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SCHAUM'S OUTLINE OF

**THEORY AND PROBLEMS
**

OF

BASIC MATHEMATICS

with Applications to Science and Technology Second Edition

•

HA YM KRUGLAK, Ph.D.

Professor Emeritus of Physics Western Michigan University

JOHN T. MOORE, Ph.D.

Former Professor of Mathematics University of Western Ontario

**RAMON A. MATA-TOLEDO, Ph.D.
**

Associate Professor of Computer Science James Madison University

**SCHAUM'S OUTLINE SERIES
**

McGRAW -HlLL

New York San Francisco Washington, D.C. Auckland Bogota Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi San Juan Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto

Dedicated to the Lion of Judah for his many blessings, opportunities and the wonderful family that he has given me. RAMT

Dr. Haym Kruglak is a Professor Emeritus of Physics at Western Michigan University.

Dr. John T. Moore was a former professor of Mathematics at the University of Western Ontario. Dr. Ramon A. Mata-Toledo is a tenured Associate Professor of Computer Science at James Madison University. He holds a Ph.D. from Kansas Stale University in Computer Science. He earned his M.S and M.B.A from the Florida Institute of Technology. His bachelor degree with a double major in Mathematics and Physics is from the Instituto Pedagogico de Caracas (Venezuela). Dr. Mara-Toledo's main areas of interest are databases, natural language processing. and applied mathematics. He is the author of numerous papers in professional magazines, national and international congresses. Dr. Mala-Toledo can be reached at malalra@jmu.edu.

Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of BASIC MATHEMATICS Copyright © IIJ9K. 1973 by 'The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976_ no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system. without the prior written permission of the publisher. 3 4 5 6 7 K 9 10 II ISBN 0-07-0371.l2-6 Sponsoring Editor: Barbara Gilson Production Supervisor: Clara Stanley Editing Supervisor: Maureen B. Walker 12 13 14 15 16 17 IX 19 20 PRS PRS 9 0 2 I 0 9

**Ubrary of Congress Cataloging· In-Publication Data
**

Kruglak, Haym. Schaum's outline of basic mathematics with applications to science and technology. - 2nd ed. / Haym Kruglak, John T. Moore, Ramon A. Mara-Toledo. p. em. -- <Schaum's outline series) Rev. ed. of: Schaum's outline of theory and problems of basic mathematics with applications to science and technology / Haym Kruglak. John T. Moore. c1973. Includes index. ISBN 0-07-0.'7IX2-6 (pbk.I I. Mathematics. l. Moore, John T. II. Mata-Toledo, Ramon A. III. Kruglak. Haym. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of basic mathematics with applications to science and technology. IV. Title. QAW.2.K77 19911 5 lO-dc2 I 98-13992 CIP

McGraw-Hill

A Diviswrl o(The MtGtww·Hill~

~

Preface

This book is designed for the many individuals who have difficulties in applying mathematics. The topics were selected primarily because of their USEFULNESS. Thus, the emphasis throughout the book is on the formulation and solution of problems from the physical world. It is assumed that the user of this book has been exposed to some high school mathematics. The selected principles, techniques, and examples were developed to aid: 1. Those who have an average background in high school mathematics but have not used this discipline for several years. Veterans and other adults returning to school frequently need not only a review of the mathematics fundamentals, but also an exposure to applications which may be new to them. 2. Those who have a good background in mathematics but need a handy "refresher," as well as a source book of unfamiliar concepts, techniques, and applications. 3. Those who have a poor background in high school mathematics. These students need a compact reference source of mathematical concepts immediately applicable to their mathematics, science, and technology courses. Basic Mathematics may also be used successfully as a classroom text (I) in community and technical junior colleges as a first course in mathematics, (2) in colleges and universities for noncredit remedial and compensatory courses, (3) in high schools for special senior-year review and preparatory courses, (4) in vocational schools for technical mathematics courses, (5) in adult evening schools for refresher and terminal courses. Many concepts and applications not usually taught in high school or college courses are included in this book; it should thus become a valuable supplementary text for high school and college courses in physical science, chemistry, physics, astronomy and computer science. Each chapter contains a summary of basic definitions, principles, and techniques, with illustrative examples. The accompanying Solved Problems, drawn largely from the elementary sciences and technology, are provided with step-by-step solutions. The sets of Supplementary Problems concluding the chapters are selected to reinforce the understanding of each concept and skill. Answers are given for all the problems. If the users of this book find it helpful in increasing their mathematical mastery, the authors will feel richly rewarded.

HA YM KRUGLAK RAMON

A. MAT A- TOLEDO

III

**How to Use This Book
**

Mathematics is indispensable to the understanding and application of the basic laws of the physical world. The principles, examples, exercises, and illustrations in this book have been especially selected so as to be of maximum value to you in using them effectively. If you are not sure what to study, ask your science instructor or curriculum adviser to point out the topics in this book which are most essential for your needs. We believe that the following suggestions will enable you to learn more efficiently the desired mathematical skills. I. Get to know what topics are covered in this book by scanning the table of contents and index. Skim the pages from beginning to end. 2. Have paper and pencils handy. Use standard size paper or a notebook. Nothing is as subject to error as work done on small odd scraps of paper. 3. Learn the terms and definitions. 4. Reproduce in writing all the steps of the solved examples and problems. 5. Read most carefully the statement of the problem. 6. Work out all the steps of the supplementary problems in a systematic fashion. Check your solution before looking up the answer. 7. Use the index and follow up all the cross-references for a given topic. 8. Obtain, if necessary, additional information from high school and college textbooks. available in school and public libraries. 9. Read carefully the manual of your calculator. When working out the problems, understand that there may be differences in accuracy and precision between the different models and brands of calculators. 10. The following conventions have been adopted to explain the use of the graphing calculators: Function keys are enclosed in curly brackets in CAPS, for example. {ENTER}. This instructs the user to press the key labeled ENTER. Options on screen menus are shown underlined. For example. for the graphing calculator HP-38G. the sequence. {LIB} Function lENTER}, will indicate that Function is an option of the screen menu obtained after pressing the key {LIB}. Comments about the use of function keys or options are enclosed in double quotes. For example, "Press the shift key (the turquoise key) first and then press the PLOT key in the SETUP Menu."

iv

Contents

1

DECIMAL FRACTIONS .

Chapter

1

1.1 The Decimal System. 1.2 Decimal Fractions. 1.3 Position Diagram for Decimals. 1.4 Importance of Decimal Fractions. 1.5 Reading Numbers with Decimal Fractions. 1.6 Writing Numbers with Decimal Fractions. 1.7 The Basic Laws of Arithmetic. 1.8 Addition of Decimals. 1.9 Subtraction of Decimals. 1.10 Multiplication of Decimals. 1.11 Division of Decimals. 1.12 Rounding Off Decimals.

Chapter

2

MEASUREMENT

AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION

.

9

2.1 Basic Concepts. 2.2 Experimental Errors or Uncertainties. 2.3 Accuracy. 2.4 Precision. 2.5 Significant Figures-Definition. 2.6 Reading Significant Figures. 2.7 Operations with Significant Figures. 2.8 Definition-Scientific Notation. 2.9 Advantages of Scientific Notation. 2.10 Conversion to and from Scientific Notation. 2.11 Operations with Scientific Notation. 2.12 Approximate Computations with Scientific Notation. 2.13 Order of Magnitude. 2.14 Conversion of Units. 2.15 The International System of Units. 2.16 Prefixes and Decimal Multipliers.

Chapter

3

COMMON FRACTIONS

.

36

3.1 Fractions and Measurement. 3.2 Terms. 3.3 Reading and Writing Fractions. 3.4 Basic Principle. 3.5 Reduction to Lowest Terms. 3.6 Comparison of Fractions. 3.7 Addition of Fractions. 3.8 Subtraction of Fractions. 3.9 Multiplication of Fractions. 3.10 Division of Fractions. 3.11 Reciprocals. 3.12 Conversion of Common Fractions into Decimal Fractions.

Chapter

4

PERCENT AGE

.

SI

4.1 Terms. 4.2 Percent and Fractions. 4.3 Percent of a Quantity. 4.4 Percent from Percentage. 4.5 Quantity from Percentage and Percent. 4.6 Percent Error or Uncertainty. 4.7 Percent of Difference. 4.8 Uncertainties in Scale Readings.

Chapter

5

ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA

.

61

5.1 Terminology. 5.2 The Number Line. 5.3 Absolute Value. 5.4 Operations with Signed Numbers. 5.5 Operations with Monomials. 5.6 Use of Grouping Symbols. 5.7 Operations with Polynomials. 5.8 Simple Products. 5.9 Factoring. 5.10 Cancellation. 5.11 Operations with Algebraic Fractions. 5.12 Equations-Definitions. 5.13 Solutions of Linear Equations.

Chapter

6

**RATIO AND PROPORTION
**

6.1 Ratio-Basic Concepts. 6.4 Inverse Proportion. 6.2 Proportion-Basic Concepts.

.

6.3 Direct Proportion.

9S

v

VI

CONTENTS

Chapter

7

LINEAR EQUATIONS.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

106

7.1 Function. 7.2 Variables. 7.3 Linear Function. 7.4 Functional Representation. 7.5 Slope. 7.6 Negative Slope. 7.7 Direct Proportion. 7.8 Applications. 7.9 Linear Equation. 7.10 Representation. 7.11 Negative Slope. 7.12 Zero Slope. 7.13 Applications. 7.14 Intercepts of a Line. 7.15 Empirical Equations. 7.16 Good Graphing Practices. 7.17 Graphing the Special Linear Function y = nIX. 7.18 Graphing the General Linear Function y = nIX + b. 7.19 Graphing Linear functions with a Calculator.

Chapter

8

**EXPONENTS AND RADICALS................................
**

8.1 Exponential Form. 8.2 Positive Integral Exponent. 8.3 Reading Exponential Notation. 8.4 Zero Exponent. 8.5 Negative Integral Exponent. 8.6 Roots. 8.7 Principal nth Root. 8.8 Radical. Radicand. and Index. 8.9 Fractional Exponents. 8.10 Power function. 8.11 Variation. 8.12 Direct Variation. 8.13 Inverse Variation. 8.14 Graphs of Power Functions. 8.15 Graphing Power Functions with a Calculator. 8.16 Determining Empirical Equations of Power Functions. 8.17 Joint Variation. 8.18 Formulas.

131

Chapter

9

LOGARITHMS...

9.1 Numbers as Powers. 9.2 Definition of a Logarithm. 9.3 Common Logarithms. 9.4 Negative Logarithms. 9.5 Parts of a Logarithm. 9.6 Logarithmic Tables. 9.7 Antilogarithms. 9.8 The First Law of Logarithms. 9.9 The Second Law of Logarithms. 9.10 The Third Law of Logarithms. 9.11 Conversion to a Different Base. 9.12 Exponential Functions. 9.13 Exponential Equations. 9.14 Logarithmic Functions. 9.15 Logarithmic Equations. 9.16 Growth and Decay. 9.17 Logarithmic Graph Paper. 9.18 Semi logarithmic Paper.

171

Chapter

10

**QUADRATIC EQUATIONS AND SQUARE ROOTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
**

10.1 Quadratic Equation. 10.2 Solution. 10.3 Pure Quadratic Equations. 10.4 Quadratic Equations by Factoring. 10.5 The Quadratic Formula. 10.6 Using a Graphing Calculator to Solve Quadratic Equations. 10.7 Irrational Solutions. 10_8 Table of Square Roots. 10.9 Iterative Method. 10.10 Traditional Method. 10.11 Logarithmic Method. In.12 Finding Square Roots with a Calculator.

214

Chapter

11

ESSENTIALS OF PLANE GEOMETRY.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

243

11.1 Terms. 11.2 Lines. 11.3 Symbols. 11.4 Selected Geometrical Facts. 11.5 Angle-Types. 11.6 Theorems on Equal Angles. 11.7 Theorems on Supplementary Angles. 11.8 The Degree Measure. 11.9 Angle Operations with a Calculator. Il.IO An Abbreviated Method to Carry Out Arithmetic Operations with Angles Using a Calculator. I 1.11 Parts of a Triangle. 11.12 Types of Triangles. 11.13 Congruence of Triangles. 11.14 Similarity of Triangles. 11.15 Other Theorems on Triangles. 11.16 The Pythagorean Theorem. 11.17 Quadrilaterals-Terms. 11.18 Theorems on Parallelograms. 11.19 Circles and Arcs-Terms. 11.20 Theorems on Circles and Arcs. 11.21 Bisecting a Line Segment. 11_22 Bisecting an Angle. 11.23 Erecting a Perpendicular to a Given Line from a Given Point Not on the Line. 11.24 Erecting a Perpendicular to a Line at a Given Point on the Line. 11.25 Drawing a Parallel to a Given Line 11.26 Dividing a Given Line Segment into a Given Number of Equal Parts. 11.27 Finding the Center of a Circle from a Given Arc. 11.28 Perimeters. 11.29 Areas.

CONTENTS

vii

Chapter

12

SOLID FIGURES.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

276

12.1 Polyhedrons. 12.2 Cylinders. 12.3 Cones. 12.4 Spheres. 12.5 Similar Solids. 12.6 Area of a Prism. 12.7 Area of a Pyramid. 12.8 Area of a Cylinder. 12.9 Area of a Cone. 12.10 Area of a Sphere. 12.11 Areas of Similar Solids. 12.12 Volume of a Prism. 12.13 Volume of a Pyramid. 12.14 Volume of a Cylinder. 12.15 Volume of a Cone. 12.16 Volume of a Sphere. 12.17 Volumes of Similar Solids.

Chapter

13

TRIGONOMETRIC

FUNCTIONS.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

291

13.1 Trigonometry. 13.2 Ratios in Similar Triangles. 13.3 Definitions from Triangle Ratios. 13.4 Definitions from Coordinates. 13.5 Trigonometric Tables. 13.6 Trigonometric Functions of Special Angles. 13.7 Calculating Trigonometric Functions with a Calculator. 13.8 Cofunctions. 13.9 Signs of Trigonometric Functions. 13.10 Trigonometric Identities.

Chapter

14

SOLUTION OF TRIANGLES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

306

14.1 Right Triangles-One Known Side and One Known Acute Angle. 14.2 Right Triangles-Two Known Sides. 14.3 The Law of Sines. 14.4 The Law of Cosines.

Chapter

15

VECTORS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

15.1 Terms. 15.2 Vector Representation. 15.3 Equality of Vectors. 15.4 Vector Addition-Graphical or Geometrical Method. 15.5 Vector Addition-Analytical Method. 15.6 The Negative of a Vector. 15.7 Subtraction of Vectors. 15.8 Vector Resolution or Decomposition. 15.9 Relationships Between a Vector and Its Components. 15.10 The Components of Vector Sums. 10.11 Vector Sum from Components.

322

Chapter

16

RADIAN MEASURE

16.1 Definition. 16.2 Basic Equation. 16.3 Relationship Between the Radian and Degree Measures. 16.4 Evaluating Trigonometric Functions of an Angle Using a Calculator. 16.5 Angular Speed. 16.6 Angular Velocity. 16.7 Angular and Linear Speeds. 16.8 Trigonometric Functions of Small Angles. 16.9 Applications. 16.10 Periodicity. 16.11 Graphs of y = sin 0 and y = cos n. 16.12 Graph of y = c sin kn. 16.13 Graphs of Other Trigonometric Functions.

340

Chapter

17

CONIC SECTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

17.1 The Determine Concepts. Ellipse-s-Basic Concepts. 12.2 How to Draw an Ellipse. 17.3 How to a Tangent to an Ellipse. 17.4 The Circle. 17.5 The Parabola-s-Basic 17.6 Focusing Property of a Parabola. 17.7 The Hyperbola-Basic Concepts.

358

Chapter

18

NUMBERING SYSTEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

IS.1 The Binary, Octal, and Hexadecimal Systems. IS.2 Numerical Values in a Positional Systems and Their Decimal Equivalents. IS.3 Conversion of Decimal Number to Other Bases. 18.4 Conversion Between Hexadecimal and Binary Numbers. 18.5 Rules for Forming Numbers in Any System.

371

VII

viii

CONTENTS

Chapter

19

ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS IN A COMPUTER.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

384

19.1 Review of Basic Concepts of Arithmetic. 19.2 Addition and Subtraction of Binary Numbers. 19.3 Addition and Subtraction of Hexadecimal Numbers. 19.4 Representing Nonnegative Integers in a Computer. 19.5 Computer Addition. 19.6 Representing Negative Integer Numbers in a Computer. 19.7 The Sign-Magnitude. 19.8 One's Complement. 19.9 Two's Complement. 19.10 Multiplication and Division of Binary Numbers.

Chapter

20

COUNTING METHODS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . ..

20.1 Fundamental Counting Principle. 20.2 Factorial of a Number. 20.3 Permutations. 20.4 Arrangements with Duplicate Elements. 20.5 Circular Permutations. 20.6 Combinations

408

Chapter

21

**PROBABILITY AND ODDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
**

21.1 Probability and Sample Spaces. 21.2 Probability of Success and Failure. 21.3 Odds. 21.4 Probability of Independent and Dependent Events. 21.5 Probability of Exclusive Events. 21.6 Probability of Inclusive Events. 21.7 Conditional Probability.

417

Chapter

22

ST ATISTICS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

22.1 Descriptive Versus Inferential Statistics. 22.2 Population and Samples. Parameters and Statistics. 22.3 Quantitative and Qualitative Data. 22.4 Frequency Distributions and Graphical Representation of the Data. 22.5 Bar Charts. 22.6 Pie Charts. 22.7 Frequency Distribution of Large Data Sets. 22.8 Determining the Class Width. 22.9 Class Relative Frequency. 22.10 Cumulative Frequency. 22.11 Histograms. 22.12 Measurements of Central Tendency. 22.13 Average or Arithmetic Mean. 22.14 Weighted Mean. 22.15 Median. 22.16 Mode. 22.17 Measures of Dispersion. 22.18 Sample Range. 22.19 Variance 22.20 Standard Deviation. 22.21 Random Variable. 22.22 Normal Distribution. 22.23 Empirical Rule. 22.24 Converting Values into Standard Units. 22.25 Finding Areas Under the Normal Curve.

429

APPENDIX

Mathematical Symbols. Metric Unit Prefixes. Mathematical Constants. Greek Alphabet. Squares and Square Roots. Common Logarithms. Natural Trigonometric Functions. Units and Conversion Factors. Miscellaneous Useful Constants. Formula Summary. Binomial Theorem. Physical Constants. Astronomical Constants. Areas under the Standard Normal Curve from 0 to z. Hewlett-Packard Graphing Calculator 386. Texas Instrument Graphing Calculator TI-82.

461

INDEX

478

4 IMPORTANCE OF DECIMAL FRACTIONS Calculations are greatly simplified by the use of decimal fractions. value of 500 or 5 x 100.1. hundredths. 1 .Chapter 1 Decimal Fractions The Meaning of Decimals 1. . Positional values in the decimal system 1. For example. first read the part to the left of the decimal point. the digit 2 stands for 20 or 2 x 10.3 POSITION DIAGRAM FOR DECIMALS The positional values of some of the digits in the decimal system are shown in Fig.1 THE DECIMAL SYSTEM Our number system is called the decimal system because it is based on the number 10.S . A number which has digits on both sides of the decimal point is called a mixed decimal. The number 528. 1-1. Reading and Writing Decimals 1. thousandths. The decimal point is read as "and".. The integer digits are separated from the decimal digits by a period called the decimal point.2 DECIMAL FRACTIONS The positional system of writing numbers can be extended so that the digits represent tenths. etc.35 means (5 x 100) + (2 x 10) + (8 x I) + (3 x 1/10) + (5 x 1/100). and it is very likely that this system will become universal. Then read the digits after the decimal point and add the place name of the last digit. A number with one or more digits beyond the units place is called a decimal fraction or simply a decimal. EXAMPLE 1.. 1. Scientists use the metric system.5 READING NUMBERS WITH DECIMAL FRACTIONS To read a mixed decimal. • ~ ]03 § i ==~ I 1 1 i! = E-t~ £ it 0 ! s:I == ! ] a ~ ~ 'I § == ~ ]1 . I-I .s i 'i ~~ = ~ ~~ i s:I ~ '0 ~ '0 . The value of a digit in a number depends on its position. in 528 the digit 5 has a 1. '0 ~ Fig. which is decimal.

