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Gear Design

(Tool Geometry Calculations & Case Study of its Basic Manufacturing Process)

1 Project Report | Gear Design

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the project work entitled is an authentic record of my own work carried out at RDSO(LUCKNOW), under the guidance of Mr. A.K.Brahmane during MAY- JULY 2011.

(Signature of student)

Shubham Tandon

Date: ___________________

Certified that the above statement made by the student is correct to the best of our knowledge and belief.

A.K.Brahmane

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my profound gratitude to all those who have been instrumental in the preparation of this project report. I wish to place on records, my deep gratitude to my project guide Mr A.K.Brahmane, a highly esteemed and distinguished guide, for his expert advice and help. I would like to thank Dr. S.C.Sharma, HOD, as well as other professors from our department for their support I am deeply grateful to my friends who helped me to conduct this study, advising me on this project report and furnishing the required information. Lastly, I would like to thank God, my Parents for their constant help and support. With Regards Shubham Tandon

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COMPANY PROFILE:

Railways were introduced in India in 1853 and as their development progressed through to the twentieth century, several company managed systems grew up.To enforce standardisation and co-ordination amongst various railway systems, the Indian Railway Conference Association(IRCA) was set up in 1903, followed by the Central Standards Office (CSO) in 1930, for preparation of designs, standards and specifications. However, till independence, most of the designs and manufacture of railway equipments was entrusted to foreign consultants. With Independence and the resultant phenomenal increase in country’s industrial and economic activity, which increased the demand of rail transportation - a new organisation called Railway Testing and Research Centre (RTRC) was setup in 1952 at Lucknow

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MOTIVE POWER DIRECTORATE:Motive Power directorate has been engaged in designs and standards works related with diesel-electric, diesel-hydraulic and electric locomotives since 1960s. Important accomplishments from this time, through to late 1990s, ranged form indigenisation of a large number of diesel locomotive components, establishment of special maintenance code in areas with reliability problems, evolving and adapting standards. The main activities of the directorate are as under:a. Complete design development of diesel-electric and diesel-hydraulic locomotives, diesel rail cars, 700 hp diesel multiple units, 700 hp & 1400 hp diesel electric multiple units, BG,MG & NG rail buses, 140 ton diesel hydraulic break down cranes, re-railing equipments and rescue devices. For electric locomotives, only the mechanical assemblies, bogies, under- gear, brake-gear, underframe and superstructure. Development and standardisation of locomotive systems and sub-assemblies. Technical investigation into operational and maintenance problems of Railways. Providing technical consultancy to Railway Management and other Public Sector Undertakings in matters connected with Diesel Traction. Acquisition and assimilation of state-of-the-art technology in the field of diesel locomotives and accident management equipments, e.g. 4000 HP locomotive, 140 T Break Down Crane. Indigenisation of locomotive equipment. Nodal directorate for issue of speed certificates for all types of rolling stock. Nodal directorate for IRS/BIS specifications.

b. c. d. e.

f. g. h.

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CONTENTS

PAGE

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Transmission:A transmission or gearbox provides speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device using gear ratios. The two most common mechanisms used for mechanical transmission are:-

Belt and Pulley:A belt is a loop of flexible material used to link two or more rotating shafts mechanically. Belts may be used as a source of motion, to transmit power efficiently, or to track relative movement. Belts are looped over pulleys. In a two pulley system, the belt can either drive the pulleys in the same direction, or the belt may be crossed, so that the direction of the shafts is opposite. As a source of motion, a conveyor belt is one application where the belt is adapted to continually carry a load between two points.

Gear:Gears are machine elements used to transmit rotary motion between two shafts, normally with a constant ratio. The pinion is the smallest gear and the larger gear is called the gear wheel.. A rack is a rectangular prism with gear teeth machined along one side- it is in effect a gear wheel with an infinite pitch circle diameter. In practice the action of gears in transmitting motion is a cam action each pair of mating teeth acting as cams. When the teeth action is such that the driving tooth moving at constant angular velocity produces a proportional constant velocity of the driven tooth the action is termed a conjugate action. The teeth shape universally selected for the gear teeth is the involute profile

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THE GEOMETRY OF INVOLUTE SPUR GEARS

FIG 2.1

THE INVOLUTE

The gear teeth have an involute profile which satisfies the law of gearing and ensures a rolling contact which transmits a constant velocity ratio. An involute can be generated by:

FIG 2.2 A straight line rolling on a circle without slippage. Cord unwinding from a circle

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When transmitting motion using an involute: Force always acts along the line of common tangent to the base circles, also called the line of contact. The force vector always passes through the pitch point irrespective of centre distance and is always normal to tooth surface. Centre distance does not affect the velocity ratio transmitted. Only the line of force changes in direction.

**FIG 2.3 Pressure Angle
**

Pressure angle is in general the angle at a pitch point between the line of pressure which is normal to the tooth surface, and the plane tangent to the pitch surface. The pressure angle gives the direction of the normal to the tooth profile and hence the direction of force. For a given material, smaller pressure angles correlate with weaker teeth.

FIG 2.3

(a)

(b)

α is the pressure angle and varies with the tooth height. It is zero at base circle. From the FIG. 2.3(b) фy= tan (α) - (α) = inv (α)

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The minimum number of teeth required to avoid interference varies inversely as sin (α). This suggests the use of higher pressure angles. But too high pressure angles lead to decrease in the length of contact and lower contact ratios. An optimum range is 14.5 to 22.5 degrees. FILLET Tooth fillet is produced by rounded rack tip. If the rack has a rounded tip then the fillet produced is the path of a series of circles .The circle centres lay on the trochoidal path produced by the centre of tip rounding.

