for gains in productivity is often the first step taken in implementing an agriculture policy. Disease management can be achieved through changes in animal husbandry. These measures may aim to control spread using biosecurity measures, such as controlling animal mixing, controlling entry to farm lots and the use of protective clothing, and quarantining sick animals. Diseases also may be controlled by the use of vaccines and antibiotics. Antibiotics in sub-therapeutic doses may also be used as a growth-promoter, increasing growth by 10-15%. The issue of antibiotic resistance has limited the practices of preventative dosing such as antibiotic-laced feed. Countries will often require the use of veterinary certificates before transporting, selling or showing animals. Disease-free areas often rigorously enforce rules for entry of potentially diseased animals, including quarantine.
Transportation and marketing
Since many livestock are herd animals, they were historically driven to market "on the hoof" to a town or other central location. During the period after the American Civil War, the abundance of Longhorn cattle in Texas, and the demand for beef in Northern markets, led to the implementation of the Old West cattle drive. The method is still used in some parts of the world. Truck transport is now common in developed countries. Local and regional livestock auctions and commodity markets facilitate trade in livestock. In other areas, livestock may be bought and sold in a bazaar, such as may be found in many parts of Central Asia, or a flea market type setting.
Grass-fed cattle, saleyards, Walcha, NSW
Stock shows and fairs are events where people bring their best livestock to compete with one another. Organizations like 4-H, Block & Bridle, and FFA encourage young people to raise livestock for show purposes. Special feeds are purchased and hours may be spent prior to the show grooming the animal to look its best. In cattle, sheep, and swine shows, the winning animals are frequently auctioned off to the highest bidder, and the funds are placed into a scholarship fund for its owner. The movie Grand Champion, released in 2004, is the story of a young Texas boy's experience raising a prize steer.
The issue of raising livestock for human benefit raises the issue of the relationship between humans and animals, in terms of the status of animals and obligations of people. Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals under human care should be treated in such a way that they do not suffer unnecessarily. What is ‘unnecessary’ suffering may vary. Generally, though, the animal welfare perspective is based on an interpretation of scientific research on farming practices. By contrast, animal rights is the viewpoint that using animals for human benefit is, by its nature, generally exploitation, regardless of the farming practices used. Animal rights activists would generally be vegan or vegetarian, whereas it is consistent with the animal welfare perspective to eat meat, depending on production processes.
A shepherd boy in India. Livestock are extremely important to the livelihoods of rural smallholder farmers, particularly in the developing world.
Animal welfare groups generally seek to generate public discussion on livestock raising practices and secure greater regulation and scrutiny of livestock industry practices. Animal rights groups usually seek the abolition of livestock farming, although some groups may recognise the necessity of achieving more stringent regulation first. Animal welfare groups, such as the RSPCA, are often, in first world countries, given a voice at governmental level in the development of policy. Animal rights groups find it harder to find methods of input, and may go further and advocate civil disobedience or violence.
Livestock A number of animal husbandry practices have been the subject of campaigns in the 1990s and 2000s and have led to legislation in some countries. Confinement of livestock in small and unnatural spaces is often done for economic or health reasons. Animals may be kept in the minimum size of cage or pen with little or no space to exercise. Where livestock are used as a source of power, they may be pushed beyond their limits to the point of exhaustion. The public visibility of this abuse meant it was one of the first areas to receive legislation in the nineteenth century in European countries, but it still goes on in parts of Asia. Broiler hens may be de-beaked, pigs may have deciduous teeth pulled, cattle may be de-horned and branded, dairy cows and sheep may have tails cropped, merino sheep may be mulesed, and many types of male animals are castrated. Animals may be transported long distances to market and slaughter. Overcrowded conditions, heat from tropical-area shipping and lack of food, water and rest breaks have been subject to legislation and protest. (See Live Export) Slaughter of livestock was an early target for legislation. Campaigns continue to target Halal and Kosher religious ritual slaughter.
At first reports like the United Nations report "Livestock's Long Shadow" cast a pall over the livestock sector (primarily cattle, chickens, and pigs) for 'emerging as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to our most serious environmental problems.' The United Nations controversially included emissions from deforestation as part of its methodology. Rather than the 18% figure that placed on the sector as major contributor to emissions, the real figure, less deforestation is actually 12%. In April 2008, the [United States Environmental Protection Agency] released a major stocktake of emissions in the United States entitled Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2006  . On 6.1 it found "In 2006, the agricultural sector was responsible for emissions of 454.1 teragrams of CO2 equivalent (Tg CO2 Eq.), or 6 percent of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions." By way of comparison, transportation in the US produces more than 25% of all emissions. The issue of livestock as a major policy focus remains, especially when dealing with problems of deforestation in neotropical areas, land degradation, climate change and air pollution, water shortage and water pollution, and loss of biodiversity. A research team at Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine in Hokkaidō found that supplementing the animals' diet with cysteine, a type of amino acid, and nitrate can reduce the methane gas produced, without jeopardising the cattle's productivity or the quality of their meat and milk.  Deforestation Deforestation impacts the carbon cycle (and global and regional climate) and causes habitat loss of many species. Forests that are sinks for the carbon cycle are lost through deforestation. Forests are either logged or burned to make room for grasslands, often the area needed is extensive. Deforestation can also create fragmentation, allowing only patches of habitat for species to live. If patches are distant and small, gene flow is reduced, habitat is altered, edge effects will occur and there will be more opportunities for invasive species to intrude. Land Degradation Research from the University of Botswana in 2008 has found that farmers' common practice of overstocking cattle to cope with drought losses made ecosystems more vulnerable and risked long term damage to cattle herds, in turn, by actually depleting scarce biomass. The study of the Kgatleng district of Botswana predicted that by 2050, the cycle of mild drought is likely to become shorter for the region (18 months instead of two years) due to climate change.  Climate Change & Air Pollution Methane is one of the gasses emitted from livestock manure; it persists for long periods of time and is a green house gas. It is the second most abundant green house gas after carbon dioxide. Even though there is less methane then carbon dioxide its ability to warm the atmosphere is 25 times greater. Water Shortage Livestock require water for consumption but also for watering drops necessary for feed. Grains are often used to feed live stock about 50% of US grains produced does and 40% of world grains produced does as well. Grain and in general crop production requires various amounts of water, it takes 100,000 liters of water for a kilogram of grain fed beef, compared to wheat, which takes 900 liters. Water Pollution Fertilizers that often contain manure are used to grow such crops (as cereal and fodder) that have phosphorus and nitrogen in them, 95% of which is estimated to be lost to the environment. The pollutants then
Livestock cause dead zones for plants and aquatic animals due to the lack of oxygen in the water. The lack of oxygen is known as eutrophication, where organisms present in the water grow excessively and then later decompose using up the oxygen in the water. The most prominent example of such is the Gulf of Mexico, where much of the nutrients in fertilizer used in the mid west are funneled down the Mississippi River into the Gulf causing massive dead zones. Another pollutant not most commonly though of is antibiotics and hormones. In southern Asia vultures that consumed carcasses of livestock declined 95% due to antibiotic known as Diclofenac. Alternatives Researchers in Australia are looking into the possibility of reducing methane from cattle and sheep by introducing digestive bacteria from kangaroo intestines into livestock. In semi arid rangelands such as the Great Plains in the U.S., there has been research that provides evidence that livestock can be beneficial to maintaining grassland habitats. Livestock create and maintain habitat for big game species 
United States federal legislation sometimes more narrowly defines the term to make specified agricultural commodities either eligible, or ineligible, for a program or activity. For example, the Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999 (P.L. 106-78, Title IX) defines livestock only as cattle, swine, and lambs. However, 1988 disaster assistance legislation defined the term as “cattle, sheep, goats, swine, poultry (including egg-producing poultry), equine animals used for food or in the production of food, fish used for food, and other animals designated by the Secretary.”
 "Breeds of Livestock" (http:/ / www. ansi. okstate. edu/ breeds/ ). Department of Animal Science - Oklahoma State University. . Retrieved 2009-09-30.  Origin of chattel, accessed August 15, 2009 (http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ browse/ chattel)  (http:/ / news. nationalgeographic. com/ news/ 2004/ 04/ 0408_040408_oldestpetcat. html), domestication of the cat on Cyprus, National Geographic.  "Oldest Known Pet Cat? 9500-Year-Old Burial Found on Cyprus" (http:/ / news. nationalgeographic. com/ news/ 2004/ 04/ 0408_040408_oldestpetcat. html). National Geographic News. 2004-04-08. . Retrieved 2007-03-06.  Muir, Hazel (2004-04-08). "Ancient remains could be oldest pet cat" (http:/ / www. newscientist. com/ article/ dn4867. html). New Scientist. . Retrieved 2007-11-23.  Walton, Marsha (April 9, 2004). "Ancient burial looks like human and pet cat" (http:/ / edition. cnn. com/ 2004/ TECH/ science/ 04/ 08/ cats. cyprus/ index. html). CNN. . Retrieved 2007-11-23.  Northern Daily Leader, 20 May 2010, Dogs mauled 30 sheep (and killed them), p.3, Rural Press  The Times: Dogs seized for killing sheep (http:/ / www. victorharbortimes. com. au/ news/ local/ news/ general/ dogs-seized-for-killing-sheep/ 1619896. aspx) Retrieved 2010-6-2  Encyclopaedia Britannica - Basic nutrients and additives » Antibiotics and other growth stimulants (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 203664/ feed/ 67871/ Antibiotics-and-other-growth-stimulants)  http:/ / www. epa. gov/ climatechange/ emissions/ usinventoryreport. html  "Global warming breakthrough: way to stop cow gas" (http:/ / www. smh. com. au/ news/ unusual-tales/ global-warming-breakthrough-way-to-stop-cow-gas/ 2008/ 01/ 22/ 1200764221842. html). The Sydney Morning Herald. 2008-01-22. .  "Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options." FAO: FAO Home. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2006. Web. 16 Jan. 2011. http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ 010/ a0701e/ a0701e00. HTM  http:/ / www. scidev. net/ en/ sub-suharan-africa/ news/ sub-saharan-africa-news-in-brief-10-22-april-2008. html  "Global Methane Initiative Fact Sheet." Global Methane Initiative. Web. 04 Feb. 2011. http:/ / www. globalmethane. org/ gmi  Pimentel, David. "Cornell Science News: Livestock Production." Cornell Chronicle Online. 7 Aug. 1997. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. http:/ / www. news. cornell. edu/ releases/ aug97/ livestock. hrs. html  Pelletier, Nathan, and Peter Tyedmers. "Forecasting Potential Global Environmental Costs of Livestock Production 2000–2050." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107.43 (2010): 18371-8374. Web of Science. Web. 17 Jan. 2011. http:/ / www. pnas. org. offcampus. lib. washington. edu/ content/ 107/ 43/ 18371  Starme, Elanor. "LEVELING THE FIELD – ISSUE BRIEF #2 Environmental and Health Problems in Livestock Production: Pollution in the Food System." American Journal of Public Health 94.10: 1703-709. Web. 5 Feb. 2011. <http:/ / ase. tufts. edu/ gdae/ pubs/ rp/ AAI_Issue_Brief_2_1. pdf
 Australian researchers looking for kangaroo bacteria to modify livestock (http:/ / www. news. com. au/ couriermail/ story/ 0,23739,22880187-5013016,00. html)  Derner, Justin D., William K. Lauenroth, Paul Stapp, and David J. Augustine. "Livestock as Ecosystem Engineers for Grassland Bird Habitat in the Western Great Plains of North America." Rangeland Ecology & Management 62.2 (2009): 111-18. Web of Science. Web. Feb. 2011.  CRS Report for Congress: Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws, 2005 Edition - Order Code 97-905 (http:/ / ncseonline. org/ nle/ crsreports/ 05jun/ 97-905. pdf)
• Livestock (http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/livestock) - New South Wales Government • Havana Livestock Fair (Photo Feature) (http://www.havanatimes.org/?p=31372) - Havana Times, October 19, 2010
A breed is a group of domestic animals or plants with a homogeneous appearance, behavior, and other characteristics that distinguish it from other animals or plants of the same species. Despite the centrality of the idea of "breeds" to animal husbandry, there is no scientifically accepted definition of the term. A breed is therefore not an objective or biologically verifiable classification, but instead a term of art amongst groups of breeders who share a consensus around what qualities make some members of a given species members of a nameable subset. When bred together, animals of the same breed pass on these predictable traits to their offspring, and this ability—known as "breeding true"—is a requirement for a breed. Plant breeds are more commonly known as cultivars. The offspring produced as a result of breeding animals of one breed with other animals of another breed are known as crossbreeds or mixed breeds. Crosses between animal or plant variants above the level of breed/cultivar (species, subspecies, botanical variety, even different genera) are referred to as hybrids.
The breeder or breeders who initially establish a breed, do so by selecting individual animals from within the groups gene pool that they see as having the necessary qualities needed to enhance the breed model they are aiming for. These animals are referred to as “breed foundation”, or “breed origination”. Further, the breeder mates the most desirable from his point of view representatives, aiming to pass such characteristics to their progeny. This process is known as selective breeding. A written description of desirable and undesirable breed representatives is referred to as a breed standard.
Breed specific characteristics also known as breed traits are inherited, and purebred animals pass such traits from generation to generation. Thus, all specimens of the same breed carry several genetic characteristics of the original foundation animal(s). In order to maintain the breed, a breeder would select those animals with the most desirable traits, to achieve further maintenance and developing of such traits. At the same time, avoiding animals carrying characteristics, not typical and/or undesirable for the breed, known as faults or genetic defects. The population within the same breed consists of a sufficient number of animals to maintain the breed within the specified parameters without the necessity of forced inbreeding. The breed includes several bloodlines that can be interbred to sustain the breed in whole without weakening the gene pool. Domestic animal breeds commonly differ from country to country, and from nation to nation. Breeds originating in a certain country are known as "native breeds" of that country.
Domestic animal breeds
Mammals • • • • • • • • • • List of dog breeds List of cat breeds List of horse breeds List of rabbit breeds List of sheep breeds List of goat breeds List of cattle breeds List of domestic pig breeds List of guinea pig breeds List of domestic Asian water buffalo breeds Birds • • • • • List of chicken breeds List of pigeon breeds List of goose breeds List of duck breeds List of turkey breeds
 The state of the world's animal genetic resources for food and agriculture. Barbara Rischkowsky and Dafydd Pilling. Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. 2007  The Genetics of Populations. Jay L Lush. Iowa State University Press. 1994  Banga, Surinder S. (November 25, 1998). Hybrid Cultivar Development, p. 119. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3540635238
A crop is a non-animal species or variety that is grown to be harvested as food, livestock fodder, fuel or for any other economic purpose. Major world crops include maize (corn), wheat, rice, soybeans, hay, potatoes and cotton. While the term "crop" most commonly refers to plants, it can also include species from other biological kingdoms. For example, mushrooms like shiitake, which are in the fungi kingdom, can be referred to as crops. In addition, certain species of algae are also cultivated, although it is also harvested from the wild. In contrast, animal species that are raised by humans are called livestock, except those that are kept as pets. Microbial species, such as bacteria or viruses, are referred to as cultures. Microbes are not typically grown for food, but are rather used to alter food. For example, bacteria is used to ferment milk to produce yogurt.
Crops drying in a home in Punjab, India.
A cultivar is a plant or group of plants selected for desirable characteristics that can be maintained by propagation. Most cultivars have arisen in cultivation but a few are special selections from the wild. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, camellias, daffodils, rhododendrons and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for flower colour and form. Similarly the world's agricultural food crops are almost exclusively cultivars that have been selected for characters like improved yield, flavor, and resistance to disease: very few Osteospermum 'Pink Whirls' A cultivar selected for its intriguing and colourful flowers wild plants are now used as food sources. Trees used in forestry are also special selections grown for their enhanced quality and yield of timber. Cultivars form a major part of Liberty Hyde Bailey's broader grouping, the cultigen, defined as a plant whose origin or selection is primarily due to intentional human activity. Cultivar was coined by Liberty Hyde Bailey and it is generally regarded as a portmanteau of "cultivated" and "variety", but could also be derived from "cultigen" and "variety". A cultivar is not the same as a botanical variety, and there are differences in the rules for the formation and use of the names of botanical varieties and cultivars. In recent times the naming of cultivars has been complicated by the use of statutory Plant Patents and Plant Breeders' Rights names. The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV – French: Union internationale pour la protection des obtentions végétales) offers legal protection of plant cultivars to people or organisations who introduce new cultivars to commerce. UPOV requires that a cultivar be distinct, uniform and stable. To be distinct, it must have characteristics that easily distinguish it from any other known cultivar. To be uniform and stable, the cultivar must retain these characteristics under repeated propagation. The naming of cultivars is an important aspect of cultivated plant taxonomy, and the correct naming of a cultivar is prescribed by the Rules and Recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (the ICNCP, commonly known as the Cultivated Plant Code). A cultivar is given a cultivar name, which consists of the scientific Latin botanical name followed by a cultivar epithet. The cultivar epithet is usually in a vernacular language. For example, the full cultivar name of the King Edward potato is Solanum tuberosum 'King Edward'. The 'King Edward' part of the name is the cultivar epithet which, according to the Rules of the Cultivated Plant Code, is bounded by single quotation marks.
Origin of term
The origin of the term “cultivar” arises from the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with characteristics that have arisen in cultivation (what we now call cultigens). This distinction dates back to the Greek philosopher Theophrastus (370–285 BCE), the "Father of Botany", who was keenly aware of this difference. Botanical historian Alan Morton notes that Theophrastus in his Enquiry into Plants "had an inkling of the limits of culturally induced (phenotypic) changes and of the importance of genetic constitution" (Historia Plantarum III, 2,2 and Causa Plantarum I, 9,3). The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature uses as its starting point for modern botanical nomenclature those Latin names that appeared in Linnaeus' publications Species Plantarum (10th ed.) and Genera Plantarum (5th ed.). In Species Plantarum, Linnaeus (1707-1778) listed all the plants known to him, either directly or from his extensive reading. He recognized the rank of varietas (in Liberty Hyde Bailey (1858-1954) coined the word cultigen in 1918 and the word cultivar in 1923. English this is the botanical "variety", a rank below that of species and subspecies) and he indicated these varieties by using letters of the Greek alphabet such as α, β, λ in front of the variety name, rather than using the abbreviation var., which is the current convention. Most of the varieties listed by Linnaeus were of “garden” origin rather than being wild plants. Over time there was an increasing need to distinguish between plants growing in the wild, and those with variations that had been produced in cultivation. In the nineteenth century many "garden-derived" plants were given horticultural names, sometimes in Latin and sometimes in a local language. From about the 1900s plants produced in cultivation in Europe were recognised in the Scandinavian, Germanic and Slavic literature through the words stamm or sorte but these words could not be used internationally since, by international agreement, any new terms had to be based in Latin. In the twentieth century an improved international terminology was proposed for the classification and nomenclature of cultivated plants. The word cultivar was coined in 1923 by Liberty Hyde Bailey of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, New York State, when he wrote:
The cultigen is a species, or its equivalent, that has appeared under domestication – the plant is cultigenous. I now propose another name, cultivar, for a botanical variety, or for a race subordinate to species, that has originated under cultivation; it is not necessarily, however,  referable to a recognized botanical species. It is essentially the equivalent of the botanical variety except in respect to its origin.