6 + 1. 1 EXAMPLE 1.6) x 1.1243. thousandths is in decimal form.2. Associative laws EXAMPLE 1. Commutative laws EXAMPLE 1.8 ADDITION OF DECIMALS The procedure is to write the numbers to be added so that their decimal points are aligned vertically.51 (4. Expressed Expressed 425.7.9362 23.75) (3. 1.95(7.3123.75 == == == == 3.20 7.11. + 21.2 DECIMAL FRACfIONS [CHAP.9362.6 WRITING NUMBERS WITH DECIMAL FRACTIONS The writing of decimal numbers is based on the knowledge of the positional value of the digits as shown in Fig.6) + 1. the number four hundred twenty-five and seventy-three Operations with Decimals 1.8. in decimal form.6.03 x (58.03 x 58. EXAMPLE 1.20) == (3. 0. then read the digits after the decimal and add the place name of the last digit.21.073. Distributive laws EXAMPLE 1. I.4. 1.4.16 is read as two hundred seventy-three and sixteen hundredths. 3.20) (7. EXAMPLE 1.20) III.03 + 1.1243 .51)(3.9. If the decimal has no integral part. (7.75)(4.20) 1. Then the addition is carried out as with integers.03 + 58.6 x 1.03) + (3.95 x 7. EXAMPLE 1. EXAMPLE 1. 0.3. 273.75 + 4.10. EXAMPLE 1. but with the decimal point in the same position.609 is read as one and six hundred nine thousandths.51) II.3123 + 1.5. 4.20 7. I-I.3728 0.00245 is read as two hundred forty-five one hundred-thousandths.03 + (58.39 is read as thirty-nine hundredths.7 THE BASIC LAWS OF ARITHMETIC Decimal numbers like all real numbers obey the three basic laws of arithmetic. Determine the sum of 0. and 1.95 x 1. the number thirty-seven and four tenths is 37.51 + 3. EXAMPLE 1.

5 .13.006776.7.0056 + 745. Add: 0. Subtract: 3. Multiplying a decimal by 10 will move the decimal point one place to the right. Thus.21 by 0. 282.10 MULTIPLICATION OF DECIMALS For perform product decimal the multiplication of two numbers in decimal form. first ignore the decimal points and the multiplications as if the numbers were integers.15 1.0056 has four. The desired product is then 0. multiplication by 100 will move it two places to the right.16 that is was necessary to insert two zeros after the decimal point in order to obtain six decimal digits.3728. 0.0065 x 1000 = 6.75 279.90 3.75 from 282.93.014.0056. I] DECIMAL FRACfIONS 3 If the numbers do not have the same number of decimal places.25 x 10 = 12. The number 1. The product of 121 by 56 is 6776.9 SUBTRACTION OF DECIMALS As'in addition. 1.302.0140 1.5464 EXAMPLE 1. so there must be five decimal places in the final answer. EXAMPLE 1.7000 746. etc. There are three decimal places in 0. EXAMPLE The product of 214 by 193 is 41. 1. 23.14 x 100 = 314 0. Notice in Example 1.12.21 has two decimal places while 0. Multipy: 1. Then insert the decimal point in the so that the number of decimal places in this number is equal to the sum of the numbers of places in the factors.14.CHAP.8264 from 23.5 3.9. EXAMPLE 1.16. 1. and 745. Subtract: 1. Multiply: 0.41302. assume that the empty spaces may be filled with zeros.0056. EXAMPLE Then subtract 1. so that the product has six decimal places and must be 0.214 and two in 1.93.8264 21.214 by 1.3728 1.7196 + 1. and place the decimal point between the units and tenths.15. write one number above the other with the decimal points aligned.

Round off 16. it is left The first digit to be dropped is 5 followed by a zero. The desired quotient 0. EXAMPLE 1. The procedure is then to divide as in ordinary long division. number is 0. This type of approximation is Round off 3.1416 to two decimal places. it is desirable to make the divisor an integer by multiplying (if necessary) both numbers by a sufficiently high power of 10. the rounded number becomes 3. The first digit to be dropped is 5 followed by two zeros.74.454. The rounded Since 6 is the digit to be dropped and it is greater than 5.100 = 0. If the first of the digits to be dropped is greater than 5. Thus. EXAMPLE If the first of the digits to be dropped is less than 5. The rounded number is 193.37 -:. If the first digit to be dropped is 5 followed by zeros.5 -:.4536 to three decimal places.4. the last retained digit is changed from 3 to 4.17. Since the last digit to be kept is even.10 = 3.0725 1. under ordinary division. Since 4 is the last digit to be retained and the next digit to its right is less than 5. as shown in the computation above. 1. The last digit to be kept is 3. Round off 193.14.1547/0. which results. unchanged.1000 = 0. 1 1.18.7 14 14 14 70 70 It is common practice to place the decimal point of the quotient above the decimal point of the dividend. Move the decimal point 3 places to the right in each of the numbers to make the divisor an integer.7/14. Rule 3.21. Rule 2.11 DIVISION OF DECIMALS If one decimal number is to be divided by another. If the last digit to be kept is odd. then the last retained digit is unchanged.014 is equivalent to 154. which is increased to 4. 39. then the last retained digit is increased by I. The rounded number is 16. EXAMPLE 1.42 72. This does not affect the value of the quotient. then the last retained digit is kept unchanged if it is even. . Divide 0. called rounding off.4 DECIMAL FRACfIONS [CHAP.450 to one decimal place. 11.937 42 -:. then it is increased by I.014. placing a decimal point in the answer after the last digit before the decimal point in the dividend has been brought down.05 14)154. EXAMPLE 1. etc.19.05.1547 by 0. There are four commonly used rules for rounding off decimals: Rule 1. in 11. EXAMPLE Round off 0. 1. division by 100 will move it 2 places to the left.73500 to two decimal places.12 ROUNDING OFF DECIMALS In some cases it is desirable to express a decimal to fewer places.20. Dividing a number by 10 will move the decimal point one place to the left.

28 - 14. For each power of 10 the decimal point has to be moved one place to the right.165 (c) 362. If the first digit to be dropped is 5 followed by a nonzero digit. (e) nine hundred eighty and three tenths.63.602 IS multiplied 1.78 94.001.230 + 0. Solved Problems 1. write out the result if the number by: (a) 100. Subtract: (a) 24. Add the following numbers: (a) 97. (b) one and thirteen thousandths.989 97. 24. four hundred thirty-seven millionths. Set up the numbers so that their decimal points are in a vertical line.06 (d) 14. (c) 6. (d) three and one hundred twenty-five ten-thousandths. and add the digits in the usual manner.07.169 1. (c) ninety-five hundredths. The rounded The first digit to be dropped is 5 followed by 3.362. (a) the places in the decimal 0. (d) 3.989.93.58.620 + 0. The decimal point of the answer is in line with the other decimal points. sequence.500 (c) + + + 7. 8.682.165 (c) 457.248 .8530 to one decimal place. 1.61 from 393.013. (e) 980. (c) 10.0. The decimal point of the answer is in line with the other decimal points. and (c) 7. and 4. (b) 23.5.632 1.000.758 from 100. (e) 0. (d) 0.233.580 94.9.95.6. Without multiplying longhand. (d) 7. Using the positional values of the digits.682 129.233 848.070 + 8.2. 364.3. (a) 1. 96.917 from 1. (b) 100.61 368.285.CHAP.0015. the numbers are read as: (a) twenty-four and seven tenths.900 96.78 from 457. Set up the numbers so that the larger is above the smaller with their decimal points lined up vertically.1.930 0.917 0.4. 94.000437. Round off 2. From 45.000.03.06 (d) 100.001 (d) 24.50 (b) 1. (a) 393. and 0.9. the numbers are written as: 1. Subtract in the same way as with integers.5.600 4. 816.7. (d) 1. EXAMPLE 1.2 .000.000.513 + + 7.89 .390 - 24. 0.5 (b) 0.602 x 10 x 10 = 160.758 85. I] DECIMAL FRACfIONS 5 Rule 4. then the last retained digit is increased by I.3. (b) 0.602 x 100 = 1.000. (b) 1.989 107.39. the values of (c) Write the following numbers in decimal form: (a) forty-five and sixty-three hundreths.759.759 461. (d) fifteen ten-thousandths. and 0.423 23. number is 2. (a) + 364.000 (b) + 816.22. Read the following (b) (e) numbers: (a) 24. The last digit to be kept is 8. it is increased to 9.62.23. two hundred eighty-five thousandths.0125. (c) six and three hundredths.

023 1734 1156 1..000 = 2.000 = 1.31158 Ans.000..000.602 x 1.186 by 1..}2.000.87 .91.000.540 -..846 (a) 26)22. I (b) (c) 1.000 = 0.-10.03.0000254 (d) 2.602 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 160.872 (b) 0. Divide to three decimal places and round off the quotient to two places: (b) 2..52.000 (d) 1.540 -.6 DECIMAL FRACfIONS [CHAP. (b) 10.30 <:» <:» 220 208 120 104 160 156 4 Ans.000.8 by 0.186 1.000 1. Multiply: (a) 4.7.000.540 is divided (d) 10. (d) (b) 57.602 x 10. (a) 22 by Move the decimal point in the divisor and dividend so that divisor becomes an integer. 0. the result if the number 2.000 = 16.75 by 106. (c) 100.37.200 1.52 18778 46945 4882. 1.-100. Ans. The product has 3 decimal places since the sum of the numbers of places in the two given numbers is I + 2 = 3.3294 (c) 9389 (a) 4.2540 (b) 2.8.8 0. 7.72. (d) 4.540 -. The multiplication process is shown below.6.000000254 1.540-. (c) 50.000.-10=0.5 by 9. (a) 2. since the sum of the numbers of places in the two given numbers is 1+3=4.5 9. write out by: (a) 10.602 x 100.35. (c) 9389 by 0. point of the quotient above the changed decimal point of the dividend. (d) 6.000 = 0.023.28 Ans. 0. Division by each factor of 10 moves the decimal point one place to the left.540 -. (b) 57.72 90 315 405 43.000254 (c) 2.602.219 by 9.913 by 0.000 Place the decimal 7.000 = 1.-(10 x 10 x 10 x 10) = 0. There are four decimal places in the product.740 0.-10. Without dividing longhand. 26. 4.37. Ans.03 12558 4186 4.020.85 259 323 296 270 259 110 74 36 Ans.

498.609 to two decimal places (b) 10.6. (c) 0. (d) 10.15.19 is multiplied by: (b) 10. 3. 2.0.6. (c) 36.013. 1. (b) nine hundred thirty-one and two tenths. since the first digit to be dropped is 5 followed by zero and the last digit to be kept is even. write out the result when the number 6. 5.37 636 390 318 72 Ans.9.000. 4.0.000. Supplementary Problems The answers to this set of problems are at the end of this chapter.103.6412 to three decimal places (e) 17.65.0145. 0.05.37.000. 10.11. (b) 1000. (c) one hundred and fifty-five thousandths. 0. 0. (d) 752.371 9. (a) Without multiplying longhand. . Round off the following decimals to the indicated number of places.0012.6.135. since the first digit to be dropped is 5 followed by a nonzero digit. (a) 1.10.13. Find the product of the numbers in each of the following sets to four rounded decimal places: (b) 1. (a) 1.416.01.4.65. since the first digit to be dropped is 5 followed by zero and the last digit to be kept is initially odd. Write the following numbers in decimal form: (a) six and sixty-seven hundredths. (c) 56. (c) 100.56.4.015. Find the sum of the decimal numbers in each of the following sets: (a) 12. since the first digit to be dropped is greater than 5. (b) 752.5862.000.0419.0.CHAP. 10.314.063 (d) 106)6.641.05467.650 to one decimal place (c) 0. since the first digit to be dropped is smaller than 5. Without performing longhand division. (d) one thousand eighty-three tenthousandths. (e) 17.2.496.3. 1.12. 1.0065.}50.62.567.06 1. (d) 0. I) DECIMAL FRACTIONS 7 (c) 5.02 is divided by: (a) 100. (b) 0. Read the following: (a) 1.3652 to two decimal places 1.88.5932. 4675 3469 2805 6640 6545 950 935 150 5. 45.9 <:» 0.21.0. 1.000.000. 0.6.708. (d) 2.59. (d) 0.047.14. (c) 1.8750 to two decimal places Using the rules for rounding off: (a) (b) (c) (d) 752. write out the result if the number 4.75 '-' Ans. (d) 12.35.61.

1.2 (c) 100.03 (c) 0.1325 (a) 54. (c) 762.0291 (d) 43.8 DECIMAL FRACTIONS [CHAP.000000602 (d) 22. (c) 45.12. 1.0063.109 to two places.8730 957. (d) 0. 1.46.308 (d) 0.8723 762 (b) 8. (d) 70.16.50 to an integer.609.16.10. Divide the first of each of the following pairs of numbers by the second to four rounded decimal places: (a) 4.900 (b) 0.1083 1.15. 1. thirty-six and seven hundred eight thousandths. (b) 8. 1. 1 1.5053 (d) 0.0419 (d) 0.000 (<I) 0.27750 to three places. One hundred three thousandths.8430 (c) (c) (a) 0. 1.0602 (a) (a) 4. Answers to Supplementary Problems 1.17.11 635.567.6657 (b) 0.0251 to two places.13687 (c) 0.8336 11.17.14.0.0. 34. 1. (b) 4.53 to one place.047.9132 162. (b) 41. (a) (a) (c) 1.278 (e) 4. (b) seven hundred fifty-two and five hundredths.055 (d) 0.190. (d) two and four hundred nineteen ten-thousandths.00602 (b) 4.0097 (b) (c) (a) 41.006.9 (a) 0.02. 6.13. (e) 4.0000602 (c) 24.11. Round off the following to the specified number of places: (a) 54.5 .67 (b) 931.

the measurement 4. Standard Unit A measure of a physical quantity with which other units are compared is called a standard unit. There are many different devices for taking measurements of physical quantities: rules. electrical instruments with needles off the zero mark. Exactness in mensuration is a relative term. thus making the measurement either too large or too small. tradition. For example.35 m for the length of a room indicates that a meter was used as a unit of length and that the length of the room was 4. Each one of the above instruments has a scale with divisions. which may be a needle or the top of a mercury column. A measurement is the ratio of the magnitude of any physical quantity to that of a standard. The inherent uncertainties in mensuration are called experimental errors or uncertainties. For example.2 EXPERIMENTAL ERRORS OR UNCERTAINTIES One of the axioms of experimental science is: No measurement of a continuous physical quantity is absolutely exact. Systematic errors are also called constant.Chapter 2 Measurement and Scientific Notation Measurement 2. the universally accepted standard of mass is the International Prototype Kilogram. There are of two types: systematic and random.1 BASIC CONCEPTS To measure a physical quantity means to compare it in size (magnitude) with a similar standard quantity called a unit. stopwatches. All standards of measure are defined by some legal authority or by a conference of scientists. even an experimental genius using the most delicate known instrument cannot take a perfect measurement of a continuous quantity. clocks which gain or lose time are examples of faulty measuring devices which may be responsible for systematic 9 . voltmeters. Thus. The choice of units depends on convenience.35 times larger than the length of the meterstick. thermometers. etc. every measurement of a continuous quantity is only an approximation to the true or absolute value of that measure. balances. and a unit. the record of every measurement must consist of a number. there is no way to prove that this value is absolutely true or correct. Mensuration involves counting either whole units or their fractions. or law. Basically. barometers. Thus. 2. Even if it were possible to find the accurate value of a measure. an estimate of its uncertainty. Mensuration is the process of making a measurement. Worn or corroded weights. mensuration by means of an instrument requires an estimation of the distance on the scale between the initial and final positions of the instrument pointer. Systematic Errors These errors have the same algebraic sign.

Table 2. temperature. There is need for alertness in performing and checking calculations so as to avoid arithmetical mistakes. by small irregularities in the object being measured. and humidity are some of the external conditions that may cause systematic errors. The random errors in this set of measurements might have been caused by the variations in the manufacture of the rod. The effect of random errors can be minimized by taking a large number of observations under the same conditions and averaging the measurements.(N)OI cm. by building vibrations.1 Trial Number Micrometer Reading. absolute . the alternative is to correct each weighing for the "zero error" by subtracting 0. Random errors are also called accidental.0. 2.0597 0. Heat leakage.2.10 MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION [CHAP. and by many other small fluctuations.0597 Deviation from the Average.0596 2 3 Average 0. the adjusting screw must he turned until the balance is in equilibrium with the slider on the 0.2 g too high. This means that every weight measurement will be 0.0598 0. cm . and do not appear to vary in any systematic fashion.0001 +0. the variation in pressure when the micrometer jaws were closed. The slider of a laboratory balance must be moved to the 0. To correct for this error. The o The deviations from the average value are small. These errors are unavoidable.2-g position on the beam to produce equilibrium when there is no load on the weighing pan.0001 which can be read to O. The diameter of a metal rod is measured with a micrometer results of three measurements are recorded in Table 2. Since it is impossible to eliminate all experimental errors. small differences in its wear. barometric pressure.1. EXAMPLE 2. EXAMPLE 2. Random Errors Random errors in the measurement of a physical quantity result from the chance variations in it or in the measuring devices.0 division. ern 0. The improper use of instruments is a personal mistake and can lead to worthless results. Random errors can be caused by changes in pressure and temperature.2 g from the indicated weight measurement. or the changes in the observer's estimate of the scale reading. Random errors are generally small and have an equal probability of being positive and negative.3 ACCURACY Accuracy refers to the degree of agreement between an experimental value of a physical quantity and its "true" or correct value.1. 2 uncertamties. by the variations in the observer's reading of a scale. The personal bias against certain digits or colors can sometimes be discovered by checking against a standard or by comparing the observations of several experimenters. Mistakes and Personal Bias Arithmetical mistakes are not considered to be experimental errors. friction.

3. the units cancel out.1 g as the smallest subdivision. The presence of a small amount of impurity radically changes the value of surface tension. 2. A sample is weighed on a balance having 0.1 x 0.4 PRECISION The degree of consistency or reproducibility of a measurement is called precision.01 dyne/ern.accepted value em/sec/ = -18 em/sec/ The minus sign means that the experimental value is lower than the accepted value. Using the data of Example 2. The experimental The accepted value of g is 980 cm/sec''.01 g. The more precise the measurement. an "accurate" or "accepted" measurements by a number of experts in the field. EXAMPLE 2. For example. Therefore. determine . Even the most skilled observer could not estimate the balance reading to better than 0.4. The acceleration of gravity g is measured in the laboratory. absolute error = ----:-----:--18 cm/sec2 980 ern/sec~ -0. How large is the absolute error? absolute error value of g is = experimental = 962 . EXAMPLE 2.3. and by statistical treatment of data. or 0.1 g = 0. 2] MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION 11 accuracy can never be attained. 962 cm/sec2. High precision does not of itself guarantee high accuracy. Absolute Error value is the result of many The difference between an experimental value of a physical quantity and the accepted value is called an absolute error or absolute uncertainty.5. Precision is indicated by the use of significant figures.CHAP. A measurement has high precision only if the random errors are very small. the maximum or "upper bound" precision of a measurement with this balance is ±O.OI g. instrument reading uncertainties. Relative Error The relative error or relative uncertainty of an experimental value is the ratio of the absolute error to the accepted value.1 of the smallest subdivision. Usually. re Iative error the relative error.980 value . This term is somewhat misleading because it suggests that the "true" value is known exactly. Yet this experimental value could be 2 dyne/ern lower than the value obtained in another trial with the same apparatus because the purity of the liquid was not rigidly controlled. one could determine the surface tension of a liquid with a precision of ± 0. the less difference there is between two observations of the same event.0184 accepted value Since the two quantities in the ratio have identical units. EXAMPLE 2. .

6 ± 0. 2 Significant Figures 2. counting from left to right. but is estimated as 4. a Object Fig. The fourth digit is doubtful.65 ± 0.6. EXAMPLE 2. the length of the object to three significant figures is 10. The first significant figure in a measurement is the first digit other than zero.5 DEFINITION The digits in a measurement which a scientist reads and estimates on a scale are called significant figures. Thus. The recorded value is then 10. These include all the certain digits and one additional doubtful digit based on the observer's estimate of a fractional part of the smallest scale subdivision. we are sure of the first two digits (I and 0) but are doubtful of the third digit. 2-2.6.7.1 em subdivisions.6 cm. 2. object and a portion of the enlarged scale are shown in Fig.and II-cm marks. Since the end of the object falls between the 10.70±0. 2-1).05 cm. Let the length of an object be measured with a ruler whose smallest subdivision is I cm (Fig. significant figures as 10.7. the length of the object should be recorded to three significant figures as 10. The end of the ! Fig. because the end of the object is closest to the middle of the smallest subdivision. 2-1. Example 2. If the end of the object were near the 10.84 mI. In the measurement 29. It is also necessary to indicate the reading uncertainty of the scale.6 cm.7 Length of an object to four significant figures The certain digits are 10.6 of the distance between the 10. 2-2. the measurement would then be recorded as 10. but not even the most experienced observer would dare to estimate that fraction to 0. The third digit might well be any number between 5 and 7.7 mark the measurement would be recorded as 1O. Length of an object to three significant figures 2 8 7 8 9 10 11 12 A reasonable estimate of the object's end position might be 0. . The measurement is recorded to four Sometimes a scale can not be read to better than one-half of the smallest scale subdivision.01 cm.01 cm. Object 10. the first significant figure is 2. EXAMPLE 2.64 ± 0.8 10. Therefore.05 em.6 READING SIGNIFICANT FIGURES The number of significant figures in a measurement can be ascertained by the use of the following rules: 1.and II-cm marks.1 cm.6 is remeasured with a ruler with 0. The object of Example 2.12 MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION [CHAP.