FIG 1.4 Fillets produced by different trochoids:

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FIG 2.5

FORM DIAMETER The involute and fillet curve together determine what is termed the Form Diameter. This is the transition point between the involute curve and the fillet curve. It determines the limit of the usable portion of the gear flank where contact may take place. It cannot exist below the base circle.

FIG 2.6 ADDENDUM MODIFICATION In gear design a parameter known as addendum modification is used to adjust the gear teeth It is often called rack shift or profile shift It is usually expressed as a coefficient i.e. the value in mm divided by module If, when the gear is generated from the basic rack, the reference line of the rack co-insides with the reference diameter of the gear, the addendum modification coefficient is zero. If, when the gear is generated from the basic rack: The reference line of the rack is below the reference diameter, the addendum modification coefficient < 0. The reference line of the rack is above the reference diameter, the addendum modification coefficient >0.

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FIG 2.7 EFFECT OF NUMBER OF TEETH ON ADDENDUM MODIFICATION:

FIG 2.8

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PATH OF CONTACT The contact on a spur gear is a line that progresses from the root to the tip on the driving gear and the tip to the root on the driven gear. The contact takes place on a line tangent to the base circles.

FIG 2.9 Contact is usually between 1 or 2 teeth pairs SAP: The position shown below is where contact first starts on tooth number 1, and is called the start of active profile (SAP).

FIG 2.10 LPSTC: Tooth 0 is about to leave contact and tooth number 1 will be the only tooth pair in contact. This position is called the lowest point of single tooth contact (LPSTC).

FIG 2.11

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Pitch point: Tooth 1 is the only tooth in contact and the contact occurs where the tangent to the 2 base circles intersects the line joining the 2 centres.

FIG 2.12 HPSTC: Contact first starts on tooth number 2 and tooth number 1 will no longer be the only tooth in contact. This is the highest point of single tooth contact (HPSTC)

FIG 2.13 EAP: The position where tooth 1 leaves contact and is called the end of active profile (EAP)

FIG 2.14

The length of the path of contact is from the start to the end of active profile.

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FIG 1.15 A position along the path of contact can be expressed as : roll distance roll angle radius up the tooth flank

FIG 2.16 Contact ratio: Contact ratio for spur gears is defined as length of path of contact divided by the base pitch. It is an average measure of how many teeth are in contact through the mesh cycle. It will have effects on both noise and durability.

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A CASE STUDY of the GEAR & PINION (of TRACTION MOTOR TYPE 165) in WDM2 LOCOMOTIVE

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**Brief Description of the Transmission in WDM2 LOCO
**

The class WDM-2 is Indian Railways’ workhorse diesel locomotive. The first units were imported fully built from the American Locomotive Company (Alco) in 1962. Since 1964, it has been manufactured in India by the Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW), Varanasi. The model name stands for broad gauge (W), diesel (D), mixed traffic (M) engine. The WDM-2 is the most common diesel locomotive of Indian Railways.

Technical specifications[2]

Manufacturers Alco, DLW Alco 251-B, 16 cylinder, 2,600 hp (2,430 hp site rating) turbo supercharged engine. 1,000 rpm max, 400 rpm idle; 228 mm x 266 mm bore/stroke; compression ratio 12.5:1. Direct fuel injection, centrifugal pump cooling system (2,457 l/min at 1,000 rpm), fan driven by eddy current clutch (86 hp at 1,000 rpm) GE 17MG8 / Woodwards 8574-650 / Medha MEG 601 Electric, with BHEL TG 10931 AZ generator (1,000 rpm, 770 V, 4,520 amperes) GE752 (original Alco models) (405 hp), BHEL 4906 BZ (435 hp) and (newer) 4907 AZ (with roller bearings) 18.8 tonnes, total weight 112.8 t Alco design cast frame trimount (Co-Co) bogies 30.4 t, at adhesion 27% 15,862 mm

Engine

Governor Transmission Traction motors Axle load Bogies Starting TE Length over buffer beams

Distance between 10,516 mm bogies

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Transmission

The WMD2 locomotive uses electrical transmission. The 16 cylinder Alco 251-B runs the BHEL TG 10931 AZ generator. The generator has a Bull Gear (102 teeth) along with the exciter and the auxiliary generator. The exciter starts the engine by getting the engine running at its cranking velocity of around 100 rpm. When the rpm reaches 100 rpm then the exciter stops and the engine starts to produce power.

The auxiliary generator is responsible for producing the power required by the carriages (fans, tube lights, air conditioner etc.). But the maximum power produced by the generator is passed through a rectifier and converted to AC. These A.C. powers the six traction motors mounted on the axles of the bogies of the locomotive. These motors then transmit power via the gears.