In this paper Bailey used only the rank of species for the cultigen but it was clear to him that many domesticated plants were more like botanical varieties than species, and that appears to have motivated the suggestion of the new classification category cultivar, which is generally assumed to be a contraction of the words cultivated and variety. However, Bailey was never explicit about the etymology of the word, and it has been suggested that it is a
Cultivar contraction of the words cultigen and variety, which seems more appropriate. The new word cultivar was promoted as ... euphonious. It is free from ambiguity. It serves a purpose.  Its use was subsequently recommended by the first Cultivated Plant Code, which was published in 1953, and by 1960 it had achieved wide international acceptance.
Cultigens and cultivars
The terms cultigen and cultivar may be confused with each other. Cultigen is a general-purpose term for plants that have been deliberately altered or specially selected by humans, while cultivar denotes either a rank in a cultigen classification scheme, or a cultigen taxon. Cultigens include plants with cultivar names and also those with names in the classification categories of Grex and Group. The Cultivated Plant Code states that cultigens are deliberately selected plants that may have arisen by intentional or accidental hybridization in cultivation, by selection from existing Brassica oleracea Italica Group 'Calabrese' Showing presentation of a cultivated stocks, or from variants within wild Group name populations that are maintained as recognizable entities solely by continued propagation. Included within the group of plants known as cultigens are genetically modified plants, plants with binomial Latin names that are the result of ancient human selection, and plants that have been altered by humans but which have not been given formal names. Nevertheless, almost all cultigens are cultivars.
The Cultivated Plant Code notes that the word cultivar is used in two different senses: first, as a classification category the cultivar is defined in Article 2 of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (2009, 8th edition) as follows: The basic category of cultivated plants whose nomenclature is governed by this Code is the cultivar. There are two other classification categories for cultigens, the grex and the Group. The Code then defines a cultivar as a taxonomic unit within the classification category of cultivar. This is the sense of cultivar that is most generally understood and which is used as a general definition.
A cultivar is an assemblage of plants that (a) has been selected for a particular character or combination of characters, (b) is distinct,  uniform and stable in those characters, and (c) when propagated by appropriate means, retains those characters.
Different kinds of cultivar
Which plants are chosen to be named as cultivars is simply a matter of convenience as the category was created to serve the practical needs of horticulture, agriculture and forestry. Members of a particular cultivar are not necessarily genetically identical. The Cultivated Plant Code emphasizes that different cultivated plants may be accepted as different cultivars, even if they have the same genome, while cultivated plants with different genomes may be regarded as the same cultivar. The production of cultivars generally entails considerable human involvement although in a few cases it may be as little as simply selecting variation from plants growing in the wild (whether by collecting growing tissue to propagate from or by gathering seed).
A cultivar of the orchid genus Oncidium
Cultivars generally occur as garden and food crops: Malus 'Granny Smith' and Malus 'Red Delicious' are cultivars of apples propagated by cuttings or grafting, Lactuca 'Red Sails' and Lactuca 'Great Lakes' are lettuce cultivars propagated by seeds. Named cultivars of Hosta and Hemerocallis plants are cultivars produced by micropropagation or division.
Cultivars that are produced asexually are genetically identical and known as clones; this includes plants propagated by division, layering, cuttings, grafts, and budding. The propagating material may be taken from a particular part of the plant, such as a lateral branch, or from a particular phase of the life cycle, such as a juvenile leaf, or from aberrant growth as occurs with witch's broom. Plants whose distinctive characters are derived from the presence of an intracellular organism may also form a cultivar provided the characters are reproduced reliably Leucospermum 'Scarlet Ribbon'A cross performed in Tasmania between from generation to generation. Plants of the same Leucospermum glabrumL. glabrum and Leucospermum tottumL. tottum chimera (which have mutant tissues close to normal tissue) or graft-chimeras (which have vegetative tissue from different kinds of plants and which originate by grafting) may also constitute a cultivar.
Some cultivars "come true from seed", retaining their distinguishing characteristics when grown from seed. Such plants are termed a "variety", "selection" or "strain" but these are ambiguous and confusing words that are best avoided. In general cultivars grown from seeds produce highly variable seedling plants, and should not be labelled with, or sold under, the parent cultivar's name (see  an article by Tony Lord of The RHS Plant Finder). Deliberately seed-raised cultivars can be produced by uncontrolled pollination provided the cultivar can be distinguished by one or more characters that are distinct, uniform and stable under propagation. They may be produced as “lines” that are produced by repeated self-fertilization or inbreeding or “multilines” that are made up of several closely related lines. Sometimes they are F1 hybrids which are the result of a deliberate repeatable single cross between two pure lines. A few F2 hybrid seed cultivars also exist, such as Achillea 'Summer Berries'. Cultivars may arise as a result of 9ik9i, uuua change in ploidy level of a plant, and agamospermous plants that retain their genetic composition and characteristics under reproduction may form cultivars. Occasionally cultivars are raised from seed of a specially selected provenance – for example the seed may be taken from plants that are resistant to a particular disease.
Genetically modified plants with characters resulting from the deliberate implantation of genetic material from a different germplasm may form a cultivar. However, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants notes, "In practice such an assemblage is often marketed from one or more lines or multilines that have been genetically modified. These lines or multilines often remain in a constant state of development which makes the naming of such an assemblage as a cultivar a futile exercise."  However, retired transgenic varieties such as the Fish tomato, which are no longer being developed, do not run into this obstacle and can be given a cultivar name.
Every unique cultivar has a unique name within its denomination class (which is almost always the genus). Names of cultivars are regulated by the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, and may be registered with an International Cultivar Registration Authority (ICRA). There are separate registration authorities for different plant-groups such as roses and camellias. In addition, cultivars may be associated with commercial marketing names referred to in the Cultivated Plant Code as "trade designations" (see below).
Viola 'Clear Crystals Apricot'The specific epithet may be omitted from a cultivar name
Presenting in text
A cultivar name consists of a botanical name (of a genus, species, infraspecific taxon, interspecific hybrid or intergeneric hybrid) followed by a cultivar epithet. The cultivar epithet is capitalised and enclosed by single quotes; it should not be italicized. It is permissible to place a cultivar epithet after a common name provided the common name is botanically Apple 'Sundown'Showing use of a common name as part of the cultivar name unambiguous. Cultivar epithets published before 1 January 1959 were often given a Latin form and can be readily confused with the specific epithets in botanical names; after that date, newly coined cultivar epithets must be in a modern vernacular language to distinguish them from botanical epithets. Examples of correct text presentation: Cryptomeria japonica 'Elegans' Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Aureomarginata' (pre-1959 name, Latin in form) Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Golden Wonder' (post-1959 name, English language) Pinus densiflora 'Akebono' (post-1959 name, Japanese language) Apple 'Sundown' Some incorrect text presentation examples: Cryptomeria japonica "Elegans" (double quotes are unacceptable) Berberis thunbergii cv. 'Crimson Pygmy' (this once-common usage is now unacceptable, as it is no longer correct to use "cv." in this context; Berberis thunbergii 'Crimson Pygmy' is correct) Rosa cv. 'Peace' (this is now incorrect for two reasons: firstly, the use of "cv."; secondly, "Peace" is a trade designation or "selling name" for the cultivar R. 'Madame A. Meilland' and should therefore be printed in a different typeface from the rest of the name, without quote marks, for example: Rosa Peace.)
Where several very similar cultivars exist they can be associated into a Group (formerly Cultivar-group). As Group names are used with cultivar names it is necessary to understand their way of presentation. Group names are presented in normal type and the first letter of each word capitalised as for cultivars, but they are not placed in single quotes.
Presenting in text
Brassica oleracea Capitata Group (the group of cultivars including all typical cabbages) Brassica oleracea Botrytis Group (the group of cultivars including all typical cauliflowers) Hydrangea macrophylla Groupe Hortensis (in French) = Hydrangea macrophylla Hortensia Group (in English) Where cited with a cultivar name the Group should be enclosed in parentheses, as follows: Hydrangea macrophylla (Hortensia Group) 'Ayesha' 
Legal protection of cultivars and their names
Further information: Plant breeders' rights and Trademarks Since the 1990s there has been an increasing use of legal protection for newly produced cultivars. Plant breeders expect legal protection for the cultivars they produce. If other growers can immediately propagate and sell these cultivars as soon as they come on the market, the breeder's benefit is largely lost. Legal protection for cultivars is obtained through the use of Plant breeders’ rights and plant Patents but the specific legislation and procedures needed to take advantage of this protection vary from country to country.
Controversial use of legal protection for cultivars
The use of legal protection for cultivars can be controversial, particularly for food crops that are staples in developing countries, or for plants selected from the wild and propagated for sale without any additional breeding work; some people consider this practice unethical.
Trade designations and marketing names
The formal scientific name of a cultivar, like Solanum tuberosum ‘King Edward’, is a way of uniquely designating a particular kind of plant. This scientific name is in the public domain and cannot be legally protected. Plant retailers wish to maximize their share of the market and one way of doing this is to replace the cumbersome Latin scientific names on plant labels in retail outlets with appealing marketing names that are easy to use, pronounce and remember. Marketing names lie outside the scope of the Cultivated Plant Code which refers to them as "trade designations". If a retailer or wholesaler has the sole legal rights to a marketing name then that may offer a sales advantage. Plants protected by Plant breeders’ rights (PBR) may have a “true” cultivar name – the recognized scientific name in the public domain, and a “commercial synonym” an additional marketing name that is legally protected: an example would be Rosa Fascination = 'Poulmax', the ‘Poulmax’ being the true scientific name. Because a name that is attractive in one language may have less appeal in another country, a plant may be given different selling names from country to country. Quoting the original code name allows the correct identification of cultivars around the world. The peak body coordinating Plant breeders rights is the Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (Union internationale pour la protection des obtentions végétales, UPOV) and this organization maintains a database of new cultivars protected by PBR in all countries.
International Cultivar Registration Authorities
An International Cultivar Registration Authority (ICRA) is a voluntary, non-statutory organization appointed by the Commission for Nomenclature and Cultivar Registration of the International Society of Horticultural Science. ICRAs are generally formed by societies and institutions specializing in particular plant genera such as Dahlia or Rhododendron and are currently located in Europe, North America, China, India, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Puerto Rico. Each ICRA produces an annual report and its reappointment is considered every four years. The main task is to maintain a register of the names within the group of interest and where possible this is published and placed in the public domain.
Dahlia 'Akita' A cultivar selected for flower form and colour
Cultivar One major aim is to prevent the duplication of cultivar and Group epithets within a genus, as well as ensuring that names are in accord with the latest edition of the Cultivated Plant Code. In this way, over the last 50 years or so, ICRAs have contributed to the stability of cultivated plant nomenclature. In recent times many ICRAs have also recorded trade designations and trademarks used in labelling plant material, to avoid confusion with established names. New names and other relevant data are collected by and submitted to the ICRA and in most cases there is no cost. The ICRA then checks each new epithet to ensure that it has not been used before and that it conforms with the Cultivated Plant Code. Each ICRA also ensures that new names are formally established (i.e. published in hard copy, with a description in a dated publication). They record details about the plant, such as parentage, the names of those concerned with its development and introduction, and a basic description highlighting its distinctive characters. ICRAs are not responsible for assessing the distinctiveness of the plant in question. Most ICRAs can be contacted electronically and many maintain web sites: for an up-to-date listing.
 Cultivar has two meanings as explained under Formal definition. When used in reference to a taxon, the word does not apply to an individual plant but to all those plants sharing the unique characteristics that define the cultivar.  Bailey 1923, p. 113  Spencer & Cross 2007, p. 938  Lawrence 1953, pp. 19–20  See (http:/ / www. hort. purdue. edu/ hort/ courses/ HORT217/ Nomenclature/ description. htm)  Cultivated Plant Code Article 14.1 Brickell 2009, p. 19  Morton 1981, pp. 38–39  Lawrence 1955, p. 177  Lawrence 1955, p. 180  Lawrence 1955, p. 181  Lawrence 1955, pp. 179–180  Bailey 1923, p. 113  Trehane 2004, p. 17  This ignored its prior existence as a transitive verb in Spanish, meaning to farm, to cultivate, to grow, or to practice. Online Spanish dictionary (http:/ / www. spanishdict. com/ translate/ cultivar), and in Portuguese meaning to cultivate, to husband, to farm, to plant, to polish, to reclaim, to improve. Ectaco online Portuguese dictionary (http:/ / online. ectaco. co. uk/ main. jsp;jsessionid=bc304a778686293e1e2f?do=e-services-dictionaries-word_translate1& direction=2& status=translate& lang1=23& lang2=pt& source=cultivar)  Lawrence 1960, p. 1  Spencer, Cross & Lumley 2007, p. 54  Cultivated Plant Code Art. 2.3 Brickell 2009, p. 1  Spencer, Cross & Lumley 2007, p. 47  Spencer, Cross & Lumley 2007, p. 53  Cultivated Plant Code. Art. 2.1 Brickell 2009, p. 6  Cultivated Plant Code. Art. 4 Brickell 2009, p. 12  Cultivated Plant Code. Art. 3 Brickell 2009, pp. 10–12  Cultivated Plant Code. Art. 2.2 Brickell 2009, p. 6  Cultivated Plant Code. Preamble & Principles Brickell 2009, p. 19  Cultivated Plant Code, Article 2.20 Brickell 2009, p. 9  Cultivated Plant Code, Articles 2.5–2.11 Brickell 2009, pp. 6–7  Courses / RHS Gardening (http:/ / www. rhs. org. uk/ learning/ publications/ plantsman/ 0605/ opinion. asp)  Cultivated Plant Code, Articles 2.17–2.18 Brickell 2009, pp. 7–8  Cultivated Plant Code, Articles 2.12–2.16 Brickell 2009, pp. 7–8  Cultivated Plant Code, Articles 2.19 Brickell 2009, pp. 8–9  Lawrence 1957, pp. 162–165  Cultivated Plant Code Art. 14 Brickell 2009, p. 19  Cultivated Plant Code Art. 3 Brickell 2009, pp. 10–12  Cultivated Plant Code Art. 15 Brickell 2009, p. 19  P. Gepts (2004) Who Owns Biodiversity, and How Should the Owners Be Compensated? Plant Physiology 134, pp. 1295-1307
 BSPB Plant breeding - The business and science of crop improvement (http:/ / www. bspb. co. uk/ BSPB Handbook. pdf) British Society of Plant Breeders booklet  Adi, A.B.C., Intellectual Property Rights in Biotechnology and the Fate of Poor Farmers' Agriculture. Social Science Research Network (http:/ / papers. ssrn. com/ sol3/ papers. cfm?abstract_id=647863)  'Who owns nature?' (http:/ / www. callygardens. co. uk/ pbr_article. html) (article by nurseryman and plant hunter Michael Wickenden, published in The Plantsman)  Spencer, Cross & Lumley 2007, pp. 76–81  Spencer, Cross & Lumley 2007, p. 78  Cultivated Plant Code Brickell 2009, pp. 62, 67–83  See International Cultivar Registration Authorities (http:/ / www. ishs. org/ sci/ icralist/ icralist. htm)  Staff (2010 [last update]). "ISHS :: Commission Nomenclature and Cultivar Registration - International Cultivar Registration Authorities (ICRAs)" (http:/ / www. ishs. org/ sci/ icra. htm). ishs.org. . Retrieved 5 March 2011.
• Bailey, Liberty Hyde (1923). "Various cultigens, and transfers in nomenclature". Gentes Herbarum 1: 113–136. • Brickell, Chris D. et al. (eds) (2009). "International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP or Cultivated Plant Code) incorporating the Rules and Recommendations for naming plants in cultivation. 8th ed., adopted by the International Union of Biological Sciences International Commission for the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants" (http://www.actahort.org/chronica/pdf/sh_10.pdf). Scripta Horticulturae (International Society of Horticultural Science) 10: 1–184. ISBN 9789066056626. • Lawrence, George H.M. (1953). "Cultivar, Distinguished from Variety". Baileya 1: 19–20. • Lawrence, George H.M. (1955). "The Term and Category of Cultivar". Baileya 3: 177–181. • Lawrence, George H.M. (1957). "The Designation of Cultivar-names". Baileya 5: 162–165. • Lawrence, George H.M. (1960). "Notes on Cultivar Names". Baileya 8: 1–4. • Morton, Alan G. (1981). History of Botanical Science: An Account of the Development of Botany from Ancient Times to the Present Day. London: Academic Press. ISBN 0125083823. • Spencer, Roger; Cross, Robert; Lumley, Peter (2007). Plant names: a guide to botanical nomenclature. (3rd ed.). Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing (also Earthscan, UK.). ISBN 9780643094406. • Spencer, Roger D.; Cross, Robert G. (2007). "The Cultigen". Taxon 56 (3): 938. • Trehane, Piers (2004). "50 years of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants". Acta Horticulturae 634: 17–27.
• Sale point of the Latest Edition (October 2009) (http://www.ishs.org/sci/icracpco.htm) of The International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants • International Cultivar Registration Authorities (http://www.ishs.org/sci/icralist/icralist.htm) • The Language of Horticulture (http://www.hcs.ohio-state.edu/hcs/TMI/HORT234/Nomenclature.html) • Opinion piece by Tony Lord (http://www.rhs.org.uk/learning/publications/plantsman/0605/opinion.asp) (from The Plantsman magazine) • Hortivar - The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Horticulture Cultivars Performance Database (http://www.fao.org/hortivar) • UPOV Homepage (http://www.upov.int/index.html)
Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the genetics of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. Plant breeding can be accomplished through many different techniques ranging from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics for propagation, to more complex molecular techniques (see cultigen and cultivar). Plant breeding has been practiced for thousands of years, since near the beginning of human civilization. It is now practiced worldwide by individuals such as gardeners and farmers, or by professional plant breeders employed by organizations such as government institutions, universities, crop-specific industry associations or research centers. International development agencies believe that breeding new crops is important for ensuring food security by developing new varieties that are higher-yielding, resistant to pests and diseases, drought-resistant or regionally adapted to different environments and growing conditions.