EXAMPLE 331. 42.2 by 4. The temperature change is 76.002335 g/crrr'.4. There are thus six significant figures in this measurement. the zeros are significant figures because they occur between the digits 3 and 9.27 °C.8.27 to 99. The measurement 7. they should be rounded off to the precision of the least precise measurement.3 .8. The dimensions of a plate are: length = 13. or 0. off to 63 cm2 Multiply 13. Zeros which occur between two significant digits are significant since they are part of the measurement. EXAMPLE 2. the zeros to the left of 2 are not significant.6 cm.11.22.7 OPERATIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT FIGURES (a) Rounding OtT Significant Figures If the first digit to the right of the last significant figure is less than 5. 2-2 could be expressed as 10.12. (b) Addition and Subtraction with Significant Figures When measured values are to be added or subtracted. EXAMPLE temperature of a liquid is 99. Thus in the measurement 7. 2] MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION 13 2. if the first digit to the right of the last significant figure is more than 5.5 2. EXAMPLE 2. There are four significant figures in this measurement. 5.000 106 km.78 cal. round + 14. it indicates that the measurement was precise to one-tenth of a second and has two significant figures. then Rule 3 on page 4 is applicable. 425. 106 mm.8 em has only two significant figures.9 = 346.5 = 76.4 m/sec.0 sec the final zero is significant.5"C. Determine the number of calories absorbed by . The number of significant figures is independent of the measurement unit. An object weighing The answer should be rounded 120. gives 63. (c) MUltiplication and Division with Significant Figures In the multiplication or division of measurements.6 ml to three significant figures is 426 ml.46 rn/sec is increased by 14. In the measurement 30.5 ml.2 ern.00 sec is more precise and has three significant figures. The sum of the two measurements 2. 2. A speed of 331. the number of significant figures in the result is no greater than the number of significant figures in the measurement with the fewest significant figures. Longhand multiplication because 4.8 cm.8.9. 2. What is the resultant speed? tenth. In each case the number of significant figures is three.0809 g. it is dropped. The addition gives Before combining the two measurements. If the first digit to be dropped is 5 followed by zeros.54 ml to three significant figures is 42.46 to the nearest is 346. In the measurement 0.106 m. Zeros to the left of the first nonzero digit are not significant. The original temperature change? off 331. then the last significant figure is increased by one and retained. 4. 0. The measurement of the object in Fig.7 g absorbs 3. width = 4.8 0C. its final temperature is 22.9 rn/sec. What is the Round off 99.10.3 and perform the subtraction: 99. Find the area of the plate. 42.5 ml to two significant figures is 42 ml. EXAMPLE I g. 3.CHAP. Final zeros in measurements containing decimal fractions are significant.36.

5400~ 1. 6.3 cm is 4. where a is a number between I and to and z is an integer.000. Thus.00. Moving the decimal point one place to the left divides the number by to. or vice versa. 103. (d) Operations with Pure Numbers and Defined Ratios Natural Numbers are the sequence of whole numbers starting with I. Therefore multiplication and division of measurements by natural numbers preserve the number of significant figures. The answer is given to three significant figures is 0. measurements in this form are recorded with the correct number of significant figures.7 in.7 g has four significant figures. An estimate of the result of an involved computation can be obtained Scientific notation is used widely by scientists to indicate the precision of measurements.7 =0. The number of significant figures remains three. 1000 is written in scientific notation as 1 x 103 or.e. . Thus. if the decimal point is moved one place to the right.-i. move the decimal point so that it appears after the first significant moved to the left. 1247 = 1. 3.5400 em.03132. any number can be expressed in scientific notation.2. The above discussion applies also to quantities whose relationship is fixed by definition. 3.78 cal has three and 120.. ADVANTAGES OF SCIENTIFIC NOTATION There are several advantages of expressing numbers in this notation. since 1 in. A few powers of ten are shown in Table 2. the power of 10 is negative and of places moved.10 CONVERSION TO AND FROM SCIENTIFIC NOT ATION Since the decimal point of any number can be shifted at will to the left or to the right by multiplying by an appropriate power 10. 2 Performing the division. with an arbitrary number of zeros.247 x 103. To convert a number to scientific figure.92 em. will result in as many significant figures as there are in the measured quantity. Rule. 2. the conversion of centimeters to inches. 2. For example. The writing of numbers in this notation is based on the effect produced by moving the decimal point.14 MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION [CHAP. we write N = a x HY. if the measured radius of a circle is 1. 6.0. with them are greatly simplified. The operations Very large and very small numbers can be written more compactly.0313 cal/g because 3. A natural number like 6 can be written as 6 or 6. etc. = 2.0001 is written as 10-4.96 em = 3. They are the numbers that we use when counting with our fingers. 0. positive or negative. Scientific Notation 2. if N is any number.000186 = 4• 1. numerically equal to the number notation. 2.9 1. In general. multiply the resulting number by 10 raised to a power equal If the decimal point was moved to the right. more simply. 0. The arithmetical quickly.78/120. If the decimal point was to the number of places moved.3/2. For example.96 ern.86 x 10Another name for this method is powers-of-ten notation. the number is multiplied by 10. then the diameter of the same circle is 2 x 1. A measured length of 4.8 DEFINITION A number is said to be in scientific notation if it is expressed as the product of a number between 1 and 10 and some integral power of 10. The power of ten is also called the exponent of ten.

107397 x io' The rule is applied in reverse.000 = 0.000.11 OPERATIONS WITH SCIENTIFIC NOTATION The parts of the numbers preceding the powers of ten obey all the rules of decimals given in Chapter 1.000 EXAMPLE 2. 4 (b) The decimal point is moved to the left four places.50 x 103 m/sec.00001 10-6 = _1_ = = 0.14. (a) Move the decimal (b) point four places to the right: 5.000.CHAP. 2] MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION 15 Table 2. . For three significant figures one would record 3. In some cases the last significant zero is underlined.000.4562 x 10 (c) The decimal • point is moved to the right three places. usually written 10 .107397 x lOs = 10.000 105 = 100. or 1. Express the following numbers in ordinary decimal notation: (a) 5.1 101 10 10-2 = _1_ = _1_ = 102 100 10' om = 1000 10-:1 = ~ = _1_ 3 1000 = 0. EXAMPLE 2.005329 in scientific notation is 5. Multiplying by 107 gives the number in 7 7 scientific notation as I x 10 .0001 1O~ 10. The resulting number Multiplying is multiplied by 104 expresses by 10-3.000 106 = 1. Write r = 3500 m/sec in scientific notation. it is best to express all measurements in scientific notation.000001 lOG 1. To avoid misunderstanding.000.000000001 109 1.000 10-'> = -1 10" = -- 1 100.000 10-9 = _1_ = 1 = 0.000. (a) The decimal Write each of the following numbers in scientific notation: (a) 10. The number becomes 8. EXAMPLE 2. right: 0. Thus v = 35QO m/sec has three significant figures.46 x 10-2 (c) 0.15.000 is after the last zero.000 10-.5 x 103 m/sec if there are two significant figures in the result.4562.1 = _1_ = _1_ = 0. 2.739.2. 3500 m/sec is written as 3.005239 point in 10.95 x 104 (b) 3. left: 3. Final zeros in measurements represented by integral numbers mayor may not be significant. Powers of Ten 1 1 10-1 =-=-=0. 0. The first significance digit is I.000 (b) 84.000.000 109 = 1.7. it is located after I.239 x 10-3. for four significant figures the value should be written 3.46 x 10-2 = 0.0346.500 x 103 m/sec.500.562 (c) 0.000. the number in scientific notation as 8.13.001 104= 10. If the decimal point is moved to the left seven places.0000000.95 x 104 Move the decimal point two places to the point five places to the (c) Move the decimal = 59.000. Thus.

add their exponents. X To convert 2.16 MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION [CHAP. Now add + 0. (1. which is the equivalent of subtracting 4 multiply separately their decimal parts and their in scientific notation.347 0.000.19.295 x 10-3. EXAMPLE 2. 100 = 10 x 10 = 102 1000 102 X = = 10 x 10 x 10 102+3 = 103 Therefore. 100 x 1000 = 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 103 = lOS.17. Divide 1. the two decimal parts of the given numbers.295 The difference is 9.245 x 2. Subtract 5. 1. Multiply of four zeros.28 the two decimal parts in the usual manner.000 10.8 x 103. EXAMPLE 2. 9. 1. .16.000 = 10 104 6 = 106-4 = 102 The above result could have been obtained by cancellation from 6 in the exponent of the dividend. Rule. To multiply two numbers expressed powers of ten.2 x IO-S to N Subtracting 10-3. EXAMPLE 2.000 = = 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 or 100.63 x 104 and 2. EXAMPLE 2.36 x lOS Rule. Before adding or subtracting two numbers expressed in scientific notation.20. move the decimal point two places to the left: 5.000.70 x 102. Rule. their powers of ten must be equal. move the decimal point one place to the left 2. 2 (a) Addition and Subtraction Rule. Add 1.91 The sum is 1.347 x 10-3• X To change 5.70) x 103+2 = 3. subtract the exponent of the divisor from the exponent of the dividend. EXAMPLE 2. divide separately their decimal parts and their powers of ten.000 10.91 x 104. = 106 = 104 Therefore. 1. (b) Multiplication and Division Rule. To divide two numbers expressed in scientific notation.8 x 103 = 0.18.052 X 10-3. To divide two powers of ten.2 x IO-S from 9.8 x 103 to N X 104.000 by 10.3615 x lOS ~ 3.28 1.63 1.245 x 103 by 2. To multiply two powers of ten.000.2 x IO-S = 0. Multiply 100 by 1000.052 9.000. 104.

990 x 0.6990 x 104 x 9.34 Round off each number to the nearest integer. Find the approximate product: 26.25 x (~) 10-2 = 6. to one significant figure.CHAP. let us concentrate on the number accompanying the power of Observe that this number has an integer and a fractional part.~:) G~:) X 103• x = 4.12 APPROXIMATE COMPUTATIONS WITH SCIENTIFIC NOTATION Scientific notation simplifies calculations with very large or very small numbers. 2.24.5 x 10 53 - = 4.5) ( 1. round off to one significant figure: 3x9 Express the answer in scientific notation: X 104 X 10-3 = 27 X 101 :::::: 0 x 101 3 102 30 Longhand calculation gives 26. as in subtraction of negative numbers.47 x 108 km.00934 X 101 = 3 X = 2.00969 + 107.5 x 10 by 1.047619 x 10-8.8 X 103 Note that a negative exponent in the divisor has its sign changed and is then added to the exponent of the dividend. The order of magnitude of a measure is an approximation to an integer power of ten. Given a measure of 2.13 ORDER OF MAGNITUDE Sometimes we are not interested in the exact value of a measure but an approximation to it. Find the approximate quotient of 0. what is its order of magnitude? To calculate the order of magnitude of this measure.25 x 10-2. It answers the question: What is the closest power of ten to the given measure? The following examples will illustrate this concept. Ignoring the fractional part.21.8 x 101+2 = 6. notice that the number . ten.07100 Round off the numbers to the nearest integer: Divide the integers and the powers of 10: ~ X x 105 I 10105 3 = 10 X 10-8 = 10-7 Longhand calculation gives 9. EXAMPLE 2. EXAMPLE 2.23.520866 x 102• EXAMPLE 2.100.00934.75 x lOSby 1. Divide 6. 8. Divide 8.8 x 101-(-2) = 6. Express the numbers in scientific notation: (9.5 X 10 2 EXAMPLE 2.5 e. 2) MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTA nON 17 EXAMPLE 2. 2.22. X 10-3 ::::::? Use the previously given rules for rounding off: 3 x 104 X 9 X 10-3 ::::::? Multiply the integers and the powers of 10.25.900 x 0. Express the numbers in scientific notation: 2.69 x 10-3)+1.

26. if an object covers a distance d of 15 meters in a time t of 3. we observe that 8 is closer to 10 than it is to I. 10- When comparing similar quantities. according to the rule stated above the order of magnitude is 10 times the power of ten given with the number.0 m/sec The units of speed are meters per second. what we really say is that the quantity A is 100 times. 2 2 is closer to I than it is to 10.37 inch is a conversion factor for length between the metric and the British systems. using powers of ten. ignore the fractional part and concentrate on the integer part. Therefore. EXAMPLE 2.35 and ignoring its fractional part. or to x 10. we can say that the order of magnitude of the measure is 105 miles. we can say that the order of magnitude of the measure is 108 km. Therefore.0 meter second or 5. If the number has an integer and a fractional part. what is its order of magnitude? Concentrating on the number 8. The unit of the area is read "square A measurement in one system of units can be expressed in a different system by means of relationships between the two systems.0 em centimeters . That is. Given a measure of 5.3. The following example illustrates this concept.35 x 104 miles.74 x 10-9 miles. The area of a square 3. That is. This factor is an indication. Replacing the decimal and fractional part of the number by 10.28.0 cm x 3. a factor of lOis called one order of magnitude." The term per means that the first measured quantity is IS 9. divided by the second. (the smallest quantity) we obtain 10 Therefore. EXAMPLE 2. 2. If the integer part is 5 or greater.0 crrr'.27. the given measure is close to 108 km. then the object's speed v is d 15 v-----50. Replacing the decimal and fractional part of this number by I. what is its order of magnitude? Since the number preceding the decimal point is 5. Given the measure 8.t . This conversion factor may be written as I meter 39. we can rewrite the number as I x 108 km. this measure is close 5 to 10 miles. how many orders of magnitude 9 • is I urn greater than I fg? I urn is 9 orders of Dividing 10-6 (the largest quantity) by 10magnitude greater than I fg. 10 x 10-9 = 10-8• Therefore the order of magnitude is 8 miles. When we say that quantity A is two orders of magnitude bigger than quantity B. I meter = 39. we can rewrite the number as lOx 104 miles. The preceding two examples illustrate a simple rule for calculating the order of magnitude assuming that the number has been expressed as a number multiplied by a convenient power of ten. For example.14 CONVERSION OF UNITS Units of measurement in science are treated as algebraic quantities. Such defined relationships are called conversion factors. EXAMPLE 2. If this integer part is less than 5. of the relative size of the two quantities. or 5. For example.0 . bigger than the quantity B. the order of magnitude is to times the power given with the number.18 MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION [CHAP.37 inch ----=1 ' .0 seconds. If I fg = 10-15 g and I urn 15 = 10-6 g. That is. the order of magnitude is the power of ten given with the number.

15 THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS The International System of Units (Le Systeme International d'Unites) is the modern version of the metric system. speed. Convert meter 15 --d secon inch to --d' secon line in the units is to be replaced by "inch.37 inch -----1 I meter . I m EXAMPLE 2. to obtain the SI unit of the area of the object.281 ft 120 x x --x --~ 1. the density of an object.30. our m. 39.29. appropriate combinations of the base units represent all physical quantities. Likewise. the ratio of its mass to its volume.9 x 102 inch second ~ second kilometer. The 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures adopted it in 1960. has the SI unit of kilogram per cubic meter.37 inch ~ 5.20 x 102 factors are I km The conversion = 1000 = 3.3. The SI begins with a set of seven base units as shown in Table 2. has the SI unit of meter per second. or m/s. "SI".281 ft. the abbreviated form of its French name.9 x 102 in. 2) MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION 19 since the dividend and the divisor are equal by definition. and multiplication of a number by unity leaves the number unchanged. If the area of an object is calculated unit of the area of a rectangular object? The SI unit for both length and width is the meter (m). kn1" I Rf 1000 JI'f 3. Derived Units In the International System of Units." The conversion factor IS The "meter" above the division I meter 39. EXAMPLE 2. multiply the unit of length by the unit of width.CHAP.Zsec below the line: 15 ~ x 39. SI unit of area by multiplying its length by its width. Express 1.37 inch or -I-meter' The second factor is to be used so that the "meter" above the line will cancel the "meter" or 5. EXAMPLE 2. We could also write this factor as The conversion of the units of a given physical quantity is based on the fact that multiplication by a conversion factor does not change the value of the quantity.37 inch 39.09 Rf 3600 sec I kn1" I JI'f X 102 ft/sec 2. For example. h in feet per second. It is generally known as. we = (SI unit of length) x (SI unit of width) or m2 = (meter) x (meter) = meter' . what is the derived SI Therefore. or kg/rn". which is the ratio of distance to elapsed time. I hour = 3600 sec. These combinations are called derived units.31. This is because every conversion factor is equal to I. Each of the conversion factors is written in a form that will multiply 120 krn/hr by I and replace the given units by the desired ones.

To solve this problem. Since the multiplying EXAMPLE exaseconds. 6. the distance between cities is better expressed in kilometers rather than meters. the SI allows the use of prefixes and decimal multipliers (see Table 2.32. Whenever the name of a unit is preceded by one of these prefixes. Likewise. is given by the equation KE !mv2.3. From the table we can see that 1 mm Therefore.235 = 10-3 m. 2 Table 2. the micron (11) and the millimicron (mil).4 x 106 meters.35. The average life span of our sun is estimated Since an exasecond EXAMPLE 2. the size of the unit is obtained by multiplying it by its corresponding multiplication factor. or the energy of the object while in motion.37.16 PREFIXES AND DECIMAL MULTIPLIERS Sometimes the basic units are not convenient for expressing the dimension of an object.235 meters in millimeters. Express this distance in meters. If the SI unit for mass is the kilogram (kg) and the SI derived unit for speed is meter/second (rn/s). where m is the mass of the object and v is its speed. EXAMPLE 2. The wavelength of infrared rays is sometimes measured in non-SI units such as the angstrom (A). what is the derived SI unit for kinetic energy? = SI unit of kinetic energy = (SI unit of mass) x (SI unit of speed) = (kg) x (rn/s) rn/s = kg· 2.36.235 m = 103 x 0. is 10 meters.33. Express this distance in femtometers. The metric equivalent of these units is given by the following conversion .34. is 1018 seconds. factor. Im = 103 mm. The kinetic energy of an object. 0. we can say that the average life of the sun is about I Es. factor for femto is 10-15. In consequence. we simply substitute the prefix mega by its multiplying = 6. EXAMPLE 2. we can say that the radius of a proton is I fm. to be around 1018 seconds. Express 0. Quantity Length Mass Time Electric current Temperature Amount of substance Luminous intensity The SI Base Units Unit meter kilogram second ampere kelvin mole candela A K mol cd Symbol m kg EXAMPLE 2. For instance. The radius of a proton is about 10-15 meters. the dimensions of small objects such as the length of bacteria cannot be adequately expressed in meters. mm = 235 mm.4) to express quantities in more convenient units.4 Mm EXAMPLE 2. Since a megameter Therefore.4 Mm. The radius of the earth is approximately 6 6. Express this time in 2.20 MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION [CHAP.

we can rewrite the given measure as 7.4. Dividing these multiplying factors according to the rule stated above. 2] MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION 21 Table 2.7 x 10-5 em.7/10-3 x 10-5 X 10-3 em +. 7700 Finally.5 milligrams x (10-6 kilogram/milligram) .7 A +.5 milligrams. I rnu = 10 A. microns.7 = x 103 x 10-8 cm em.7 x 10-5 ~ = 103 rnu we have that 7. The number of desired units is obtained by multiplying the existing units by the conversion factor. The existing measure is 3. we have that 7. we need to multiply the given measure by a convenient power to express it as a multiple of Knowing that 10-8 = 10-5 X 10-3. Since I A = 10-8 em. and millimicrons 10-8• = If the wavelength units.Grouping the powers 7.7 x 10-5 cm 7. we have 10-3 The conversion Therefore. since I A. EXAMPLE 2. express this length in angstroms. factor is 10-6.7 x 10-5 ern = 7.Remember that 1 A = 10-' ern = 770 mu. of the SI Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto deka deci centi milli micro nano pico femto allo Prefixes and Multiplying Factors Symbol E P T G M k h da d c m Multiplication Factor IOt8 lOtS IOt2 109 106 103 102 lOt 10-1 10-2 10-3 ~ n p f a 10-6 10-9 lO-t2 10-15 10-18 factors: I A 10-8 cm.38. X 10-5 em = O. -+ 103 = 10-3-(3) = 10-6 3. = 3. Convert 3.7 x 10-5 ern x (10-3/10-3) +.7 x 10-5 ern = 7. the multiplying factor of this desired measure is 103. of an infrared ray is 7.Notice that we are multiplying and dividing the given measure by the same amount. The multiplying factor of milligrams is 10-3.CHAP.5 x 10-6 kilograms. The following example will illustrate this.7 x 10-5 cm Since 1 m~= 10 = 7.5 milligrams (mg) to kilograms. and I ~ = 103 mu. 7.77 ~. An easier way of converting a given measure (the existing measure) to an equivalent measure (the desired measure) in the metric system is by means of a conversion factor. The value of this factor is obtained by dividing the multiplying factor of the existing measure by the multiplying Jactor oj the desired measure. Since we want to convert milligrams to kilograms (the desired measure). This does not alter the numerical value of the expression.