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Gear and Pinion Design

Known parameters:Centre Distance (as provided by BHEL) (a):- 468.48mm Speed of loco (speed of gear):- 120 Kmph Rpm of Traction Motor (as provided by BHEL) (N):-2200 rpm Wheel Diameter (D):-1092(mm) (New wheel) 1054(mm) (Half worn wheel)

Rpm of Wheel (rpm of gear) :- (120*1000/3600)*(60*1000/π*1054) = 604 rpm

Teeth Ratio (Gear: Pinion) (Z1/Z2):- (rpm of traction motor)/(rpm of wheel) = 2200/604 =3.67

We know that: -

a = (Z1+Z2)m/2-----(1)

The module (m) used in Indian Railways is 11.2889mm (the standard module available with the gear manufacturers Shanti Gears Ltd.) So, from equation (1) , we calculate Z1 + Z2 :Z1 + Z2 = 82.998 ~83 Using results from above, we calculate the values of Z1 & Z2 :Z1 = 65.22~65 Z2 = 18

Therefore the GEAR RATIO obtained from the calculations = 65:18

**The standardised pressure angle (αn) (as provided by the gear manufacturer) :- 200.
**

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Pitch Circle Diameter: - module*no. of teeth -----(2) PCD of Gear (D1):- 11.2889*65 = 733.778 mm

PCD of Pinion (D2):- 11.2889*18 =203.200 mm

Actual centre distance (a) = 468.48 mm Calculated centre distance (a0) = (Z1 + Z2 )m/2 = (65 +17.77)11.2889/2 =467.195mm

Operating Pressure angle (αn0 ) :- cos-1(a0/a*cos α)--------(3) = cos-1(467.195/468.48 * cos 200) = 20.420

Addendum Correction Factor (x):- (Z1 + Z2)*(Inv(αn0)-Inv(αn))/(2tan αn) -------(4) =(Z1 + Z2)*(Inv(20.42)-Inv(20))/(2tan20) =.1133 [ Inv(φ)= tanφ – φ*π/180 +

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Tolerances

(in accordance with BS 235) Table 1. Gear tooth Accuracy Grades (in accordance with BS 235) Wheel and Pinion accuracy grade Approximate vehicle speed (Kmph) 5 >160 6 7 8 140-160 50-140 <50

Clearly from table 1. the accuracy grades to be followed in WDM4 Loco is grade 7.

Table 2. Limits of Tolerances on Tooth Profile Accuracy Grades 5 6 7 8 Profile Tolerances(μm) 0.40φ+5.0 0.63φ+6.5 1.00φ+8.0 1.60φ+10.0

* φ :- m + .1(PCD)^(.5) Gear :- Φ = 13.99 Pinion :- Φ= 12.714 Thus, from table 2. The Profile Tolerences are:Gear: -0 .022 mm Pinion:- 0.021 mm

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Table 3. Limits of Tolerances on total composite error Accuracy Grade 5 6 7 8 Total Composite Error(μm) 2.0φ+25.0 3.15φ+40.0 4.50φ+56.0 5.60φ+71.0

Following grade 7 accuracy the total composite error is:Gear :- 0.118 mm Pinion :- 0.112 mm

TABLE 4. Limits of Tolerances on Tooth Alignment Accuracy Grade 5 6 7 8 Tolerances on Alignment(μm) 0.80(b) ^(.5) +4 (b) ^(.5) = 5 1.25(b) ^(.5) +6.3 2(b) ^(.5) + 10

[b:- face width = 127mm ]

**Following Grade 7 accuracy the tolerances obtained are :Gear :- 0.020 mm Pinion :- 0.020 mm
**

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Table 5.

Backlash(μm) Minimum 20m+40 Maximum 50m + 100

Therefore the maximum and the minimum backlash are :0.266 mm(min) and 0.664 mm (max)

Tip Relief of 0.1 mm to be provided (as per BS 235)

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**Base tangent length
**

The base tangent length gives us the length which the disc micrometer measures over the calculated number of teeth. This measurement helps us to verify whether the final gear obtained after machining conforms the desired design standards. The formula for calculating the base tangent length as well as the span over which it is to be calculated can be obtained from the BS 235 standards for Traction gears.

No. of teeth over which base tangent span is measured (k)= K= 1\ π{z*tan[cos-1(db/d(1+2x/z))]sec2 βb- z*Inv αt- 2x*tan αt+ π} + x/8---------(5) Where:db:- base diameter in mm d:- pitch circle diameter in mm z :- no. of teeth x:- addendum correction coefficient in mm βb:-base helix angle( 900 for spur gears) αt:-transverse pressure angle at the reference circle(PCD).

Base Tangent Span:W= m*cos αt [π(k-0.5) +2x tan αn + z*inv αt]-------(6) Where :M:- module in mm K:- as calculated from eqn.(5) αn :- normal pressure angle at the reference circle in mm(PCD). z :- no. of teeth x:- addendum correction coefficient in mm

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(i)

For GEARS :-

Using the formula (5):K= [1\ π+*,65*tan*cos-1(689.525/733.778(1+2(0.345/65))]sec2 90- 65*Inv 70- 2*0.345*tan 70+ π- + 0.345/8 K= 6.778 ≈ 7 teeth Base tangent Length:- [using the eqn(6)] W= 11.2889*cos 20 *π(7-0.5) +2*0.345 tan 20 + 65*inv 70]-------(6) W = 223.890 mm [ 223.989 mm (max) 223.798 mm (min) ] {As per BS 235 : Part 1}

(ii)

For PINIONS :-

Using the formula (5):K= [1\ π+*,18*tan*cos-1(190.945/203.2(1+2(0.345/18))]sec2 90- 18*Inv 70- 2*0.345*tan 70+ π- + 0.345/8 K= 2.84 ≈ 3 teeth Base tangent Length:- [using the eqn(6)] W= 11.2889*cos 20 *π(3-0.5) +2*0.345 tan 20 + 18*inv 70]-------(6) W = 88.650 mm [ 88.707 mm (max) 88.585 mm (min) ] {As per BS 235 : Part 1 }

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Hoops Stress in Pinion (Torque carrying capacity & Hoop’s stress calculation for 18:65 Gear Ratio WDM4 Loco)