Plant breeding started with sedimentary agriculture and domestication of the first agriculture plants, the cereals were chosen by the early man. They learned to look for superior plants to harvest. The domestication was hastened by early practice of harvesting mutant plants with special traits. This forms the ancient type of plant breeding. Before Mendal’s discovery there was some plant breeding include selection and hybridization experiments. But the plant breeding was only hastened after discovery of Mendal’s law on pea, thus lead a new science “Genetics”. Modern plant breeding is applied genetics but its scientific basis is broader and uses conceptual and technical tools, molecular biology, cytology, systemetics, physiology, pathology, entomology, chemistry, and statistics (biometrics) and has also developed own technology.
Classical plant breeding
Classical plant breeding uses deliberate interbreeding (crossing) of closely or distantly related individuals to produce new crop varieties or lines with desirable properties. Plants are crossbred to introduce traits/genes from one variety or line into a new genetic background. For example, a mildew-resistant pea may be crossed with a high-yielding but susceptible pea, the goal of the cross being to introduce mildew resistance without losing the high-yield characteristics. Progeny from the cross would then be crossed with the high-yielding parent to ensure that the progeny were most like the high-yielding parent, (backcrossing). The progeny from that cross would then be tested for yield and mildew resistance and high-yielding resistant plants would be further developed. Plants may also be crossed with themselves to produce inbred varieties for breeding. Classical breeding relies largely on homologous recombination between chromosomes to generate genetic diversity. The classical plant breeder may also makes use of a number of in vitro techniques such as protoplast fusion, embryo rescue or mutagenesis (see below) to generate diversity and produce hybrid plants that would not exist in nature.
Traits that breeders have tried to incorporate into crop plants in the last 100 years include: 1. Increased quality and yield of the crop 2. Increased tolerance of environmental pressures (salinity, extreme temperature, drought) 3. Resistance to viruses, fungi and bacteria 4. Increased tolerance to insect pests 5. Increased tolerance of herbicides
Before World War II
Intraspecific hybridization within a plant species was demonstrated by Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel, and was further developed by geneticists and plant breeders. In the United Kingdom in the 1880s, it was the pioneering work of Gartons Agricultural Plant Breeders. In the early 20th century, plant breeders realized that Mendel's findings on the non-random nature of inheritance could be applied to seedling populations produced through deliberate pollinations to predict the frequencies of different types. From 1904 to World War II in Italy Nazareno Strampelli created a number of wheat hybrids. His work allowed Italy to increase hugely crop production during the so called "Battle for Grain" (1925–1940) and some varieties was exported in foreign countries, as Argentina, Mexico, China and others. After the war, the work of Strampelli was quickly forgotten, but thanks to the hybrids he created, Norman Borlaug was able to move the very first steps of the Green Revolution.
The Yecoro wheat (right) cultivar is sensitive to salinity, plants resulting from a hybrid cross with cultivar W4910 (left) show greater tolerance to high salinity
In vitro-culture of Vitis (grapevine), Geisenheim Grape Breeding Institute
In 1908, George Harrison Shull described heterosis, also known as hybrid vigor. Heterosis describes the tendency of the progeny of a specific cross to outperform both parents. The detection of the usefulness of heterosis for plant breeding has led to the development of inbred lines that reveal a heterotic yield advantage when they are crossed. Maize was the first species where heterosis was widely used to produce hybrids. By the 1920s, statistical methods were developed to analyze gene action and distinguish heritable variation from variation caused by environment. In 1933, another important breeding technique, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), developed in maize, was described by Marcus Morton Rhoades. CMS is a maternally inherited trait that makes the plant produce sterile pollen. This enables the production of hybrids without the need for labor intensive detasseling. These early breeding techniques resulted in large yield increase in the United States in the early 20th century. Similar yield increases were not produced elsewhere until after World War II, the Green Revolution increased crop production in the developing world in the 1960s.
After World War II
Following World War II a number of techniques were developed that allowed plant breeders to hybridize distantly related species, and artificially induce genetic diversity. When distantly related species are crossed, plant breeders make use of a number of plant tissue culture techniques to produce progeny from otherwise fruitless mating. Interspecific and intergeneric hybrids are produced from a cross of related species or genera that do not normally sexually reproduce with each other. These crosses are referred to as Wide crosses. For example, the cereal triticale is a wheat and rye hybrid. The cells in the plants derived from the first generation created from the cross contained an uneven number of chromosomes and as result was sterile. The cell division inhibitor colchicine was used to double the number of chromosomes in the cell and thus allow the production of a fertile line. Failure to produce a hybrid may be due to pre- or post-fertilization incompatibility. If fertilization is possible between two species or genera, the hybrid embryo may abort before maturation. If this does occur the embryo resulting from an interspecific or intergeneric cross can sometimes be rescued and cultured to produce a whole plant. Such a method is referred to as Embryo Rescue. This technique has been used to produce new rice for Africa, an interspecific cross of Asian rice (Oryza sativa) and African rice (Oryza glaberrima). Hybrids may also be produced by a technique called protoplast fusion. In this case protoplasts are fused, usually in an electric field. Viable recombinants can be regenerated in culture. Chemical mutagens like EMS and DMS, radiation and transposons are used to generate mutants with desirable traits to be bred with other cultivars - a process known as Mutation Breeding. Classical plant breeders also generate genetic diversity within a species by exploiting a process called somaclonal variation, which occurs in plants produced from tissue culture, particularly plants derived from callus. Induced polyploidy, and the addition or removal of chromosomes using a technique called chromosome engineering may also be used. When a desirable trait has been bred into a species, a number of crosses to the favored parent are made to make the new plant as similar to the favored parent as possible. Returning to the example of the mildew resistant pea being crossed with a high-yielding but susceptible pea, to make the mildew resistant progeny of the cross most like the high-yielding parent, the progeny will be crossed back to that parent for several generations (See backcrossing ). This process removes most of the genetic contribution of the mildew resistant parent. Classical breeding is therefore a cyclical process. With classical breeding techniques, the breeder does not know exactly what genes have been introduced to the new cultivars. Some scientists therefore argue that plants produced by classical breeding methods should undergo the same safety testing regime as genetically modified plants. There have been instances where plants bred using classical techniques have been unsuitable for human consumption, for example the poison solanine was unintentionally increased to unacceptable levels in certain varieties of potato through plant breeding. New potato varieties are often screened for solanine levels before reaching the marketplace.
Modern plant breeding
Modern plant breeding may use techniques of molecular biology to select, or in the case of genetic modification, to insert, desirable traits into plants.
Steps of plant breeding
The following are the major activities of plant breeding: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Creation of variation Selection Evaluation Release Multiplication Distribution of the new variety
Marker assisted selection
See main article on Marker assisted selection. Sometimes many different genes can Modern facilities in molecular biology has converted classical plant breeding to molecular influence a desirable trait in plant plant breeding breeding. The use of tools such as molecular markers or DNA fingerprinting can map thousands of genes. This allows plant breeders to screen large populations of plants for those that possess the trait of interest. The screening is based on the presence or absence of a certain gene as determined by laboratory procedures, rather than on the visual identification of the expressed trait in the plant.
Reverse Breeding and Doubled Haploids (DH)
See also main article on Doubled haploidy. A method for efficiently producing homozygous plants from a heterozygous starting plant, which has all desirable traits. This starting plant is induced to produce doubled haploid from haploid cells, and later on creating homozygous/doubled haploid plants from those cells. While in natural offspring genetic recombination occurs and traits can be unlinked from each other, in doubled haploid cells and in the resulting DH plants recombination is no longer an issue. There, a recombination between two corresponding chromosomes does not lead to un-linkage of alleles or traits, since it just leads to recombination with its identical copy. Thus, traits on one chromosome stay linked. Selecting those offspring having the desired set of chromosomes and crossing them will result in a final F1 hybrid plant, having exactly the same set of chromosomes, genes and traits as the starting hybrid plant. The homozygous parental lines can reconstitute the original heterozygous plant by crossing, if desired even in a large quantity. An individual heterozygous plant can be converted into a heterozygous variety (F1 hybrid) without the necessity of vegetative propagation but as the result of the cross of two homozygous/doubled haploid lines derived from the originally selected plant. patent 
See main article on Transgenic plants. Genetic modification of plants is achieved by adding a specific gene or genes to a plant, or by knocking down a gene with RNAi, to produce a desirable phenotype. The plants resulting from adding a gene are often referred to as transgenic plants. If for genetic modification genes of the species or of a crossable plant are used under control of their native promoter, then they are called cisgenic plants. Genetic modification can produce a plant with the desired trait or traits faster than classical breeding because the majority of the plant's genome is not altered. To genetically modify a plant, a genetic construct must be designed so that the gene to be added or removed will be expressed by the plant. To do this, a promoter to drive transcription and a termination sequence to stop transcription of the new gene, and the gene or genes of interest must be introduced to the plant. A marker for the selection of transformed plants is also included. In the laboratory, antibiotic resistance is a commonly used marker: Plants that have been successfully transformed will grow on media containing antibiotics; plants that have not been transformed will die. In some instances markers for selection are removed by backcrossing with the parent plant prior to commercial release. The construct can be inserted in the plant genome by genetic recombination using the bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens or A. rhizogenes, or by direct methods like the gene gun or microinjection. Using plant viruses to insert genetic constructs into plants is also a possibility, but the technique is limited by the host range of the virus. For example, Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) only infects cauliflower and related species. Another limitation of viral vectors is that the virus is not usually passed on the progeny, so every plant has to be inoculated. The majority of commercially released transgenic plants are currently limited to plants that have introduced resistance to insect pests and herbicides. Insect resistance is achieved through incorporation of a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes a protein that is toxic to some insects. For example, the cotton bollworm, a common cotton pest, feeds on Bt cotton it will ingest the toxin and die. Herbicides usually work by binding to certain plant enzymes and inhibiting their action. The enzymes that the herbicide inhibits are known as the herbicides target site. Herbicide resistance can be engineered into crops by expressing a version of target site protein that is not inhibited by the herbicide. This is the method used to produce glyphosate resistant crop plants (See Glyphosate) Genetic modification of plants that can produce pharmaceuticals (and industrial chemicals), sometimes called pharmacrops, is a rather radical new area of plant breeding.
Issues and concerns
Modern plant breeding, whether classical or through genetic engineering, comes with issues of concern, particularly with regard to food crops. The question of whether breeding can have a negative effect on nutritional value is central in this respect. Although relatively little direct research in this area has been done, there are scientific indications that, by favoring certain aspects of a plant's development, other aspects may be retarded. A study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition in 2004, entitled Changes in USDA Food Composition Data for 43 Garden Crops, 1950 to 1999, compared nutritional analysis of vegetables done in 1950 and in 1999, and found substantial decreases in six of 13 nutrients measured, including 6% of protein and 38% of riboflavin. Reductions in calcium, phosphorus, iron and ascorbic acid were also found. The study, conducted at the Biochemical Institute, University of Texas at Austin, concluded in summary: "We suggest that any real declines are generally most easily explained by changes in cultivated varieties between 1950 and 1999, in which there may be trade-offs between yield and nutrient content. " The debate surrounding genetically modified food during the 1990s peaked in 1999 in terms of media coverage and risk perception, and continues today - for example, "Germany has thrown its weight behind a growing European mutiny over genetically modified crops by banning the planting of a widely grown pest-resistant corn variety.". The debate encompasses the ecological impact of genetically modified plants, the safety of genetically modified food
Plant breeding and concepts used for safety evaluation like substantial equivalence. Such concerns are not new to plant breeding. Most countries have regulatory processes in place to help ensure that new crop varieties entering the marketplace are both safe and meet farmers' needs. Examples include variety registration, seed schemes, regulatory authorizations for GM plants, etc. Plant breeders' rights is also a major and controversial issue. Today, production of new varieties is dominated by commercial plant breeders, who seek to protect their work and collect royalties through national and international agreements based in intellectual property rights. The range of related issues is complex. In the simplest terms, critics of the increasingly restrictive regulations argue that, through a combination of technical and economic pressures, commercial breeders are reducing biodiversity and significantly constraining individuals (such as farmers) from developing and trading seed on a regional level. Efforts to strengthen breeders' rights, for example, by lengthening periods of variety protection, are ongoing. When new plant breeds or cultivars are bred, they must be maintained and propagated. Some plants are propagated by asexual means while others are propagated by seeds. Seed propagated cultivars require specific control over seed source and production procedures to maintain the integrity of the plant breeds results. Isolation is necessary to prevent cross contamination with related plants or the mixing of seeds after harvesting. Isolation is normally accomplished by planting distance but in certain crops, plants are enclosed in greenhouses or cages (most commonly used when producing F1 hybrids.)
The Role of Plant Breeding in Organic Agriculture
Critics of organic agriculture claim it is too low-yielding to be a viable alternative to conventional agriculture. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that poor performance is not an intrinsic property of organic production, but rather the result of growing poorly adapted varieties  . It is estimated that over 95% of organic agriculture is based on conventionally adapted varieties, even though the production environments found in organic vs. conventional farming systems are vastly different due to their distinctive management practices . Most notably, organic farmers have fewer inputs available than conventional growers to control their production environments. Breeding varieties specifically adapted to the unique conditions of organic agriculture is critical for this sector to realize its full potential. This requires selection for traits such as : • • • • • • • Water use efficiency Nutrient use efficiency (particularly nitrogen and phosphorus) Weed competitiveness Tolerance of mechanical weed control Pest/disease resistance Early maturity (as a mechanism for avoidance of particular stresses) Abiotic stress tolerance (i.e. drought, salinity, etc...)
Currently, few breeding programs are directed at organic agriculture and until recently those that did address this sector have generally relied on indirect selection (i.e. selection in conventional environments for traits considered important for organic agriculture). However, because the difference between organic and conventional environments is large, a given genotype may perform very differently in each environment due to an interaction between genes and the environment (see gene-environment interaction). If this interaction is severe enough, an important trait required for the organic environment may not be revealed in the conventional environment, which can result in the selection of poorly adapted individuals . To ensure the most adapted varieties are identified, advocates of organic breeding now promote the use of direct selection (i.e. selection in the target environment) for many agronomic traits. There are many classical and modern breeding techniques that can be utilized for crop improvement in organic agriculture despite the ban on genetically modified organisms. For instance, controlled crosses between individuals allow desirable genetic variation to be recombined and transferred to seed progeny via natural processes. Marker assisted selection can also be employed as a diagnostics tool to facilitate selection of progeny who possess the
Plant breeding desired trait(s), greatly speeding up the breeding process . This technique has proven particularly useful for the introgression of resistance genes into new backgrounds, as well as the efficient selection of many resistance genes pyramided into a single individual. Unfortunately, molecular markers are not currently available for many important traits, especially complex ones controlled by many genes.
Participatory Plant Breeding
The development of agricultural science, with phenomenon like the Green Revolution arising, have left millions of farmers in developing countries, most of whom operate small farms under unstable and difficult growing conditions, in a precarious situation. The adoption of new plant varieties by this group has been hampered by the constraints of poverty and the international policies promoting an industrialized model of agriculture. Their response has been the creation of a novel and promising set of research methods collectively known as participatory plant breeding. Participatory means that farmers are more involved in the breeding process and breeding goals are defined by farmers instead of international seed companies with their large-scale breeding programs. Farmers' groups and NGOs, for example, may wish to affirm local people's rights over genetic resources, produce seeds themselves, build farmers' technical expertise, or develop new products for niche markets, like organically grown food. 