2 In the computer field. Ans. Ans. this terminology has become popular and is widely used throughout the world. defective apparatus. (5) both systematic and random. One of the most popular units for measuring the size of a file is a Megabyte (Mb or Mbytes).2. However. Here. the program uses 256x 1024 bytes =262. how many bytes exactly does it have? 52 Mb = 52 x 103 Kb = 52 x 103 x 1024 bytes = 53.40. An advertisement announces that a computer program uses 256 Kb of memory to run. the term "kilo" is used with a slightly different meaning. EXAMPLE 2. (5) They can be minimized by taking the arithmetical average of several observations. what is the exact capacity of the hard disk in bytes? 3. This error is: (1) random.000 bytes. the word "kilo" is a misnomer. If a data file occupies 52 Mb of storage. If a particular brand of computer has a hard disk with a capacity of 3. (2) They cannot be controlled. Computer data is stored in "files" which may have several thousand bytes. where I Mb = 103 Kbytes.39.584. the exact number of bytes used by this program? Since I Kbyte e.1 X 1024 bytes 1 Kb = 1024 bytes = 3.248.22 MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION [CHAP. (4) neither random nor systematic. Notice that when used this way.000 bytes. (5) They can be eliminated by the use of a single mathematical formula. (4) 2.3.. (2) systematic. (4) They are called accidental errors. (3) They are accidental errors.5 Gb. Which one of the following statements concerning random errors is incorrect? (I) They are variable.1. (2) 2.000. (4) . or incomplete theory. where I Gb = 103 Mb.144 bytes.- Remember that 1 Mb = +- )0\ Kb 103 X 10.5 = x 103 Mb = 3. (2) They are caused by incorrect method. but makes a mistake in division. What is 1024 bytes. Solved Problems 2. A hard disk is a large capacity computer storage device. A motorist wishes to check the fuel consumption per mile of his car.5 x 3. Ans. EXAMPLE 2. The capacity of a hard disk is measured sometimes in gigabytes (Gb or Gbytes). Which one of the following statements is true when speaking of systematic errors? (I) These errors are never the same.41. (3) They can be reduced by taking and averaging a large number of observations. Instead of standing for 103. He divides the distance traveled by the number of gallons used on the trip. (4) They are caused by faulty apparatus. the byte.5 Gb = 3. (3) either random or systematic. EXAMPLE 2. I Kilobyte (l Kb or Kbytes) stands for 210 or 1024 bytes.5 x 103 X 103 Kb . it stands for 210• This difference is significant when considering multiples of the basic storage unit.

A laboratory measurement at the same temperature results in a value of 342 m/sec.834.317 Since the measured values have three significant figures each. the average of the two is taken as the base for calculation.834 error = 0. (a) Divide C by D to the correct number of significant figures.18 = 0. The value of C.32 .841 (a) absolute error (b) = 0.4. (b) absolute error = experimental value . The division is carried out to one more significant figure than the least precise measurement and the last digit is rounded off. (b) the relative error. The specific gravity of a solution is found by two methods: (I) specific bottle.5.14 (c) relative error . Since it is not known which one of the two values is the more accurate one.18 ~ 0.theoretical value = 3. respectively.handbook value = 342 m/sec . the relative error should be calculated to three figures and then rounded off to two.014.017 2. D= 1. 3. (a) Calculate the absolute error or discrepancy between the two values. the quotient should be expressed to the same precision. The speed of sound in air at 25 DC has a "handbook" value of 346 m/sec.01 2.3. = absolute error theoretical value Since the absolute error has two significant figures. (2) buoyant effect on a solid of known weight suspended in the solution.07¢ 1. (a) and its (a) D= C 6. 2) MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION 23 2.83 ¢ = 3.346 rn/sec = -4 m/sec The negative value indicates that the measured value is smaller than the accepted or "true" or handbook value of the speed.0.g. (a) absolute error = measured value .057 3.0. The circumference C and the diameter D of a penny were measured with a metric ruler to be C=6.834 2 = 0.D is 3. . (b) Find the discrepancy (absolute error) between the experimental value C/D in theoretical value.CHAP.848 and 0.6.848 . (c) Calculate the relative error in (b). 0.841 ~0.07 ern.848 + 0. (b) relative error = h absolute error -4 mlsec db k I = 346 I an 00 va ue m sec ~ -0.848 .-- average value o .142. The two experimental values are 0.83 cm.14 = 0. average value of s. = 0. Calculate (a) the absolute error.32.834 . re Iatrve error absolute = ----. (b) Compute the relative error or relative discrepancy between the two values.

6 X 1011ern/sec.26 X 10-4 = 0. the answers are: (a) 1.093. off significant figures. The answers are: (a) 1.04.650 x 105 mi (e) 3.6 em. move the decimal point to the right past the first digit.575 x 10-2: 9. First express 9.01. Applying the rules for reading significant figures. Subtracting: in the third decimal 4. Round off the decimal parts to answers in Problem 2. 7.575 x 10-2 kg and give the answer to the correct number of significant figures.0926 place. (d) 1. (b) 9. Applying the rules for rounding (d) 9. (a) 43. or Since 4.0926 to the nearest 0.65.575 . notation: (a) 1038 ern/sec. (e) 6. For numbers greater than I.26 x 10-4 kg from 4. keeping the correct number of significant figures: 20.81. (c)865.038 x 103 ern/sec (c) 8.482 The difference in the two measurements X X X 10-2 10-2 10-2 is 4. for numbers smaller than I.450 ern. (e) 30.1 cm.10.575 has an uncertainty 0.DO}}}7 kg. 2.9.24 MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION ICHAP.D05 m.0. 2. (d) 2. the other measurements to the nearest 0. (e) 3. Convert the following measurements to scientific (b) 980. the answers are: (a) 4. 2. Subtract 9.4 28. (c) 0.06 AU. Add the following measurements.4 0.S.4 em.1 cm and adding: 20. (e) 5. (c) 4.004 x 10- 4 g/crrr' In part (c) the underlined zero is significant and must be written in the decimal part.QOO mi. The least precise measurement is 20. How many significant figures are there in the following measured quantities? (b) 0. (d) 0.7 ern/sec".7. 0.4 The sum of the given measurements is 28.00 I.11. since the last digit is uncertain to about 0.26 x 10-4 10 the same power of ten as 4. (c) 8. Rounding off + 2.0507 g. move the decimal point to the left to the first digit.6 7.0009004 g/crn".482 x 10-2 kg.350 em. . (b) I.093 4. X 10-2 round off 0.20 em.8 to three significant figures.807 x I<Y em/sec (d) 9.00.006 x 10 AU (b) 9.6 em.2 2.

Calculate (3 x I 08i.034 krn/sec. Multiply separately the two parts: 2.13.0 x 108 5.0335 59~ 177 210 177 330 295 The quotient of the two measurements is 0.3 m and express the product to the correct number of significant figures. 2] MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIRC NOTATION 25 2. 0.3::::::227.17. C ompute 1.8 Rounding off the result to three significant figures.2 x lOS 1. (e) 0. Multiply 12.230. For positive powers of ten move the decimal to the right as many places as the exponent of ten.60 x 105 = 6. The answers are: (a) 450.14.16.0 = 1. (d) 4. (d) 41.860.0 X 105-' = 6.50 x 10' 10-4 = 106-4 = 102 = 1. for negative powers of ten move the decimal point to the left.56 x t()2 x 2. (c) 2.12.2 = 0. Express the following numbers in ordinary decimal notation: (b) 6.5 x 103• 2. Multiplying: 12.45 x 18.000.45 m by 18. 2.0 x 102+8-5 5.5023 x 105.50 x 10' x 102 X = 15. 2. (b) 0. 2.98 km by 59 sec. then the answer should be written 1.0 X 104 .50 x 10' +2 = 1.186 X 107.4 x 6. If the two numbers represent measured quantities.CHAP. Multiply 2.00000001.4 x 106 by 6. the product is 228 m. Carry out the division to three significant figures and round off to two.56 x 2.25 106 The product is 1. (c) 2796.796 X 103. Divide to the correct number of significant figures 1.15.50 x 103. (e) 10-8• (a) 4.25 x 10-4.0068.8 x 10-3. 2.0 X 10-' X 105 = 6.

= 2.20.088.1 X X 101 x 106 7 = 2.46 x IlY 3.76 10-1 x 10- "".42 X X 10-1 1.1 X I 107"'" 0. speed of light = 186. 2 2.5 x 44 2 x 7. Calculate the approximate number of miles in one light-minute. distance traveled by light distance traveled in one minute distance 1 min = 60 sec = speed = = x time mi 186. 4.69 x 10-3 x 3. .1 I X 107 X 1011 X 10-5' 10-5 x 5.33 102 X 4 X 101 X X 7 X 10-1 X 10-2 8 x 102 .19. Use scientific notation for calculations and the answer to one significant figure.1 Longhand calculations to two significant figures give 0. 38.76 X X 107 10-8 units. the answer would be 4.8 x 0.40 X 102 Round off the numbers to the nearest integer: 2x7xl02 4 Do the indicated operations X 101 X 4 X 102 with the integers and the powers of ten: 4x4 2x7 IlY X 101 X 102 = 16 x 14 10 -1 "'" I x 10 -1 "'" 0.26 MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION [CHAP.00469 x 35. One light-minute is the distance light travels in one minute.000 x 60 sac 6 sac 101 "'" 1.742 Calculate the approximate value of 0.25 4.0 2. 2. Calculate the approximate value of 2 x 746 0.IS.362 Round off the numbers to the nearest integer: 5 x 10-3 I 10-2 x 8.86 x 105 x 6 10 5 X X X "'" 2 x 10 1 12 X 10 6 "'" 1. 0.2 X 107 mi se 107 mi 2. 1 Calculate 4.0 x 1011 x 5.85 X Express the numbers in scientific notation: 101 x 4. .476 10- 7 "".1 4.21.01362 x 833 Express the numbers in scientific notation: 4.25 x I = 21 X X 1011-5 = 2.8 x 10-8 in appropriate 2.000 mi/sec.58 X X 101 x 7. If the two quantities were measurements.

Convert 1.H1 x 2.7 X 10-5 1. 2. 2] MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION 27 Do the indicated operations with the integers and the powers of 10.306 x 109 = 103 x 106 = 109.52 to two significant figures.25.4306 X 101 x 109 = 1. 106 calone 2. (b) Using the data from Problem 2. population in 1965 was estimated to be one hundred ninety-four million five hundred ninety-two thousand.7 X 101 x 10-6 = 1.A. 101 X 10-1 = 140 8 10-2 x 102 10-3 ::::::: x 10-3 100 10 ::::::: x 10-3::::::: 10-2 10 X 8 Longhand calculations give an answer of 1.5 x h.52 x 102 calorie.H1 = (1.000017.23 compute the automotive horsepower per capita in 1965.000 BTU = 1.95 x 10 ::::::: 0. 1. was 14. Convert 14. (b) Round off the value in (a) to three significant figures. 2. (a) (b) 194. The total automotive horsepower in the U. 5x4x7 10-3 X X Round off to one significant figure.95 x 108. 1.6 g/crrr' to kg/rrr'. given that I BTU = 2.94592 x 108::::::: 1.43 X 10 1.3 horsepower per capita 7 2. 1 kg = 103 g 1 m = 102 ern .098109 x 10-2.4 x 10 p:.S.4 x 2. Expressing the given value in scientific notation.4306 x 101+9 = 1.95 x 108 = 1. (a) Express this concentration in scientific notation. 14.4306 X 1010 (b) 1.S.4 n2 calorie 1 p:. 2.5) x 104+2 = 3. Thus: = 1.43 x 1010.7 x 10-5 = 0. 1 m= 100 ern.22. 17 106 (b) = 1.306 billion in 1965. (a) Express this number in scientific notation to three significant figures. The conversion factor has to be written so that BTU appears below the division line. 1.4 x 10" BTU. (a) 1 billion = 1 thousand million 14.16.000 BTU to calories.5 X .7333 x l O" ::::::: 3.24.CHAP. The U. (b) Write the answer in ordinary decimal notation. (a) Express this horsepower in scientific notation. Round off 2.7 X 101-6 = 1.000 10 = 1. Then the BTU will cancel out.43 10-8 n2 . given that 1 kg= 1000 g.592.23. The hardness of a sample of water is measured to be 17 parts per million.

Dividing 1016 by IO!". the order of magnitude is 1017 seconds. 2.609 krn prf 103 m 1 krn = 1000 m = 103 m l hr ee Sfl min Rearrange the conversion factors so as to replace mi by m and hr by min: 45 )t I PIt x 1..0 ~ 23 X x 2. 3 3 I prf 60 min = 60 x 10 rn/rnin ~ 1.29. (9.31. Convert 45.28. a light year is 5 orders of magnitude greater than an astronomical unit.0 x 1.5 x 1015 m) and astronomical units (1. 1.6 (10-15) 2 X 1O-19 i to two significant figures. Evaluate (9. 2. The age of the earth is estimated to be 1.27.673 x 10-27 kg.0 mi/hr to m/rnin. this estimation? What is the order of magnitude of Since the digit before the decimal period of the given quantity is less than 5. The order of magnitude of an astronomical unit is 1011. Therefore.32. Therefore.56) x 109 X 10-38 10- 30 109-38+30 23 ~ X 101 ~ 230 2.28 MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOT ATION [CHAP. is the order of magnitude of this measure? What Since the digit before the decimal period is greater than 5. The proton rest mass (Mp) is 1.6 em-' g I kg 106 ¢ x J03 g x 1"ffi3 = 1. 1 mi = 1.207 x 10 m/min Rounded off to three significant figures the answer is 1.21 x 103 m/rnin.6 ) x 2 109 X (10-19)2 (10-15) 2 = (9.5 x 1011 m). Therefore.6 x 10 kg/m 3 3 2.0 X 109) X (1. The time it takes the earth to complete a revolution about its axis is 8. 2 Multiply by the conversion factors so as to cancel out the units g and em". measure? What is the order of magnitude of this Replacing the decimal and fractional part of the number by I. 2. the order of magnitude is 105.30. How many orders of magnitude is a light year greater than an astronomical unit? The order of magnitude of a light year is 1016. 2.3 X 1017 seconds. the order of magnitude is 10-27• .609 PIt l)t 45 x 1. .609 . Astronomical distances are generally measured in light years (9. the number can be rewritten as I x 10-27 kg. the order of magnitude is 10 times the power of ten of the given number.6 x 104 seconds. we obtain 105.

36. .10-15 = 103• Therefore.000 m = 125 x 103 m = 125 km. and a track capacity of 19.9 pg = 0. TPC the number of tracks per cylinders is represented and TC the track capacity (the number of bytes that can be stored in a track). The disk capacity is given by C = 555 cylinders x 39 tracks/cylinder x 19. The multiplying factor for micro is 10-6. NC is the number of cylinders of a disk. TC = 19.000 Kb or 45 Mb. The multiplying factor of the desired measure. what is the capacity of the tape in bytes? Express the result in kilobytes and megabytes.37.752. 2.830 bytes.000 m can be rewritten as follows: 125. The capacity (C) of a hard disk is defined as the number of bytes that can be stored in it. 0. the multiplying factor of the desired measure is 10-15• Dividing the multiplying factor of the exiting measure by that of the desired measure. If L is the length of a tape in inches. Convert 0. we have that 2800 urn = 2800 x 10-6 x 103 mm = 2. Since 1 kilobyte = 1024 bytes. Tapes are characterized by their density (D) which is defined as the number of characters per inch of tape. Since 1 Kb = 1024 bytes. we can say that the disk capacity is about 407 Mb. multiplying factor for kilo is 103.CHAP. we can say then that 125. we have that 10-12 -:.9 X 10-9 fg.9 pg.9 X 1O-12X 103 fg = 0. millimeter.000 bytes. The multiplying factor for pico is 10-12• Since we want to convert it to femtograms. we obtain 10-6 -:. TPC = 39 tracks/cylinder. We want to convert this measure to mm. what is the capacity of the disk in megabytes? In this case. The given quantity 125. Supplementary Problems The answers to this set of problems are at the end of this chapter. If a disk has 555 cylinders. The given measure is 0.9 pg to fg. Magnetic tapes are used extensively in the computer industry as an inexpensive means of storing data for backup purposes. 2. Since the 2.254 bytes. 2) MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION 29 2. is 10-3.8 mm. Knowing that 1 Mb = 1000 Kb.33. If the length of tape is 2400 feet and its density is 1600 bytes per inch. The given measure is 2800 urn.254 byte/track = 416. the capacity of the tape in Kb = 45. the capacity (C) of a tape is defined by D x L. Dividing the multiplying factor of the existing measure by that of the desired measure.000 m = 125 x 103 m.985.34. 39 tracks per cylinder.10-3 = 10-3• Therefore. Convert 2800 11mto mm. C = D x L = 1600 bytes/inch x 2400 feet x 12 inches/feet = 46. This capacity is given by the following formula: C = NC x TPC x TC where. 2.35.080. NC = 555 cylinders.186 Kb. the capacity of the disk in Kb is approximately 406. Express 125.000 m in km.254 byte/track.

objects with a set of scales that do not balance for zero weight.39. 2.. Find the relative uncertainty in making the 2..86°C.30 MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION (CHAP.38. (a) Find the absolute error. A resistor = 2. U) A spring scale is read in a building located on a busy truck highway.90 0C. steel ruler. (a) Calculate (b) It is possible to tell from the data which of the two methods is more accurate? . R. (g) An unknown volume is measured several times with an accurate graduate cylinder (neglect water which adheres to the walls of both vessels) with the eyes in line with the liquid level. class periods with a clock that runs "fast". R. (d) Measuring 2. Evaluate the main type of error by placing in the blank spaces below: R for random errors S for systematic errors E for either random or systematic N for neither random nor systematic B for both random and systematic (a) In all measurements the observer records 4 as a 5 and 5 as a 4. (b) Weighing (c) Reading a thermometer on which the glass tube has been displaced relative to the scale. of a burette is given as 12.41. (c) An object is weighed (d) A clock which is losing time at a constant rate is used to time a chemical (e) A farmer looks at a field and says its area is 40 acres. 2 2. The freezing-point depression of a I-molar solution has an accepted value of 1. a meter stick from various angles and positions. A student determines this constant to be 1. (b) Calculate the relative error. An ammeter is connected as a voltmeter. with a tape measure that had stretched. (f) A metal tape measure correct at 68 OF is used at 85 OF. the absolute and relative uncertainty between the two methods. = 22. is measured by the voltmeter-ammeter method and by using a Wheatstone bridge. to the nearest I /2 scale division. Which one of the following (a) measurements involves primarily random errors? Measuring the length of a long hallway with a good 12-in.59 ± 0.43.3 ohm. The reading measurement. is correct? One might make systematic errors if we were: Which one of the following (a) Allowing a meter stick to slip when making a measurement. Mensuration shows the field to be 35 acres. (h) (i) A pint of water is used to check the accuracy of the l-lb division on a balance. by 7 as 45.40.'<l 22.02 ml. reaction.2 ohm. (b) Reading (c) Estimating (d) Taking measurements (e) Consistently using the value of 6 multiplied 2.42. (b) A speedometer which is accurate on a level road is read on a rough road. many times with a chipped or worn weight.