Centre Distance (a) = 468.48 mm m = 11.2889 mm l= 127mm (face width) pinion bore taper = 1:9.6 Pinion root diameter (dr) = 179.4 mm Pinion base diameter (da) = 113.78 mm Pinion advance = ( 1.1 – 1.3 )mm Interference (i) = 1.1/9.6 – 1.3/9.6 = 0.115 – 0.135 Interference per unit area (e) = ( 0.00101 – 0.0012) P = E* * { 1 - (da/dr)2 }------ (7) P :- Pressure at the inner rim. Therefore, using eqn (7)---- P= 2.11 * 10^6 * 0.00101 * (1- 0.4022 )/2 = 636.986 Kg/cm2 (with min interference) Similarly, calculating the pressure for maximum interference: - P= 747.77 Kg/cm2 Force acting on inner rim:- P*A = P * π * da * l--------(8) Torque Capacity:-T= μ* P * π * da * l * da/2----------(9) Therefore, Tmin = 2567.61 kg-m And, Tmax = 2896.76 kg-m Actual torque acting on the motor = T.E. * D/2 * G.R. -------------------- (10) Where:T.E. :- Tractive Effort reqd. for the Locomotive. D: - Diameter of the wheel. G.R. :- Gear Ratio. Therefore from eqn. (10) :- Torque on motor = (30450/6) * (1054/2) * (18/65)/1000 = 740.637 kg-m

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(μ:- Poisson’s ratio of steel)

Factor of Safety = Torque Capacity ------------- (11) Torque on each motor Therefore, Factor of Safety of our designed pinion = 2567.61/740.637 = 3.47 (min) = 2896.76/ 740.637 = 3.911 (max) Calculated Factor of Safety = 3.47(min) – 3.911(max) Required factor of Safety = 2.5 So, we find out that the Factor of Safety is well above the desired safety level of 2.5.

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Pressing Pressure of the Gears

Axle seat diameter = 254.0254(max)/ 254.000(min) Bore diameter = 253.771(max)/ 253.746(min) Length of journal = (177.3- 177.8) mm Surface Roughness of axle = 0.4R μm Surface Roughness of Gear = 0.6R μm Interference (δ) (max) = (max shaft dia)- (min bore dia) = 254.0254- 253.746 = 0.2734 mm Interference (δ) (min) = (min shaft dia) – (max bore dia) = 254.0 – 253.771 =0.223 mm

Diameter ratio of the shaft (Cc) = 0 Diameter ratio of the gear (Cc) = { ( 254 * 147.5 )/ 342 + ( 254 * 30.5 )/ 694 } / 178 = 0.678

Maximum Hc factor of gear = 1/22000 { [ (1+ 0.459 )/ (1- 0.459 )] + 0.3 } = 1.3622 * 10-4 Maximum Hi factor for shaft = 1/22000 { [ (1+ 0 )/ (1 – 0)] – 0.3 } = 3.1818 * 10-5 Joint Pressure for min interference (Pmin) = δ / ,d * ( Hi + Hc) } = 0.223 / { 254 ( 3.1818* 10-5 + 1.3622 * 10-4 ) } = 5.224 Kg/mm2.

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Joint Pressure for max interference (Pmax ) = 6.405 Kg/ mm2 . F = P * π * dl * μ Fmax = 82 tonne. Fmin = 99.960 tonne ≈ 100 tonne.

Therefore, the pressing pressure required for the given gear shaft combination is (82 – 100 ) tone.

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**KISSsoft - Release 08-2009D RDSO, Ministry of Railways
**

File Name : Unnamed Changed by : A.K.Bramhane

on: 22.06.2011

at: 12:36:21

Important hint: At least one warning has occurred during the calculation: 1-> Gear pair 1 - 2 : The dynamic coefficient KV is very high. The formulae in the standard probably do not suit this case.

2-> The circumferential speed is very high ( You have to take adequate action to guarantee proper lubrication.

24.4709 m/s)!

CALCULATION OF A CYLINDRICAL SPUR GEAR PAIR Drawing or article number: Gear 1: 0.000.0 Gear 2: 0.000.0 Calculation method DIN 3990 Method B ------- GEAR 1 -------- GEAR 2 -Power (kW) [P] Speed (1/min) [n] Torque (Nm) [T] Application factor [KA] Required service life [H] Gear driving (+) / driven (-) 184.224 2300.0 636.9 764.9 2762.0 1.25 20000.00 + -

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1. TOOTH GEOMETRY AND MATERIAL (Geometry calculation according ISO 21771) ------- GEAR 1 -------- GEAR 2 -Center distance (mm) [a] 468.480 Centre distance tolerance ISO 286 Measure js7 Normal module (mm) [mn] 11.2889 Pressure angle at normal section (°) [alfn] 20.0000 Helix angle at reference circle (°) [beta] 0.0000 Number of teeth [z] 18 65 Facewidth (mm) [b] 127.00 127.00 Hand of gear Spur gear Accuracy grade [Q-DIN3961] 6 6 Inner diameter (mm) [di] 0.00 0.00 Inside diameter of rim (mm) [dbi] 0.00 0.00 Material Gear 1: Gear 2:

18CrNiMo7-6, Case-carburized steel, case-hardened ISO 6336-5 Figure 9/10 (MQ), core strength >=25HRC Jominy J=12mm<HRC28 18CrNiMo7-6, Case-carburized steel, case-hardened ISO 6336-5 Figure 9/10 (MQ), core strength >=25HRC Jominy J=12mm<HRC28