List of notable plant breeders
• • • • • • • • • Gartons Agricultural Plant Breeders Norman Borlaug Nazareno Strampelli Luther Burbank Roger Doucet Keith Downey Niels Ebbesen Hansen Gregor Mendel Colin Wyatt
 Breeding Field Crops. 1995. Sleper and Poehlman. Page 3  http:/ / www. wipo. int/ pctdb/ en/ wo. jsp?wo=2003017753& IA=WO2003017753& DISPLAY=STATUS  Davis, D.R., Epp, M.D., and Riordan, H.D. 2004. Changes in USDA Food Composition Data for 43 Garden Crops (http:/ / www. jacn. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 23/ 6/ 669?maxtoshow=& HITS=10& hits=10& RESULTFORMAT=& author1=donald+ davis& andorexacttitle=and& andorexacttitleabs=and& andorexactfulltext=and& searchid=1110477116345_697& stored_search=& FIRSTINDEX=0& sortspec=relevance& journalcode=jamcnutr), 1950 to 1999. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 23(6):669-682  Costa-Font, J. and E. Mossialos. 2007. (http:/ / www. aseanbiotechnology. info/ Abstract/ 21020573. pdf)Food Quality and Preference 18(2007):173-182  Connoly, Kate (2009-04-14). "Germany deals blow to GM crops" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ environment/ 2009/ apr/ 14/ germany-gm-crops). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2009-06-25.  Murphy, Kevin M.; K.G. Campbell, S.R. Lyon, S.S. Jones (2007). "Evidence of varietal adaptation to organic farming systems". Field Crops Research 102: 172–177.  Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.; S.S. Jones, L. Tamm, K.M. Murphy, J.R. Myers, C. Leifert, M.M. Messmer (2010). "The need to breed crop varieties suitable for organic farming, using wheat, tomato and broccoli as examples: A review". NJAS- Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences. doi:10.1016/j.njas.2010.04.001.  Lammerts van Bueren, E. T.; G. Backes, H. de Vriend, H. Ostergard (2010). "The role of molecular markers and marker assisted selection in breeding for organic agriculture". Euphytica 175: 51–64.  LI-BIRD (http:/ / libird. org/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=112& Itemid=82), Participatory Plant Breeding in LI-BIRD.  PRGA 2008. Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) (http:/ / www. prgaprogram. org/ index. php?module=htmlpages& func=display& pid=9)  Sperling et al. 2001. A Framework For Analizing Participatory Plant Breeding Approaches And Results. (http:/ / wwww. cirad. fr/ colloque/ selpart/ partie12(ls). pdf)
 Ceccarelli 2001. Decentralized-Participatory Plant Breeding: Adapting Crops to Environments and Clients (http:/ / www. icarda. org/ Farmer_Participation/ PDF/ Papers/ 8IBGS00S. pdf)
• Borem, A.; Miranda, G. V. Melhoramento de Plantas. 5ª. ed. Viçosa: Editora UFV, 2009. v. 1. 543 p. • Borem, A. (Org.). Domesticação e Melhoramento: espécies amazônicas1. ed. Visconde do Rio Branco: Suprema Grafica e Editora, 2009. (in press)v. 1. 588 p. • Borem, A. (Org.); Caixeta, E. T. (Org.) . Marcadores Moleculares. 2a.. ed. Visconde do Rio Branco: Suprema Grafica e Editora, 2008. v. 1. 532 p. • Borem, A.; Condori, M.; Miranda, G. V. Mejoramiento de Plantas (in Spanish). 1. ed. Viçosa: Editora UFV, 2008. v. 1. 438 p. • McCouch, S. 2004. Diversifying Selection in Plant Breeding (http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/ ?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.0020347). PLoS Biol 2(10): e347. • Briggs, F.N. and Knowles, P.F. 1967. Introduction to Plant Breeding. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York. • Gepts, P. (2002). A Comparison between Crop Domestication, Classical Plant Breeding, and Genetic Engineering (https://www.crops.org/publications/cs/abstracts/42/6/1780). Crop Science 42:1780–1790 • The Origins of Agriculture and Crop Domestication - The Harlan Symposium (http://www.ipgri.cgiar.org/ publications/pubfile.asp?ID_PUB=47) • firstname.lastname@example.org. 1999 Are non-GM crops safe? (http://www.nature.com/news/1999/990923/pf/ 990923-3_pf.html) • Schlegel,Rolf (2009) Encyclopedic Dictionary of Plant Breeding (http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/ 9781439802427) 2nd ed. (ISBN 9781439802427), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 584 • Schlegel, Rolf (2007) Concise Encyclopedia of Crop Improvement: Institutions, Persons, Theories, Methods, and Histories (http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9781560221463) (ISBN 9781560221463), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 423 • Schouten, Henk J., Frans A. Krens & Evert Jacobsen Do cisgenic plants warrant less stringent oversight? Nature Biotechnology 24, 753 (2006). • Schouten, Henk J., Frans A Krens & Evert Jacobsen Cisgenic plants are similar to traditionally bred plants: EMBO reports 7, 750 - 753 (2006). • Sun, C. et al. 1998. From indica and japonica splitting in common wild rice DNA to the origin and evolution of Asian cultivated rice (http://www.carleton.ca/~bgordon/Rice/papers/SUN98.htm). Agricultural Archaeology 1998:21-29
• Plant Breeding and Genomics eXtension Community of Practice (http://www.eXtension.org/ plant_breeding_genomics) - education and training materials for plant breeders and allied professionals • Plant Breeding Updates (http://www.plant-breeding-update.de) • Hybridization of Crop Plants (http://www.agron.iastate.edu/faculty/fehr/FehrHOCP.aspx) - large practical reference on plant hybridization • Making genetically engineered plants (http://pubs.cas.psu.edu/freepubs/pdfs/uk102.pdf) • NYTimes - Useful Mutants, Bred With Radiation (http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/28/science/28crop. html?8dpc=&pagewanted=all) • Infography about the History of Plant Breeding (http://www.infography.com/content/098241002810.html) • Glossary of plant breeding terminology by the Open Plant Breeding Foundation (http://www.opbf.org/ glossary) • National Association of Plant Breeders (NAPB) (http://www.plantbreeding.org)
Plant breeding • The Global Partnership Initiative for Plant Breeding Capacity Building - GIPB (http://km.fao.org/gipb/)
Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs of capital, labour, or heavy usage of technologies such as pesticides and chemical fertilizers relative to land area.  This is in contrast to many sorts of sustainable agriculture such as organic farming or extensive agriculture, which involve higher inputs of labor, and energy relative to the area of land farmed, but focus on maintaining the long-term ecological health of the farmland, also the product which is being produced is generally produced with fewer synthetic chemicals. Modern day forms of intensive crop based agriculture involve the use of mechanical ploughing, chemical fertilizers, plant growth regulators and/or pesticides. It is associated with the increasing use of agricultural mechanization, which have enabled a substantial increase in production, yet have also dramatically increased environmental pollution by increasing erosion and poisoning water with agricultural chemicals. Intensive animal farming practices can involve very large numbers of animals raised on limited land which require large amounts of food, water and medical inputs (required to keep the animals healthy in cramped conditions). Very large or confined indoor intensive livestock operations (particularly descriptive of common US farming practices) are often referred to as factory farming   and are criticised by opponents for the low level of animal welfare standards  and associated pollution and health issues. 
Intensive agriculture has a number of benefits: • • • • Significantly increased yield per acre, per person, and per GBP relative to extensive farming and therefore, Food becomes more affordable to the consumer as it costs less to produce. The same area of land is able to supply food and fibre for a larger population reducing the risk of starvation. The preservation of existing areas of woodland and rainforest habitats (and the ecosystems and other sustainable economies that these may harbour), which would need to be felled for extensive farming methods in the same geographical location. This also leads to a reduction in anthropomorphic CO2 generation (resulting from removal of the sequestration afforded by woodlands and rainforests). • In the case of intensive livestock farming: an opportunity to capture methane emissions which would otherwise contribute to global warming. Once captured, these emissions can be used to generate heat and/or electrical energy, thereby reducing local demand for fossil fuels.
Intensive farming alters the environment in many ways. • Limits or destroys the natural habitat of most wild creatures, and leads to soil erosion. • Use of fertilizers can alter the biology of rivers and lakes. Some environmentalists attribute the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico as being encouraged by nitrogen fertilization of the algae bloom. • Pesticides generally kill useful insects as well as those that destroy crops. • Is often not sustainable if not properly managed—may result in desertification, or land that is so poisonous and eroded that nothing else will grow there. • Requires large amounts of energy input to produce, transport, and apply chemical fertilizers/pesticides • The chemicals used may leave the field as runoff eventually ending up in rivers and lakes or may drain into groundwater aquifers. • Use of pesticides have numerous negative health effects in workers who apply them, people that live nearby the area of application or downstream/downwind from it, and consumers who eat the pesticides which remain on their food.
Pre modern intensive farming
Pre modern intensive farming techniques and structures include terracing, rice paddies, and various forms of aquaculture.
In agriculture, a terrace is a leveled section of a hilly cultivated area, designed as a method of soil conservation to slow or prevent the rapid surface runoff of irrigation water. Often such land is formed into multiple terraces, giving a stepped appearance. The human landscapes of rice cultivation in terraces that follow the natural contours of the escarpments like contour ploughing is a classic feature of the island of Bali and the Banaue Rice Terraces in Benguet, Philippines. In Peru, the Inca made use of otherwise unusable slopes by drystone walling to create terraces.
Terrace rice fields in Yunnan Province, China
A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing rice and other semiaquatic crops. Paddy fields are a typical feature of rice-growing countries of east and southeast Asia including Malaysia, China, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Taiwan, Indonesia, India, and the Philippines. They are also found in other rice-growing regions such as Piedmont (Italy), the Camargue (France) and the Artibonite Valley (Haiti). They can occur naturally along rivers or marshes, or can be constructed, even on hillsides, often with much labour and materials. They require large quantities of water for irrigation, which can be quite complex for a highly developed system of paddy fields. Flooding provides water essential to the growth of the crop. It also gives an environment favourable to the strain of rice being grown, and is hostile to many species of weeds. As the only draft animal species which is adapted for life in wetlands, the water buffalo is in widespread use in Asian rice paddies. World methane production due to rice paddies has been estimated in the range of 50 to 100 million tonnes per annum. Paddy-based rice-farming has been practiced Korea since ancient times. A pit-house at the Daecheon-ni site yielded carbonized rice grains and radiocarbon dates indicating that rice cultivation may have begun as early as the Middle Jeulmun Pottery Period (c. 3500-2000 BC) in the Korean Peninsula (Crawford and Lee 2003). The earliest rice
Intensive farming cultivation in the Korean Peninsula may have used dry-fields instead of paddies. The earliest Mumun features were usually located in low-lying narrow gulleys that were naturally swampy and fed by the local stream system. Some Mumun paddies in flat areas were made of a series of squares and rectangles separated by bunds approximately 10 cm in height, while terraced paddies consisted of long irregularly shapes that followed natural contours of the land at various levels (Bale 2001; Kwak 2001). Mumun Period rice farmers used all of the elements that are present in today's paddies such terracing, bunds, canals, and small reservoirs. Some paddy-farming techniques of the Middle Mumun (c. 850-550 BC) can be interpreted from the well-preserved wooden tools excavated from archaeological rice paddies at the Majeon-ni Site. However, iron tools for paddy-farming were not introduced until sometime after 200 BC. The spatial scale of individual paddies, and thus entire paddy-fields, increased with the regular use of iron tools in the Three Kingdoms of Korea Period (c. AD 300/400-668).
Modern intensive farming types
Modern intensive farming refers to the industrialized production of animals (livestock, poultry and fish) and crops. The methods deployed are designed to produce the highest output at the lowest cost; usually using economies of scale, modern machinery, modern medicine, and global trade for financing, purchases and sales. The practice is widespread in developed nations, and most of the meat, dairy, eggs, and crops available in supermarkets are produced in this manner.
Sustainable intensive farming
Biointensive agriculture focuses on maximizing efficiency: yield per unit area, yield per energy input, yield per water input, etc. Agroforestry combines agriculture and orchard/forestry technologies to create more integrated, diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems. Intercropping can also increase total yields per unit of area or reduce inputs to achieve the same, and thus represents (potentially sustainable) agricultural intensification. Unfortunately, bra's of any specific crop often diminish and the change can present new challenges to farmers relying on modern farming equipment which is best suited to monoculture. Vertical farming, a type of intensive crop production that would grow food on a large scale in urban centers, has been proposed as a way to reduce the negative environmental impact of traditional rural agriculture.
Aquaculture is the cultivation of the natural produce of water (fish, shellfish, algae, seaweed and other aquatic organisms). Intensive Aquaculture can often involve tanks or other highly controlled systems which are designed to boost production for the available volume or area of water resource. 
Intensive livestock farming
"Factory farming" is a term referring to the process of raising livestock in confinement at high stocking density, where a farm operates as a factory — a practice typical in industrial farming by agribusinesses.     The main product of this industry is meat, milk and eggs for human consumption. The term is often used in a pejorative sense, criticising large scale farming processes which confine animals.
Managed intensive grazing
A commercial chicken house raising broiler pullets for meat.
This sustainable intensive livestock management system is increasingly used to optimize production within a sustainability framework and is generally not considered Factory farming. Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs of capital, labour, or heavy usage of technologies such as pesticides and chemical fertilizers relative to land area. This is in contrast to many forms of sustainable agriculture such as permaculture or extensive agriculture, which involve a relatively low input of materials and labour, relative to the area of land farmed, and which focus on maintaining long-term ecological health of farmland, so that it can be farmed indefinitely. Modern day forms of intensive crop based agriculture involve the use of mechanical ploughing, chemical fertilizers, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, plant growth regulators and/or pesticides. It is associated with the increasing use of agricultural mechanization, which have enabled a substantial increase in production, yet have also dramatically increased environmental pollution by increasing erosion, poisoning water with agricultural chemicals, and destroying forests to make room for farmland. Intensive animal farming practices can involve very large numbers of animals raised on limited land which require large amounts of food, water and medical inputs (required to keep the animals healthy in cramped conditions). Very large or confined indoor intensive livestock operations (particularly descriptive of common US farming practices) are often referred to as Factory farming and are criticised by opponents for the low level of animal welfare standards and associated pollution and health issues.
Individual industrial agriculture farm
Major challenges and issues faced by individual industrial agriculture farms include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • integrated farming systems crop sequencing water use efficiency nutrient audits herbicide resistance financial instruments (such as futures and options) collecting and understanding own farm information knowing products / markets / customers satisfying customer needs securing an acceptable profit margin cost of servicing debt ability to earn and access off-farm income management of machinery and stewardship investments
Integrated farming systems
An integrated farming system is a progressive biologically integrated sustainable agriculture system such as Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture or Zero waste agriculture whose implementation requires exacting knowledge of the interactions of numerous species and whose benefits include sustainability and increased profitability. Elements of this integration can include: • intentionally introducing flowering plants into agricultural ecosystems to increase pollen-and nectar-resources required by natural enemies of insect pests • using crop rotation and cover crops to suppress nematodes in potatoes
Crop rotation or crop sequencing is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same space in sequential seasons for various benefits such as to avoid the build up of pathogens and pests that often occurs when one species is continuously cropped. Crop rotation also seeks to balance the fertility demands of various crops to avoid excessive depletion of soil nutrients. A traditional component of crop rotation is the replenishment of nitrogen through the use of green manure in sequence with cereals and other crops. It is one component of polyculture. Crop rotation can also improve soil structure and fertility by alternating deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plants.
Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. Healthy, growing crops of corn and sorghum are green (Sorghum may be slightly paler). Wheat is brilliant gold. Fields of brown have been recently harvested and plowed under or have lain in fallow for the year.
Water use efficiency
Crop irrigation accounts for 70% of the world's fresh water use. The agricultural sector of most countries is important both economically and politically, and water subsidies are common. Conservation advocates have urged removal of all subsidies to force farmers to grow more water-efficient crops and adopt less wasteful irrigation techniques. Optimal water efficiency means minimizing losses due to evaporation, runoff or subsurface drainage. An evaporation pan can be used to determine how much water is required to irrigate the land. Flood irrigation, the oldest and most Overhead irrigation, center pivot design common type, is often very uneven in distribution, as parts of a field may receive excess water in order to deliver sufficient quantities to other parts. Overhead irrigation, using center-pivot or lateral-moving sprinklers, gives a much more equal and controlled distribution pattern. Drip irrigation is the most expensive and least-used type, but offers the best results in delivering water to plant roots with minimal losses. As changing irrigation systems can be a costly undertaking, conservation efforts often concentrate on maximizing the efficiency of the existing system. This may include chiseling compacted soils, creating furrow dikes to prevent runoff, and using soil moisture and rainfall sensors to optimize irrigation schedules. Water catchment management measures include recharge pits, which capture rainwater and runoff and use it to recharge ground water supplies. This helps in the formation of ground water wells, etc. and eventually reduces soil erosion caused due to running water.
Better nutrient audits allow farmers to spend less money on nutrients and to create less pollution since less nutrient is added to the soil and thus there is less to run off and pollute. Methodologies for assessing soil nutrient balances have been studied and used for farms and entire countries for decades. But at present "there is no standard methodology for calculating nutrient budgets and there are no accepted 'benchmarks' figures against which to assess farm nutrient use efficiency. [A standard methodology] for calculating nutrient budgets on farms [is hoped to help reduce] diffuse water and air pollution from agriculture [through] best management practices in the use of fertilisers and organic manures, as part of the continued development of economically and environmentally sustainable farming systems."
In agriculture, large scale and systematic weeding is usually required, often performed by machines such as cultivators or liquid herbicide sprayers. Selective herbicides kill specific targets while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed. Some of these act by interfering with the growth of the weed and are often based on plant hormones. Weed control through herbicide is made more difficult when the weeds become resistant to the herbicide. Solutions include: • using cover crops (especially those with allelopathic properties) that out-compete weeds and/or inhibit their regeneration. • using a different herbicide • using a different crop (e.g. genetically altered to be herbicide resistant; which ironically can create herbicide resistant weeds through horizontal gene transfer) • using a different variety (e.g. locally adapted variety that resists, tolerates, or even out-competes weeds)
Intensive farming • ploughing • ground cover such as mulch or plastic • manual removal
 Encyclopaedia Britannica's definition of Intensive Agriculture (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ eb/ article-9042533)  BBC School fact sheet on intensive farming (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ schools/ gcsebitesize/ biology/ livingthingsenvironment/ 4foodandsustainabilityrev5. shtml)  Factory farming. Webster's Dictionary definition of Factory farming (http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ browse/ Factory farming)  Encyclopaedia Britannica's definition of Factory farm (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ ebc/ article-9364147)  The Welfare of Intensively Kept Pigs (http:/ / ec. europa. eu/ food/ fs/ sc/ oldcomm4/ out17_en. html)  Commissioner points to factory farming as source of contamination (http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ news/ story/ 2000/ 07/ 28/ 000727farming. html)  Rebuilding Agriculture - EPA of UK (http:/ / www. environment-agency. gov. uk/ commondata/ 105385/ rebuildag_908097. pdf)  Encyclopaedia Britannica - Intensive Agriculture (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ eb/ article-9042533/ intensive-agriculture)  Methane gas generation from rice paddies (http:/ / www. ghgonline. org/ methanerice. htm)  American Heritage Definition of Aquaculture (http:/ / www. answers. com/ topic/ aquaculture)  McGraw Hill Sci-Tech Encyclopedia (http:/ / www. answers. com/ topic/ aquaculture)  Sources discussing "intensive farming", "intensive agriculture" or "factory farming": • • Fraser, David. Animal welfare and the intensification of animal production: An alternative interpretation (http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ 009/ a0158e/ a0158e00. HTM), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2005. Turner, Jacky. "History of factory farming" (http:/ / www. unsystem. org/ SCN/ archives/ scnnews21/ ch04. htm#TopOfPage), United Nations: "Fifty years ago in Europe, intensification of animal production was seen as the road to national food security and a better diet ... The intensive systems – called 'factory farms' – were characterised by confinement of the animals at high stocking density, often in barren and unnatural conditions." Simpson, John. Why the organic revolution had to happen (http:/ / observer. guardian. co. uk/ foodmonthly/ story/ 0,,475210,00. html), The Observer, April 21, 2001: "Nor is a return to 'primitive' farming practices the only alternative to factory farming and highly intensive agriculture." Baker, Stanley. "Factory farms — the only answer to our growing appetite? (http:/ / century. guardian. co. uk/ 1960-1969/ Story/ 0,,105655,00. html), The Guardian, December 29, 1964: "Factory farming, whether we like it or not, has come to stay ... In a year which has been as uneventful on the husbandry side as it has been significant in economic and political developments touching the future of food procurement, the more far-seeing would name the growth of intensive farming as the major development." (Note: Stanley Baker was the Guardian's agriculture correspondent.) "Head to head: Intensive farming" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk/ 1205545. stm), BBC News, March 6, 2001: "Here, Green MEP Caroline Lucas takes issue with the intensive farming methods of recent decades ... In the wake of the spread of BSE from the UK to the continent of Europe, the German Government has appointed an Agriculture Minister from the Green Party. She intends to end factory farming in her country. This must be the way forward and we should end industrial agriculture in this country as well." Sources discussing "industrial farming" , "industrial agriculture" and "factory farming":
"Annex 2. Permitted substances for the production of organic foods" (http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ 005/ Y2772E/ y2772e0c. htm), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: "'Factory' farming refers to industrial management systems that are heavily reliant on veterinary and feed inputs not permitted in organic agriculture. • "Head to head: Intensive farming" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk/ 1205545. stm), BBC News, March 6, 2001: "Here, Green MEP Caroline Lucas takes issue with the intensive farming methods of recent decades ... In the wake of the spread of BSE from the UK to the continent of Europe, the German Government has appointed an Agriculture Minister from the Green Party. She intends to end factory farming in her country. This must be the way forward and we should end industrial agriculture in this country as well."  Kaufmann, Mark. "Largest Pork Processor to Phase Out Crates" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 01/ 25/ AR2007012501785. html), The Washington Post, January 26, 2007.  "EU tackles BSE crisis" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 1046184. stm), BBC News, November 29, 2000.  "Is factory farming really cheaper?" in New Scientist, Institution of Electrical Engineers, New Science Publications, University of Michigan, 1971, p. 12.  Danielle Nierenberg (2005) Happier Meals: Rethinking the Global Meat Industry. Worldwatch Paper 121: 5  Duram, Leslie A. (2010). Encyclopedia of Organic, Sustainable, and Local Food. ABC-CLIO. p. 139. ISBN 0313359636.  The Regional Institute (http:/ / www. regional. org. au/ au/ roc/ 1995/ roc1995001. htm) article EVOLUTION OF THE FARM OFFICE  Oregon State University - Integrated Farming Systems - Insectary Plantings - Enhancing Biological Control with Beneficial Insectary Plants (http:/ / ifs. orst. edu/ insect. html)  Oregon State University - Integrated Farming Systems - Nematode Supression by Cover Crops (http:/ / ifs. orst. edu/ pubs/ nscc. html)  Pimentel, Berger, et al., "Water resources: agricultural and environmental issues", BioScience 54.10 (Oct 2004), p909  US EPA, " Clean Water Through Conservation (http:/ / www. epa. gov/ ow/ you/ chap3. html)", Practices for Agricultural Users
 FAO (http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ 006/ y5066e/ y5066e06. htm) Methodologies for assessing soil nutrient balances  DEFRA (http:/ / www2. defra. gov. uk/ research/ project_data/ More. asp?I=ES0124& M=CFO& V=ADAS)
Sustainable agriculture is the practice of farming using principles of ecology, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment. It has been defined as "an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will last over the long term: • Satisfy human food and fiber needs • Enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy depends • Make the most efficient use of non-renewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls • Sustain the economic viability of farm operations • Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.” Sustainable agriculture in the United States was addressed by the 1990 farm bill. More recently, as consumer and retail demand for sustainable products has risen, organizations such as Food Alliance and Protected Harvest have started to provide measurement standards and certification programs for what constitutes a sustainably grown crop.