How many significant figures are there in the following measured quantities? (a) 30.52.5 ± 0.53. the uncertainty of the 0.7 °C (c) 0.400 (d) 0.3 ± 0.9 micropoise (d) 4.56.45.005 amp (b) Express the reading uncertainties in scientific notation to one significant figure. Find the relative uncertainty between the two values.to 5-volt scale is 0.247 g. what are the two relative uncertainties? The period of a 250-g mass oscillating on a spring is found by substituting experimental values of the mass and the spring constant into a formula. Express the following numbers in scientific notation: (a) 22. T (observation) = 1.84 x __ 1_ 0C 69. The actual period is determined by timing 100 oscillations with a stopwatch.) If the meterstick is 0.84 0.46.1847 joule/cal 2. A voltmeter has two scales: 0 to 5 and 0 to 50.000972 cm 1038 cps 299.15 sec.1 em x 18. error? (I meter = 1000 mm.0000862 (g) 299.00358 2. A block has the dimensions 153.93 g. A force of 225 g-wt elongates a spring 37 em.05 volt.94 - 69. Find the elongation per gram to the correct number of significant figures.793 .1 sec (2) 0.02 ml (h) 149. 2. (a) 2.9632 g (g) 34.142).50.CHAP. (a) What are the relative instrument reading uncertainties to two nonzero digits in the following measurements? (I) 6. Find the cross-sectional area of a wire whose diameter is 0. The reading uncertainty of the 0.to 50-volt scale is 0.6 em x 7.55.5 mm (j) 0.47. T (formula) = 1. 2.5 mm too short.0597 cm to the correct number of significant figures (A = rrIY /4.81 x 10-8 m/sec (b) 0.30 ml (e) 1703.776 krn/sec (e) 109.51. 5.5 volt is taken with each of the two scales.46 g. 2. If a reading of 2.2028 g 2. (b) Express the answer in scientific notation. Calculate the following value of t to the correct number of significant figures from the measurements with a gas thermometer: t = 75. (d) 0. Its volume is compared with a standard flask and is found to be 499 ml.27 ± 0. where rr = 3. what is the relative 2. A flask is marked 500 ml. 2] MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION 31 2.0146 in3 Convert the following measurements to scientific notation with three significant figures: (a) (b) (c) 0. Add the measurements to the correct number of significant figures: 331. 2.44. (b) Express the volume in scientific notation.9 g.48. 2. 18.54.0100 volt (g) 1. 2. (b) Express the answer in scientific notation.80 ± 0.02 ml (5) 321. (a) Find the volume of the block to the proper number of significant figures.737 cm-i (j) 23.2 volt.14 sec.1 ern (3) 528 ± I g (4) 3. 0.49. (a) What is the absolute error in the flask calibration? (b) What is the relative error? A meterstick is compared with a standard meter. (a) 2.5 cm.

(b) (c) The United States population in 1960 was 179. .7 ( 2. How many electrons are needed for a total charge of 2.14 300 x 4 X (0.013. (8.6-.76 x lO" coulomb/kg.31696 107 (j) 5. One microcurie (uc) is one-millionth of a curie.Ox 105 X 1012 6 X 10-14 9 X 1016 (e) 6. 2 (b) 0.69.430.2 (e) 41. Velocity of light = 186.2 75 X 108 5.15 parts per million.135)2 (e) 0..500 (c) d) 1. expressing it in scientific notation.lC in scientific notation.62 X 10-34 x 3 X 108 -1-. For an electron elm = 1. Compute the approximate number of miles in a light- 2.28 ft.65.58.--X-I-0-:-9O- (b) (d) 2. If the velocity of light is Use scientific notation for 2. year.6686 10-8 1.0002389 2.66. how long does it take light to travel from the sun to Saturn? calculations and for the final answer.25 x 10-9 X (g) 2. Express 120 Ilj. one micro-microcurie (uuc) is one-millionth of a millionth of a curie. to rn/rnin to three significant figures.-1-4-x-16-=--x-0=-.937 X 104 X (e) 8. determine the value of m.32 MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION [CHAP. If e = 1.60 x 10-19 coulomb.5023 x lOS (c) (d) 3.000 mile/sec.68.59.000 kin. Perform the indicated operations and express the answers in scientific notation: (a) 2. (a) The electric energy generated in 1960 in the United States was 842 billion kilowatt-hours.63.001293 (c) 980.60.02 x 1023 atoms of aluminum is 27.75890 x 107 8.61.2 Find an approximation for 6. Express this number in scientific notation. 2.000 (h) 965. The chlorine concentration in tap water is 0. 3OQ. (a) Convert 115 ft/sec 2. notation.5 x 10-2 x 6. I coulomb? One light-year is the distance light travels in a year.7 x 10-11 Determine the mass of a single atom of aluminum.17 0.3 million. Express this quantity in scientific notation. Find approximate results of the following indicated computations (to one significant figure): 62 x 5150 (a) 96.60 x 10-19 coulomb.000 x 22.450 x 10-4 2. The mass of 6. 1 m ~ 3. Calculate the electric energy generated per capita in the United States in 1960.000 kin/sec. 2.""00:--2:-:-4 (b) 743 273 760 x 308 x 19. .0 g.000. Express the following in ordinary decimal notation: (a) (b) 4.19 (i) (j) 273. . (b) Write the answer in scientific notation.8979 x 10-3 (h) 1.62.585 x 4 -=-3.-0-2-x-l-0--7::19. The charge of an electron is 1.64.4 x 1OIOl x 2. 2. Express this concentration in scientific 2.850.67.57. 2. The mean distance of the planet Saturn from the sun is 1.400 32 x 273 3.

(b) Express this area in scientific notation in cm2 and m2• 1 in. (a) 2. = 2. 2] MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION 33 2. (c) B (d) S.45.41.7 Ib/in2 to newton/rn''.998 x 108 m/s.0045 ~ 0.002 (a) 0.75. I Ib ~ 4. 2. (j) S.1. (a) (d) (a) 0.004 (b) No 2.73. figures.44. 2. The diameter of the moon is 3. (e) N. 2.74.40. How many orders of magnitude is the period of an infrared radiation greater than that of an X-ray radiation? The velocity of light in vacuum is 2.02 for the 0-5 voltmeter.45 newton (b) Express the answer in scientific notation to three significant I in. Convert 14. 0.08 for the 0-50 voltmeter 0.02 2.540 cm I m= lOOcm 1 km = 1000 m.76. (a) N. Answers to Supplementary Problems 2. 0. The number of atoms in 1.35 in.42.540 em Im = 100 em How many orders of 2.80 m/sec2 to km/hr/sec (kilometers per hour per second). (a) Calculate the area of the plate in scientific notation to three significant figures. magnitude is the diameter of the sun greater than the diameter of the moon? The mass of an electron is estimated to be about 9. 2.7S. A rectangular plate has the dimensions 4.0087 ~ 0.4 x 109 m.70. Convert 9.5 x 106 m and the diameter of the sun is 1. The period of an infrared radiation has an order of magnitude of 10-13 sec and the period of an X-ray is 10-18 sec.39.04 °C (b) 0.72. 2.10 x 10-28 g.673 constant? X 2.71.77 of this measure? X 2.77. (g) R. 0. 2. (i) N. Express the 2.43.CHAP. 0. x 18.000 g of oxygen is estimated to be 3.0016 ~ 0. (b) R. = 2. (h) S. answer in scientific notation to three significant figures.01 . (j) R 2. The gravitational constant (G) is 6. What is its order of magnitude? 1022• What is the order of magnitude 2. What is the order of magnitude of this measure? What is the order of magnitude of this 10-11 N· m2/kg2.38.50 in.

72 x 10-4 em (b) (c) 1.77 x 103 sec 6 x 1018 6 x 1012 mile 4. 2.230 (c) 39. (4) 0. 2. 2. 24.47.50 x 102 mieropoise 21.802 X 102 (d) 8.70 x 103 kw-hr per capita 2.51.34 MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION [CHAP.18joule/eal 2.53.52.24 x 103 2.68.00000000825 (b) 17.40 x 10 g (g) 3.24 x 104 1.66. 1.50. (a) (b) (c) 0.000.00280 cm2 (b) 1.48.7 X 10-31 1.000 (d) 40.57.5 g (a) (a) 0.49.10 x 103 m/rnin .0061. 2. (5) 3 x 10-4 (g) 2. 2.1 x 104 ern! 2.42 x 10" (b) 1.600 (j) 0. (a) 1.2 x 10-10 curie (a) 21QOrn/rnin (b) 2.000 cnr' (b) 2.000 (d) 83.000 (e) 200 2.015.46. (4) 6 x 10-3. (a) I ml (b) 0. (a) (b) 1.293 x 10-3 9. 2.63.40 x 10 ml (h) 1.69.0005 (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 2 (d) 3 (e) (e) 5 (j) 3 (g) 3 (a) 9.64.99793 (h) (i) X 2.00031 (3) 2 x 10-3.09 x 10-31 kg 2. (3) (b) (I) 2 x 10-2.4 °C (a) (I) 0.59.6519 x 102 2.169.56.370 (e) 0. (a) 8. (a) 2.5 x 104 3 (b) 20 (c) 1.49 x 10-23 g 9.55 x 1011 (c) 9 X 1020 (d) 6.55.60. (2) 6 x 10-3. (5) 0.389 X 10-4 (g) 0.589.002 -0.58.185 x 107 (j) 2. (a) 450. 2. 2.67. 1. 2.80 x 10-3 cm2 2.04 x 103 cps 3.000000056686 (e) 2.62 10-5 (e) 4.54.5 x 10-1 cm/g-wt (b) 2.793 )( 108 (c) 47QOkw-hr ~ 4. 2 x 1032 2.62. 2 2.65. 2.61.0019.0028979 (h) 0. 2.5 x 10-7 4.00 X 105 krn/sec (d) 4.0001450 2. 356.15 cm/g-wt 0.10 x 105 ern"! (j) 2. 2. (2) 0. 2.0063.7317 X 102 X 105 9.

26 x J01 in2 (b) 5.77.76. 2. 2. 2] MEASUREMENT AND SCIENTIAC NOTATION 35 2. 2. 2. (0) 8.71.3 Icm/hr/sec 1.72.7S.74.33 x 10-2 m2 35. 2.01 x 105 newton/rrr' 3 orders of magnitude 10-27 1022 5 orders of magnitude 108 10-10 .CHAP.73. 2. 2.33 x 102 cm2. 5. 2.70.78.

To read a mixed number read the integer. In the British system." In the first measurement.Chapter 3 Common Fractions Basic Concepts 3. 2 3 ~ indicates the addition of an integer and a fraction: 3 + 5 . The universal use of the metric system would greatly simplify the making and recording of measurements." is a more precise statement than "the thickness is between 0 and 1 in. on the second scale.1.2 TERMS Fraction: numbers of the form integers indicates division. measurement may show the number of subdivisions in a unit. the subdivisions are not multiples of I0 and the measurements are usually recorded as common fractions. For example. 36 . then read the fraction. the mixed number 3. EXAMPLES: I 125' 7' 2 15 32 A decimal fraction has for its denominator discussed in Chapter 1. 100. 4' 2"' 5' 3 I 6 7 10 are called fractions. 1000. ~ is read: one half. Decimal fractions were The terms of a fraction are its numerator and denominator. A mixed number is a combination of an integer and a fraction. include "and". The denominator in a Other A common fraction may have for its denominator numbers other than 10. However. In the metric system. the subdivisions are multiples of 10 and all measurements are expressed as decimal fractions. EXAMPLE 3. the spaces between the inch marks on the scale were likely subdivided into quarters. A denominator (or divisor) is the integer below a fraction line. "the thickness is ~ in. names for it are simple fraction and vulgar fraction.1 FRACTIONS AND MEASUREMENT The need for greater precision in measurement led to the concept of fractions. common fractions would still be necessary for algebraic operations. etc. For example. 10 to some power.3 READING AND WRITING FRACTIONS To read a common fraction read the numerator as an integer with the denominator read as a fraction of a unit. there were no subdivisions. The line separating the two A numerator (or dividend) is the integer above a fraction line. 3.

~ of the fraction ~ in this case are 3. Ninety-five and four eighty-thirds is written 95 8~. EXAMPLE 3. 1 . 14 ~ is read: fourteen and two fifths. It can be seen that in the above example the change of a fraction to an equivalent form implies that the fraction was multiplied by 1. and 6. ~ . frequently represented by [. EXAMPLE 3. 2 4 10 12 . 122~is read: twenty-four one hundred twenty-fifths. The numerator and denominator of the fraction ~ were multiplied . the multipliers ~ .5 REDUCTION TO LOWEST TERMS The basic principle given above allows us to simplify fractions by dividing out any factors which the numerator and denominator of a fraction may have in common.. the value of the fraction is unchanged. ~ is read: five eighths. 3 Thus 3/4 = 4 = 3 -7- The fraction line is 4. ~ is not defined or has no meaning. respectively.CHAP.3. Since a fraction represents a quotient. . . 5 One thirty-second is written 32. . The fractions 3"' 6' 15' 18 are equal and are Said to be to equivalent forms. 5.4 BASIC PRINCIPLE A fundamental principle used in work with fractions is: If both the numerator and denominator of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same nonzero number. 3] COMMON FRACTIONS 37 ~ is read: three fourths or three quarters. each equal to 1. 12 Twelve th ree hun dred si SiXtY-SIX SIS wntten 366. -= 3 2 2·6 3·6 12 = 18 by 2. ths i . 3. 3 Three halves IS wntten 2.2. Another way of expressing this rule is: If a fraction is multiplied by I. the value of the fraction remains unchanged. Thus. ths IS . Five SIX S i wntten 6. When this has been done. the .

5. The prime factors of small numbers are easily found by inspection. 5. 498. Try 3 again: 231 -.4. Table 3. and neither is 5. 390 are each exactly divisible by 2.7 = 11. 1386 = 2 • 3 ·3 • 7 • II. The factorization is complete since II is a prime number. EXAMPLE 3.3 = 231. try 3 as a divisor: 693 -. A number is divisible by 5 if its last digit is 5 or zero. for 77 -. 7 is a divisor. 3. However. EXAMPLE Rule 4. The process of reduction is also called cancellation. Try to divide 1386 by each of the small prime numbers. Consider the numbers 270. 21 of the digits are divisible by 3. 6. The sums 9.7. A number is divisible by 2 if its last digit is even. This is a simpler and more convenient form for fractional answers.1. 2. Dividends Factors 1386 693 3 231 3 77 7 II II 2 The following divisibility rules simplify factoring: Rule 1.. The resulting fraction is ~. Since ~~ = (2 • 3 • 3)/(2 • 3 • 5).S. 3. 980 are each divisible by 5. EXAMPLE Rule 2. the number 2 being the only even prime number.6. The numbers 64. Thus. 321. If a number is expressed as the product of certain of its divisors.38 COMMON FRACfIONS [CHAP. The following example illustrates a system which can be used to find the prime factors of a large number. etc. or reduced to its lowest tenns. these divisors are known as factors of the representation.. it is not a divisor of 77. . Rule 3. 132. The results of the successive divisions might be kept in a compact table as shown below. the prime factors of 30 are 2.. Therefore. Factoring The process of factoring is very useful in operations involving fractions. Thus. the numerator and denominator can be divided by the common factors 2 and 3. Try 3 again. 7.3 = 77. 3 fraction is in reduced form. Since 693 is not divisible by 2. The numbers 75. which is the reduced form of the fraction ~~.. EXAMPLE 3. Find the prime factors of 1386. If an integer greater than 1 is not divisible by any positive integer except itself and I.-2 = 693. EXAMPLE 3. A number is divisible by 9 if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9. Thus. the number is said to be prime. the given numbers are exactly divisible by 3. 3. beginning with 2. 3. Thus. are prime numbers.5. 1386 -. 135. A number is divisible by 3 if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3.

9. For example. 4 or IT' If the two fractions have equal denominators. and these are divisible by 9. 7. 4 The least common multiple (LCM) of a set of integers is the smallest integer that is divisible by each member of the set. 4 Smce 45 IS Iarger than 20 15 IS larger than 9' 45' . 27. Write the denominators as the product of their prime factors.10. The least common denominator (LCD) of two or more fractions is the least common multiple of their denominators. omitting I. Thus. and 450. EXAMPLE 3. it is not immediately obvious which is larger. 5 and 1 8 with a least common denominator. then the fraction with the larger numerator is the larger. 72+8.12. 3) COMMON FRACfIONS 39 EXAMPLE 3. 8 is 5 larger than 8. The LCM is found by using each prime factor the largest number of times that it occurs in any of the given numbers. Write the fractions~. in the fraction ~. For 3 8 example. The numbers 432. 3. LCD = 3 • 3 • 5 = 45. 3·9 8·9 27 72 I ·36 2·36 36 72 5·4 18·4 20 72 Note that the number by which the numerator and denominator were multiplied is obtained by dividing the original denominator into the LCD. the three fractions may be written in an equivalent form by using the basic principle.6 COMPARISON OF FRACTIONS It is not always easy to compare by inspection the magnitudes of two common fractions. and 4977 are exactly divisible by 9 since the sums of their digits are 9. we get 15 = 3·5 Therefore. 1386. The fractions can be written in equivalent form as 4· 5 20 = 9·5 45 and 7·3 21 --=15' 3 45 · 21. Determine the LCM of the numbers 180.11.360. 18. 8=2·2·2 2=2 18=2·3'3 The factors occurring the largest number of times are 2· 2 • 2 in 8 and 3· 3 in 18. Therefore. 180 = 2 • 2 • 3 • 3 • 5 360 = 2 • 2 • 2 • 3 • 3 • 5 450 We write = 2 •3 •3 •5 •5 Reference to the factorization of these numbers shows that the LCM is 2 • 2 • 2 • 3 • 3 • 5 • 5 or 1800.~. the multiplier 9 was obtained as the quotient of EXAMPLE 3. EXAMPLE 3.CHAP. Therefore the LCD = 2·2·2·3·3 = 72. 7 Compare the magnitude of the fractions ~ and 1 5' Factoring the denominators.

17. EXAMPLE 3. calculate the sum of the integers separately from the sum of the fractions. Determine I the sum of 4 + 4 + 4' 4. 10 IS larger than and performing the operation.410. . 3 Operations with Fractions 3. Then perform the addition. a d ding to 2 10' The LCD of the fractions is 10. . EXAMPLE 3.13. each fraction in equivalent form with the LCD. the desired result is ~ or 2~. EXAMPLE 3. we obtain 6 M . 4 C ombining the two . 3.15.7 ADDITION OF FRACTIONS To add fractions which have a common denominator. The LCD is. we get (.14.8 SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS As with addition. before two fractions can be subtracted they must have a common denominator. Multiply the denominators to obtain the denominator of the product. add their numerators and keep the same common denominator. Add the mixed numbers 7~ and 2~. I Determine - 248 + .9 MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS To multiply two or more fractions multiply their numerators to obtain the numerator of the product. The LCD is 12. IS 3 2 . 3.+ -. + 5 + 3 = 9. '" borrowi rrowmg I or 10 to fr om 7 and . Then add the two sums. 8 . 153 Adding the numerators. 710 . Th e sum WIith fracti cuons 10 equiva Ient e rorrn 12 3 same LCD. 2 5 The desired difference can be expressed as But S. Add' 109 th e fra cnons. determine the least common denominator. I 2 9 F· irst we a dd th e integers: 7 + 2 = 9 . . . EXAMPLE 3. the answer we obtain is 9 H. Perform the operation 7! . Subtract 3 from 4' with the fractions in equivalent form gives 12 2 3 The subtraction 3·3 4'3 2·4 3·4 9 12 8 12 EXAMPLE 3.. Express Keeping the same common denominator To add fractions with unlike denominators.4 fo = 2 to. the result is 8 or 2' 4 + 8 + 8' 862 Adding the numerators and keeping the To add mixed numbers.4 fo' 2 10' Th ererore.40 COMMON FRACfIONS [CHAP.16. + 3 = Ii+ Ii = 11 12' sums. .

