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NEED OF TRANSPORT MODELLING Transport Planners require some means to test their proposals and make decisions. This may include the use of a traffic model. This is a combination of computer software and data which represents road traffic flow in an idealised form. Traffic models assist transport planners to design schemes and measures to manage adverse traffic effects. Traffic models inform the decision making process. They are not a substitute for it.

Introduction to Modelling The Limitations of Traffic Models Traffic models represent reality in the context of what is known already. They can predict future traffic flows with infinite precision. BUT only if the input data is 100% accurate and 100% complete! Planning authorities collect as little information as possible, and never a full data set, because of the cost and disruption to traffic. So in reality traffic models cannot predict the future with infinite precision. Traffic models cannot be more reliable than their data inputs. TRANSPORT MODELLING SOFTWARE UTILITY Fundamentally they should indicate how traffic flows and what the costs of travel are.

TRANSPORT MODELLING TOOLS AVAILABLE Traffic engineering and management bus priority models, single junction models, local centre models, corridor models (VISSIM, PARAMICS, AIMSUM, DYNASIM) Assignment modelling strategic town and city centre models, area action plans, major road schemes (SATURN, PARAMICS, VISUM) Multi-modal and land use models regional modelling, North Wales Transport Model, PRISM, SITM (VISUM, OMNITRANS, CUBE, MEPLAN) TRAFFIC ENGINEERING SOFTWARE TOOLS Conventional tools such as LINSIG, TRANSYT, ARCADY and PICADY still used but a modeller would not regard them as a traffic modelling tool. Microsimulation tools such as VISSIM and PARAMICS increasingly been used Applications - bus (or LRT) priority, vehicle actuation, queue relocation, blocking back effects Microsimulation model should also be considered if the effects of any scheme or development are felt over a wider area Specialist modelling firms consider microsimulation modelling to be simply an extension of the standard traffic engineering techniques but this ignores the high level of capability required to model vehicle actuation and bus priority. VISSIM generally favoured by TfL and is perceived by some as being more forgiving to the user. However, there are many examples of PARAMICS being accepted by TfL No route choice within them therefore dynamic routeing is not required.


Generally undertaken over a wider area than most microsimulation models (for example town and city centres) Uses tools such as SATURN. Assists in assessing the area-wider impacts of schemes as they model the reassignment of Conventional tools have been challenged in recent years by newer software tools such as PARAMICS and VISUM. Many examples of town and city centre PARAMICS models. The dynamic assignment capabilities of PARAMICS are generally accepted as being superior to those of VISSIM. Junction analysis will still be required using conventional tools such as TRANSYT and LINSIG. Able to model the effects of bus operations but they should not be confused with multi-modal models. MULTI-MODAL AND LAND USE MODELS - SOFTWARE TOOLS Standard models deal with the effects of vehicular traffic with fixed vehicular trip matrices Multi-modal models use elasticity models to forecast not only vehicle assignment but modal split Often use combination of TRIPS (or CUBE) software, which handles the multimodal element and SATURN software which handles the traffic assignment Should not confuse multi-modal models with conventional assignment models which model bus operations Typically cover areas such as large cities or sub regions. Larger land use transport models such as PRISM (Policy Responsive Integrated Strategic Model) take account of changes in the location and intensity of land uses as well how transport can affect land uses and the economy Specialist modelling consultancies develop bespoke modelling tools (MEPLAN)

Several areas in which they could be applied such as assessment of new growth points, RSS and LDF processes

ITS MODELLING - SOFTWARE TOOLS Microsimulation has ability to model the effects of intelligent transport systems MOVA (Microprocessor Optimised Vehicle Actuation), SCOOT (Split Cycle Offset Optimisation Technique) and ATM (Active Traffic Management). Allows user to test impacts of a MOVA or SCOOT signal network before they are implemented on the ground (PCMOVA) MOVA can be linked to VISSIM and Paramics and there are also examples of PARAMICS being linked to SCOOT and ATM (on the M42 and M25 for example) PEDESTRIAN MODELLING - SOFTWARE TOOLS Paxport Legion Spatial analysis modelling


HCS HCS Analysis - This section discusses the use of the Highway Capacity Software
program to perform analysis of interchange and freeway operations reflective of different design alternatives and traffic volumes. The two key modules that will examined in the documentation include the FREEWAY OPERATIONS and the RAMPS. For each of these two, examples will be provided showing the traffic and geometry of the facility and the corresponding screens from the Highway Capacity Software will be provided to serve a guide for entering the information.

HCS+T7F is now available! is now available.

This latest version of the Highway Capacity SoftwareTM is now integrated with TRANSYT-7FTM for signal timing optimization within the new HCS+T7FTM package.

HCS+TM (Release 5.4) includes HCS+ Interchanges implementing the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) Chapter 26 methodolgy for Interchange Ramp Terminals.