Farming and Natural Resources
The physical aspects of sustainability are partly understood. Practices that can cause long-term damage to soil include excessive tillage (leading to erosion) and irrigation without adequate drainage (leading to salinization). Long-term experiments have provided some of the best data on how various practices affect soil properties essential to sustainability. There is a federal agency, USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service that specializes in providing technical and financial assistance for those interested in pursuing natural resource conservation and production agriculture as compatible goals. The most important factors for an individual site are sun, air, soil and water. Of the four, water and soil quality and quantity are most amenable to human intervention through time and labour. Although air and sunlight are available everywhere on Earth, crops also depend on soil nutrients and the availability of water. When farmers grow and harvest crops, they remove some of these nutrients from the soil. Without replenishment, land suffers from nutrient depletion and becomes either unusable or suffers from reduced yields. Sustainable agriculture depends on replenishing the soil while minimizing the use of non-renewable resources, such as natural gas (used in converting atmospheric nitrogen into synthetic fertilizer), or mineral ores (e.g., phosphate). Possible sources of nitrogen that would, in principle, be available indefinitely, include: 1. recycling crop waste and livestock or treated human manure 2. growing legume crops and forages such as peanuts or alfalfa that form symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia 3. industrial production of nitrogen by the Haber Process uses hydrogen, which is currently derived from natural gas, (but this hydrogen could instead be made by electrolysis of water using electricity (perhaps from solar cells or windmills)) or 4. genetically engineering (non-legume) crops to form nitrogen-fixing symbioses or fix nitrogen without microbial symbionts. The last option was proposed in the 1970s, but is only recently becoming feasible. replacing other nutrient inputs (phosphorus, potassium, etc.) are more limited.
Sustainable options for
More realistic, and often overlooked, options include long-term crop rotations, returning to natural cycles that annually flood cultivated lands (returning lost nutrients indefinitely) such as the Flooding of the Nile, the long-term
Sustainable agriculture use of biochar, and use of crop and livestock landraces that are adapted to less than ideal conditions such as pests, drought, or lack of nutrients. Crops that require high levels of soil nutrients can be cultivated in a more sustainable manner if certain fertilizer management practices are adhered to.
In some areas, sufficient rainfall is available for crop growth, but many other areas require irrigation. For irrigation systems to be sustainable they require proper management (to avoid salinization) and must not use more water from their source than is naturally replenished, otherwise the water source becomes, in effect, a non-renewable resource. Improvements in water well drilling technology and submersible pumps combined with the development of drip irrigation and low pressure pivots have made it possible to regularly achieve high crop yields where reliance on rainfall alone previously made this level of success unpredictable. However, this progress has come at a price, in that in many areas where this has occurred, such as the Ogallala Aquifer, the water is being used at a greater rate than its rate of recharge. Several steps should be taken to develop drought-resistant farming systems even in "normal" years, including both policy and management actions: 1) improving water conservation and storage measures, 2) providing incentives for selection of drought-tolerant crop species, 3) using reduced-volume irrigation systems, 4) managing crops to reduce water loss, or 5) not planting at all. Indicators for sustainable water resource development are: ¤ Internal renewable water resources. This is the average annual flow of rivers and groundwater generated from endogenous precipitation, after ensuring that there is no double counting. It represents the maximum amount of water resource produced within the boundaries of a country. This value, which is expressed as an average on a yearly basis, is invariant in time (except in the case of proved climate change). The indicator can be expressed in three different units: in absolute terms (km3/yr), in mm/yr (it is a measure of the humidity of the country), and as a function of population (m3/person per yr). ¤ Global renewable water resources. This is the sum of internal renewable water resources and incoming flow originating outside the country. Unlike internal resources, this value can vary with time if upstream development reduces water availability at the border. Treaties ensuring a specific flow to be reserved from upstream to downstream countries may be taken into account in the computation of global water resources in both countries. ¤ Dependency ratio. This is the proportion of the global renewable water resources originating outside the country, expressed in percentage. It is an expression of the level to which the water resources of a country depend on neighbouring countries. ¤ Water withdrawal. In view of the limitations described above, only gross water withdrawal can be computed systematically on a country basis as a measure of water use. Absolute or per-person value of yearly water withdrawal gives a measure of the importance of water in the country's economy. When expressed in percentage of water resources, it shows the degree of pressure on water resources. A rough estimate shows that if water withdrawal exceeds a quarter of global renewable water resources of a country, water can be considered a limiting factor to development and, reciprocally, the pressure on water resources can have a direct impact on all sectors, from agriculture to environment and fisheries.
Soil erosion is fast becoming one of the worlds greatest problems. It is estimated that "more than a thousand million tonnes of southern Africa's soil are eroded every year. Experts predict that crop yields will be halved within thirty to fifty years if erosion continues at present rates." Soil erosion is not unique to Africa but is occurring worldwide. The phenomenon is being called Peak Soil as present large scale factory farming techniques are jeopardizing humanity's ability to grow food in the present and in the future. Without efforts to improve soil management practices, the availability of arable soil will become increasingly problematic. Some Soil Management techniques 1. No-till farming 2. Keyline design 3. 4. 5. 6. Growing wind breaks to hold the soil Incorporating organic matter back into fields Stop using chemical fertilizers (which contain salt) Protecting soil from water runoff
Walls built to avoid water run-off
Socioeconomic aspects of sustainability are also partly understood. Regarding less concentrated farming, the best known analysis is Netting's study on smallholder systems through history. The Oxford Sustainable Group defines sustainability in this context in a much broader form, considering effect on all stakeholders in a 360 degree approach Given the finite supply of natural resources at any specific cost and location, agriculture that is inefficient or damaging to needed resources may eventually exhaust the available resources or the ability to afford and acquire them. It may also generate negative externality, such as pollution as well as financial and production costs. The way that crops are sold must be accounted for in the sustainability equation. Food sold locally does not require additional energy for transportation (including consumers). Food sold at a remote location, whether at a farmers' market or the supermarket, incurs a different set of energy cost for materials, labour, and transport.
What grows where and how it is grown are a matter of choice. Two of the many possible practices of sustainable agriculture are crop rotation and soil amendment, both designed to ensure that crops being cultivated can obtain the necessary nutrients for healthy growth. Soil amendments would include using locally available compost from community recycling centers. These community recycling centers help produce the compost needed by the local organic farms. Many scientists, farmers, and businesses have debated how to make agriculture sustainable. Using community recycling from yard and kitchen waste utilizes a local area's commonly available resources. These resources in the past were thrown away into large waste disposal sites, are now used to produce low cost organic compost for organic farming. Other practices includes growing a diverse number of perennial crops in a single field, each of which would grow in separate season so as not to compete with each other for natural resources. This system would result in increased resistance to diseases and decreased effects of erosion and loss of nutrients in soil. Nitrogen fixation from
Sustainable agriculture legumes, for example, used in conjunction with plants that rely on nitrate from soil for growth, helps to allow the land to be reused annually. Legumes will grow for a season and replenish the soil with ammonium and nitrate, and the next season other plants can be seeded and grown in the field in preparation for harvest. Monoculture, a method of growing only one crop at a time in a given field, is a very widespread practice, but there are questions about its sustainability, especially if the same crop is grown every year. Today it is realized to get around this problem local cities and farms can work together to produce the needed compost for the farmers around them. This combined with growing a mixture of crops (polyculture) sometimes reduces disease or pest problems  but polyculture has rarely, if ever, been compared to the more widespread practice of growing different crops in successive years (crop rotation) with the same overall crop diversity. Cropping systems that include a variety of crops (polyculture and/or rotation) may also replenish nitrogen (if legumes are included) and may also use resources such as sunlight, water, or nutrients more efficiently (Field Crops Res. 34:239). Replacing a natural ecosystem with a few specifically chosen plant varieties reduces the genetic diversity found in wildlife and makes the organisms susceptible to widespread disease. The Great Irish Famine (1845–1849) is a well-known example of the dangers of monoculture. In practice, there is no single approach to sustainable agriculture, as the precise goals and methods must be adapted to each individual case. There may be some techniques of farming that are inherently in conflict with the concept of sustainability, but there is widespread misunderstanding on impacts of some Polyculture practices in Andhra Pradesh practices. Today the growth of local farmers' markets offer small farms the ability to sell the products that they have grown back to the cities that they got the recycled compost from. By using local recycling this will help move people away from the slash-and-burn techniques that are the characteristic feature of shifting cultivators are often cited as inherently destructive, yet slash-and-burn cultivation has been practiced in the Amazon for at least 6000 years; serious deforestation did not begin until the 1970s, largely as the result of Brazilian government programs and policies. To note that it may not have been slash-and-burn so much as slash-and-char, which with the addition of organic matter produces terra preta, one of the richest soils on Earth and the only one that regenerates itself. There are also many ways to practice sustainable animal husbandry. Some of the key tools to grazing management include fencing off the grazing area into smaller areas called paddocks, lowering stock density, and moving the stock between paddocks frequently. Several attempts have been made to produce an artificial meat, using isolated tissues to produce it in vitro; Jason Matheny's work on this topic, which in the New Harvest project, is one of the most commented.
Soil steaming can be used as an ecological alternative to chemicals for soil sterilization. Different methods are available to induce steam into the soil in order to kill pests and increase soil health. Community and farm composting of kitchen, yard, and farm organic waste can provide most if not all the required needs of local farms. This composting could potentially be a reliable source of energy.
A farm that is able to "produce perpetually", yet has negative effects on environmental quality elsewhere is not sustainable agriculture. An example of a case in which a global view may be warranted is over-application of synthetic fertilizer or animal manures, which can improve productivity of a farm but can pollute nearby rivers and coastal waters (eutrophication). The other extreme can also be undesirable, as the problem of low crop yields due to exhaustion of nutrients in the soil has been related to rainforest destruction, as in the case of slash and burn farming for livestock feed. Sustainability affects overall production, which must increase to meet the increasing food and fiber requirements as the world's human population expands to a projected 9.3 billion people by 2050. Increased production may come from creating new farmland, which may ameliorate carbon dioxide emissions if done through reclamation of desert as in Palestine, or may worsen emissions if done through slash and burn farming, as in Brazil. Additionally, Genetically modified organism crops show promise for radically increasing crop yields, although many people and governments are apprehensive of this new farming method.
Sheet steaming with a MSD/moeschle steam boiler (left side)
There has been considerable debate about which form of human residential habitat may be a better social form for sustainable agriculture. Many environmentalists advocate urban developments with high population density as a way of preserving agricultural land and maximizing energy efficiency. However, others have theorized that sustainable ecocities, or ecovillages which combine habitation and farming with close proximity between producers and consumers, may provide greater sustainability. The use of available city space (e.g., rooftop gardens, community gardens, garden sharing, and other forms of urban agriculture) for cooperative food production is another way to achieve greater sustainability. One of the latest ideas in achieving sustainable agricultural involves shifting the production of food plants from major factory farming operations to large, urban, technical facilities called vertical farms. The advantages of vertical farming include year-round production, isolation from pests and diseases, controllable resource recycling, and on-site production that reduces transportation costs. While a vertical farm has yet to become a reality, the idea is gaining momentum among those who believe that current sustainable farming methods will be insufficient to provide for a growing global population.