------- GEAR 1 -------- GEAR 2 -Surface hardness HRC 61 HRC 61 Fatigue strength. tooth root stress (N/mm²) [sigFlim] 430.00 430.00 Fatigue strength for Hertzian pressure (N/mm²) [sigHlim] 1500.00 1500.00 Tensile strength (N/mm²) [Rm] 1200.00 1200.00 Yield point (N/mm²) [Rp] 850.00 850.00 Young's modulus (N/mm²) [E] 206000 206000 Poisson's ratio [ny] 0.300 0.300 Average roughness, Ra, tooth flank (µm) [RAH] 0.60 0.60 Mean roughness height, Rz, flank (µm) [RZH] 4.80 4.80 Mean roughness height, Rz, root (µm) [RZF] 20.00 20.00 Tool or reference profile of gear 1 : Reference profile 1.25 / 0.38 / 1.0 ISO 53.2 Profil A Addendum coefficient [haP*] Dedendum coefficient [hfP*]

1.000 1.250

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Tip radius factor Root radius factor Tip form height coefficient Protuberance height factor Protuberance angle Ramp angle

[rhoaP*] [rhofP*] [hFaP*] [hprP*] [alfprP] [alfKP] not topping

0.000 0.380 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

Tool or reference profile of gear 2 : Reference profile 1.25 / 0.38 / 1.0 ISO 53.2 Profil A Addendum coefficient [haP*] Dedendum coefficient [hfP*] Tip radius factor [rhoaP*] Root radius factor [rhofP*] Tip form height coefficient [hFaP*] Protuberance height factor [hprP*] Protuberance angle [alfprP] Ramp angle [alfKP] not topping

1.000 1.250 0.000 0.380 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

Sum of reference profile gears: Dedendum reference profile (module) [hfP*] 1.250 1.250 Tooth root radius Refer. profile (module) [rofP*] 0.380 0.380 Addendum Reference profile (module) [haP*] 1.000 1.000 Protuberance height (module) [hprP*] 0.000 0.000 Protuberance angle (°) [alfprP] 0.000 0.000 Buckling root flank height (module) [hFaP*] 0.000 0.000 Buckling root flank angle (°) [alfKP] 0.000 0.000 Type of profile modification: Tip relief (µm) No [Ca] 2.00 2.00

Lubrication type oil bath lubrication Type of oil Oil: ISO-VG 220 Lubricant base Mineral-oil base Kinem. viscosity oil at 40 °C (mm²/s) [nu40] Kinem. viscosity oil at 100 °C (mm²/s) [nu100] FZG-Test A/8.3/90 (ISO 14635-1) [FZGtestA]

220.00 17.50 12

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Project Report | Gear Design

Specific density at 15 °C (kg/dm³) [roOil] Oil temperature (°C) [TS]

0.895 70.000

------- GEAR 1 -------- GEAR 2 -Overall transmission ratio [itot] -3.611 Gear ratio [u] 3.611 Transverse module (mm) [mt] 11.289 Pressure angle at Pitch circle (°) [alft] 20.000 Working transverse pressure angle (°) [alfwt] 19.997 [alfwt.e/i] 20.007 / 19.986 Working pressure angle at normal section (°) [alfwn] 19.997 Helix angle at operating pitch diameter (°) [betaw] 0.000 Base helix angle (°) [betab] 0.000 Reference centre distance (mm) [ad] 468.489 Sum of profile shift coefficients [Summexi] -0.0008 Profile shift coefficient [x] 0.3452 -0.3460 Tooth thickness (Arc) (module) [sn*] 1.8221 1.3189 Tip alteration (mm) [k] 0.000 0.000 Reference diameter (mm) [d] 203.200 733.779 Base diameter (mm) [dB] 190.946 689.526 Tip diameter (mm) [da] 233.572 748.544 (mm) [da.e/i] 233.572 / 233.562 748.544 / 748.534 Tip diameter allowances (mm) [Ada.e/i] 0.000 / -0.010 0.000 / -0.010 Tip chamfer / tip rounding (mm) [hK] 0.000 0.000 Tip form diameter (mm) [dFa] 233.572 748.544 (mm) [dFa.e/i] 233.572 / 233.562 748.544 / 748.534 Operating pitch diameter (mm) [dw] 203.196 733.764 (mm) [dw.e/i] 203.210 / 203.182 733.813 / 733.715 Root diameter (mm) [df] 182.772 697.744 Generating Profile shift coefficient [xE.e/i] 0.3336 / 0.3276 -0.3673 / -0.3771 Manufactured root diameter with xE (mm) [df.e/i] 182.511 / 182.373 697.263 / 697.043 Theoretical tip clearance (mm) [c] 2.822 2.822 Effective tip clearance (mm) [c.e/i] 3.209 / 3.031 3.058 / 2.921 Active root diameter (mm) [dNf] 193.148 714.144 (mm) [dNf.e/i] 193.180 / 193.120 714.197 / 714.096 Root form diameter (mm) [dFf] 192.745 708.327 [dFf.e/i] 192.643 / 192.590 708.007 / 707.861 Reserve (dNf-dFf)/2 (mm) [cF.e/i] 0.295 / 0.239 3.168 / 3.045 Addendum (mm) [ha] 15.186 7.383