2 is 5 with a remainder of I. convert them first to fractions and apply the rule for division. 3x2 The desired product IS 7 x 5 = 35' 6 The calculations are greatly simplified. 3.10 DIVISION OF FRACTIONS To divide one fraction by another. Divide ~ bY.37313 IS -. Multiply ~ x ~. . since an integer divided by 1 is equal to the integer. Determine ~ x 6. . so that 5! is the final answer. e result . d' 37 rvision operation can be mica ted b y 5 -.21. Th e di .22..23. . 7 EXAMPLE 3. and carry out the Express all the numerators and denominators in factored form. multiply the numerator of the fraction by the integer and retain the denominator of the given fraction. . . Divide ~ by 7. Determine the product (2/5)(10/3)(617). Thus. e get 1~ w On multiplication we to a obtain (7' 2 • 11)/(2' 2 • 7). invert the divisor and multiply the fractions. 6 x '1 = -5.3 2 2'$ 2'. by cancellation of common factors. Multiply I ~ by 3~. Applying the rule. . Multiplying the dividend by ~. EXAMPLE 3. .20. . factors. 4 3 7 21 I 22 = 4 + 4 = 4 and 3~= 7' + '7 = 7' ' ConvertingI ~and 3~ to common fractions.CHAP.. 3] COMMON FRACfIONS 41 EXAMPLE 3. .19. and the product put in its lowest tenus. EXAMPLE 3. Invertmg th e dirvisor. EXAMPLE 3. we get 4' .-'1' Anolvinz th e ru Ith pp ymg e. convert them first into fractions and then apply the rule for multiplication of fractions.3 7 8 7 II 7 Every integer can be written as a fraction with 1 as a denominator. we get 11/2 as the answer. cancel the common multiplication of the remaining factors.-'1 5 = 5 x '7 = 35' To divide mixed numbers.18. to multiply an integer by a fraction. Canceling 7 and 2.= '5 = 3l 3 6 3x6 18 The same answer is obtained if the position of the numbers is reversed: 6x~=6x3=~=315 5 5 5 To multiply mixed numbers. . EXAMPLE 3. This fraction can be converted mixed number by division: 11 -. the result is ~ x ~ or ~~ . The result is -x-x-=-= $ .

. of 5 and 20 subtract the reciprocal the operations. EXAMPLE EXAMPLE EXAMPLE 3. In industry. Conversely. Convert 1/273 into a decimal fraction. 3.0125 or 80. The reciprocal 1 of 25 is 2 5or 0.26. Therefore. 3.42 COMMON FRACTIONS [CHAP.003663. the reciprocal of 0. . R= Since R is the reciprocal of I/R. which is also smaller than 273. a 3. Then. which is also smaller than 273.100 = 21 100 of 20 ohms is connected in parallel with a resistance of 60 ohms.04. and ordinary division rules are used to give the quotient 1/273 ~ 0.04. resistance R" IS given m reciproca If orm b y I Adding the reciprocals of 20 and 60. or 25. 0 is adjoined to 7 to give 70. The reciprocal of 0. of 25. Adjoining another 0 makes the dividend 100. it is common to use a conversion table. 3. EXAMPLE 3. the equivalent .4375. Proceeding as with integers.11 RECIPROCALS The reciprocal of a number is I divided by the number.27. the equivalent resistance is 15 ohms.0125 is 1/0. Adjoining a 0 to I gives 10. and therefore a second zero is adjoined after the decimal place in the quotient. Adjunction of a third 0 makes the dividend 1000. so a 0 is entered after the decimal point in the quotient. the reciprocal of 80 is 1/80. 1 3 I 4 1 = 1/ n = 15. fraction cannot have 0 as a denominator. R= 1 I 20 I + 60' De termme t h e equrva Ient resistance.25. If a resistance + 20 I I . The method of converting decimal fractions to common fractions has few applications in elementary science and will not be given here.04 is 1/0. or 0. divide the numerator by the denominator. Convert 7/16 into a decimal fraction. there will be no digits except 0 to the left of the decimal point in the quotient. . which is larger than the divisor. performing the division.24. 3 Division by Zero It is important to emphasize the following reminder: Division by 0 is impossible. It follows from the definition that the product of a number and its reciprocal is 1. R 1 20 + 60 = 60 + 60 = 60 = 15 Therefore. . the decimal equivalent of 7/16 is 0. begin with a decimal point in the quotient. The reciprocal of zero is not defined. . . Since I is smaller than 273. From the sum of the reciprocals Conversely. Expressing the numbers as reciprocals and performing I "5 EXAMPLE 3.29. EXAMPLE 3.12 CONVERSION OF COMMON FRACTIONS INTO DECIMAL FRACTIONS To convert a common fraction into a decimal equivalent form.25 = 20 + 20 - 4 I I 25 = 20 - 5 I 25 = 25 4 100 .0125.28. Since 16 is larger than 7. which is larger than 16.

The resulting fraction IS 4 • 5 = 20 . the original numerator 3 has to be multiplied 5" = 60 2 ? or or or -4·7 9·7 2· 12 5·12 24 60 28 56 120 (c) 9 = 63 15 = 7 ? 120 4 ? =63 (d) 7·8 -15·8 - 3.2. (d) 294/336 to lowest terms. (c) 13/21..1. (d) twenty-three and forty-five hundredths.CHAP.4. 7 3. two thirds seven eighths (c) thirteen twenty-firsts nine two hundred fiftieths (d) five and thirty-seven sixty-fourths 3. (d) 1260. 2 • 2 • 2 . (c) eleven sixteenths. '1 . Read the following fractions: (a) (b) (a) 2/3. Convert the following fractions to higher terms as indicated.3. 1. 7 '1 . 3·5 15 by 5. 5 5 = "6 ill= 2· 2 '1'1'1 = 5" 7 8 4 294 (d) 336 = '1 . (c) 735. (b) Therefore. Write the following fractions: (a) four fifths. Z .1. (e) 9/250. (b) 186. (a) 3/4 to twentieths (b) 2/5 to sixtieths (a) (c) 4/9 to sixty-thirds (d) 7/15 to one hundred twentieths The original Write 4 = 20 3 ? because the denominator of the fraction after conversion is to be 20. (b) 200/240. (b) 7/8. . 2 . 2' . Factor the numerator and denominator and divide out their common factors: 12 '1· '1· 3 16='1''1'2'2=4 200 (b) 400 108 (c) 3 =Z '1 . Reduce: (a) (a) 12/16. '1 . 1 . Express each of the following numbers as a product of prime factors: (a) 48. 3] COMMON FRACfIONS 43 Solved Problems 3. 3 . 1 . (a) 4/5 (b) 3/2 (c) 11/16 (d) 23 ~ (e) 137/500 3. (b) three halves. (c) 108/135. (e) (d) Sll. .5. . 7 . . 5 • 1 .1. denominator 4 has to be multiplied by 5 to give 20. (e) one hundred thirty-seven five-hundreths.

beginning with 2 if possible. 6. (b) Resolve 12 and 32 into products of prime factors: 12 = 2·2·3 32 =2 •2 •2 •2 •2 LCD = 3 • 2 • 2 • 2 • 2 • 2 = 96 . 3 Divide the number by the lowest prime numbers. (a) 72. (d) 1250. 3f93 31 (c) The prime factors of 186 are 2 • 3 • 31. (a) 2}48 2m 2m 2J6 3 (b) 2)186 The prime factors of 48 are 2 • 2 • 2 . 3. Divisible by 2. 3. Continue dividing the successive quotients until the remainder is a prime number. (b) 135.44 COMMON FRACfIONS [CHAP. since the last digit is even and the sum of the digits is divisible by 3 and by 9. The divisors with the remainder will be the required factors. 9. (c) 576. and 9 since the sum of the digits is divisible by 3 and by 9 and the last digit is 5. 3f'ill 3)105 5}35 7 The prime factors of 1260 are 2 ·2 • 3 ·3 • 5 • 7. 5. 3.6. Divisible by 3. 3. The least common denominator is 5 • 6 = 30. Therefore ~ is the larger of the two.6. 3)735 5)245 7J49 7 (d) 2)1360 2) 630 The prime factors of 735 are 3 • 5 • 7 • 7.7. Without using longhand division determine whether the following numbers are divisible by 2. (a) (b) (c) Divisible by 2. Which of the two fractions is the larger? (a) (a) 4/5 or 5/6. 3. 5. 4 4·6 24 = 5' 6 = 30 5 and 5 5·5 25 = 6· 5 = 30 6 The numerator of the second fraction is larger than the numerator of the first. (b) 11/12 or 29/32. and 9 since the last digit is even and the sum of the digits is divisible by 3 and by 9. and 10 since the last digit is zero. 2 • 3. or 10. 6. and 9. 5. (d) Divisible by 2.

5 ·2 30 = 2·3· 5 = 2· 1080 3 • 3• 3 • 5 = (c) 108 = 2 ·2·3 =2 ·3 ·3 180 = 2 • 2 • 3 • 3 • 5 252 =2•2 .10.2~. 3/4 and 1/5. 2 • 3 • 5 = 240 12 270 LCM = 2 • 2 • 2 • 3 • 3 • 3 .8. 180.9. (d) 75. 8) + 5 = 32 + 5 = 8 _ 97 . 630.2•3•3• 3•5•7 630 = 3780 = 3 •5• 5 LCM = 2· 2 • 2 =2•3•3•5 . 29 larger than 32' 3. Determine the least common multiple (LCM) of: (a) 12. (a) LCD (b) 2/3.200 (a) 3.3 87 96 12 IS II .and3!. (b) 120 and 270. 2 ·3·3·5·5·7 = 25. Take the product of the factors.3•3•7 225 = 5 • 5 • 3 • 3 LCM (d) 75 .64 (c ) (1' 64)+33 64 5) 5 ( d) (20' +4 =5 104 3. = 16 (b) LCD = 3 ·4 •5 = 60 . 225. 400. (c) 3iandSi2. 2 • 2 . the fraction and divide the sum by the denominator. Add: (a) 3/8 and 7/16. 3] COMMON FRACfIONS 45 The two fractions become II ·8 12·8 88 96 --=32. 7 . (c) 108.3 29. I~. Multiply each integer by the denominator of the adjoining fraction. Change the following mixed numbers to fractions: 2 t. (a) Add the product to the numerator of (2 • 3) 3 8 +I=6+I=2 3 3 37 8 (b) (4 . (d) 20~. (c) Ill. 16 and 30. (a) = 2 ·2·3 16 = 2 ·2·2 LCM = 2 . (d) 8. using each factor the greatest numbers of times that it occurs in any number of the set. Determine the prime factors of each given number.CHAP. (b) 4 i. 252.

11.8 x 4/15 131 (c)2-x-xl2 15 4 (d)2-g3xI6 (a) 6 x 2/3 2 == ~ x 2 == 4 1 1 (b) 2 1x ~ 1x ~ 1 = 2 x 3 = (. 3.5x4 5 3 5 5xlx1 =8 5 . 42-27=15 Then add the two results. 3. From the sum of 7 ~ and 3 ~ subtract the sum of 2! and 4 Add separately each pair of numbers. 5·4 Add the fractions: -4 8· + -3 2• I Add the two sums to get the result 8 (d) 8 + 32 21 =8 H· + 2 + 1 + 3 == 14 Add the two sums to get the result 14 + 1 t! == 15t!. t. Determine: (a) Determine (a) 5/8-7/12. and express each fraction with the LCD as its denominator = 2·2·3 15-14 LCD = 2 • 2 • 2 • 3 = 24 I 5'3 7'2 8·3-~=~=24 (b) Subtract separately the integers and then the fractions. 3 3 The required result is 15 2 3'5 ==--5 4·5 2·4 5·4 15 ..6¥o lti-6 fo= = 4Fo 3. (7~ + 3~) . 3 -x-x-= 2 15 4/1xJ.8 20 7 20 + .(2~ + 4!) == (7~ + 3~) .13.12. 3 (c) First add the integers: 3 + 5 ==8. LCD ==32. 11~-6¥o Then subtract the second sum from the first.46 COMMON FRACTIONS [CHAP.(210 + 4r-O> = IOlf-6fo= == 10~ . (b)42i-27~. Simplify by cancellation: (a) 6 x 2/3 (b) 5. 12 the LCD.0 = 15 to.

1S. invert the divisor fraction. (d) 3~.4 (d):5 -:. (c) 5/4. Simplify 2 t x ~ -:. 3] COMMON FRACfIONS 47 (d) 2~= I: 19 x _l.3 i.CHAP. 4 7 Invert the divisor and multiply the resulting fractions. Give the reciprocals of the following: (a) (a) 12.17.=2 8 I 5 2 (b) 16 by 8 9 3 (c) 7 -:. T2 I (c) "5 I 4 4 =- I 5 11 = 5 I 17 5 3.14.215 Cancel common factors where possible. Add the fractions and then invert.6 2 8 = 38 3. Determine the reciprocal of ~ +~. and then multiply the three fractions. Divide and simplify: (a) 12 bY"3 5 x .. (d) 3 ~ = 5 (b) 1/6.6 8 = 8 = 28 21 =294=581 3 (d) 14xP3" J 5 5 5 3. (a) - J 5 4J.X - 7 I 4 3 28 = -3 = 9-I 3 (b) T6 x 8" = 9 128 3.! 9 (c) . and simplify if possible: 1 ( ) 2x 3 a "3 :5x4 I (a) J x 5 x ~ (b) T6x 3 9 () x 2 c"3 'lxy{ 19 3 16 19 9 (d) 4 f3 X 12 J 5 'lxJx 2 = I 10 (c) J x _l. =- 7 12 3. Multiply.16. 57 15 7 -x--'--=-x2 8' 4 2 7 8"2 ~ x~3 Convert the mixed numbers to fractions.1S. I 20 Th e desired resu I' rs TI = -3' eSI t 20 2 .

then the addition.27.23. 3I I _ 25 I _ 25 S _ 25 . Change the following fractions to the indicated higher terms: (a) (b) 9/10 to thirtieths 2/3 to twenty-fourths (c) 3/7 to twenty-eighths (d) 5/6 to seventy-seconds 3.8 . Find the difference between 3 and its reciprocal. Find the least common multiple of the following: (a) IS. 630 . Simplify (4! -72) + 6!.200 3. (a) 84 (b) 240 (c) 1512 (d) 2205 3.!2 = S1 22 Supplementary Problems The answers to this set of problems are at the end of this chapter.8-25 . Read the following fractions: Write the following fractions: (a) (b) (a) 5/6.3! . = ~-'-2 = ~ x != ~ 2' 224 17 = ~+ 6! = ~+ 25 =}4' 4 444 2 ~ . 3. 4L·2 2' First do the division. 25 S•S 8 .25 .48 COMMON FRACfIONS [CHAP. 225. 3. determine the divisibility of the given numbers by 2. 72 (c) 600 and 960 (d) 75.19.200 .21.~. Find the prime factors (with multiplicities) of the following numbers: (a) 72 (b) 252 (c) 495 (d) 1040 3.26.20. 4. 36 (b) 32. S 8 8 i _ 625 _~ _ 561 _ 2 ill .8 . By inspection. and 10.25. 5. 3 3. (c) 11/4.25 . (d) 3 1~8' five ninths fifteen sixteenths (c) twelve and seven sixty-fourths (d) two hundred ninety-three two hundred seventy-thirds 3. (b) 17/32. 9.22.200 200 . 3. 6.24. 4S. Reduce the following fractions to lowest terms: (a) 36 27 (b) 60 lOS (c) 12S 224 3. 27.

(d) Find the sum of the first and third.1O~ the answer to a mixed number: 3. Multiply (a) the following (b) and simplify if possible: 3/5 by 20 5/8 x 4/15 (c) s 2 8.by s 3 3. (b) Invert the sum in (a) and simplify the answer.33.3~ 3. Given the fractions (a) Determine (b) Determine (c) Subtract 2/5. 3.35. 3/8: their sum. q. and 3i 3. To the positive difference Convert the following (a) 5/8 of the reciprocals of 4 and 12 add the reciprocal figures: of 30. Determine (a) the sum of the following (b) 4/7 and 3/10 1/2. 5/6 and 3/15 5 and 3 ~ i (d) 12t. 5~. 3. and then divide this sum by the second. (a) Simplify 1/20 + 1/40 + 1/50.38. Change the following (a) mixed numbers to fractions: (c) 7i. Subtract (a) and simplify the answers to mixed numbers: (b) 2/3 from 4/5 1616 . their product.29. Find the reciprocals (a) of: 1 125 (b) i 323 (c) 373 3.34. Divide each number by 5 and simplify the answer to a mixed number (where possible): (a) 3/4 (b) 4/7 (c) 5/3 (d) 8 t 3. 1/4. 3] COMMON FRACfIONS 49 3.39.5t (c) 12t .30.32. Change the following (a) - fractions (c) - to mixed numbers 25 7 (b) - 56 8 86 I3 (d) 660 25 numbers and simplify the answers: (c) 3.28.31. (d) 16~. 3. Multiply (a) 5/8 each of the following (b) 4/9 numbers by 3 and simplify (c) 6/7 (d) 4~ 3. Divide the following (a) and simplify if possible: (b) 9/32 by 3/16 5/3 by 5 (c) 46 -:. or integers: 3. to decimals with three significant (b) 11/13 (c) 318/273 (d) 3937/3600 .36. (b) 2n. the third from the sum of the first two.CHAP.40.37.

4. 3. 3. 2. 3.27. 3 Answers to Supplementary Problems 3.38.40. 13 (d) 3.22. 3.09 .30. (b) 288 (b) 73/32 (e) 4800 (e) 38/7 (e) 6 (d) 3150 (d) 50/3 (a) 61/8 (a) 3~ (b) 7 (b) 1 fJ (e) (d) 26 ~ (a) 61/70 (a) 2/15 (a) fs 910 (d) 17 (d) 3~ (d) 13 * (b) 10-& (b) (e) 2rr (e) 2 ~ (e) (e) (e) q 12 1 1 It t q (a) 3/20 (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (b) 4/35 (b) 1/6 (b) 1/3 (b) 3/80 (b) (b) 1/3 (d) (d) 18t (d) 1 ~ Si 14 11/40 t io (e) (d) 3 to 19/200 1O~ 8/13 (e) 3.24.50 COMMON FRACfIONS [CHAP. (a) five sixths (b) seventeen (e) eleven fourths thirty-seconds (d) three and nine one hundred twenty-eighths 3. 2. 3. 4.36.23. 2.34. 6 108 2. 3.33. 3. 5. 2. 3 (a) (a) (b) 2. 11 (e) (a) (a) (b) 16/24 (e) (e) 4/3 (b) 5/9 4/7 (a) 2. 2. 3. 3.31. 4. 3.25. 3. 6.32. 5. 3. 3. 2. 3.39. 6.16 (d) 1. 3. 7 (b) 2.28.846 (e) 1.37. 10 (d) 2. 1/125 1/5 373/323 (d) 32/15 or 2fs 3.35. 3. 3.625 (b) 0. 3. 3. 5. 3.21. 9 2. (a) 5/9 27/30 (b) 15/16 (e) 12 iI 12/28 293 (d) 273 (d) W/72 (d) 8/9 (e) 3. 3. 5. 9 3. 3.26. (a) 0.29.

12 To convert a common fraction to percent.% Note that percent may be more than 100. and 1. a certain percent of the quantity is the number of these hundredth parts involved. Rule 2. Thus.15 = 215. it is also possible to express a decimal fraction as an equivalent percent. Since a decimal may be writen as a common fraction.Chapter 4 Percentage Basic Concepts 4.1. when percent is involved.15 = lIS / 100= l l S percent. 0. Thus 3/5 = (3 • 20)/(5 • 20) = 60/100. A fractional measure can always be expressed as a percent by writing an equivalent fraction with 100 as its denominator. hundredths. into 100 parts.2 PERCENT AND FRACTIONS Percent is a special type of a fraction with 100 as a denominator. in or for every hundred. 60 percent (written 60%) means 60 hundredths or 60/100. multiply the decimal fraction by 100. A percent may always be reduced to a fraction and then this fraction may in tum be expressed in decimal form. This means that the decimal point has to be moved two places to the right. Base is the number of which a given percent is calculated. The process of using percent It is the quantity which is divided 4. Move the decimal point two places to the left: 12% = 0. To convert a percent to a decimal fraction.1 TERMS Percent means by the hundred. = 215% This means that more than one complete unit is involved. Thus 25 percent represents the same fractional measure as 25/100 or 1/4 or the same decimal measure as 0. EXAMPLE 4. Percentage is the result of taking a specified percent of a quantity. and so 3/5 is the same fractional measure as 60 percent. Express 2. Express 12 percent as a decimal. Move the decimal point two places to the right: 2.15 as a percent. The rules for converting a decimal fraction to a percent and vice versa can be summarized as follows: Rule 1.24 = 24/ 100 = 24 percent.2. EXAMPLE 4. that is. The word rate is sometimes used for percent. The numerator of the new fraction is the percent. The symbol for percent is %. To convert a decimal fraction to equivalent percent. in calculations is also called percentage. This means that the decimal place has to be moved two places to the left. Thus 20 percent (written 20%) means 20 hundredths or 20/100. 51 .25. The common fraction may also be converted into its decimal equivalent and Rule I above applied. convert the fraction so that its denominator is 100. divide the percent by 100. If we consider that a quantity is subdivided into 100 equal parts. also.

divide the percentage by the rate and multiply by 100.6.3 PERCENT OF A QUANTITY To calculate the percent of a given quantity. 4.3. ~ 42. Multiply the fraction by 4/4.6. - 6 4 24 x -=-= 25 4 100 24 Yo 0 EXAMPLE 4.52 PERCENTAGE [CHAP.12.72 IS 72 120 of 120.4.42857 . The base 72 is what percent of 120? the percentage is 72. 2. express the given percent as a common or decimal fraction and multiply it by the quantity (base).4. Express 6/25 as a percent.60 = 100 60 = 60%. 3/7 = 0. EXAMPLE 4.4 PERCENT FROM PERCENTAGE To determine what percent one quantity is of another. 3/7 to its decimal equivalent. But 0. calculating the percent of a given quantity. determining the rate or percent. computing the base or the quantity.5 QUANTITY FROM PERCENTAGE AND PERCENT To calculate the base.12)(70) = 8. . it follows that 12% of 70 is (0. and 5 3 x 20 5 x 20 60/100 = 60% Alternate Solution 72 .6 = 0. 4.. Converting Express 3/7 as a percent.5. 3.. divide the percentage by the base. is 120 and 72 3 3 72 is 120 of 120. 4. 120 = 0. What is 12 percent of 70? it follows that 12% of 70 is (3/25)70 = 42/5 = 8l Since 12%= 12/100=3/25.86% Types of Percentage Problems All percentage problems can be reduced to three types: 1. that is 5 of 120. 4 EXAMPLE 4. Alternate Solution Since 12% = 0. EXAMPLE 4.

