Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest Selection, Installation and Wiring of Ex Certified Electrical Equipment

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CHAPTER 6 SELECTION, INSTALLATION AND WIRING OF Ex CERTIFIED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
Under the Division 1 classification, wire terminations are considered ignition sources.

Explosionproof Contact Block in Division 1 Area
Potential Ignition Source?

6.1 UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENCE IN ZONE VS DIVISION INSTALLATION METHODS
Terminations are the key to understanding the differences in installation methods of Zone and Division rated equipment. Under the Zone system wire terminations rated as Ex-e, increased safety, are not considered sources of ignition. Terminations are tested to ensure that they do not heat up or vibrate loose and have sizable creepage and clearance distances to prevent arcing. Under the Division 1 classification, wire terminations are considered sources of ignition as it is assumed they could vibrate loose, short out and create an arc. This results in major differences in the way products are designed. To illustrate this refer to the push-button control stations shown below. Both stations contain an explosionprotected contact block. The one on the left is rated explosionproof for Division 1 and has an explosionproof metallic housing. The one on the right is rated flameproof and increased safety for Zone 1 and has a non-metallic housing. Each contact block prevents arcs from switch operations inside from igniting gases within the control station. Why then must the contact block located in a Division 1 area be housed in an explosionproof enclosure while the Zone 1 rated control stations is in a non metallic enclosure?

Wire terminations are considered sources of ignition for Division 1 products. An explosionproof enclosure for the contact block is required.

Under the Zone system, wire terminations are not considered an ignition source if they are rated as Ex-e or increased safety. If the contact block is rated flameproof with increased safety terminals, the switch can be housed in an increased safety housing, e.g. a non metallic enclosure that has a suitable construction and an IP rating to protect against moisture and dusts.

Ex-de Contact Block with Increased Safety Terminals in Zone 1 Area
Not a Source of Ignition

Division 1 Vs. Zone 1
Ex-e Wire terminations are not considered sources of ignition for Zone 1 products, and Ex-de contacts can be housed in non metallic enclosures suitable for Zone 1.

The Division 1 control station has a metallic enclosure. The Zone 1 version has a non-metallic enclosure.

Determining which system is safer, less expensive or easier to install is very difficult—somewhat like comparing the metric and US systems of measurement. Each application has its own merits and depends on user preference, as well as how the areas are classified, and the wiring systems used in the facility. At the present time North American users have the advantage of being able to use either type of product in Division 2.

Under the Division 1 system, wire terminations are considered ignition sources. If volatile gases and air accumulate inside an explosionproof enclosure and are ignited by the spark from a wiring fault on the terminals, the enclosure must contain the explosion. As the hot gases escape the enclosure by passing across a flat or threaded or serrated joint, they cool so they can no longer ignite gaseous mixtures in the hazardous area. In a Division 1 area, the contact block must be housed inside an explosionproof enclosure rated for the area.

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Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest Selection, Installation and Wiring of Ex Certified Electrical Equipment

“Equipment listed and marked for use in Class I, Zone 0, 1, or 2 locations shall be permitted in Class I, Division 2 locations for the same gas and with a suitable temperature rating.”

6.2 STANDARDS AND INSTALLATION PRACTICES
Ex Electrical equipment certified to U.S., Canadian, CENELEC, IEC or any other national standards must be installed and maintained correctly. To ensure that correct installation is achieved, every industrial country will use a recognized installation rules or a code of practice. In North America the installation requirements for Hazardous Locations is specified in Section 18 of the Canadian Electric Code and in Article 500 of the National Electric Code. Prior to 1997 most Countries produced their own National Standards for installation in hazardous areas, which allows the use of Ex Electrical Equipment certified to CENELEC and other national standards. In 1997 the IEC Standard, IEC 60079-14 was adopted as a European standard EN 60079-14. This was a large step forward toward on worldwide standard for the installation of electrical equipment in hazardous areas.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds has received UL and cUL approvals on all explosion protected equipment manufactured by Cooper Crouse-Hinds CEAG in Europe. This product line, called SpecOne, is made out of either metal or plastic which will accommodate either cable or conduit installation methods. The SpecOne products include fluorescent lighting, control stations and panels, power distribution panels, terminal boxes, plugs and receptacles and disconnect switches.

While there are still many differences between the standards and installation practices in North America and Europe, not to mention others in Latin America, Japan, Australia and South Africa, the gaps are narrowing. The main differences are: • Local safety and fire codes for ordinary locations. • No direct correlation between Class/Divisions and Zone classification. • Different wiring methods for conduits and cables. • Cable entry hole threads, NPT versus metric openings. • Gas Groupings are different. • Conductor cross sectional areas and current ratings. • Nonacceptance of the Increased Safety concept in Class 1 Division 1 Hazardous Locations. (Connections & terminations are still considered sources of ignition.) These differences define the way equipment is selected, installed and maintained and must be taken account of when projects are designed.