33 Project Report | Gear Design

(mm) [ha.e/i] 15.186 / 15.181 7.383 / 7.378 Dedendum (mm) [hf] 10.214 18.017 (mm) [hf.e/i] 10.345 / 10.413 18.258 / 18.368 Roll angle at dFa (°) [xsi_dFa.e/i] 40.364 / 40.359 24.208 / 24.205 Roll angle to dNa (°) [xsi_dNa.e/i] 40.364 / 40.359 24.208 / 24.205 Roll angle to dNf (°) [xsi_dNf.e/i] 8.790 / 8.672 15.463 / 15.431 Roll angle at dFf (°) [xsi_dFf.e/i] 7.655 / 7.535 13.354 / 13.301 Tooth height (mm) [H] 25.400 25.400 Virtual gear no. of teeth [zn] 18.000 65.000 Normal Tooth thickness at Tip cyl. (mm) [san] 5.927 9.316 (mm) [san.e/i] 5.824 / 5.760 9.142 / 9.056 Normal Tooth space as Tip cylinder (mm) [efn] 0.000 10.017 (mm) [efn.e/i] 0.000 / 0.000 10.104 / 10.144 Max. sliding velocity at tip (m/s) [vga] 10.001 6.213 Specific sliding at the tip [zetaa] 0.617 0.639 Specific sliding at the root [zetaf] -1.774 -1.613 Sliding factor on tip [Kga] 0.409 0.254 Sliding factor on root [Kgf] -0.254 -0.409 Pitch (mm) [pt] 35.465 Base pitch (mm) [pbt] 33.326 Transverse pitch on contact-path (mm) [pet] 33.326 Length of path of contact (mm) [ga, e/i] 52.718 (52.810 / 52.604) Length T1-A, T2-A (mm) [T1A, T2A] 14.542(14.450/14.647) 145.663(145.663/145.651) Length T1-B (mm) [T1B, T2B] 33.934(33.934/33.925) 126.272(126.180/126.373) Length T1-C (mm) [T1C, T2C] 34.743(34.723/34.763) 125.462(125.390/125.534) Length T1-D (mm) [T1D, T2D] 47.868(47.776/47.973) 112.337(112.337/112.324) Length T1-E (mm) [T1E, T2E] 67.260(67.260/67.251) 92.946(92.853/93.046) Length T1-T2 (mm) [T1T2] 160.205 (160.113 / 160.298) Diameter of single contact point B (mm) [d-B] 202.648(202.648/202.642) 734.319(734.256/734.389) Diameter of single contact point D (mm) [d-D] 213.602(213.519/213.696) 725.207(725.207/725.199) Addendum contact ratio [eps] 0.976( 0.976/ 0.975) 0.606( 0.608/ 0.604) Minimal length of contact line (mm) [Lmin] 127.000 Transverse contact ratio [eps_a] 1.582 Transverse contact ratio with allowances [eps_a.e/m/i] 1.585 / 1.582 / 1.578 Overlap ratio [eps_b] 0.000 Total contact ratio [eps_g] 1.582 Total contact ratio with allowances [eps_g.e/m/i] 1.585 / 1.582 / 1.578

34 Project Report | Gear Design

2. FACTORS OF GENERAL INFLUENCE ------- GEAR 1 -------- GEAR 2 -Nominal circum. force at pitch circle (N) [Ft] 7528.3 Axial force (N) [Fa] 0.0 Radial force (N) [Fr] 2740.1 Normal force (N) [Fnorm] 8011.4 Tangent.load at p.c.d.per mm (N/mm) (N/mm) [w] 59.28 Only for information: Forces at the pitch-circle : Nominal circumferential force (N) [Ftw] 7528.4 Axial force (N) [Faw] 0.0 Radial force (N) [Frw] 2739.7 Circumferential speed pitch d.. (m/sec) [v] 24.47 Running-in value (µm) [yp] 1.1 Running-in value (µm) [yf] 1.3 Correction coefficient [CM] 0.800 Gear body coefficient [CR] 1.000 Reference profile coefficient [CBS] 0.975 Material coefficient [E/Est] 1.000 Singular tooth stiffness (N/mm/µm) [c'] 9.928 Meshing stiffness (N/mm/µm) [cg] 14.261 Reduced mass (kg/mm) [mRed] 0.14536 Resonance speed (min-1) [nE1] 5255 Nominal speed (-) [N] 0.438 Subcritical range Running-in value (µm) [ya] 1.3 Bearing distance l of pinion shaft (mm) [l] 254.000 Distance s of pinion shaft (mm) [s] 25.400 Outside diameter of the pinion shaft (mm) [dsh] 127.000 Load according DIN 3990/1 Figure 6.8 [-] 4 (0:6.8a, 1:6.8b, 2:6.8c, 3:6.8d, 4:6.8e) coefficient K' according to DIN 3990/1 diagram 6.8 [K'] -1.00 Without support effect Tooth trace deviation (active) (µm) [Fby] 6.18 from deformation of shaft (µm) [fsh*B1] 0.70 Tooth without tooth trace correction

35 Project Report | Gear Design

Position of contact pattern: Favorable from production tolerances (µm) [fma*B2] Tooth trace deviation, theoretical (µm) [Fbx] Running-in value (µm) [yb] Dynamic factor Face coefficient - flank - Tooth root - Scuffing [KV] [KHb] [KFb] [KBb]

11.00 7.27 1.1 1.676

1.355 1.277 1.355 1.158 1.158 1.158 1.000 2760.000 764.308

Transverse coefficient - flank [KHa] - Tooth root [KFa] - Scuffing [KBa] Helix angle coefficient scuffing Number of load changes (in mio.) [Kbg] [NL]