TRANSYT-7F (Release 11.3) is included with HCS+, able to import HCS+Signals and HCS+Interchanges files for optimization and one-touch CORSIM animation.

Netsim NetSim is a comprehensive tool for studying computer networks. NetSim features
state of the art network simulation technology, and comes with additional offerings that enhance and quicken students learning, and prepare them better for their career. Simulation

Model networks with various technologies, protocols, devices and traffic types. Study Performance metrics at network, link by link and packet levels

Analyze and graph, inter and intra protocol performance by varying modeling attributes

Learn from detailed simulation lab experiments Built as per International Standards set forth by IEEE, ITU and IETF View the different technologies in the Standard Version

The Boson NetSim Network Simulator is an application that simulates Cisco Systems' networking hardware and software and is designed to aid the user in learning the Cisco IOS command structure.

QRS II QRS II - Version 7 - Quick Response System II runs the four-step planning process
trip generation, trip distribution, mode split, traffic/transit assignment for highway and transit forecasting. Networks and data are entered and edited graphically using the powerful General Network Editor.

Comparative study of EMME/2 and QRS II for modeling a small community

Arc GIS ArcGIS - People are using ArcGIS in all types of organizations to improve their
workflows and solve their most challenging issues. ArcGIS helps you with: * Asset/data management including systems integration, claims/case management, service/territory * Planning area and management, analysis such and as constituent/customer forecasting and management risk analysis

* Business operations such as call center/dispatching; monitoring and tracking; field data collection; inspections, maintenance and operations; and routing

* Situational awareness including decision support and customer/public access ArcGIS is a system for people who rely on accurate geographic information to make decisions. It facilitates collaboration and lets you easily author data, maps, globes, and

models on the desktop and serve them out for use on a desktop, in a browser, or in the field, depending on the needs of your organization.

Arc Info ArcInfo - ArcInfo is the most complete desktop GIS. It includes all the functionality of
ArcEditor and ArcView and adds advanced spatial analysis, extensive data manipulation, and high-end cartography tools. Organizations use the power of ArcInfo every day to create, edit, and analyze their data in order to make better decisions, faster. * ArcInfo Perform is the de facto GIS standard data for GIS. and ArcInfo can:




* Take advantage of tools designed for overlay analysis, proximity analysis, surface analysis, * Publish and and raster convert processing data in and many conversion. formats.

* Create and manage personal geodatabases, multiuser geodatabases, and feature datasets. * Use high-end cartography tools to generate professional-quality, publication-ready maps. * Design customized symbols and place sophisticated annotation and labels on your maps.

Arc View ArcView - ArcView is geographic information system (GIS) software for visualizing,
managing, creating, and analyzing geographic data. Using ArcView, you can understand the geographic context of your data, allowing you to see relationships and identify With patterns ArcView, in you new ways. can

Author maps and interact with your data by generating reports and charts and printing and embedding your maps in other documents and applications.

Save time using map templates to create consistent style in your maps. Build process models, scripts, and workflows to visualize and analyze your data. Read, import, and manage more than 70 different data types and formats including

demographics, facilities, CAD drawings, imagery, Web services, multimedia, and metadata. Communicate more efficiently by printing, publishing, and sharing your GIS data and dynamic content with others.

Use tools such as Find, Identify, Measure, and Hyperlink to discover information not available when working with static paper maps.

Make better decisions and solve problems faster. Avenue Programming Avenue Programming

CUBE Voyager CUBE Voyager - Cube Voyager combines the latest in Citilabs' technologies for the
forecasting of personal travel. Cube Voyager uses a modular and script-based structure allowing the incorporation of any model methodology ranging from standard four-step models, to discrete choice to activity-based approaches. Advanced methodologies provide junction-based capacity restraint for highway analysis and discrete choice multipath transit pathbuilding and assignment. Cube Voyager includes highly flexible network and matrix calculators for the calculation of travel demand and for the detailed comparison of scenarios.

Cube Voyager was designed to provide an open and user-friendly framework for modeling a wide variety of planning policies and improvements at the urban, regional and long-distance level. Cube Voyager brings together these criteria with a comprehensive library of planning functions applied under the general Cube framework. This makes the management of data a snap, and the coding of complex methodologies simple via a step-by-step approach.

The FTP Voyager Software Development Kit (SDK) allows you to power your application's FTP capabilities with same engine used in the FTP Voyager client. The SDK exposes FTP Voyager's FTP capabilities through a thoroughly documented and easy to integrate DLL. This flexible interface gives you the ability to use the. Free download of FTP Voyager Software Development Kit, size 6.38 Mb.