 Gold, M. (July 2009). What is Sustainable Agriculture? (http:/ / www. nal. usda. gov/ afsic/ pubs/ agnic/ susag. shtml). United States Department of Agriculture, Alternative Farming Systems Information Center.  Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (FACTA), Public Law 101-624, Title XVI, Subtitle A, Section 1603  Organic and non-GMO Report. New certification programs aim to encourage sustainable farming (http:/ / www. non-gmoreport. com/ articles/ jul06/ sustainable_farming. php).  Altieri, Miguel A. (1995) Agroecology: The science of sustainable agriculture. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.  (http:/ / news. mongabay. com/ bioenergy/ 2008/ 03/ scientists-discover-genetics-of. html)  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, March 25, 2008 vol. 105 no. 12 4928-4932 (http:/ / www. pnas. org/ content/ 105/ 12/ 4928. full. pdf+ html)  (http:/ / www. sarep. ucdavis. edu/ concept. htm)  (http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ w4745e/ w4745e0d. htm)  Musokotwane Environment Resource Centre for Southern Africa CEP Factsheet. http:/ / www. sardc. net/ imercsa/ Programs/ CEP/ Pubs/ CEPFS/ CEPFS01. htm  Peak Soil: Why cellulosic ethanol, biofuels are unsustainable and a threat to America http:/ / culturechange. org/ cms/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=107& Itemid=1  CopperWiki Soil erosion http:/ / www. copperwiki. org/ index. php?title=Soil_erosion  Netting, Robert McC. (1993) Smallholders, Householders: Farm Families and the Ecology of Intensive, Sustainable Agriculture. Stanford Univ. Press, Palo Alto.  Glover et al. 2007. Scientific American (http:/ / www. landinstitute. org/ pages/ Glover-et-al-2007-Sci-Am. pdf)  Nature 406, 718-722 Genetic diversity and disease control in rice (http:/ / www. nature. com/ nature/ journal/ v406/ n6797/ abs/ 406718a0. html), Environ. Entomol. 12:625)  Sponsel, Leslie E. (1986) Amazon ecology and adaptation. Annual Review of Anthropology 15: 67-97.  Hecht, Susanna and Alexander Cockburn (1989) The Fate of the Forest: developers, destroyers and defenders of the Amazon. New York: Verso.  Pastures: Sustainable Management (http:/ / attra. ncat. org/ attra-pub/ sustpast. html)  "PETA’s Latest Tactic: $1 Million for Fake Meat" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 04/ 21/ us/ 21meat. html), NYT, April 21, 2023.  Vertical Farming (http:/ / www. verticalfarm. com/ pdf/ PopSci-Jul-2007. pdf)
• Dore, J. 1997. Sustainability Indicators for Agriculture: Introductory Guide to Regional/National and On-farm Indicators (http://www.rirdc.gov.au/pub/shortreps/sr20.html), Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (http://www.rirdc.gov.au/home.html), Australia. • Gold, Mary. 1999. Sustainable Agriculture: Definitions and Terms (http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/ AFSIC_pubs/srb9902.htm). Special Reference Briefs Series no. SRB 99-02 Updates SRB 94-5 September 1999. National Agricultural Library, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. • Hayes, B. 2008. Trial Proposal: Soil Amelioration in the South Australian Riverland. • Jahn, GC, B. Khiev, C. Pol, N. Chhorn, S. Pheng, and V. Preap. 2001. Developing sustainable pest management for rice in Cambodia. pp. 243–258, In S. Suthipradit, C. Kuntha, S. Lorlowhakarn, and J. Rakngan [eds.] “Sustainable Agriculture: Possibility and Direction” Proceedings of the 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on Sustainable Agriculture 18–20 October 1999, Phitsanulok, Thailand. Bangkok (Thailand): National Science and Technology Development Agency. 386 p. • Lindsay Falvey (2004) Sustainability - Elusive or Illusion: Wise Environmental Management. Institute for International Development, Adelaide pp259. • Hecht, Susanna and Alexander Cockburn (1989) The Fate of the Forest: developers, destroyers and defenders of the Amazon. New York: Verso. • Netting, Robert McC. (1993) Smallholders, Householders: Farm Families and the Ecology of Intensive, Sustainable Agriculture. Stanford Univ. Press, Palo Alto. • Dedicated double issue of Philosophical Transactions B on Sustainable Agriculture. Some articles are freely available. (http://publishing.royalsociety.org/sustainable-agriculture)
• Laki, G. (2002): Added value as the basis of sustainable agriculture’s subsidy system. In: (Eds. Trebicky, V. Novak, J.) "Rio+10 Transition from Centrally Planned Economy to Sustainable Society? (Visegrad Agenda 21)", Institute for Environmental Policy, Prague, 2002, 49. p. • Laki, G., Szakál, F. (2002): Added Value as a key indicator for sustainable agriculture. (http:// businessmanagement.hu) In: A mezőgazdasági termelés és erőforrás-hasznosítás ökonómiája - VIII. Nemzetközi Agrárökonómiai Tudományos Napok, SZIE Gazdálkodási és Mezőgazdasági Főiskolai Kar, Gyöngyös, 6 p. • Madden, Patrick (March/April 1986). "Debt-Free Farming is Possible". Farm Economics (Pennsylvania: Cooperative Extension Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture [and] The Pennsylvania State University). ISSN 0555-9456 • Pender J., Place F., Ehui S. (2006) Strategies for Sustainable Land Management in the East African Highlands (http://www.ifpri.org/pubs/books/oc53.asp) • Pollan M. (2007) The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (http://www.michaelpollan.com/ omnivore.php) by • Roberts W. (2008) The No-Nonsense Guide to World Food by Roberts W. (2008)
• Africa Project 2020 (http://africaproject2020.com/) An Effort to Eradicate Hunger in Africa by empowering Farmers through Sustainable Agriculture. • Agricultural Sustainability Institute at UC Davis (http://asi.ucdavis.edu/) • Biodynamic Agriculture Australia (http://www.biodynamics.net.au) Promoting the practice and understanding of the Biodynamic system of sustainable agriculture. • Center for Environmental Farming Systems (http://www.cefs.ncsu.edu/) • Center for Sustaining Agriculture & Natural Resources (http://csanr.wsu.edu/) (WSU) • Food Alliance (http://www.foodalliance.org/) The most credible and comprehensive certification for sustainable agriculture and food handling in North America. • A special issue of the Journal of Environmental Management (https://enduser.elsevier.com/farmmanagement) focuses on farm management and sustainable agriculture. • Greenpeace Sustainable Agriculture campaign (http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/ agriculture/) • The Land Institute (http://www.landinstitute.org/) Research on sustainable perennial crop systems • National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service (http://www.attra.org/) • National Campaign for Sustainable Agriculture (http://www.sustainableagriculture.net/) • What is Sustainable Agriculture? (http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/concept.htm) (from SAREP: University of California Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program) • Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) (http://www.sare.org/) • SAREP: University of California Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program (http://sarep. ucdavis.edu/) • Sustainable Commodity Initiative (http://www.sustainablecommodities.org) • Industry-based initiative promoting sustainable agriculture for the production of mainstream agricultural materials (http://www.saiplatform.org/) • Rainforest Alliance's Sustainable Agriculture program (http://www.rainforest-alliance.org/programs/ agriculture/) • The Vertical Farm Project (http://www.verticalfarm.com) Envisioning the future of human food production as a mechanism for environmental restoration, protection from infectious disease, and a source of sustainable energy
Sustainable agriculture • SANREM CRSP (http://www.oired.vt.edu/sanremcrsp/) Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Collaborative Research Support Program at Virginia Tech • Self Help Development International (http://www.shdi.org) SHDI is an Irish agency engaged in promoting long term sustainable development projects in Africa. • Spade & Spoon: Localizing the Way Westerners Eat (http://www.newwest.net/index.php/topic/main/C520/ L40) • SAFECROP Centre for research and development of crop protection with low environment and consumer health impact (http://www.safecrop.org/) • Sustainable Agriculture, Biodiversity and Livelihoods Programme, part of the Natural Resources Group, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) (http://www.iied.org/NR/agbioliv/index. html) • Research on Agriculture (http://www.odi.org.uk/agriculture) and its role in international development from the Overseas Development Institute • A Natural Step Case Study: Planning for the future harvest: Sustainability in the food industry - The Organically Grown Company (http://www.naturalstepusa.org/case-studies/ organically-grown-company-sustainable-agriculture.html) • Sustainable Agriculture Portal on WiserEarth (http://www.wiserearth.org/aof/195) • List of Sustainable Agriculture Organizations on WiserEarth (http://www.wiserearth.org/organization/ limitToMasterid/195/limitToType/aof) • Center for Sustainable Energy Farming (http://www.cfsef.org/) • Holistic Management International (HMI) (http://www.holisticmanagement.org)
Permaculture is an approach to designing human settlements and agricultural systems that is modeled on the relationships found in nature. It is based on the ecology of how things interrelate rather than on the strictly biological concerns that form the foundation of modern agriculture. Permaculture aims to create stable, productive systems that provide for human needs; it's a system of design where each element supports and feeds other elements, ultimately aiming at systems that are virtually self-sustaining and into which humans fit as an integral part. Permaculture as a systematic method was developed by Australians Bill Mollison and David Holmgren during the 1970s. The word "permaculture" originally referred to "permanent agriculture", but was expanded to also stand for "permanent culture" as it was seen that social aspects were integral to a truly sustainable system. Mollison has described permaculture as "a philosophy of working with, rather than against nature; of protracted and thoughtful observation rather than protracted and thoughtless labor; and of looking at plants and animals in all their functions, rather than treating any area as a single project system." Permaculture draws from several other disciplines including organic farming, agroforestry, sustainable development, and applied ecology. "The primary agenda of the movement has been to assist people to become more self reliant through the design and development of productive and sustainable gardens and farms. The design principles which are the conceptual foundation of permaculture were derived from the science of systems ecology and study of pre-industrial examples of sustainable land use." 
Franklin Hiram King coined the term permanent agriculture in his classic book from 1911, Farmers of Forty Centuries: Or Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea and Japan. In this context, permanent agriculture is understood as agriculture that can be sustained indefinitely. In 1929, Joseph Russell Smith took up the term as the subtitle for Tree Crops: A Permanent Agriculture, a book in which he summed up his long experience experimenting with fruits and nuts as crops for human Permaculture on an organic farm on the Swabian food and animal feed. Smith saw the world as an inter-related whole Mountains in Germany and suggested mixed systems of trees and crops underneath. The definition of permanent agriculture as that which can be sustained indefinitely was supported by Australian P. A. Yeomans in his 1973 book "Water for Every Farm". Yeoman introduced an observation-based approach to land use in Australia in the 1940s; and the keyline design as a way of managing the supply and distribution of water in the 1950s. Stewart Brand's works was an early influence noted by Holmgren. Brand is an advocate of systems thinking and was a major figure in the counterculture movement of the Sixties and Seventies. Systems thinking proposes to view systems in a holistic manner. Other early influences include Ruth Stout and Esther Deans, who pioneered "no-dig gardening methods", and Masanobu Fukuoka who, in the late 1930s in Japan, began advocating no-till orchards, gardens and natural philosophy. The first recorded modern practice of permaculture as a systematic method was possibly by Austrian farmer Sepp Holzer in the 1960s. Coming from a line of farmers, Holzer took over his parents' mountain farm business in 1962 and pioneered the use of ecological farming, or permaculture, techniques at high altitudes (1100 to 1500 meters above sea level) after being unsuccessful with regular farming methods.
Mollison and Holmgren
In the mid 1970s, Bill Mollison and David Holmgren started developing ideas about stable agricultural systems on the southern Australian island state of Tasmania. This was a result of their perception of a rapidly growing usage of industrial-agricultural methods. In their view these methods were poisoning the land and water, reducing biodiversity, and removing billions of tons of topsoil from previously fertile landscapes. A design approach called "permaculture" was their response and was first made public with the publication of their book "Permaculture One" in 1978. By the early 1980s, the concept had broadened from agricultural systems design towards complete, sustainable human habitats. After Permaculture One, Mollison further refined and developed the ideas by designing hundreds of permaculture sites and writing more detailed books, notably "Permaculture: A Designers Manual". Mollison lectured in over 80 countries and taught his two-week Permaculture Design Course (PDC) to many hundreds of students. By the mid 1980s, many of the students had become successful practitioners and had themselves begun teaching the techniques they had learned. In a short period of time permaculture groups, projects, associations, and institutes were established in over one hundred countries. In 1991 a four-part Television documentary by ABC productions called "The Global Gardener" showed permaculture applied to a range of worldwide situations, bringing the concept to a much broader public.
Permaculture design and practice is based on three core values or ethics: • Care of the Earth: Provision for all life systems to continue and multiply. • Care of People: Provision for people to access those resources necessary for their existence.. • Setting Limits to Population and Consumption: By governing our own needs, we can set resources aside to further the above principles.
Permaculture design emphasizes patterns of landscape, function, and species assemblies. It asks the question, “Where does this (element) go? How can it be placed for the maximum benefit of the system? Permaculture draws on the practical application of ecological theory to analyze the characteristics of a farm, garden or home site. Each element of a design is carefully analyzed in terms of its needs, outputs, and properties. Design elements are then assembled in relation to one another so that the products of one element feed the needs of adjacent elements. Synergy (two or more things functioning together to produce a result not independently obtainable) between design elements is achieved while minimizing waste and the demand for human labor or the input of energy. Exemplary permaculture designs evolve over time, and can become extremely complex systems that produce a high density of food and materials with minimal input.
An aquaponic system that involves tilapia or perch (up to 10,000 fish in the 5 ft deep tank), watercress and tomatoes. The water is drawn up through one pump and gravity fed through the potted plants (which remove the nitrogen from the fish waste) and back into the tank where it re-oxygenizes the tank water.
The key to the permaculture design model is that useful connections are made between components in the final design. The focus is not on these elements themselves, but rather on the relationships created among them by the way they are placed together; the whole becoming greater than the sum of its parts. Permaculture is also about careful and contemplative observation of nature and natural systems, and of recognizing universal patterns and principles, then learning to apply these to one’s own circumstances. Permaculture is a form of polyculture agriculture. Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoiding large stands of single crops, or monoculture. Perennial plants are often used in permaculture design. As they do not need to be planted every year they require less maintenance and fertilizers. They are especially important in the outer zones and in layered systems.
Modern permaculture is a system design tool. It is a way of: • • • • looking at a whole system or problem; observing how the parts relate; planning to mend inefficient systems by applying ideas learned from long-term sustainable working systems; seeing connections between key parts.
Holmgren's 12 design principles
The core of permaculture has always been in supplying a design toolkit for human habitation. This toolkit helps the designer to model a final design based on an observation of how ecosystems interact. 1. Observe and interact: By taking time to engage with nature we can design solutions that suit our particular situation. 2. Catch and store energy: By developing systems that collect resources at peak abundance, we can use them in times of need. 3. Obtain a yield: Ensure that you are getting truly useful rewards as part of the work that you are doing. 4. Apply self-regulation and accept feedback: We need to discourage inappropriate activity to ensure that systems can continue to function well. 5. Use and value renewable resources and services: Make the best use of nature's abundance to reduce our consumptive behavior and dependence on non-renewable resources. 6. Produce no waste: By valuing and making use of all the resources that are available to us, nothing goes to waste. 7. Design from patterns to details: By stepping back, we can observe patterns in nature and society. These can form the backbone of our designs, with the details filled in as we go.
Mature species on a keyline irrigation channel. Victoria, Australia
8. Integrate rather than segregate: By putting the right things in the right place, relationships develop between those things and they work together to support each other. 9. Use small and slow solutions: Small and slow systems are easier to maintain than big ones, making better use of local resources and producing more sustainable outcomes. 10. Use and value diversity: Diversity reduces vulnerability to a variety of threats and takes advantage of the unique nature of the environment in which it resides. 11. Use edges and value the marginal: The interface between things is where the most interesting events take place. These are often the most valuable, diverse and productive elements in the system. 12. Creatively use and respond to change: We can have a positive impact on inevitable change by carefully observing, and then intervening at the right time.
Permaculture design focuses heavily upon natural patterns. All things, even the wind, the waves and the earth moving around the Sun, form patterns. In pattern application, permaculture designers are encouraged to develop an awareness of the patterns that exist in nature (and how these function) and how patterns can be utilized to satisfy the specific design needs of a specific site. "The application of pattern on a design site involves the designer recognizing the shape and potential to fit these patterns or combinations of patterns comfortably onto the landscape".
The edge effect in ecology is the effect of the juxtaposition or placing side by side of contrasting environments on an ecosystem. Permaculturists maintain that, where vastly differing systems meet, there is an intense area of productivity and useful connections. An example of this is the coast; where the land and the sea meet there is a particularly rich area that meets a disproportionate percentage of human and animal needs. So this idea is played out in permacultural designs by using spirals in the herb garden or creating ponds that have wavy undulating shorelines rather than a simple circle or oval (thereby increasing the amount of edge for a given area). Edges between woodland and open areas have been claimed to be the most productive.
A guild is any group of species that exploit the same resources, often in related ways.   Guilds are groups of plants, animals, insects, etc. that work well together. Some plants may be grown for food production, some to attract beneficial insects, and others to repel harmful insects. When grouped together these plants form a guild. The end goal is to have a garden that requires little or no ongoing human maintenance or resource inputs. Everything that is added into the system either improves the system or degrades the system. Finding those plants or animals that complement each other, is the first step in designing a useful system. The Three Sisters of maize, squash and beans is a well known example. Guilds can be thought of as an extension of companion planting.
Borage attracts beneficial insects such as bees for pollination and predatory wasps for organic pest control.
Zones are a way of organizing design elements in a human environment on the basis of the frequency of human use and plant or animal needs. Frequently manipulated or harvested elements of the design are located close to the house in zones 1 and 2. Less frequently used or manipulated elements, and elements that benefit from isolation (such as wild species) are farther away. Zones is about positioning things appropriately. Zones are numbered from 0 to 5. Zone 0 The house, or home center. Here permaculture principles would be applied in terms of aiming to reduce energy and water needs, harnessing natural resources such as sunlight, and generally creating a harmonious, sustainable environment in which to live and work. Zone 1 The zone nearest to the house, the location for those elements in the system that require frequent attention, or that need to be visited often, such as salad crops, herb plants, soft fruit like strawberries or raspberries, greenhouse and cold frames, propagation area, worm compost bin for kitchen waste, and so on. Raised beds are often used in zone 1 in urban areas. Zone 2 This area is used for siting perennial plants that require less frequent maintenance, such as occasional weed control or pruning, including currant bushes and orchards. This would also be a good place for beehives, larger scale composting bins, and so on. Zone 3 The area where maincrops are grown, both for domestic use and for trade purposes. After establishment, care and maintenance required are fairly minimal (provided mulches and similar things are used), such as watering or weed control maybe once a week. Zone 4 A semi-wild area. This zone is mainly used for forage and collecting wild food as well as timber production. Zone 5 A wild area. There is no human intervention in zone 5 apart from the observation of natural ecosystems and cycles.
Layers are one of the tools used to design functional ecosystems that are both sustainable and of direct benefit to man. A mature ecosystem has a huge number of relationships between its component parts: trees, understory, ground cover, soil, fungi, insects and animals. Because plants grow to different heights, a diverse community of life is able to grow in a relatively small space, as each layer is stacked one on top of another. There are seven recognized layers in permaculture, although some practitioners also include an eighth layer, fungi. 1. The canopy: the tallest trees in the system. Large trees dominate but do not saturate the area, i.e. there exist patches barren of trees. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Low tree layer: dwarf fruit trees, citrus trees and other short trees Shrubs: a diverse layer that includes most berry bushes Herbaceous: may be annuals, biennials or perennials; most annuals will fit into this layer Rhizosphere: root crops including potatoes and other edible tubers Soil surface: cover crops to retain soil and lessen erosion, along with green manures to add nutrients and organic matter to the soil, especially nitrogen 7. Vertical layer: climbers or vines, such as runner beans and lima beans (vine varieties)
The seven layers of the forest garden
Common design elements
Agroforestry is an integrated approach of using the interactive benefits from combining trees and shrubs with crops and/or livestock. It combines agricultural and forestry technologies to create more diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems. In agroforestry systems, trees or shrubs are intentionally used within agricultural systems, or non-timber forest products are cultured in forest settings. Knowledge, careful selection of species and good management of trees and crops are needed to optimize the production and positive effects within the system and to minimize negative competitive effects. Forest gardening is a type of agroforestry that is particularly popular with permaculture designers.
Robert Hart's forest garden in Shropshire, England.
Animals are often incorporated into the site design. Chickens can be used as a method of weed control and also as a producer of eggs, meat and fertilizer. Bill Mollison stated that "animals represent a valid method of storing inedible vegetation as food." However not all permaculture sites keep animals for meat, eggs or milk. Sometimes animals function as pets or are treated as co-habitats and co-workers of the site, eating foods normally unpalatable to people such as slugs and termites, being an integral part of the pest management by eating some pests, supplying fertilizer through their droppings and controlling some weed species.
Chicken tractors allow fresh forage.
Other projects avoid the use of domesticated animals altogether. Vegan permaculture (also known as veganic permaculture, veganiculture or vegaculture) is essentially the same as permaculture except for the addition of Animalcare as a fourth core value alongside Earthcare, Peoplecare and Fairshare. Zalan Glen, a raw vegan, proposes that vegaculture should emerge out of permaculture in the same way veganism split from vegetarianism in the 1940s.
Current industrial agricultural systems of food production are not fully renewable. Industrial agriculture uses large amounts of petroleum and natural gas, both to run the equipment, and to supply pesticides and fertilizers. Permaculture is in part an attempt to create a renewable system of food production that relies upon minimal amounts of energy. Traditional pre-industrial agriculture was labor intensive, industrial agriculture is fossil fuel intensive, and permaculture is design and information intensive and attempts to be petrofree. Partially permaculture is an attempt to work smarter, not harder; and when possible renewable energy designs such as passive solar should be used.
In passive solar building design, windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer.
Peak oil is the point in time when the maximum rate of global petroleum extraction is reached, after which the rate of production enters terminal decline. Mollison and Holmgren have both written extensively on the topic, and it is a much discussed concept amongst permaculturists. Applying permaculture principals means using fewer non-renewable sources of energy, and particularly petroleum based forms of energy.
A natural building involves a range of building systems and materials that place major emphasis on sustainability. Ways of achieving sustainability through natural building focus on durability and the use of minimally processed, plentiful or renewable resources, as well as those that, while recycled or salvaged, produce healthy living environments and maintain indoor air quality. Natural building tends to rely on human labor, more than technology. The basis of natural building is the need to lessen the environmental impact of buildings and other supporting systems, without sacrificing comfort, health or aesthetics. To be more sustainable, natural building uses primarily abundantly available, renewable, reused or recycled materials. In addition to relying on natural building materials, the emphasis on the architectural design is heightened. The orientation of a building, the utilization of local climate and site conditions, the emphasis on natural ventilation through design, fundamentally lessen operational costs and positively impact the environmental. Building compactly and minimizing the ecological footprint is common, as are on-site handling of energy acquisition, on-site water capture, alternate sewage treatment and water reuse.