3. TOOTH ROOT STRENGTH ------- GEAR 1 -------- GEAR 2 -Calculation of Tooth form coefficients according method: B (Calculate tooth shape coefficient YF with addendum mod. x) Tooth form factor [YF] 1.25 1.59 Stress correction factor [YS] 2.15 1.82 Working angle (°) [alfen] 22.07 18.97 Bending lever arm (mm) [hF] 10.57 13.37 Tooth thickness at root (mm) [sFn] 23.81 23.95 Tooth root radius (mm) [roF] 5.25 6.63 (hF* = 0.936/1.185 sFn* = 2.109/2.122 roF* = 0.465/0.587 dsFn = 186.44/702.78 alfsFn = 30.00/30.00) Contact ratio factor [Yeps] Helix angle factor [Ybet] Effective facewidth (mm) [beff] Nominal shear stress at tooth root (N/mm²) [sigF0] 14.09 Tooth root stress (N/mm²) [sigF] Permissible bending stress at root of Test-gear

36 Project Report | Gear Design

1.000 1.000 127.00 15.16 43.64

127.00

46.95

Support factor [YdrelT] 0.998 0.993 Surface-factor [YRrelT] 0.957 0.957 Size coefficient (Tooth root) [YX] 0.937 0.937 Finite life factor [YNT] 1.000 1.000 [YdrelT*YRrelT*YX*YNT] 0.895 0.890 Alternating bending coefficient [YM] 1.000 1.000 Stress correction factor [Yst] 2.00 Limit strength tooth root (N/mm²) [sigFG] 769.33 765.68 Permissible tooth root stress (N/mm²) [sigFP=sigFG/SFmin] 549.52 546.91 Required safety [SFmin] 1.40 1.40 Safety for Tooth root stress [SF=sigFG/sigF] 17.63 16.31 Transmittable power (kW) [kWRating] 2319.59 2145.87

4. SAFETY AGAINST PITTING (TOOTH FLANK) ------- GEAR 1 -------- GEAR 2 -Zone factor [ZH] 2.495 Elasticity coefficient (N^.5/mm) [ZE] 189.812 Contact ratio factor [Zeps] 0.898 Helix angle factor [Zbet] 1.000 Effective facewidth (mm) [beff] 127.00 Nominal flank pressure (N/mm²) [sigH0] 259.48 Surface pressure at Operating pitch diameter (N/mm²) [sigHw] 470.47 Single tooth contact factor [ZB,ZD] 1.01 1.00 Flank pressure (N/mm²) [sigH] 474.52 470.47 Lubrication factor [ZL] 1.020 1.020 Speed factor [ZV] 1.026 1.026 Roughness factor [ZR] 1.004 1.004 Material mating factor [ZW] 1.000 1.000 Finite life factor [ZNT] 1.000 1.000 [ZL*ZV*ZR*ZNT] 1.051 1.051 Small amount of pitting permissible (0=no, 1=yes) 0 0 Size coefficient (flank) [ZX] 0.994 0.994 Limit strength pitting (N/mm²) [sigHG] 1565.92 1565.92 Permissible surface pressure (N/mm²) [sigHP=sigHG/SHmin] 1565.92 Safety for surface pressure at pitch diameter

37 Project Report | Gear Design

1565.92

[SHw]

3.33

3.33 2040.90

Required safety [SHmin] 1.00 1.00 Transmittable power (kW) [kWRating] 2006.19 Safety for stress at single tooth contact [SHBD=sigHG/sigH] 3.30 3.33 (Safety regarding nominal torque) [(SHBD)^2] 10.89 5. STRENGTH AGAINST SCUFFING Lubrication coefficient (Scoring) [XS] 1.000 Relative structure coefficient (Scoring) [XWrelT] 1.000 Thermal. contact factor (N/mm/s^.5/K) [BM] 13.795 Effective facewidth (mm) [beff] 127.000 Applicable circumferential force/tooth width (N/mm) [wBt] 194.874 Angle factor [Xalfbet] 0.977 (eps1: 0.976, eps2: 0.606)

11.08)

13.795

Flash temperature-criteria (DIN3990) Tooth mass temperature (°C) [theM-B] 78.03 theM-B = theoil + XS*0.47*theflamax [theflamax] 17.08 Scuffing temperature (°C) [theS] 408.58 Coordinate gamma (point of highest temp.) [Gamma] -0.581 [Gamma.A]= -0.581 [Gamma.E]= 0.936 Highest contact temp. (°C) [theB] 95.10 Flash factor [XM] 50.002 Geometry factor [XB] 0.410 Distribution factor [XGam] 0.333 Dynamic viscosity (mPa*s) [etaM] 30.62 Coefficient of friction [mymy] 0.046 Required safety [SBmin] 2.000 Safety factor for scuffing (flash-temp) [SB] 13.482 Integral temperature-criteria (DIN3990) Tooth mass temperature (°C) [theM-C] 75.73 theM-C = theoil + XS*0.70*theflaint [theflaint] 8.19 Integral scuffing temperature (°C) [theSint] 408.58 Flash factor [XM] 50.002 Contact ratio factor [Xeps] 0.240 Dynamic viscosity (mPa*s) [etaOil] 41.77 Mean coefficient of friction [mym] 0.034