DYNASMART-P version 1.3.0

Dynamic Network Assignment-Simulation Model for Advanced Roadway Telematics (Planning version) DYNASMART-P version 1.3.0, released by the Federal Highway Administration through McTrans in February 2007, provides many new features and enhancements. These include:

Convenient import of network and demand data from other planning models Click-and-drag network/control creation and editing interface based on background imagery

Easy conversion of baseline static OD matrix to time-dependent OD matrices Generation of default movements and signal control data for fast deployment Improved loading and display speed for large-scale network datasets Calculation and display of link- and network-level toll revenue for HOT or tolling applications

Easy redistribution of user classes within vehicle and path files. This allows for flexible implementation of various planning scenarios

Capability of modeling large networks

FHWA Corporate Research and Technology - DYNASMART-P Em2ProCoresims


Emme is the successor to EMME/2, the pioneering software package that first brought multimodal equilibrium modelling to professional practice.

Emme is a French-English acronym for Equilibre Multimodal / Multimodal Equilibrium, today's industry-standard assignment method.

The worldwide Emme community pronounces it em-mee, em, or em-muh. As with the types of models you can build with Emme, the choice is yours.

INtRO - Emme is a complete travel demand forecasting system for urban, regional, and national transportation planning. Make informed transport policy decisions with Emme's comprehensive set of tools for demand modelling, multimodal network modelling, visualization and analysis. And have confidence in the integrity of your results. Emme 3 combines powerful, proven modelling capabilities with professional productivity tools. Visit the transport modelling page to learn about the sophisticated transport modelling technology that Emme can bring to your application. Or, visit the software features page for details on how the Emme Desktop's integrated editing, analysis, and visualization capabilities can help you develop and express your models to all the stakeholders involved.

Syncro / SimTraffic
Syncro/SimTraffic - Synchro is a software application for optimizing traffic signal timing and

performing capacity analysis. The software optimizes splits, offsets, and cycle lengths for individual intersections, an arterial, or a complete network. SimTraffic performs micro simulation and animation of vehicular traffic. With SimTraffic, Individual vehicles are modeled and displayed traversing a street network. SimTraffic models signalized and un-signalized intersections, and freeway sections.

Synchro 8
Synchro is a macroscopic analysis and optimization software application. Synchro implements the Intersection Capacity Utilization (ICU) 2003 method for determining intersection capacity. Version 8 also supports the HCM 2010 methodology for signalized intersections and roundabouts. Due to ease-of-use, traffic engineers are modeling within days thus adding to the number of reasons Synchro remains the leading traffic analysis application.

SimTraffic 8
SimTraffic is a powerful, easy-to-use traffic simulation software application. SimTraffic performs micro simulation and animation of vehicular and pedestrian related traffic. With SimTraffic, individual vehicles are modeled and displayed traversing a street network. SimTraffic models signalized and unsignalized intersections as well as freeway sections with cars, trucks, pedestrians, and busses. Unlike a number of other modeling applications, SimTraffic animation is displayed while the simulation is performed. Data entry is intuitive and efficient - with a single mouse click the same data set created with Synchro can be used to run simulations within SimTraffic.

Tran Plan TranPlan

After defining the network and socio-economic characteristics for the network, the network is ready to be run through Tranplan to determine the loaded traffic volumes and travel speeds. The programs to perform this step of the process include a series of MapBasic and Fortran programs which will export the network information to text format and write out a Tranplan control file that contains all the necessary elements to perform a model run (Build the network, identifies skim trees, trip distribution, matrix operations, and assigns the traffic).

A Guide to Transportation Modeling Using TRANPLAN for Computer Simulation of Strategies for Managing the Rural Road Infrastructure (PDF white paper link)

This City-wide traffic model was developed, using the TRANPLAN transportation modeling software. The model's network and zone system were developed to provide an appropriate level of detail for local circulation system planning, while incorporating the influences of regional through traffic on the City arterial system; this was accomplished by developing a focused model.

Montana DOT white papers on Tranplan 21



TransCAD - TransCAD is the first and only Geographic Information System (GIS)
designed specifically for use by transportation professionals to store, display, manage, and analyze transportation data. TransCAD combines GIS and transportation modeling capabilities in a single integrated platform, providing capabilities that are unmatched by any other package. TransCAD can be used for all modes of transportation, at any scale or A level powerful GIS of engine with detail. special TransCAD extensions for provides: transportation

Mapping, visualization, and analysis tools designed for transportation applications Application modules for routing, travel demand forecasting, public transit, logistics, site location, and territory management. Overview TransCAD is the first and only Geographic Information System (GIS) designed specifically for use by transportation professionals to store, display, manage, and analyze transportation data. TransCAD combines GIS and transportation modeling capabilities in a single integrated platform, providing capabilities that are unmatched by any other package. TransCAD can be used for all modes of transportation, at any geographic scale or level of detail. TransCAD provides: A powerful GIS engine with special extensions for transportation Mapping, visualization, and analysis tools designed for transportation applications State-of-the-art modules for travel demand forecasting, public transit, logistics, routing, site location, and territory management. TransCAD has applications for all types of transportation data and for all modes of transportation, and is ideal for building transportation information and decision support systems. TransCAD runs on readily-available hardware under Microsoft Windows and embraces virtually all desktop computing standards.This has two important benefits:

