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Intelligence. The article launched the competency movement in industrial psychology. He concluded, on the basis of review of studies that traditional academic aptitude and knowledge content tests, as well as school grades and credentials: 1. Did not predict success either in job/life and 2. Were generally biased against the lower socio-economic sections of society. This led McClelland to ask what predicted success, if not intelligence? He started to look for research methods that would identify competency variables, which would predict job performance and were not influenced by factors such as socioeconomic factors or race. He used criterion samples, a method that compares successful people with the less successful in order to identify characteristics associated with success. These characteristics or competencies, when present and demonstrated, consistently led to successful job outcomes. Concept The English dictionary describes the word 'competence' as the state of being suitable, sufficient, or fit. The workplace definition of 'competency' refers to a person's fitness with reference to his or her job. Competency refers to underlying behavioural characteristics that describe motives, traits, self-concept, values, knowledge or skills that a superior performer brings to the workplace.
which generalise across a wide range of situations and endure for long periods of time.confidence. There Example Iceberg Model describing the competencies required of a programmer . Skill This refers to a person's ability to perform a certain task.Competencies are about what people are and can do. Self concept and values This refers to a person's attitudes. Competencies are underlying characteristics of people that indicate ways of behaving or thinking. 2. Five types of competency characteristics 1. such as a surgeon's knowledge of the human anatomy. An example is self. such as a surgeon's skill to perform a surgery. or self-image. 3. a person's belief that he or she . values. not what they do. Knowledge This refers to information and learning resting in a person.
surgeons with high interpersonal orientation take personal responsibility for working well with other members of the operating team. traits. and values that distinguish superior from average performers. or similar impulses that prompt action. Spencer and Signe M. For example. desires. Threshold competencies. 4.can be successful in a given situation. however. do not differentiate superior from average performers. self concept. Central and surface competencies (Adapted from Competence at Work by Lyle M. the ability to remain calm under stress. 5. Differentiating competencies: These refer to factors such as motives. such as a surgeon's self confidence in carrying out a complex surgery. physiological needs. Spencer) . Categories of Competencies 1. Motives and traits maybe termed as initiators that predict what people will do on the job without close supervision. Motives Motives are emotions. Good eyesight is a necessary trait for surgeons. Threshold competencies: These are essential characteristics such as knowledge and skills that one needs to meet the minimum required levels in a job. Traits Traits refer to the physical characteristics and consistent responses to situations or information.control. as is self. 2.
They explain what jobholders need to do. For example. . and skills that are essential for effective performance. the competence expected of a salesperson is the ability to write a sales report. what they need to know and how best to achieve standards that are nationally recognised. in a given context. They specify the knowledge. we need to appreciate these standards carefully. knowledge. competence refers to the skill. To understand competence. Competence refers to what individuals do in their jobs. i. understanding. and attitudes necessary to perform a particular work to a standard required within industry. Possessing this competence ensures that the salesperson is able to prepare the report to the required standard.e.Competence Competence is defined as an individual's ability to demonstrate knowledge and skills to provide a product or service to the required standards. not what they are in terms of what drives them. and the ability to transfer the knowledge and skills to a new and differing context.
Competitor differentiation: Does it differentiate the organisation from competition and make it more competitive? 3. Extendability: Can the core competency be used to drive the organisation's success in the future? Examples At Sony. and the core competency is logistics management. the core competency is digital signal processing and global customer service. that collectively gives the organisation a competitive advantage. Role competency Role competencies are those associated with contributors to a team effort. in roles such as team leaders and members. FedEx was the first of the courier companies to manage their own fleet of planes to transport consignments in and around the United States of America. and the core competency attributed to delivering this benefit is miniaturisation. the value to the customer is on-time delivery. it must meet three tests: 1. and supervisors. the value to the customer is pocketability. Customer value: Does it provide a disproportionate value to the customer? 2. For a competency to be considered 'core'. Role competencies manifest themselves in the following areas: . usually a bundle of skills and technologies. and may include managers.Core competency This refers to the organisational properties. At NOKIA. At FedEx.
to various positions in the organisation based on best person-position fit. 3. Managing Managing Managing Managing people resources information activities Competency management Competency management maybe described as the capturing. assessing. 2. A model may be said to be a description or an analogy to help us understand something more complex. . and reporting the competency levels of employees to ensure that the business has the human resources to implement strategy. There are three main approaches in competency management: 1. Competency development: Competency level of existing employees is raised through sustained development programmes. Competency deployment: Employees are deployed Competency Models Models: Models are defined as representations of the complex reality of the world. Competency acquisition: The organisation makes a conscious and deliberate effort to acquire the competencies needed for business growth and expansion.
feedback.. often called competencies that include the key behaviors required for excellent performance in a particular role.What is a competency model? A competency model is a set of success factors.g. It helps: .g. uses effective listening skills.. provides timely. Behavioral Indicators • Demonstrates a deep understanding of internal and external customers and their needs Mobilizes the appropriate resources to respond to customer's needs Takes personal responsibility for customer satisfaction (e. focuses value-added interactions) Builds credibility and trust with the customer through open and direct communication (e. etc. Example Competency Title: Customer Service Orientation Definition: Responds to customer's needs in a manner that provides added value and generates significant customer satisfaction. Excellent performers on-the-job demonstrate these behaviors much more consistently than average or poor performers.) Ensures that customers believe their issues and concerns are given highest priority • • • • Need for a competency model The model is important because it provides a "road map" for the range of behaviors that produce excellent performance.
. To understand the variables determining performance and their correlation to it 3. Competency models are developed through a process of clarifying the business strategy and determining how the models would be used (e. training and development. IV. Finally. assessment.g. models are finalized and translated appropriate. data is analyzed and used to develop straw man models of success criteria. and career development). performance management. MODEL FOR COMPETENCY SELECTION into . Teams and individuals align their behavior with key organizational strategies. III. To provide a way in which the concept of competency can be applied to organisational needs. data is gathered in structured interviews. V. Next. To enable the rapid deployment of competencies in an organisation. Then validation surveys are administered and models are refined based on feedback. hiring and selection. and Each employee understands how to achieve expected performance standards • Organisations use competency models for various purposes: 1. Then. II.• • Companies "raise the bar" of performance expectations. How are competency models developed? I. end-user tools and applications. 2.
DIAGNOSTIC MODEL TO DEFINE COMPETENCIES .
• Help companies “raise the bar” of performance expectations • Help teams and individuals align their behaviors with key organizational strategies For Managers The competency mapping provides following advantages to the managers: • Identify performance criteria to improve the accuracy and ease of the selection process • Easier communication of performance expectations • Provide a clear foundation for dialogue to occur between the managers and employees and performance. organization wide standard for career levels that enable employees to move across business boundaries.Advantages of Competency Mapping For the company The advantages of competency mapping for the companies or organizations are as follows: • Establishes expectations for performance excellence • Improved job satisfaction and better employee retention • Increase in the effectiveness of training and professional development programs because of their link to success criteria. development and career-oriented issues . • Provides a common understanding of scope and requirements of a specific role • Provides a common.
For employees The employees in an organization get the following advantages by competency mapping: • Identify the behavioral standards of performance excellence •Provide a more specific and objective assessment of their strengths and the tools required to enhance their skills • Enhances clarity on career related issues • Helps each understand how to achieve expectations .
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