6.3 SELECTION OF EX PROTECTED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
There are considerable international differences in the approach to hazardous area electrical installations. Therefore, it is important to clearly establish the documented safety rules that will be applicable to the installation before the selection process is undertaken. To illustrate this problem, hazardous area electrical equipment may be manufactured and certified to comply with the requirements of a Zone classification but may not be considered suitable for Division 1 Hazardous Location classified by the North American (USA and CANADA) Class and Division concept. This has become more relaxed with the addition of Article 5011 in the NEC which states: “Equipment listed and marked in accordance with Section 50510 for use in Class I, Zone 0, 1, or 2 locations shall be permitted in Class I, Division 2 locations for the same gas and with a suitable temperature rating.” This has given North American users a wider range of products to select from. Products which are rated for the IEC Zone classification system, and are adapted to North American wiring and installation practices can be installed in Division 2.

6.4 BACKGROUND OF WIRING
In the early 1900s when industry was converting from the use of natural gas to electrical wiring, it was natural for contractors to use the gas pipe as a raceway or conduit to run the electrical conductors. Although this sounded easy, a need developed to also have junction boxes and elbows to pull and terminate cables and fixture hangers to assemble the new light fixtures.

Two entrepreneurs from Syracuse, N.Y., Jesse L. Hinds and Huntington B. Crouse, made outlet boxes for the new conduit wiring systems. They coined the term condulet, which was a combination of conduit and outlet box as seen in an early advertisement.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest Selection, Installation and Wiring of Ex Certified Electrical Equipment
In the 1920s when oil refineries were being constructed, there was a new need for outlet boxes, fittings and fixtures which would prevent electrical sparks and heat generating products from causing explosions. The industry came up with the concept of Division 1 to define these locations where volatile gases would be present.

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Conduit systems provide mechanical protection of wires and conductors.

6.5.2 TECK CABLE
Instead of conduit, cable systems are used more often under the Zone concept. There are 5 types: TECK, steel wire armored, steel wire braided, lead sheathed and unarmored. TECK cable is a variation of the armored cable which is used primarily in Canada. The TECK cable is a metal clad (mc) cable with an extra PVC sheath for additional insulation. Special TECK connectors are used to secure and terminate the cable into enclosures.

Mr. Crouse and Mr. Hinds engineered and manufactured explosionproof products for the oil and gas industry.

In the 1980s Canadian industry readily adopted the use of TECK cable which is similar to metal clad cable except with an extra PVC jacket. Now the industries with Hazardous Locations use a variety of wiring methods ranging from rigid conduit to various types of cable.

6.5 TYPICAL INSTALLATION CONDUIT VS. CABLE
There are primarily 3 different types of wiring systems used: rigid metal conduits, armored cables, and non-armored cables. The use of each method is embedded in the electrical installation culture of the area.
Teck cable has an extra PVC sheath for additional insulation.

6.5.3 ARMORED CABLES
Armored cables are widely used in the United Kingdom and former commonwealth countries and ensures the mechanical protection and earth continuity. Special cable glands must be used to guarantee the earth continuity (ground).

6.5.1 RIGID CONDUIT
This system is widely used by specifiers and installers in the USA and parts of Canada as well as parts of South America, Middle East and Asia where the NEC is used. This method ensures the maximum protection of conductors against mechanical and chemical attack. There are an equal number of proponents as there are opponents to the use of rigid conduit. While some maintain that conduit leads to higher installation costs, others argue the merits of greater mechanical protection. A recent survey showed that Canadian users favor TECK cable over rigid conduit. The USA industry is equally divided between favoring cable over conduit. For example, offshore installations favor cable over conduit, which is more susceptible to corrosion.

6.5.3.1 STEEL WIRE ARMORED (SWA)
SWA cable consists of individual PVC-coated conductors within an aluminum screen surrounded by a PVC coating, then by a series of steel wires within an exterior PVC coating. The steel wires are conical in shape and protect the conductors in the same way as metal-clad cable. SWA is a very high-strength, durable cable and used in many power applications.

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Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest Selection, Installation and Wiring of Ex Certified Electrical Equipment 6.5.3.4 NON-ARMORED CABLE
This cable is similar to tray or SO-type cable and normally contains a ground conductor or earth core. Since the cable is not considered a source of ignition, under the Zone concept the cable does not require its own mechanical protection. The protection is usually provided by open conduit or other cabletray type protection called a cage or mounting grid. This method, which is used in France, Germany, Italy and parts of Africa and Asia, can be very flexible, fast and economical. If the installation is subject to mechanical risks, it is advisable to use armored cable or an open conduit system. Most exposed vertical cables are housed in open conduits or pipes to avoid mechanical abuse.