You can acquire and install TransCAD at a much lower cost than any other integrated GIS and transportation modeling solution You dont have to build custom applications or complicated data interchange modules to perform transportation analysis with GIS data A Powerful GIS for Transportation TransCAD is the most capable GIS for transportation applications. With TransCAD you can create and customize maps, build and maintain geographic data sets, and perform many different types of spatial analysis. TransCAD includes sophisticated GIS features such as polygon

overlay,buffering, and geocoding, and has an open system architecture that supports data sharing on local- and wide-area networks.

Transims Transims - TMIP sponsors the research and development of the TRansportation
ANalysis and SIMulation System (TRANSIMS). TRANSIMS is the next generation of travel modeling, microsimulation and air quality analysis tools. Through TMIP the planning community can stay up to date on the development and delivery of TRANSIMS products.

TRANSIMS Open Source The Transportation Analysis and Simulation System (TRANSIMS), is an integrated set of tools developed to conduct regional transportation system analyses. With the goal of establishing TRANSIMS as an ongoing public resource available to the transportation community, TRANSIMS is made available under the NASA Open Source Agreement Version 1.3 Software

Trans Modeler TransModeler - TransModeler is a powerful and versatile traffic simulation package
applicable to a wide array of traffic planning and modeling tasks. TransModeler can simulate all kinds of road networks, from freeways to downtown areas, and can analyze wide area multimodal networks in great detail and with high fidelity. You can model and visualize the behavior of complex traffic systems in a 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional GIS environment to illustrate and evaluate traffic flow dynamics, traffic signal and ITS operations, and overall network performance.

UTPS UTPS - Urban (or UMTA) Transportation Planning System

Simulating Traffic for Incident Management and ITS Investment Decisions Considering Network Demand Issues in GIS Transportation Data Modeling

Vissim Vissim - Visual Solutions' VisSim is the fastest and easiest-to-use dynamic simulation
and model-based system development software available. VisSim is up to 10 times faster than competitive simulation products. The free VisSim Viewer lets anyone run VisSim diagrams.

THE VISSIM OVERVIEW The core product, VisSim, is used for general modeling, simulation and control system design applications. VisSim is an award winning graphical block diagram language for modeling and simulating complex dynamic systems.

VisSim and addons

VisSim's visual interface offers a simple method for constructing and simulating largescale complex dynamic systems; its math engine provides fast, accurate solutions for linear, nonlinear, continuous time, discrete time, time varying and hybrid system designs. With VisSim, you can quickly develop virtual prototypes of any dynamic system. Models are built by simply sliding blocks into the workarea and wiring them together with the mouse. Each block of the diagram performs a function. You can also create blocks in C,

Fortran or Pascal and add them to the VisSim block library. After a model is built, a click of the "Go" button immediately gives interactive results.

Many Addons
VisSim addon modules are pictured at right and extend the functionality of VisSim to areas like frequency domain analysis: VisSim/Analyze, real-time hardware-in-the-loop prototyping and control: VisSim/Real-TimePRO, and efficient C-code generation:VisSim/C-Code. The C code can be compiled and run on any platform that supports an ANSI C compiler.

VisSim/Embedded Controls Developer

VisSim/ECD is a bundle of VisSim + C-Code + Fixed-Point + Target Support to let you model, simulate, and build embedded systems. VisSim/ECD supports on-chip peripherals, including PWM, ADC, SPI, I2C, encoders, and capture. VisSim/ECD automatically converts the diagram to ANSI C code and compiles, links, and downloads the code to an embedded target. VisSim/ECD includes its own RTOS with background tasks, and can set the main sampling interrupt rate to over 1MHz.

VisSim/StateCharts adds OMG UML 2.1 Compliant graphical state chart editing, simulation and code generation to the VisSim tool chain. Combined with a built-in C interpreter, this addon allows fast and reliable development of complex control applications. Whether you need to decode a serial protocol, or step through a complex start up or shut down sequence, VisSim/StateCharts is the perfect complement to any control development effort.

VisSim/Comm is a bundle of VisSim + a comprehensive library of communication blocks. VisSim/Comm forms an integrated solution for the modeling and simulation of analog, digital, or mixed-mode, end-to-end communication systems. Pre-built blocks like signal







components and PLLs make it easy to build, maintain, and modify even the most complex communication system models.