2 = 22.342 342 x 100 13 x 100 =- 342 ~3.22. bridge: R.accepted or "true" value 0 xI0 accepted or "true" value Percent error is a measure of experimental accuracy. Since one can not tell from the data which of the values is more accurate. 4. 24 is 15% of what number? Since 15% of the number is 24. o m/s. EXAMPLE 4.7 . For example.2 ohms. The accuracy or uncertainty of a measuring instrument is also stated by the manufacturer in percent. then 1% is 24/15 = 1. A resistor is measured by the voltmeter-ammeter method and by using a Wheatstone Rva = 22.4 ohms.73 ± 0. The accepted % error - _ 355 .6 PERCENT ERROR OR UNCERTAINTY The percent error in an experiment is calculated from the following: 01 10 error = experimental value .4 + 22.9% 4. Experimental Error or Uncertainty It is usual to express the relative error in measurements (see Chapter 2) as a percent. Therefore 100% of the number is (1.422 . The observer's confidence in the limits of his estimate may be called the reading uncertainty of the instrument or the reading error or simply uncertainty.6. when an object's mass is recorded as 51.9. A reasonable estimate of accuracy is obtained by finding the percent of difference between two determinations of the unknown quantity.verage o'ffi % di erence = (22.3 x 100 ~ 0.01 g the observer is sure of the digits 51. using two independent methods. The experimental value of the sound velocity determined by a student is 355 value under the same conditions is 342 m/sec.6)(100) = 160. Calculate the percent error in the measurement. EXAMPLE 4. 4] PERCENTAGE 53 EXAMPLE 4. use the average as base.8 UNCERTAINTIES IN SCALE READINGS The fraction of the smallest scale subdivision estimated by the observer is recorded as the last significant figure in a measurement. Calculate the percentage difference between the two methods.CHAP.7 PERCENT OF DIFFERENCE Frequently one has to make experimental determinations of physical quantities for which there are no recorded accepted values.897% :::::: 0.8% 4.2)/2 = 22.8. Rw = 22.7.3 ohms .

74. (c) 3%.67 x 100 ~ 1.3. (c) 7/4. (b) 208%. % uncertamty The reading uncertainty is 0. (e) 5/64 Then move their decimal points two places to Convert the common fractions to their decimal equivalents. with the best estimate being 0.67 ± 0. move the decimal point two places to the left) and omit the % symbol.375 = 37.0023 = 0. 4 but he estimates the last digit (3).02 x 500) = ±IO watts The measured value will lie between (150 .0033 Multiply each decimal fraction by 100 (that is.3% (e) 0. within what limits does the true value lie? The measurement uncertainty of the wattmeter is 2% of 500 watts. EXAMPLE 4.10) watts and (150+ 10) watts or between 140 and 160 watts and would be recorded as 150 ± 10 watts.0067 4. (d) 23/10. His reading uncertainty of ± 0.08 (c) 0. (e) 0.5% = Ii = 1.81% 5/64~0.54 PERCENTAGE [CHAP.33% 4. (a) 0.02 g? Hence. wattmeter uncertainty = ±(0. the right and attach the % symbol.5% (b) 10% (c) 367% (d) 4. 0. (a) (b) (c) 2/5 3/8 7/4 = 0.72 and 0.0 I g means that the slider on the beam balance is between 0.03 (d) 0.36 (b) 2. (a) (b) 0.2.67. (c) 3.10. % symbol.043.000 (e) = 0. If a measurement of 150 watts is made with this instrument. Convert the following decimal fractions to percent forms: (a) 0. What is the percent reading uncertainty in the measurement. The percent of uncertainty in reading an instrument is the ratio of the uncertainty to the measured value expressed in percent.73.1. (e) 0. A wattmeter has an accuracy of ± 2% of the full scale reading.11. (d) 9.2% EXAMPLE 4. Change the following fractions to percent forms: (a) 2/5.125. (d) 0.02 = -1.1. The scale range is 0 to 500 watts.23% ~7.75 = 175% (d) 23/10. (b) 3/8. .67% Divide each percent by 100 (that is.0781 .000. 1. Solved Problems 4.5%.02 g.4 = 40% = 0. move the decimal point two places to the right) and attach the 12.095 (e) 0. Convert each of the following percents to decimal fractions: (a) 36%.

:::. divide The first of the two numbers is the base.333% 900/400 = 2.5)(0. First determine 1% of the number.2)(75) = 15 6% =0. (a) 6/15 = 0. (a) 20%=0.48 = 30 = 0.1875)(100)% = 18.5 ~ 0.5 MUltiply the decimal fractions by the given quantites (bases). then multiply by 100 to obtain the number.35% of the number is 10.00333 ~ (0.56 g of copper.5 is 2.35 1% is 0. . the second number is the percentage.16 350% = 3.012 1% is 18/3=6 1% is 72/60= 1.95 == (0. Therefore. Multiply the quotient by 100 and attach the % symbol.56.12 (c) 3/4% = 0.063 (b) (d) 4.6 x 100 = 260 100% = 30 x 100 = 3000 100% = 0.2 (0.0909)(100)% .0075)(1600)= 12 6.0048 4.5/27. the given sample contains 1.6/480 ~ 0.75% (c) (d) (e) 1.0909 .5) = 0.4 = (0.75% = 0. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (d) 0.1875 = (0.09% ( 9 4.0048 x 100 = 0.25 = (2. percentage by the base. .2 x 100 = 120 100% = 2.6 1% is 10.6.0075 (0.95) = 1.5% of the number is 0. Determine the number if: (a) 3% of the number is 18 (b) 60% of the number is 72 (c) 150% of the number is 390 The number to be found is the base or the quantity which represents 100%.018 Change the percents to decimal fractions.5 (e) 2.25)(100)% = 225% 2. A copper compound contains 80 percent copper by weight.6? (e) 27. Determine: (a) 20% of 75 (b) 6% of 152 (c) 3/4% of 1600 (d) 6.4% = 0.00333)(100)% ~ 0. (e) (e) 350% of 0.4)(100)% = 40% (b) 36/192 = 0.80.CHAP.4% of 2.2 1% is 390/150=2. What percent of (a) 15 is 6? (b) 192 is 36? (c) 480 is 1.5? (d) 400 is 900? To find percent.012/2.:::.95-g sample of the compound? How much copper is there in a Since 80% == 0.0.018) = 0.064)(2.4.06 (0.4J PERCENTAGE 55 4. it follows that 80% of 1.064 (0.06)(152) = 9.7.80)(1. I.5/0.5.5 (3.5 100% = 6 x 100 = 600 100% = 1.

Hence 100 percent of the solder must be (0. what was this previous volume? The given volume is (100 .12 g of iron by weight. 5.11% 4. = of 0. it follows that I percent is 16/63 or 0.10.254 oz.8)% or 92% of the previous volume.0005 in.465l)(0. The uncertainty in the measurement is ± 0.12. .04 of 8. A voltmeter reads 120 volts. The corrected value for the voltmeter reading is 113 volts.4694953 m. If the present length of a brass rod is 1. iron in the iron sulfide? 5.453 in.0043953 figures.8. the given sample 4.003. When rounded off to 5 significant 4. should the corrected reading be? The 120-volt reading corresponds to (100 + 6)% or 106%.13. Therefore. = 1. The corrected reading can be represented by 100%.637 = 0. The measured distance between two plates is 0. with 16 oz of silver? How much solder can be made Since 63 percent of the solder must be 16 oz. 4.OO3) 0. % uncertainty = 0. If this is 8 percent lower than the volume under different conditions. 100% is (0.0 mI.254)( 1(0) or 25. Calculate the percent of measurement uncertainty or error. the expanded rod has a length of 1.0005 0.453 x 100% ~ 0.4651 m. 4 4. . or 1. The added length or expansion is The final rod length will be 1. It is known that the voltmeter reading is 6% too high. The previous volume was 50 ml. What is the percent of Since 0.7% iron. I% of the previous volume is 46/92 or 0.637(100/100) = 63. An 8.13 x 100 = 113.9.12/8.12/8. The volume of a certain gas is 46.11.4 oz of the solder can be made with 16 oz of silver.3% is 0. contains 63.12 is 5.4695 m. 1% of the reading is :~ What = 1.04-g sample of iron sulfide contains 5.04 ~ 0.4651 + 0.04.5.0043953 m. 4. 25. what will its length be after a 0.5)(100) or 50.56 PERCENTAGE [CHAP.3 percent expansion caused by heating? The decimal equivalent (1.7%.4 oz.637. Common silver solder contains 63 percent silver by weight.13.

15%::::::: 2% 4. uncertainty 1/2% = 0.2%.005) = 0.14. student determines this constant to be 1.4% 5.5 and common (e) 0.2 .2 ± 0. Convert each of the following fractions (c) to decimal (d) 4/9 fractions and percent forms: (e) (a) 3/5 4.12 = 23. Calculate the percent of error.005 = (23.05 em" and V2 = 50.2 + 50.21x 100% ::::::: 0. 4. how large is the error or uncertainty? (b) Between what limits does the mass lie? (a) Convert 1/2% to a decimal fraction.0 ± 0. (a) If the mass of an object on this balance is 23.1 2 = 50.0.12 g g (b) The upper limit of the mass is 23.68 g Supplementary Problems The answers to this set of problems are at the end of this chapter.12 = 23.04 =-x 1.90 "C.45 0.16.86 100% 0.015% (j) 250% . Two experimenters measure the volume of a liquid sample and obtain the results VI = 50. 01 0 f error 10 A = I.124 (b) 0.15. Convert (a) each of the following (b) percents (c) to decimal fraction forms: 4% 45% 4.80 + 0.86 "C.1.80)(0.86 ::::::: 2. What is the percentage difference between the two values? Since the measurement used as a base: uncertainty is the same for both experimenters.1 cm 3 = 00.50% = 0.0 = 50.92 The lower limit of the mass is 23.19.119:::::::0. 4.345 1.80 g. (b) 7/3 15/8 1J (e) Convert each of the following (a) decimal (c) to percent forms: (d) 21.CHAP.7% (d) 146% 0.00345 4. The freezing point depression of a l-molar solution has an accepted value of 1.18. the average of their measurements is average volume % difference = 50.0 x 100% 50.17. 4] PERCENTAGE 57 4. A balance has a tolerance of ± 1.80 .90 .50.05 crrr'.86 100°1 x 10 1.

If the rod were to expand by 0.35.26.D-g sample of iron ore contains 3. The number 15 is (a) (b) 50% of what number? 75% of what number? (c) 1.I amp when disconnected.30.58 PERCENTAGE [CHAP.965 g of oxygen and 0. If we assume that water increases in volume by 9 percent on freezing. Determine: (a) (b) 5% of 140 54% of 380 (e) (d) 0.32.31. A gas contracts from a volume of 32 ml to a volume of 30. percent of oxygen and hydrogen in the sample of water. the reading is A 5. before the change took place? Silver solder contains 63% silver. percentage error? Ammonia gas contains 82.5% of what number? (e) 31% of what number? (d) 150% of what number? (j) 0. what was it 4.27. An iron ore contains 58 percent iron oxide.64% of 15 1. What is the percentage change in volume? What is the largest possible The largest possible error in making a measurement of 45 ml is 0. nitrogen. An electrical resistance decreased 2 percent.05% of what number? 4. How much iron is 4.1 g of iron.5 ml. The length of a brass rod is 3.594 m. (a) (b) What is the corrected reading of the ammeter? By what percent of error is the reading wrong if it is not corrected for zero error? . 4. How much of the weaker acid can be used for the reaction? Decomposition of limestone yields 56 percent quicklime. Determine the mass of ammonia gas containing 300 kg of 4.20. there in 10. An ammeter reads D. determine how many cubic feet of water would be required to produce 545 ft3 of ice.5 ml. How much limestone is needed to yield 2000 Ib 4.34.4 percent nitrogen. How much of the solder can be made with 520 g of silver? Express the iron content of the sample in percent form. 2.5 g of 100 percent acid.8 ohms.24.33.22.15% of the number is 10 (d) 300% of the number is 35 (e) 3 ~% of the number is 88 4. Determine the number if (a) (b) (c) 5% of the number is 20 120% of the number is 50 0.29. strength. 4 4.28. in length? Calculate the mass 4. of quicklime? He has acid of 96 percent 4.21. To carry out a certain reaction a chemist needs 24.23.000 kg of this ore? Iron constitutes 7D percent of iron oxide.120 g of hydrogen.02 percent. 4. If the present value of the resistance is 74.2% of 65 (e) 250% of 23 (f) 42 ~% of 75 4. When the instrument is connected in circuit.4 amp. 4. 4.25. 4. what would be its increase 4. A sample of water is decomposed into 0.

27. 9/20 (c) 0.18. 4.CHAP. 4.46.. 4.40. What percent of error will be introduced reading of 0.20.5 m!.00015.19.11 % approximately ..4% (b) 34.04.25.5 (e) 394~ (e) 2400 4. Determine to one significant figure the percent uncertainties in the following sec measurements: (a) 528 ± I g (b) 6.26. = The meterstick is 0.. 11.37.000 (d) 1.29.025 cm if a correction is not made for the zero error? into a micrometer 4.5.000719 m approximately 25.2 (b) 20 (b) 41 ~ (j) 32 (j) 30. 4. (e) 0.30.03 ml What is the actual speed to the nearest mile per hour if the indicated 4. A micrometer has a zero error of .45.0.345% (a) 0. (c) 233 t% 1. 47/1000 3/20.047. 4. 187 t% (e) 3.24.. What is the percent 4.33 .38. A speedometer reads 15% too low.096 (c) (j) 2.23.78 (d) 10 (d) 11 ~ (e) 57.9%. 4.80 ± 0. (a) 0. 4.1 ± 1 ern (d) 3.000 (a) 30 (a) 400 1000 (c) 6666~ 88.6.21. 1/25 (b) 0.5 (c) 0. 4) PERCENTAGE 59 4. A flask is marked 250 m!. Its volume percent error in the flask calibration? measured with a standard container is 250.17. 4. 4.005 amp (e) 21.36. 44 ~% (c) 4. 4. (a) 7 (b) 205. 325% (d) 0. A meterstick is compared with a standard meter. 4. (a) 12. 5/2 (d) 0. error? I meter 1000 mm.002 em.39. speed is 65 mph? Answers to Supplementary Problems 4..69% approximately I ~% or 1.44 .22. .28.5% 145% (d) 2150% (e) 0.1 % approximately 0.27 ± 0.25.875.5 mm short. 73/50 (c) 0.5 g approximately 3570 Ib approximately 500 ftJ 4060 kg 4 fk% or 4.60% (b) 2. What is the 4.3±0.

4.34. 4.3 amp (b) 4.33. 4 4. 4.60 PERCENTAGE [CHAP.35.3 ohms approximately 825 g approximately 62% (a) 2.2% low approximately 0. 4. 364 kg approximately 76. 4. 4.31. 76 mph . 4.32.6% (d) 0.37.40.39.36.3% high 7.2% (b) 20% (c) 0.4% low 0.5% 4.05% low (a) 0.9% (e) 0. 4.38.

A monomial is an algebraic expression with only one term. In the product 2. Any factor in a product is called the coefficient of the product of the remaining factors. division.of 16a.73 pq. Unknown. In The numerical coefficient in a term is its numerical factor. The literal factors of 2. and -4xy. The three terms of 3a2 + 2b . multiplication. Like terms have the same literal factors. and extracting roots. Because relationships between quantities are expressed most efficiently by algebra. The symbol t may be called the base for the exponential quantity t". a2 + 2ab + b2. In addition to the numbers used in arithmetic.61. A letter. I + b2 t + br + b3 f3 .32) Terms of an algebraic expression are any of its parts which are or may be connected by addition signs. y.4xy are 3a2. a of 16P. Znr. It is usually understood that the exponents associated with the variables in a polynomial are positive integers.5 pv and -7.4 pv. For example: 3x and I oxl . 2b. Algebraic operations with symbols are expressed in the same way as with the real numbers of arithmetic and include: addition. 16 is the coefficient of aP. A polynomial is an algebraic expression usually with three or more terms.3y. in the first expression t is the base. 61 .1 TERMINOLOGY Algebra is a generalized and extended type of arithmetic. 2. A symbol used in algebra to represent a quantity whose value is not known. that represents an unknown real number.Chapter 5 Essentials of Algebra Basic Concepts 5. r. The numerical coefficient of Fd is 1. For example: 2 is the exponent of t in 4 is the exponent of x in x4. it may be called the short-hand of arithmetic.80 tis 9. such as x. For example: 2x . if n is a positive integer. For example: 3x and lOx. Typical algebraic expressions are 5x 2ab 3x+4y (I/2)gr (5/9)(F . n is an exponent and. t. A binomial is an algebraic expression with two terms. 6ab. (l/2)gP. and q are the displayed factors. For example: 3x2y + 5xy . -3a_x2y. subtraction. v. In an expression of the form t". 2. gt and Unlike terms have literal factors some of which are different. 3a2 - v + at. 16aP. A Jactor is one of two or more quantities which may be multiplied together to form a product. algebra includes one or more letters or symbols. ?. it denotes the number of times t is multiplied by itself to form the expression. p.73. The numerical coefficient in 9.80. g. raising to a power. implied though not written explicitly.73 pq are p and q. Literal symbol. An algebraic expression is the result of a finite sequence of algebraic operations applied to a set of numbers and symbols. while x is the base in the second. For example: 2x.

2)]. EXAMPLES: (x + I). add their absolute values and attach the common sign. EXAMPLE (a) 5. . and debits negative.62 ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA [CHAP.3 ABSOLUTE VALUE The numerical value of absolute value of a number may be regarded intuitively as its magnitude without regard to sign. The use of negative numbers in elementary problems is usually associated with measurements in an "opposite" direction. braces { }. Mo/JI . For example: Ilf. [3 + (a . The absolute value of a number is also its distance along the number line from O. 5 +b Signed Numbers 5. (a) To add two numbers of the same sign. and lal = I .al = -a.5 (d) \-gt\ = gt. We are familiar with such usage in temperature measurements.. for a positive. The number line represents the set of all real numbers... the basic laws must be obeyed. Signs of grouping are used to indicate certain terms or factors which are to be treated as a unit.al = a. (b) -8. if gt > 0 5. where positive and negative indicate measurements above and below zero. 5-1.1. The three commonly used types are: parentheses ( ). brackets ( ). subtract the smaller absolute value from the larger and (b) To add two signed numbers attach the sign of the larger. (500 + C)/500C. and so lal = I . each number can be represented by a point on a horizontal line. ml(r +x)2.4 OPERA TIONS WITH SIGNED NUMBERS If negative numbers are to be accepted as numbers.. The number line I ~ " II tco) oQ & I Fig. 5-1. (d) -gt? \6\ =6 \-8\ =8 (e) \-12. and in bookkeeping. and this requires the following rules of operation with signed numbers: Rule 1. I tco) I ~ ~ .. for a negative. 5. Such a representation is called the number line and it is shown in Fig. where credits may be considered positive. 5 An algebraic fraction is the quotient of two algebraic expressions. and the vinculum --. What is the absolute value of the number (b) (a) 6. This absolute value is indicated by placing vertical bars around the number. .. Qlr2.5.j'Lsfg. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 2 3 i oQ I ~ . If one point of the line is labeled 0.5\=12. of opposite sign.v2/2. (e) -12.6y}. positive numbers are represented by points to the right and negative numbers by points to the left of O. {7 ..2 THE NUMBER LINE In arithmetic.