6.5.3.2 STEEL WIRE BRAIDED (GSWB)
GSWB cable consists of individual conductors within an aluminum screen surrounded by an inner sheath, then by a steel braid, similar to a basket weave, underneath an outer sheath. The braid makes this cable more flexible than SWA. This durable cable is used in many instrumentation applications or where shielding is required for signal applications.

Steel wire braided cable is more flexible than SWA

6.5.3.3 LEAD SHEATH (LWA)
LWA cable consists of individual conductors surrounded by a lead sheath for protection from hydrocarbons. A PVC coating then surrounds the exterior. This cable is popular in the oil industry and is usually buried in the ground. The lead sheath protects the conductors from ground spills of oil byproducts.

Crouse-Hinds offers brass, stainless steel, steel and and nonmetallic cable glands for any type of cable or thread.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds non-metallic mounting plate on mounting grid offers a quick installation method of control stations and switches.

Table 6.1 Typical Cable Systems by World Region AREA Canada North America Central Europe – Germany Europe – offshore Ireland, Norway, Holland, Belgium, Spain Italy, Belgium Middle East
Crouse-Hinds NCG non metallic cable glands are offered with NPT or metric males threads for tray and other flexible cables.
(Saudi Arabia & Kuwait)

CABLE TYPE TECK Metal Clad Aluminum Unarmored Cable Steel Wire Braid Steel Wire Armor Unarmored Cable Steel Wire Armor Unarmored Cable Steel Wire Armor Unarmored Cable Steel Wire Armor Unarmored Cable Steel Wire Armor Unarmored Cable

THREAD TYPE NPT NPT Metric* Metric Metric

Metric & NPT Metric NPT Metric & NPT Metric

Far East CIS States (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan)

* Metric threads have replaced Panzer gage (PG) threads

Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest Selection, Installation and Wiring of Ex Certified Electrical Equipment
The use of twist-on connectors, known as wire nuts or “marets, is not allowed in Europe as increased ” safety terminals. The Ex-e push in connectors are a major advantage for OEMs, and for installation of lighting circuits.

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The connection of wires to terminals is most commonly made via DIN rail mounted terminals. The underlying design principle for terminals is a pressure plate contact with the conductor and an antivibration locking feature to prevent self loosening for the connected conductors. Other types of reliable certified terminals include saddle clamps, slotted type clamps (often used for lighting circuit terminations) and screwless cage clamp terminals.

6.6 TERMINATION METHODS
Traditionally Ex-e connections are made at increased safety terminal blocks mounted inside of metal or non-metallic, Ex-e enclosures. The terminals are rated for creepage and clearance distances.
Ex-e U-Slot terminals, which accommodate different sized wires, are found in Ex-e terminal boxes (eAZK) and in some Ex-d light fixtures

6.6.1 TWIST ON CONNECTORS
The most popular method of termination in North America is with the use of twist-on connectors, also known as wire nuts or marets. For products approved for use in Europe, twist-on connectors or wire nuts are not allowed. Some form of terminal blocks or screw terminals must be used. Twist-on connectors versus terminal blocks are the main differences between the North America and European wiring methods. North American wiring methods will not be quick to abandon using twist-on connectors in favor of terminal blocks for branch circuits especially when both systems are safe when they are installed properly. Until recently, twist-on type connectors were not rated as increased safety.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds pioneered the first Ex-e wire nuts which offer major advantage for OEMs, and for installation of lighting circuits.

Under IEC installation methods it is permitted to combine two or more wires in a compressiontype terminal provided that the terminal is designed for that purpose, such as the Cooper Crouse-Hinds eAZK enclosures with Ex-e U-slot terminals.

6.7 TERMINATING ARMORED CABLE AND CONDUIT IN NON-METALLIC ENCLOSURES
The armor of steel wire or braided cables must be effectively connected to the earth/ground system. If a phase to armor circuit fault occurs there can be thousands of amps flowing. Therefore the armor must have a low impedance to earth/ground via the cable gland. The enclosure to which the armored gland is connected may not be tested to carry fault currents so internal and or external connections are required. The biggest dilemma of mixing zone and division installation methods is the practice of using terminating conduits or armored cable into non-metallic enclosures. The major considerations are: pull out strength of the conduit from the enclosure and ensuring a continuous and secure path to ground. There are 2 different methods commonly used, the zone rated hub or the integral grounding plate.