38 Project Report | Gear Design

Geometry factor [XBE] 0.385 Meshing factor [XQ] 1.000 Tip relief factor [XCa] 1.028 Integral tooth flank temperature (°C) [theint] 88.02 Required safety [SSmin] 1.800 Safety factor for scuffing (intg.-temp.) [SSint] 4.642 Safety referring to transferred torque [SSL] 18.793 6. MEASUREMENTS FOR TOOTH THICKNESS ------- GEAR 1 -------- GEAR 2 -Tooth thickness deviation DIN3967 cd25 DIN3967 cd25 Tooth thickness allowance (normal section) (mm) [As.e/i] -0.095 / -0.145 -0.175 / -0.255 Number of teeth spanned [k] 3.000 7.000 Base tangent length (no backlash) (mm) [Wk] 88.827 224.226 Actual base tangent length ('span') (mm) [Wk.e/i] 88.738 / 88.691 224.062 / 223.986 Diameter of contact point (mm) [dMWk.m] 210.548 725.006 Theoretical diameter of ball/pin (mm) [DM] 21.732 18.749 Eff. Diameter of ball/pin (mm) [DMeff] 22.000 20.000 Theor. dim. centre to ball (mm) [MrK] 121.823 377.852 Actual dimension centre to ball (mm) [MrK.e/i] 121.735 / 121.688 377.615 / 377.507 Diameter of contact point (mm) [dMMr.m] 211.139 728.430 Diametral measurement over two balls without clearance (mm) [MdK] 243.646 755.489 Actual dimension over balls (mm) [MdK.e/i] 243.470 / 243.377 755.016 / 754.799 Theor. dimension over two pins (mm) [MdR] 243.646 755.489 Actual dimension over rolls (mm) [MdR.e/i] 243.470 / 243.377 755.016 / 754.799 Dimensions over 3 pins without clearance (mm) [Md3R] 0.000 755.274 Actual dimensions over 3 rolls (mm) [Md3R.e/i] 0.000 / 0.000 754.801 / 754.585 Chordal tooth thickness (no backlash) (mm) ['sn] 20.534 14.888 Actual chordal tooth thickness (mm) ['sn.e/i] 20.439 / 20.389 14.713 / 14.633 Reference chordal height from da.m (mm) [ha] 15.704 7.456 Tooth thickness (Arc) (mm) [sn] 20.569 14.889 (mm) [sn.e/i] 20.474 / 20.424 14.714 / 14.634

39 Project Report | Gear Design

Backlash free center distance (mm) [aControl.e/i] 468.109 /467.930 Backlash free center distance, allowances (mm) [jta] -0.371 / -0.550 Centre distance allowances (mm) [Aa.e/i] 0.032 / -0.032 Circumferential backlash from Aa (mm) [jt_Aa.e/i] 0.023 / -0.023 Radial clearance (mm) [jr] 0.581 / 0.339 Circumferential backlash (transverse section) (mm) [jt] 0.423 / 0.247 Torsional angle using fixed values gear 1 (°) 0.0660 /0.0386 Normal backlash (mm) [jn] 0.397 / 0.232 7. TOLERANCES ------- GEAR 1 -------- GEAR 2 -According DIN 3961: Accuracy grade [Q-DIN3961] 6 6 Profile deviation (µm) [ff] 18.00 18.00 Profile angular deviation (µm) [fHa] 12.00 12.00 Profile total deviation (µm) [Ff] 21.00 21.00 Helix form deviation (µm) [ffb] 12.00 12.00 Helix slope deviation (µm) [fHb] 11.00 11.00 Tooth helix deviation (µm) [Fb] 16.00 16.00 Single pitch deviation (µm) [fpe] 13.00 14.00 Single normal pitch deviation (µm) [fp] 13.00 14.00 Difference between adjacent pitches (µm) [fu] 16.00 18.00 Total cumulative pitch deviation (µm) [Fp] 40.00 51.00 Cumulative circular pitch deviation over z/8 pitches (µm) [Fpz/8] 25.00 32.00 Runout tolerance (µm) [Fr] 32.00 40.00 Tooth Thickness Variation (µm) [Rs] 19.00 23.00 Total radial composite tolerance (µm) [Fi"] 34.00 42.00 Tooth-to-tooth radial composite tolerance (µm) [fi"] 16.00 19.00 Total tangential composite deviation (µm) [Fi'] 49.00 58.00 Tooth-to-tooth tangential composite deviation (µm) [fi'] 24.00 25.00 Tolerance for alignment of axes (recommendation acc. ISO/TR 10064, Quality 6) Maximum value for deviation error of axis (µm)

40 Project Report | Gear Design

[fSigbet] 19.81 Maximum value for inclination error of axes (µm) [fSigdel] 39.62 8. ADDITIONAL DATA Torsional stiffness (MNm/rad) [cr] 16.5 215.3 Mean coef. of friction (acc. Niemann) [mum] 0.028 Wear sliding coef. by Niemann [zetw] 0.990 Power loss from gear load (kW) [PVZ] 0.839 (Meshing efficiency (%) [etaz] 99.545) Weight - calculated with da (g) [Mass] 42608.51 437612.52 Moment of inertia (System referenced to wheel 1): calculation without consideration of the exact tooth shape single gears ((da+df)/2...di) (kgm²) [TraeghMom] 0.18275 26.65313 System ((da+df)/2...di) (kgm²) [TraeghMom] 2.22668

9. DETERMINATION OF TOOTHFORM

Calculation of Gear 1 Gear 1 (Step 1): Automatically (Tool: Hobbing cutter) haP*= 1.014, hfP*= 1.250, rofP*= 0.380 Calculation of Gear 2 Gear 2 (Step 1): Automatically (Tool: Hobbing cutter) haP*= 1.026, hfP*= 1.250, rofP*= 0.380

REMARKS: - Specifications with [.e/i] imply: Maximum [e] and Minimal value [i] with consideration of all tolerances Specifications with [.m] imply: Mean value within tolerance - For the backlash tolerance, the center distance tolerances and the tooth thickness deviation are taken into account. Shown is the maximal and the minimal backlash corresponding the largest resp. the smallest allowances The calculation is done for the Operating pitch circle.. - Details of calculation method: cg according to method B KV according to method B

41 Project Report | Gear Design

KHb, KFb according methode C KHa, KFa according to method B End report lines: 476

42 Project Report | Gear Design

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