Rainwater and greywater
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulating and storing of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. It has been used to provide drinking water, water for livestock, water for irrigation, as well as other typical uses. Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses and local institutions can make an important contribution to the availability of drinking water. It can supplement the subsoil water level and increase urban greenery. Water collected from the ground, sometimes from areas which are especially prepared for this purpose, is called stormwater harvesting. Greywater is wastewater generated from domestic activities such as laundry, dishwashing, and bathing, which can be recycled on-site for uses such as landscape irrigation and constructed wetlands. This wastewater contains no fecal matter (human feces). Greywater differs from water from the toilets which is designated sewage or blackwater to indicate it contains human waste.
Rainwater harvesting systems channel rainwater from a roof into a storage tank via an arrangement of gutters and pipes.
In agriculture and gardening, mulch is a protective cover placed over the soil. Any material or combination can be used as mulch, stones, leaves, plastic, cardboard etc, though in Permaculture mulches of organic material are the most common because they perform more functions. These include: absorbing rainfall, reducing evoporation, providing nutrients, increasing organic matter in the soil, feeding and creating habitat for soil organisms, suppressing weed growth and seed germination, moderating diurnal temperature swings, protecting against frost, and reducing erosion. Sheet mulching is an agricultural no-dig gardening technique that attempts to mimic natural processes occurring within forests, sheet mulching mimics the leaf cover that is found on forest floors. When deployed properly and in combination with other Permacultural principles, it can generate healthy, productive and low maintenance ecosystems.  Sheet mulch serves as a "nutrient bank," storing the nutrients contained in organic matter and slowly making these nutrients available to plants. It also improves the soil by attracting and feeding earthworms, and adding humus. Earthworms "till" the soil, and their worm castings are among the best fertilizers and soil conditioners. Sheet mulching can be used to reduce or eliminate undesirable plants by starving them of light, and may be more advantageous than using herbicide or other methods of control.
Trademark and copyright claims
There has been contention over who if anyone controls the legal rights to the word "Permaculture", meaning is it trademarked or copyrighted, and if so, who holds the legal rights to the use of the word. For a long time Bill Mollison claimed to have copyrighted the word permaculture, and his books reflected that on the copyright page, saying "The contents of this book and the word PERMACULTURE are copyright." These statements were largely accepted at face-value within the permaculture community. However, copyright law does not protect names, ideas, concepts, systems, or methods of doing something; it only protects the expression or the description of an idea, not the idea itself. Eventually Mollison acknowledged that he was mistaken and that no copyright protection existed for the word "permaculture". Mollison explained that the word "permaculture" was copyrighted to protect the quality of teaching, particularly with relation to the Permaculture Design Course (PDC), a 72 hour course usually taught over a period of 14 days. The PDC is a formal means of training an individual the ideas and techniques associated with permaculture. Mollison's argument was if the word was copyrighted, then only those who had been trained and shown to have a reasonable level of proficiency would be allowed to teach the PDC. However, some of those who taught the PDC wanted to adjust the curriculum to better reflect the local conditions of where it was being taught. For example, should a course taught in an urban setting such as New York City be unchanged from what is taught in rural Australia? Mollison was adamant that the curriculum should be taught as he had designed it, without being altered. In 2000 Mollison's US based Permaculture Institute sought a service mark (a form of trademark) for the word permaculture when used in educational services such as conducting classes, seminars, or workshops. The service mark would have allowed Mollison and his two Permaculture Institutes (one in the US and one in Australia) to set enforceable guidelines as to how permaculture could be taught and who could teach it, particularly with relation to the PDC. The service mark failed and was abandoned in 2001. Also in 2001 Mollison applied for trademarks in Australia for the terms "Permaculture Design Course" and "Permaculture Design". These applications where both withdrawn in 2003. In 2009 he sought a trademark for " Permaculture a Designers' Manual" and "Introduction to Permaculture", the names of two of his books. These applications where withdrawn in 2011. There has never been a trademark for the word Permaculture in Australia.
John Robin has criticized permaculture for its potential to spread environmental weeds. Another critique of permaculture is that the view that woods are more highly productive than farmland on the basis of the theory of ecological succession which states that net productivity declines as ecosystems mature is false. Proponents of permaculture respond that this is only false if one includes data from climax vegetation as opposed to maturing forests. Some critics have questioned whether there is enough scientifically tested data to validate many of the claims promoted by permaculture advocates.
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Agroforestry.net. 2011-09-03. . Retrieved 2011-10-21.  Sustainable Agriculture by J. Mason, Landlinks Press 2003  Russ Grayson (2011). "The Permaculture Papers 5: time of change and challenge — 2000-2004" (http:/ / pacific-edge. info/ the-permaculture-papers-5-time-of-change-and-challenge-â-2000-2004/ ). www.pacific-edge.info. . Retrieved 8 September 2011. "In a letter to me, the Institute explained that they were seeking the trademarks because they had been mistaken in their belief that the terms were protected by copyright. This belief had endured for years, Bill occasionally making public statements about copyright protecting Permaculture and how it could be used. Copyright protects only the expression of an idea, not the idea itself, the Institute confirmed. Copyright protected Bill’s books as an expression of Permaculture, but the idea of Permaculture itself and the elements that make it up remained unprotected"  United States Patent and Trademark Office (2011). 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Retrieved 8 September 2011. "Word: PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE, New Trade Mark Application 28-MAY-2001, Withdrawal Advertised: 09-JAN-2003, Status: Withdrawn, XAF Pty Ltd ACN: 009521260 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA - Bill Mollison 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA - Lisa Mollison 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA, Class: 41 Education and training in the field of sustainable land use and landscape design, Trade Mark : 877106"  IP Australia (2011). "Enter as a Guest; Basic Search; You can also search by trade mark number: 877449" (http:/ / pericles. ipaustralia. gov. au/ atmoss/ Falcon. Result). Commonwealth of Australia. . Retrieved 8 September 2011. "Word: PERMACULTURE DESIGN, New Trade Mark Application (multi-class) 30-MAY-2001, Withdrawal Advertised: 09-JAN-2003, Status: Withdrawn, XAF Pty Ltd ACN: 009521260 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA - Bill Mollison 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA - Lisa Mollison 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA, Class: 16 Books, pamphlets, printed material all in the field of sustainable land use, landscape design and food security Class: 41 Education and training in the field of sustainable land use and landscape
design, Class: 42 Consulting for others in the fields of sustainable land use and landscape design, Trade Mark : 877449"  IP Australia (2011). "Enter as a Guest; Basic Search; You can also search by trade mark number: 1319992" (http:/ / pericles. ipaustralia. gov. au/ atmoss/ Falcon. Result). Commonwealth of Australia. . Retrieved 8 September 2011. "Word: Permaculture a Designers' Manual, Filing Elec Appl'n for TM - Pick List 3 Classes 10-SEP-2009, Applications Lapsed and Withdrawn (Lapsed): 24-MAR-2011, Status: Lapsed/Not Protected, Owner/s: XAF Pty Ltd ITF The Permaculutre Institute ACN: 009521260 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA - Bill Mollison 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA - Lisa Mollison 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA, Class: 9 Computer hardware publications in electronic form; electronic publications (downloadable), Class: 16 Printed publications, Class: 41 Providing online electronic publications (not downloadable), Trade Mark : 1319992"  IP Australia (2011). "Enter as a Guest; Basic Search; You can also search by trade mark number: 1321705" (http:/ / pericles. ipaustralia. gov. au/ atmoss/ Falcon. Result). Commonwealth of Australia. . Retrieved 8 September 2011. "Word: Introduction to Permaculture, Filing Elec Appl'n for TM - Pick List 3 Classes 21-SEP-2009, Applications Lapsed and Withdrawn (Lapsed): 31-MAR-2011, Status: Lapsed/Not Protected, Owner/s: XAF Pty as trustee for The Permaculutre Institute ACN: 009521260 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA - Bill Mollison 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA - Lisa Mollison 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA, Class: 9 Electronic publications (downloadable); electronic publications including those sold and distributed online, Class: 16 Printed publications, Class: 41 Providing online electronic publications (not downloadable), Trade Mark : 1321705"  IP Australia (2011). "Enter as a Guest; Basic Search; You can also search by trade mark number: 345002" (http:/ / pericles. ipaustralia. gov. au/ atmoss/ Falcon. Result). Commonwealth of Australia. . Retrieved 8 September 2011.  "Permaculture: Weeds or Wild Nature" (http:/ / www. holmgren. com. au/ html/ Writings/ weeds. html). Holmgren.com.au. 1993-10-03. . Retrieved 2011-10-21.  Williams, Greg (2001). "Gaia's Garden: A Guide to Home-Scale Permaculture" (http:/ / webcache. googleusercontent. com/ search?q=cache:xIuXvGwog_IJ:findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0GER/ is_2001_Winter/ ai_81790195/ + http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0GER/ is_2001_Winter/ ai_81790195/ & cd=1& hl=en& ct=clnk& gl=au& source=www. google. com. au). Whole Earth. .  "A toolbox, not a tool" (http:/ / www. findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0GER/ is_2001_Winter/ ai_81790196). Findarticles.com. . Retrieved 2011-10-21.
• Bell, Graham. The Permaculture Way. 1st edition, Thorsons, (1992), ISBN 0-7225-2568-0, 2nd edition Permanent Publications (UK) (2004), ISBN 1-85623-028-7. • Bell, Graham. The Permaculture Garden. Permanent Publications (UK) (2004), ISBN 1-85623-027-9. • Burnett, Graham. Permaculture: A Beginner's Guide. Spiralseed (http://www.spiralseed.co.uk) (UK). • Fern, Ken. Plants For A Future. [Permanent Publications] (UK) (1997). ISBN 1-85623-011-2. Google Books link (http://books.google.com/books?id=uXDXevCgtV0C&dq="plants+for+a+future"&printsec=frontcover& source=bl&ots=fo2Ig8wevb&sig=U5hYlhk0ddjQaYyL9jcaThJSJx4&hl=en& ei=6YYBS6rNAZOxlAeUxoWLCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8& ved=0CDEQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=&f=false) • Fukuoka, Masanobu. The One Straw Revolution. Rodale Books (US). Holistic Agriculture Library (http://www. soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01aglibwelcome.html) • Holmgren, David. Permaculture: Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability. Holmgren Design Services (http://www.holmgren.com.au/) (Australia). • Holmgren, David. "Update 49: Retrofitting the suburbs for sustainability". CSIRO Sustainability Network (http:// www.bml.csiro.au/SNnewsletters.htm#CSIRO Sustainability Network) • Hart, Robert. Forest Gardening. Green Books (UK) ISBN 1-900322-02-1. • Hemenway, Toby. Gaia's Garden. Chelsea Green Books (http://www.chelseagreen.com) (US) (2001). ISBN 1-890132-52-7. • Jacke, Dave with Eric Toensmeier. Edible Forest Gardens. Volume I: Ecological Vision and Theory for Temperate-Climate Permaculture, Volume II: Ecological Design and Practice for Temperate-Climate Permaculture. Edible Forest Gardens (http://www.edibleforestgardens.com) (US) 2005 • King, FH (Franklin Hiram) Farmers of Forty Centuries: Or Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea and Japan (1911). • Law, Ben. The Woodland House. [Permanent Publications] (UK) (2005), ISBN 1-85623-031-7. • Law, Ben. The Woodland Way. [Permanent Publications] (UK), ISBN 1-85623-009-0.
Permaculture • Loofs, Mona. Permaculture, Ecology and Agriculture: An investigation into Permaculture theory and practice using two case studies in northern New South Wales Honours thesis, Human Ecology Program, Department of Geography, Australian National University 1993 • Mollison, Bill & David Holmgren Permaculture One. Transworld Publishers (Australia) (1978), ISBN 0-552-98060-9. • Mollison, Bill. Permaculture: A Designer's Manual. Tagari Press (Australia). • Mollison, Bill Permaculture Two. Tagari Press (http://www.tagari.com) (Australia) (1979), ISBN 0-908228-00-7. • Odum, H.T., Jorgensen, S.E. and Brown, M.T. 'Energy hierarchy and transformity in the universe', in Ecological Modelling, 178, pp. 17–28 (2004). • Paull, J. "Permanent Agriculture: Precursor to Organic Farming", Journal of Bio-Dynamics Tasmania, no.83, pp. 19–21, 2006. Organic eprints (http://orgprints.org/10237/). • Rosemary Morrow, Earth User's Guide to Permaculture ISBN 0-86417-514-0 • Whitefield, Patrick. Permaculture In A Nutshell. Permanent Publications (UK) (1993), ISBN 1-85623-003-1. • Whitefield, Patrick. The Earth Care Manual. Permanent Publications (UK) (2004), ISBN 1-85623-021-X. • Woodrow, Linda. The Permaculture Home Garden. Penguin Books (Australia). • Yeomans, P.A. Water for Every Farm: A practical irrigation plan for every Australian property, K.G. Murray Publishing Company, Pty, Ltd, Sydney, N.S.W., Australia (1973). • Various, The Same Planet a different World.. free eBook (http://permaculturefrance.com/resources.htm) (France).
• The 15 pamphlets based on the 1981 Permaculture Design Course given by Bill Mollison (http://www. bettertimesinfo.org/pdc_all.pdf) (co-founder of permaculture) all in 1 pdf-file. • David Holmgren's web site (http://www.holmgren.com.au/) (co-founder of permaculture) • Tierra, Agua y Sol (http://vimeo.com/27087306) Chilean free Documentary in spanish • Permaculture a Beginners Guide (http://www.spiralseed.co.uk/permaculture) - a 'pictorial walkthrough'
Agricultural policy describes a set of laws relating to domestic agriculture and imports of foreign agricultural products. Governments usually implement agricultural policies with the goal of achieving a specific outcome in the domestic agricultural product markets. Outcomes can involve, for example, a guaranteed supply level, price stability, product quality, product selection, land use or employment.
Agriculture policy concerns
An example of the breadth and types of agriculture policy concerns can be found in the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics article Agricultural Economies of Australia and New Zealand which says that the major challenges and issues faced by their industrial agriculture industry are: • marketing challenges and consumer tastes • international trading environment (world market conditions, barriers to trade, quarantine and technical barriers, maintenance of global competitiveness and market image, and management of biosecurity issues affecting imports and the disease status of exports) • biosecurity (pests and diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), avian influenza, foot and mouth disease, citrus canker, and sugarcane smut) • infrastructure (such as transport, ports, telecommunications, energy and irrigation facilities) • management skills and labor supply (With increasing requirements for business planning, enhanced market awareness, the use of modern technology such as computers and global positioning systems and better agronomic management, modern farm managers will need to become increasingly skilled. Examples: training of skilled workers, the development of labor hire systems that provide continuity of work in industries with strong seasonal peaks, modern communication tools, investigating market opportunities, researching customer requirements, business planning including financial management, researching the latest farming techniques, risk management skills) • coordination (a more consistent national strategic agenda for agricultural research and development; more active involvement of research investors in collaboration with research providers developing programs of work; greater coordination of research activities across industries, research organisations and issues; and investment in human capital to ensure a skilled pool of research personnel in the future.) • technology (research, adoption, productivity, genetically modified (GM) crops, investments) • water (access rights, water trade, providing water for environmental outcomes, assignment of risk in response to reallocation of water from consumptive to environmental use, accounting for the sourcing and allocation of water) • resource access issues (management of native vegetation, the protection and enhancement of biodiversity, sustainability of productive agricultural resources, landholder responsibilities)
Agriculture remains the largest single contributor to the livelihoods of the 75% of the world's poor who live in rural areas. Encouraging agricultural growth is therefore an important aspect of agricultural policy in the developing world. In addition, a recent Natural Resource Perspective paper by the Overseas Development Institute found that good infrastructure, education and effective information services in rural areas were necessary to improve the chances of making agriculture work for the poor.