6.6.2 TERMINAL BOXES
The specifications for terminals according to IEC and CENELEC standards are very stringent. Certified electrical terminals for connecting wires in hazardous areas will be tested with the following requirements: • Insulation resistance to tracking (CTI) • Temperature limitation (thermal stability) • Measured Creepage &b clearance distances • Voltage and current ratings • Wire pull out test • Antivibration locking • Thermal end to end resistance • Conductor clamping method (pinch screws are not permitted)

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Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest Selection, Installation and Wiring of Ex Certified Electrical Equipment

6.7.1 ZONE RATED HUBS
This hub is specifically designed for Zone applications to be non-loosening and to have the required IP rating. For “through holes” the male threads must have a locking ring which has an increased safety grounding point and an extra security screw to ensure against loosening of the locking ring. Either the hub or the locking ring will have serrated teeth for extra clamping protection into the non-metallic enclosure. Both of these features protect the connection from loosening against vibration and long term use. The hub has an integral silicone rubber oring or gasket to guarantee the require IP rating of the enclosure. The hubs are machined to accept either NPT or metric thread form.
The SpecOne Myers hubs are rated for Zone 1 usage. They are also available as metric adapters for entering metric threaded female hubs or plates. For ease of wiring the SpecOne control stations, D2Z distribution panels, Safety Switches, interlocked 309 receptacles and terminal boxes all have an brass grounding plates. These have metric female threads for European armored cable glands. For NPT entries use the Zone 1 Myers metric adapters which are available in zinc or stainless steel.

6.8 CABLE SEALS
Cable glands have multiple options for material types for Ex-d and Ex-e types of protection. Ex-d cable glands have a brass, aluminum, steel or stainless steel construction with at least two seal systems to ensure the flameproof properties and ingress protection. Ex-e cable glands normally have only one sealing system for ingress protection and are available in a plastic construction in addition to brass or stainless steel. Three types of seal materials are most generally used in cable glands. • Neoprene, a durable oil-resistant rubber compound with good weather and ozone resistance. To meet the strict “deluge” test requirements of the offshore oil industry, glands employ up to three neoprene seals. These are used on offshore oil platforms where they may be submerged for long durations. • Conductive, a neoprene seal with iron filings used to seal lead sheathed cable. • Silicone, a compound with high fire resistance which holds its properties well in temperature extremes. This seal may be used in temperatures as low as -60°C to as high as +180° C. It also does not give off smoke when burning (zero halogen applications) and is used in tunnels or other similar applications. Typical Seals and Application Temperatures Seal Type Neoprene (deluge tested) Conductive Silicone Temperature Range -20° to + 80°C -20° to + 80°C -60° to + 180°C

6.7.2 BRASS BONDING PLATES
Many non-metallic enclosures also have integral brass bonding plates. Because of their nominal thickness these normally have metric or parallel threaded openings. Each plate must have an internal and/or external ground point. These plates can be field drilled or drilled at the factory. If the holes are not used they must be plugged with a blanking plug certified to Ex-e standards for the required IP protection.

Ex-e blanking plugs are required to fill in threaded openings for IP protection as seen on the Cooper Crouse-Hinds GHG 74 Series Ex-e Enclosures.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest Selection, Installation and Wiring of Ex Certified Electrical Equipment

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Typical installation of Zone 1 Myers hubs glands into a Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex-e stainless steel enclosure.

6.9 WHEN IS NICKEL PLATING REQUIRED?
The inherent corrosion-resistance nature of brass eliminates the need for plating in most cases. However, brass and aluminum create a natural galvanic reaction, so nickel plate or other finishes are required where the brass gland is used with aluminum enclosures or aluminum cable.

Cables should be secured close to the apparatus.

6.10.1 SELECTION OF NON-METALLIC GLANDS
Cable glands are sold either as separate items mounted on the apparatus or packaged with the cable. Selecting the proper gland depends on the following criteria: • Cable type • Hazardous area rating • Seal type • Entry thread • Finish • Cable diameter • Material • Use The one variable, which usually creates havoc for end users, is holding the tolerance on the cable diameter especially if flameproof cable glands are used. If the diameters exceed the tolerances of the glands, they may not fit or seal properly which could affect the flameproof integrity of the glands.

Do not use brass glands in aluminum housings, which will result in corrosion. Use nickel plated glands.

6.10 TERMINATING NON-METALLIC EX-e GLANDS
Increased safety non-metallic glands must be certified for ingress protection, impact resistance and aging resistance. There are 2 versions, which depend on the use of the glands. For installations where the cables are secured, the glands have lower requirements for strain relief. If the cables are not secured trumpet glands are used. Their main purpose is to provide strain relief where bending, twisting or pulling is common.

Seal for IP Protection Trumpet glands (on handset) are used on portable equipment when support for the cable is not practical or if there are extensive tensile or torsional forces.

Lever prevents pull-out or torsional twisting. Cut-away of trumpet gland

For questions or comments, please contact the author at paul.babiarz@crouse-hinds.com

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