The biosecurity concerns facing industrial agriculture can be illustrated by: • the threat to poultry and humans from H5N1; possibly caused by use of animal vaccines • the threat to cattle and humans from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE); possibly caused by the unnatural feeding of cattle to cattle to minimize costs • and the threat to industry profits from diseases like foot-and-mouth disease and citrus canker which increasing globalization makes harder to contain. Avian influenza Use of animal vaccines can create new viruses that kill people and cause flu pandemic threats. H5N1 is an example of where this might have already occurred. According to the CDC article H5N1 Outbreaks and Enzootic Influenza by Robert G. Webster et al.:"Transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1 from domestic poultry back to migratory waterfowl in western China has increased the geographic spread. The spread of H5N1 and its likely reintroduction to domestic poultry increase the need for good agricultural vaccines. In fact, the root cause of the continuing H5N1 pandemic threat may be the way the pathogenicity of H5N1 viruses is masked by co-circulating influenza viruses or bad agricultural vaccines." Dr. Robert Webster explains: "If you use a good vaccine you can prevent the transmission within poultry and to humans. But if they have been using vaccines now [in China] for several years, why is there so much bird flu? There is bad vaccine that stops the disease in the bird but the bird goes on pooping out virus and maintaining it and changing it. And I think this is what is going on in China. It has to be. Either there is not enough vaccine being used or there is substandard vaccine being used. Probably both. It’s not just China. We can’t blame China for substandard vaccines. I think there are substandard vaccines for influenza in poultry all over the world." In response to the same concerns, Reuters reports Hong Kong infectious disease expert Lo Wing-lok indicating that vaccines have to take top priority. Julie Hall, who is in charge of the WHO's outbreak response in China, claimed that China's vaccinations might be masking the virus. The BBC reported that Dr Wendy Barclay, a virologist at the University of Reading, UK said: "The Chinese have made a vaccine based on reverse genetics made with H5N1 antigens, and they have been using it. There has been a lot of criticism of what they have done, because they have protected their chickens against death from this virus but the chickens still get infected; and then you get drift - the virus mutates in response to the antibodies - and now we have a situation where we have five or six 'flavours' of H5N1 out there." Bovine spongiform encephalopathy Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as "mad cow disease", is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease of cattle, which infects by a mechanism that surprised biologists upon its discovery in the late 20th century. In the UK, the country worst affected, 179,000 cattle were infected and 4.4 million killed as a precaution. The disease can be transmitted to human beings who eat or inhale material from infected carcasses. In humans, it is known as new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD or nvCJD), and by June 2007, it had killed 165 people in Britain, and six elsewhere with the number expected to rise because of the disease's long incubation period. Between 460,000 and 482,000 BSE-infected animals had entered the human food chain before controls on high-risk offal were introduced in 1989. A British inquiry into BSE concluded that the epidemic was caused by feeding cattle, who are normally herbivores, the remains of other cattle in the form of meat and bone meal (MBM), which caused the infectious agent to spread.  The origin of the disease itself remains unknown. The current scientific view is that infectious proteins called prions developed through spontaneous mutation, probably in the 1970s, and there is a possibility that the use of organophosphorus pesticides increased the susceptibility of cattle to the disease. The infectious agent is distinctive for the high temperatures it is able to survive; this contributed to the spread of the disease in Britain,
Agricultural policy which had reduced the temperatures used during its rendering process. Another contributory factor was the feeding of infected protein supplements to very young calves instead of milk from their mothers.  Foot-and-mouth disease Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious and sometimes fatal viral disease of cattle and pigs. It can also infect deer, goats, sheep, and other bovids with cloven hooves, as well as elephants, rats, and hedgehogs. Humans are affected only very rarely. FMD occurs throughout much of the world, and while some countries have been free of FMD for some time, its wide host range and rapid spread represent cause for international concern. In 1996, endemic areas included Asia, Africa, and parts of South America. North America, Australia, New Zealand and Japan have been free of FMD for many years. Most European countries have been recognized as free, and countries belonging to the European Union have stopped FMD vaccination. Infection with foot-and-mouth disease tends to occur locally, that is, the virus is passed on to susceptible animals through direct contact with infected animals or with contaminated pens or vehicles used to transport livestock. The clothes and skin of animal handlers such as farmers, standing water, and uncooked food scraps and feed supplements containing infected animal products can harbor the virus as well. Cows can also catch FMD from the semen of infected bulls. Control measures include quarantine and destruction of infected livestock, and export bans for meat and other animal products to countries not infected with the disease. Because FMD rarely infects humans but spreads rapidly among animals, it is a much greater threat to the agriculture industry than to human health. Farmers around the world can lose huge amounts of money during a foot-and-mouth epidemic, when large numbers of animals are destroyed and revenues from milk and meat production go down. One of the difficulties in vaccinating against FMD is the huge variation between and even within serotypes. There is no cross-protection between serotypes (meaning that a vaccine for one serotype won't protect against any others) and in addition, two strains within a given serotype may have nucleotide sequences that differ by as much as 30% for a given gene. This means that FMD vaccines must be highly specific to the strain involved. Vaccination only provides temporary immunity that lasts from months to years. Citrus canker Citrus canker is a disease affecting citrus species that is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis. Infection causes lesions on the leaves, stems, and fruit of citrus trees, including lime, oranges, and grapefruit. While not harmful to humans, canker significantly affects the vitality of citrus trees, causing leaves and fruit to drop prematurely; a fruit infected with canker is safe to eat but too unsightly to be sold. The disease, which is believed to have originated in South East Asia, is extremely persistent when it becomes established in an area, making it necessary for all citrus orchards to be destroyed for successful eradication of the disease. Australia, Brazil and the United States are currently suffering from canker outbreaks. The disease can be detected in orchards and on fruit by the appearance of lesions. Early detection is critical in quarantine situations. Bacteria are tested for pathogenicity by inoculating multiple citrus species with the bacterium. Simultaneously, other diagnostic tests (antibody detection, fatty-acid profiling, and genetic procedures using PCR) are conducted to identify the particular canker strain. Citrus canker outbreaks are prevented and managed in a number of ways. In countries that do not have canker, the disease is prevented from entering the country by quarantine measures. In countries with new outbreaks, eradication programs that are started soon after the disease has been discovered have been successful; such programs rely on destruction of affected orchards. When eradication has been unsuccessful and the disease has become established, management options include replacing susceptible citrus cultivars with resistant cultivars, applying preventive sprays of copper-based bactericides, and destroying infected trees and all surrounding trees within an appropriate radius. The citrus industry is the largest fresh-fruit exporting industry in Australia. Australia has had three outbreaks of citrus canker; two were successfully eradicated and one is ongoing. The disease was found twice during the 1900s in
Agricultural policy the Northern Territory and was eradicated each time. During the first outbreak in 1912, every citrus tree north of latitude 19° south was destroyed, taking 11 years to eradicate the disease. In 2004, Asiatic citrus canker was detected in an orchard in Emerald, Queensland, and was thought to have occurred from the illegal import of infected citrus plants. The state and federal governments have ordered that all commercial orchards, all non-commercial citrus tress, and all native lime trees (C. glauca) in the vicinity of Emerald be destroyed rather than trying to isolate infected trees.
An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to farmers and agribusinesses to manage the agricultural industry as one part of the various methods a government uses in a mixed economy. The conditions for payment and the reasons for the individual specific subsidies varies with farm product, size of farm, nature of ownership, and country among other factors. Enriching peanut farmers for political purposes, keeping the price of a staple low to keep the poor from rebelling, stabilizing the production of a crop to avoid famine years, encouraging diversification and many other purposes have been suggested as the reason for specific subsidies. Price floors or price ceilings set a minimum or maximum price for a product. Price controls encourage more production by a price floor or less production by a price ceiling. A government can erect trade barriers to limit the quantity of goods imported (in the case of a Quota Share) or enact tariffs to raise the domestic price of imported products. These barriers give preference to domestic producers.
Objectives of market intervention
Some argue that nations have an interest in assuring there is sufficient domestic production capability to meet domestic needs in the event of a global supply disruption. Significant dependence on foreign food producers makes a country strategically vulnerable in the event of war, blockade or embargo. Maintaining adequate domestic capability allows for food self-sufficiency that lessens the risk of supply shocks due to geopolitical events. Agricultural policies may be used to support domestic producers as they gain domestic and international market share. This may be a short term way of encouraging an industry until it is large enough to thrive without aid. Or it may be an ongoing subsidy designed to allow a product to compete with or undercut foreign competition. This may produce a net gain for a government despite the cost of interventions because it allows a country to build up an export industry or reduce imports. It also helps to form the nations supply and demand market.
Environmental Protection and Land Management
Farm or undeveloped land composes the majority of land in most countries. Policies may encourage some land uses rather than others in the interest of protecting the environment. For instance, subsidies may be given for particular farming methods, forestation, land clearance, or pollution abatement.
Rural poverty and poverty relief
Subsidising farming may encourage people to remain on the land and obtain some income. This might be relevant to a third world country with many peasant farmers, but it may also be a consideration to more developed countries such as Poland. They have a very high unemployment rate, much farmland and retain a large rural population growing food for their own use. Price controls may also be used to assist poor citizens. Many countries have used this method of welfare support as it delivers cheap food to the poorest without the need to assess people to give them financial aid.
Organic farming assistance
Welfare economics theory holds that sometimes private activities can impose social costs upon others. Industrial agriculture is widely considered to impose social costs through pesticide pollution and nitrate pollution. Further, agriculture uses large amounts of water, a scarce resource [citation?]. Some economists argue that taxes should be levied on agriculture, or that organic agriculture, which uses little pesticides and experiences relatively little nitrate runoff, should be encouraged with subsidies. In the United States, 65% of the approximately $16.5 billion in annual subsidies went to the top 10% of farmers in 2002 because subsidies are linked to certain commodities. On the other hand, organic farming received $5 million for help in certification and $15 million for research over a 5-year time period.
Some advocate Fair Trade rules to ensure that poor farmers in developing nations that produce crops primarily for export are not exploited or outcompeted - which advocates consider a dangerous "race to the bottom" in agricultural labor and safety standards. Opponents point out that most agriculture in developed nations is produced by industrial corporations (agribusiness) which are hardly deserving of sympathy, and that the alternative to exploitation is poverty.
Arguments against market intervention
Dumping of agricultural surpluses
In international trade parlance, when a company from country A sells a commodity below the cost of production into country B, this is called "dumping". A number of countries that are signatories to multilateral trade agreements have provisions that prohibit this practice. When rich countries subsidize domestic production, excess output is often given to the developing world as foreign aid. This process eliminates the domestic market for agricultural products in the developing world, because the products can be obtained for free from western aid agencies. In developing nations where these effects are most severe, small farmers could no longer afford basic inputs and were forced to sell their land. "Consider a farmer in Ghana who used to be able to make a living growing rice. Several years ago, Ghana was able to feed and export their surplus. Now, it imports rice. From where? Developed countries. Why? Because it's cheaper. Even if it costs the rice producer in the developed world much more to produce the rice, he doesn't have to make a profit from his crop. The government pays him to grow it, so he can sell it more cheaply to Ghana than the farmer in Ghana can. And that farmer in Ghana? He can't feed his family anymore."(Lyle Vanclief, Former Canadian Minister of Agriculture [1997-2003]) According to The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, corn, soybeans, cotton, wheat and rice are sold below the cost of production, or dumped. Dumping rates are approximately forty percent for wheat, between twenty-five and thirty percent for corn (maize), approximately thirty percent for soybeans, fifty-seven percent for cotton, and approximately twenty percent for rice. For example, wheat is sold for forty percent below cost. According to Oxfam, "If developed nations eliminated subsidy programs, the export value of agriculture in lesser developed nations would increase by 24 %, plus a further 5.5 % from tariff equilibrium. ... exporters can offer US surpluses for sale at prices around half the cost of production; destroying local agriculture and creating a captive market in the process." Free trade advocates desire the elimination of all market distorting mechanisms (subsidies, tariffs, regulations) and argue that, as with free trade in all areas, this will result in aggregate benefit for all. This position is particularly popular in competitive agricultural exporting nations in both the developed and developing world, some of whom have banded together in the Cairns Group lobby. Canada's Department of Agriculture estimates that developing nations would benefit by about $4 billion annually if subsidies in the developed world were halved.
Many developing countries do not grow enough food to feed their own populations. These nations must buy food from other countries. Lower prices and free food save the lives of millions of starving people, despite the drop in food sales of the local farmers. A developing nation could use new improved farming methods to grow more food, with the ultimate goal of feeding their nation without outside help. New greenhouse methods, hydroponics, fertilizers, R/O Water Processors, hybrid crops, fast-growing hybrid trees for quick shade, interior temperature control, greenhouse or tent insulation, autonomous building gardens, sun lamps, mylar, fans, and other cheap tech can be used to grow crops on previously unarable land, such as rocky, mountainous, desert, and even Arctic lands. More food can be grown, reducing dependency on other countries for food. Replacement crops can also make nations agriculturally independent. Sugar, for example, comes from sugar cane imported from Polynesia. Instead of buying the sugar from Polynesia, a nation can make sugar from sugar beets, maple sap, or sweetener from stevia plant, keeping the profits circulating within the nation's economy. Paper and clothes can be made of hemp instead of trees and cotton. Tropical foods won't grow in many places in Europe, but they will grow in insulated greenhouses or tents in Europe. Soybean plant cellulose can replace plastic (made from oil). Ethanol from farm waste or hempseed oil can replace gasoline. Rainforest medicine plants grown locally can replace many imported medicines. Alternates of cash crops, like sugar and oil replacements, can reduce farmers' dependency on subsidies in both developed and developing nations. Market interventions may increase the cost to consumers for agricultural products, either via hidden wealth-transfers via the government, or increased prices at the consumer level, such as for sugar and peanuts in the US. This has led to market distortions, such as food processors using high fructose corn syrup as a replacement for sugar. High fructose corn syrup may be an unhealthy food additive, and, were sugar prices not inflated by government fiat, sugar might be preferred over high fructose corn syrup in the marketplace.
Developed world cases
Overview: Europe and America
The farmer population is approximately five percent of the total population in the E.U. and 1.7% in the U.S. The total value of agricultural production in the E.U. amounted to 128 billion euros (1998). About forty-nine percent of this amount was accounted for by political measures: 37 billion euros due to direct payments and 43 billion euros from consumers due to the artificially high price. Eighty percent of European farmers receive a direct payment of 5,000 euros or less, while 2.2% receive a direct payment above 50,000 euros, totaling forty percent of all direct subsidies. The average U.S. farmer receives $16,000 in annual subsidies. Two-thirds of farmers receive no direct payments. Of those that do, the average amount amongst the lowest paid eighty percent was $7000 from 1995-2003. (http:/ / www. ewg. org/ farm/ findings. php) Subsidies are a mix of tax reductions, direct cash payments and below-market prices on water and other inputs. Some claim that these aggregate figures are misleading because large agribusinesses, rather than individual farmers, receive a significant share of total subsidy spending. The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 reduced farm subsidies, providing fixed payments over a period and replacing price supports and subsidies. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 contains direct and countercyclical payments designed to limit the effects of low prices and yields. In the EU, € 54 billion of subsidies are paid every year. An increasing share of the subsidies is being decoupled from production and lumped into the Single Farm Payment. While this has diminished the distortions created by the Common Agricultural Policy, many critics argue that a greater focus on the provision of public goods, such as biodiversity and clean water, is needed. The next major reform is expected for 2014, when a new long-term EU budget is coming into effect.
The U.S. Conservation Reserve Program leases land from producers that take marginal land out of production and convert it back to a near-natural state by planting native grasses and other plants. See  The U.S. Environmental Quality Incentives Program subsidizes improvements which promote water conservation and other measures. This program is conducted under a bidding process using a formula where farmers request a certain percentage of cost share for an improvement such as drip irrigation. Producers that offer the most environmental improvement based on a point system for the least cost are funded first. The process continues until that year's allocated funds are expended. See .
World Trade Organization Actions
In April 2004 the WTO ruled that 3-billion dollars in US cotton subsidies violate trade agreements and that almost 50% of EU sugar exports are illegal. In 1997-2003, US cotton exports were subsidized by an average of 48%.The World Trade Organization (WTO) has extracted commitments from the Philippines government, making it lower import barriers to half their present levels over a span of six years, and allowing in drastically increased competition from the industrialised and heavily subsidised farming systems of North America and Europe. A recent Oxfam report estimated that average household incomes of maize farmers will be reduced by as much as 30% over the six years as cheap imports from the US drive down prices in the local markets. The report estimates that in the absence of trade restrictions, US subsidised maize could be marketed at less than half the price of maize grown on the Philippine island of Mindanao; and that the livelihoods of up to half a million Filipino maize farmers (out of the total 1.2 million) are under immediate threat.
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• www.reformthecap.eu: assessment of agricultural policies and summaries of relevant studies (http://www. reformthecap.eu) • IFAP: International Federation of Agricultural Producers (http://www.ifap.org) • OECD: Food, Agriculture and Fisheries (OECD Department of Trade and Agriculture) (http://www.oecd.org/ department/0,3355,en_2649_33727_1_1_1_1_1,00.html) • OECD Statistics Portal (http://www.oecd.org/statsportal/0,3352,en_2825_293564_1_1_1_1_1,00.html) • kickAAS (Kick all agricultural subsidies) (http://kickaas.typepad.com/) • The Globalist | Global Agriculture -- Getting Tough on ... - November 12, 2003 (http://www.theglobalist.com/ DBWeb/StoryId.aspx?StoryId=3551) • Ag Observatory (http://www.agobservatory.org/) from the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy • Ashish's Niti (Developing countries should take advantage of agricultural subisides) (http://ashish.typepad.com/ ashishs_niti/2004/07/poorer_countrie.html) • India together (http://www.indiatogether.org/2004/oct/dsh-entitle.htm) • Larry Elliott, The Guardian, June 15, 2005, "West accused of concealing farm subsidies: Oxfam says EU and US are exploiting loopholes and using creative accounting to avoid real trade concessions to developing countries" (http://www.guardian.co.uk/guardianpolitics/story/0,,1506687,00.html) • Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (http://www.iatp.org) • Sophia Murphy, Ben Lilliston and Mary Beth Lake, February 2005, "WTO Agreement on Agriculture: A Decade of Dumping" (http://www.tradeobservatory.org/library.cfm?refid=48532), Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy • Kym Anderson and Will Martin (2005), "Agriculture Market Access: The Key to Doha Success" (http:// siteresources.worldbank.org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Pubs/TradeNote23.pdf), World Bank, June 2005 - over half the gains to developing countries from global agricultural reforms would come from liberalization by developing countries themselves. • Food Security and Ag-Biotech News (http://www.merid.org/fs-agbiotech/) — provides balanced global news on policies related to genetically modified (GM) crops
Article Sources and Contributors
Article Sources and Contributors
Agriculture Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463866836 Contributors: *drew, -Ilhador-, -Majestic-, 0, 0121448, 10metreh, 199.179.162.xxx, 203.37.14.xxx, 216.5.176.xxx, 24.78.101.xxx, 2help, 516, A little insignificant, Aaron Brenneman, Aaronevanz, Abeg92, Abrech, Abu badali, Adam78, AdnanSa, AfricaEditor, AgCam, Agman2010, Agricmarketing, Agrihouse, Agrofe, Agrotradezone, AgrowKnowledge, Agrónomos, Ahoerstemeier, Ahousley, Aircorn, Aitias, Akira625, Alain08, Alan Liefting, Alansohn, Alarics, Albanyhist, Alex.muller, Alex43223, Alexchris, AlexiusHoratius, Alexwcovington, Alison, All Is One, Alnokta, Ancheta Wis, Andkore, Andonic, Andre Engels, Andrea105, Andrew Lancaster, Andrew c, Andrewlim1, Andy Johnston, Andy M. 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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
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Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Hinrich File:Agricultural value map 1970-2008.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Agricultural_value_map_1970-2008.gif License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Wakebrdkid File:Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Drawn by User:SKopp, redrawn by User:Denelson83 and User:Zscout370 Recode by cs:User:-xfi- (code), User:Shizhao (colors) File:Flag of Europe.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Europe.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Verdy p, User:-xfi-, User:Paddu, User:Nightstallion, User:Funakoshi, User:Jeltz, User:Dbenbenn, User:Zscout370 File:Flag of India.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_India.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie, Mifter File:Flag of the United 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Lascorz File:Sow with piglet.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sow_with_piglet.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: EugeneZelenko, Julo, Kersti Nebelsiek, Richie, Salix, 2 anonymous edits File:Miniature Lop - Side View.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Miniature_Lop_-_Side_View.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Miniaturelop File:Caribou using antlers.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Caribou_using_antlers.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Laubenstein, Karen - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Original uploader was Mattisse at en.wikipedia File:Pair of Icelandic Sheep.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pair_of_Icelandic_Sheep.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Thomas Quine File:BUFFALO159.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BUFFALO159.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Da File:Bos grunniens - Syracuse Zoo.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bos_grunniens_-_Syracuse_Zoo.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Dave Pape Image:CH cow 2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:CH_cow_2.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Daniel Schwen Image:Goat family.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Goat_family.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Fir0002, Ranveig, 1 anonymous edits Image:Cattle sale 1.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cattle_sale_1.JPG License: Attribution Contributors: Cgoodwin File:Sheep and herder India.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sheep_and_herder_India.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Alex Gaylon from USA File:New World Domesticated plants.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:New_World_Domesticated_plants.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Tabac_rustique.jpg: Atilin Cacao-pod-k4636-14.jpg: Original uploader was Kbh3rd at en.wikipedia VegCorn.jpg: ? 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