12. Since the numbers have unlike signs.65 - 1.651-1-1. the quotient is +6 or 6. 13.41 = 4. and so the product is +(4 02 02 06 04). We find the sum of the negatives and the sum of the positives and then add these two sums according to Rule I(b) for addition of signed numbers. change the sign of the subtrahend and add as in I(a) or I(b). The rule for multiplication has an analogous counterpart for division. and so we add their absolute values and attach a negative sign to the sum. (a) 1-91 + I-51 (b) (c) -9 and -5. we get -4.5 = 4. (b) -9 and 5. What is the sum of (a) EXAMPLE 5. a product of several signed numbers is negative if an odd number of negative signs is involved.27? 1-91 - = 9 + 5 = 14. 81. -10. -6. we attach the negative sign and obtain .80101-1.38.6. or .5.45 for the product. the answer is 45. we attach the negative sign and obtain .61-:-I .6 -:--0. 11.50. 5] ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA 63 (c) To subtract two signed numbers. 1-91 0 151= 45.3200. Rule 3. 3 + -6+ 8 + 10+ -7 + -9 = (3 +8 = 21 + 10)+ [(-6) + (-7) + (-9)] + (.4 1-241-:-131 1-91-:-1- = 8. perform the same multiplication and attach a negative sign if they are of unlike sign. Since the numbers have like signs. In this case the numbers are all positive. -8 In this case there is an odd number of negative signs (three) and so the product is -(2 04 05 0 10 0 8). Since the numbers have unlike signs. -6. EXAMPLE 5. (a) 3.27 = 2. If more than two numbers are involved in a computation. the product is positive if there is an even number of negative signs. 1-21 + I-51 + 1-151 + 1-301 = -(2 + 5 + 15 + 30) = -52 (c) In this case some signs are positive and some negative.10.25? 1-910 I-51 = 9 0 5 = 45.65 and -1. In this case there is an even number (four) of negative signs. -2.1. quotient.251 Since the numbers have unlike signs. attaching the common negative sign. (a) EXAMPLE 5. attaching the sign of the number with the larger absolute value.4. (a) (b) (c) What is the product of -9 and -5.0.22) = -I EXAMPLE 5. given above.2. Since the numbers have unlike signs.50.80 and .5. (c) 2. -2. -9 Thus. -30 (c) 3. we attach a minus sign and get . -5. we attach a minus sign and get -3. 151= 9 .8 for the quotient. -15.4. Thus. 12. or simply 384. Perform the indicated divisions: (a) -24 -:-3 (b) EXAMPLE 5. (b) In this case the numbers are all negative. and addition is exactly as for natural numbers. 3 + 12 + 81 + 10 = 106.8. (a) (b) (c) -9 -:--3/2) ( (c) 1. = 3. (b) -9 and 5.3. Since the numbers are of like sign. (c) 3. -7. these rules may be easily generalized. Rule 2.14. For example.CHAP.271 = 3. multiply their absolute values and attach a positive sign if the numbers are of like sign. 3/21 = 9 x 2/3 = 6. 10 (a) Find the sum of the following numbers: (b) -2. To multiply two signed numbers. (a) (a) (b) Determine the product of the following numbers: (b) 4. -4 -2.4 for the . Thus. we get .

5 Operations with Algebraic Expressions 5. In this case. first. xy. x". it is cautioned that simplification for multiplication and division may be applied only to exponential quantities with the same base. it is quite possible that the expressed result will be completely ambiguous.-4) + (2 • 3). Simplify the expression (12. 5xy. 5xz. By cancellation of like factors. the division comes next: 8 -:.r. 2xy. EXAMPLE 5. Determine the product of the following monomials: 3xy. Whenever any combination of operations is involved.9. if care is not taken. for example. Thus. Use the rule to determine the value of the expression 3 • 5 . For example in the expression 2 . divisions in the order. xy and fu2 . 5. do the subtraction: 15 . That these two sums are equal is the statement of the associative law of addition. then all EXAMPLE 5. The result is (3 . the parentheses show that division and multiplication are to be done before addition and subtraction. The sum is (2 . and finally the additions and subtractions do all multiplications in the order given. finally. EXAMPLE 5. If this condition is met.6 USE OF GROUPING SYMBOLS Parentheses are used in arithmetical or algebraic expressions whenever a combination of numbers is to be treated as a unit. 5. 2ax and 3ax. EXAMPLE 5. when we write (m + n) + r we mean the sum of the number m + n and the number r.10. However. -2xy.ryz2).4 = II. the result is another monomial with the same symbolic part but whose numerical factor is the result of adding the numerical factors of the individual monomials.6)xy + (3 + 5 - 2p-2 = (b) Multiplication and Division If monomials are to be multiplied or divided. 3.(3 -.11.8 -:-2.r. lrJ.7. first: 3 • 5 Do the multiplication = 15.4xy.2 = 4. we then find the final result to be The numerical factor of the quotient is 12/4 or 3.xy2z3)/(4. However. Monomials such as 2ax and 3by have unlike parts and cannot be combined in this way. along with the procedure of canceling. The numerical factor of the product is observed to be (3)(2)(5) or 30. The following rule may be helpful in avoiding this ambiguity: Rule.5 OPERATIONS WITH MONOMIALS (a) Addition and Subtraction It is possible to use the "distributive law" to combine two or more monomials under addition or subtraction only if their symbolic or literal parts are identical. there are two distinct symbolic parts in evidence. When several arithmetic operations are to be performed in succession. the simplified notation of exponents may be used to advantage. Determine the sum of the following monomials: -lr. Determine the sum of the following monomials: 3xy.B. which can be simplified to 30x4y4z. -6xy.xy = Txy.2 + 5 + l). while m + (n + r) designates the sum of m and n + r. the best practice is to use grouping signs to make clear what is intended. We then obtain the product as 30trWz. EXAMPLE 5. .64 ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA [CHAP. 3yz/x.

18 = 12. multiply each term of one of the polynomials by each term of the other and combine the results according to the rules for monomials. - 10).CHAP.14.[3 . Arrange the polynomials as shown below.3[1 . arrange them vertically so that like terms and numerical terms are in vertical alignment.2..6 is the required difference + Tx - (b) Multiplication and Division The rules for dealing with special cases which occur frequently are: Rule 1.3[t .61 7 .-3) - 2[20 .2 from 4y +y - 8.x . + 5). Change the sign of the subtrahend and add. (b) Subtract 6y .(x + I»).. To multiply two polynomials. EXAMPLE 5.[3 . EXAMPLE 5. 5] ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA 65 EXAMPLE 5. Simplify the following expression: 7 + 6(4 . Multiply 3_x2 EXAMPLE + 4.(I . . Perform the addition. we work "from the inside out" and apply the following rule: A pair of parentheses or equivalent grouping symbols may be simply removed if preceded by a plus sign.I) or 2x . 1+ (2 . (a) Add (2_x2 + x and (6x . t t t We perform the steps of the simplification process in the order suggested above.xy - Y by 2a.2[20 - 16 + 5).2 + x or 3x . square brackets and obtain 2x .2).I) + 2) 1+ and finally + (2 . Then add (or subtract).[2 .6t) 7 . a2 + a2 4'. each inside term should be multiplied by that factor.13.3[2t .7 OPERATIONS WITH POLYNOMIALS (a) Addition or Subtraction To add (or subtract) two or more polynomials.16.(2)(9) = 30 . x-tO 41 + 41 6 is the required sum y. EXAMPLE 5. 5.5t + 2) 5. An application of the above rule gives the result as &u-2 + 8a. In order to "disentangle" or simplify expressions involving grouping symbols. Arrange the three polynomials in three lines as shown below. If the grouping symbol is preceded by a multiplying factor. Simplify 1 + (2 .2aY.I)] + 2}. the sign of each term inside should be changed after the grouping symbols have been removed.I) + (15 . if preceded by a minus sign.I + t) + 2} + (2 + . multiply (or divide) each term of the polynomial by the monomial. To multiply (or divide) a polynomial by a mononomial.15. Next we remove the We first remove the "inside" parentheses.12.xy . + 5 .61 + 3 (7 . (2_x2 + 6).2 -6y+2 5y . Simplify 2x .x).(2 ·8) We first perform the three operations indicated within the parentheses and obtain 7 + (6)(3) This can now be simplified into 7 + 18 + 5 .8 +6 6x. which gives us 2x . Rule 2.

13. plus the square of the second term. The product (2? .12ab + 4bz . + 3b In this case. the divisor divides exactly only the first two terms of the polynomial. EXAMPLE 5. These are the products or powers of simple binomials.6. and we can write the result as (b .18.b)2 = (a . the complete product can be obtained by the successive multiplication of pairs. in which the division is merely indicated and not actually performed. For example.21. The product of 3 by each tenn of the second is then found to be 12x . gives the result 3 Divide 2ab . The product of the two binomials is &xl + &x .22. Perform the indicated multiplication: (2x + 3)(4x - 2).3b2) + 3b/2a. The rule for multiplication binomials: that they need special of polynomials can be restated in a slightly different form for Obtain the sum of all possible products which can be formed by multiplying together only one term from each of the binomials. There is a method which is sometimes useful for dividing polynomials by one another.(2)(r + I) is then found to be 2. 5.-3 + 2?1 .x:0 + 2ry by 2.J + ? t .17.rt2 . the procedure being similar to the long division process of arithmetic.20.12r . If more than two polynomials are to be multiplied together.2b)2 = (3a)2 + 2(3a)( -2b) + (-2bi = 9az . Similarly. in this case.2ab + b1 Thus the square of a binomial is the square of the first term. and obtain 2? . EXAMPLE 5. We first multiply (r . as in the preceding example.4x. there are few elementary applications of this division process. of the rule. and this can be simplified to 2. + xy.rt .19.6ab2 EXAMPLE 5.(3. (a .2rF .6ab1 + 3b)/2a. The quotient could also be expressed in the form (2ab .b) = a2 .66 ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA (CHAP. plus twice the cross-product.t)(2r + r).rt .0/. However. (2x + y)2 = (2x)2 + 2(2x)y + I = 4x2 + 4xy + I (3a . EXAMPLE 5. by 2a. Perform the indicated multiplication: (r . An application Divide 6. We first multiply 2x by each term of the second binomial and obtain &xl .6. 5 EXAMPLE 5.8 SIMPLE PRODUCTS There are several simple products of such frequent occurrence consideration. Combining 12x and -4x we get &X.t)(2r + t)(r + t).b) (a . EXAMPLE 5.?I .12.

z] = (x + y)2 .b) = a2 + ab == 4x2 .29. EXAMPLE 5.Sab .4xy -y2 Notice that the signs of the resulting terms were changed after squaring the binomial. 5] ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA 67 Applying the rule to binomials raised to the third power. plus three times the first term times the square of the second term.27.z) == [(x + y) + z)[(x + y) . the product of the sum and difference of two quantities is the difference of their squares.2b) == (3a)2 . plus the cube of the second term.r =r+2xy+I-r . (x + y + z)(x + y . (2a + b)3 = (2a)3 + 3(2a)2b + 3(2a)b2 + b3 = 8a3 + 12a2b + 6ab2 + b3 EXAMPLE 5.2b2 + y)2 == _[(a)2 + 2(a)(y) + y) + z)2 = + 2(a)(y) + (y)2) = -[4x2 -4x2 .b)3 = a3 . -(a 3a2 .26. EXAMPLE 5.23.28.ab + b2 = a2 - b2 Thus. plus three times the second term times the square of the first term.24.4xy .2y) = (a)(3x) + y(3x) + a( -2y) + y( -2y) = 6x2 + 3xy = 6x2 -xy. (ax l t + by)(cx + dy) L. (a (3a + y)(a + 2b)(3a . (a + y + z)2 = == «a (a)2 (a + y)2 + 2(a + y)(z) + (d + (y)2 + (4x + 2y)(z) + r = 4r + 4xy + 1 + 4xz + 2yz + r Notice that.25. (a . (x .27y (a Another common product is: + b)(a == . the cube of a binomial is the cube of the first term.4b2 .30.3a2b + 3ab2 .31. EXAMPLE 5. EXAMPLE 5.(2b)2 It is sometimes convenient to think of the product of two binomials as formed by the multiplication of terms as indicated below.3y)3 = ~ + 3x2( -3y) + 3x( _3y)2 + (_3y)3 = ~ .9x2y + 27xy2 .CHAP.y) (a)2 -I -I = 9a2 . by grouping any two tenns of the initial expression and treating them as a 'single term. (a + y)(3x .2b)(3a + b) == a(3a) + (-2b)(3a) + ab + (-2b)b + 4xy + I) = = EXAMPLE 5. EXAMPLE 5.J + l + t EXAMPLE 5.b3 Thus. the problem is reduced to that of squaring a binomial.21 21 EXAMPLE 5. (a + b)3 = (a + b)2(a + b) = (a2 + 2ab + b2)(a + b) = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3 (a .

EXAMPLE 5.4c2).34. we have the following rule for factoring: The difference of the squares of two quantities can be factored as the product of the sum and difference of the given quantities. In this case. In the process of multiplication. while 12 may be factored as the product (3)(4). is (3x)2 .36.. + 2x + 3). one of the latter can often be factored into the product of two equal binomial factors. The factor b2 . the problem has been 5. the problem has been reduced to that of the product of the sum and difference of two quantities. For we say that the product of 3 and 4 is 12.42 is a difference of two squares and so may be factored as (b + 2c)(b .b2 = (a + b)(a . Factor 2a2b + 4ab2 . Since 4 is a common monomial factor of each term. Trinomials of the Type J? + 2xy + I Since the result of squaring a binomial is a trinomial.33. and so the given polynomial can be factored as 2ab(a Difference of Two Squares Since we have seen before that a2 . .2y) EXAMPLE 5.b). Factor 9r . The desired complete factorization is then 4a2(b + 2c)(b .2c). we are combining the numbers.2ab3• In this case.68 ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA [CHAP. Factor 4a2b2 - 16a1c2. any monomial factor which is common to all terms of the polynomial can be factored out.35. while the process of factoring breaks down the given expression into smaller multiplicative units or factors. 5 Notice that by grouping conveniently the terms in both parentheses of the initial expression.b2).z) = Ix + (y + z)][x = r -(y + z)2 - (y + z)] =r-V+2xy+zZ) =.9 FACTORING The process of factoring may be considered as the reverse of multiplication. we can factor the given trinomial into 4(r EXAMPLE 5.4. EXAMPLE 5.y . Factor 4r + 8x + 12. reduced to that of the product of the sum and difference of two quantities. Hence. we can factor it as the product (3x Since this expression + 2y)(3x .32.(2y)2. 2ab is a common monomial factor. Removal of a Monomial Factor The multiplication of a polynomial by a monomial is accomplished by multiplying each term of the polynomial by the monomial.2c). (x + y + z)(x .r-J-2xy-zZ Notice that by grouping conveniently the terms in both parentheses of the initial expression. EXAMPLE 5. we first remove the monomial factor 4a2 and obtain 4a2(b2 . + 2b .

Multiply the entire trinomial by 5.2. m2 + 6m + 9 = EXAMPLE 5.2) EXAMPLE 5. That is. + px + q In the case of a trinomial of this type. we can use the procedure shown below.30 = (5x + 15)(5x . numbers and rewrite it as (5xi Factor the expression using these two + I3(5x) .Notice that + 15 . the + 10rs + . write the expression as 25x2 + 13(5x) . Try to find two numbers that add up to 13 and multiply to equal . expression as 361.30. Thus. If we can find such numbers. 2 • 5r • s = IOrs. Factor 61 . EXAMPLE 5. = hence x2 + 5x + 6 = (x + 2)(x + 3). The above requirements are satisfied if a = 2 and b = 3.7y . = 25. the desired factorization is then (x + a)(x + b).41.2)(x . the coefficient of the term x2. and (-2)(-6) == (x .8x + 12 + (-6) = -8.2) = (x + 3)(5x _ 2) The original expression can be rewritten as 5~ + 13x - 6 = (x + 3)(5x .CHAP. (s)2 = s2. = (5r + s)2 = (5r + s)(5r + s). it appears that a trinomial of the given type can be factored if we can find two numbers a and b.30.6).38. and leave indicated the product of this coefficient and the 6(61- 7y . General Trinomial of the Type . Factor x2 r r + px + q + 5x + 6. it is necessary to divide it by 5. EXAMPLE 5. + 3)(m + 3).30.. 1term. (m Factor m2 + 6m + 9.40. This procedure does not guarantee that we can always factor the trinomial. EXAMPLE 5. 25x2 + 5( 13x) . rewrite the Switch the coefficient of the term of x and the number by which the trinomial was multiplied.37.30. 5] ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA 69 EXAMPLE 5.2 + Trinomials of the Type Inasmuch as (x + a)(x + b) = + (a + b)x + ab. Therefore. 10rs Factor 25. and leave written explicity the product of this coefficient and the coefficient of the term of x..2 The given expression is a trinomial square since (5r)2 +. such that a + b = p and ab = q.8x + 12..30 = (6y)2 + 7(6y) - 30 . We see that (-2) Factor x2 .42. That is.2) .r.5.7(6y) . Switch the coefficient of the term of x and the number by which the trinomial was multiplied.5) = 361- 6(7y) . however. Multiply the trinomial by 6. Since 25x2 = (5x)2 rewrite the expression as (5x)2 + 13(5x) . the coefficient of the coefficient of y.39.2 = 13 and (+ 15)( -2) = -30 Therefore.30 That is. 12. Since 361 = (6y)2 rewrite the expression as 361- 6(7y) .30. Since 32 =9 and 2 • m • 3 = 6m. (5x + 15)(5x 5 = 1(X + 3)(5x 1 . 25. Since the given trinomial was initially multiplied by 5.2) +-. That is. it provides a more systematic and more effective procedure than any trial and error method. so that x2 . Factor 5x2 + 13x - 6. trinomial is the square of the binomial m + 3.

5 dt of each by the common factor or Write the quotients as fractions and divide the numerator and the denominator factors.10.120 = (lOx)2 + 7(lOx) .Notice that -10+3 =7 and (-10)(3)= -30. term.= -81. That is.25 et'4 1.120 Then. the original expression can be written as -IO~ -7x+ 12 = (2x + 3)(4 . the original expression Factor -lOr .8) +.6 c/rl = 5r }.8 = 7 and (15)(-8) = -120. Since the trinomial was initially multplied by 6.5 = (3y . factor the expression using these two + 7(6y) .. That is.43.1) = -(2x + 3)(5x _ 4) = (2x + 3)(4 In consequence. Since the trinomial was initially multiplied by . -:-::--=--"'7 -102v2 -10 ~l e =.4) (-$)(.5 drt -i- by cancellation. S. • 4alb (a) ~=~=4ab (b) 7. 12a2b . expression as lOOr + 7(1 Ox) .10. Since 100~ = (lOx) rewrite the expression as 100~ + 7(lOx) . 5 Look for two numbers that add up to 7 and multiply to equal -30.10. and leave indicated the product of this coefficient and Multiply the trinomial by . }.25 iu42 v2 = -- Be v2 . (-IO)(-IO~ . it is necessary to divide it by . 1) + 3) = . numbers and rewrite it as (IOX)2 + 7(IOx) . Therefore.120.70 ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA [CHAP. using these two Look for two numbers that add up to 7 and multiply to equal -120.7x + 12) = 100~ + 1O(7x) - 120.120. 1. EXAMPLE 5.i (e) Divide the numerical coefficients in the usual way and cancel the common literal factors. the coefficient of the r the coefficient of x. EXAMPLE 5.10 CANCELLATION The process of simplifying a fraction or an equation by dividing out a common factor is called cancellation. + 12. rewrite the Switch the coefficient of the term of x and the number br which the trinomial was multiplied.5x). factor the expression = (lOx + 15)(lOx = 1(2x + 3).5)}(2y + I) = (3y _ 5)(2y + 6 In consequence.d Then.7y .5 dt = 1. (lOx + I 5)(1 Ox .Notice that 15.l(5x .44. Simplify the following (b) 7.6 cI.Tx ~ can be written as 6y2 .30 = (6y - 1O)(6y + 3) +. numbers and rewrite it as (6. _ 5x). (6y 10)(6y Therefore.8) -10 .5 drt 1.5)(2y + I). it is necessary to divide it by 6.l(3y .

we The least common denominator ispq. Simplify (4x2 .46. the factored form of the denominator factors are m and L.I)/(S + I).1)/(2x + y).L.L). expressing the two fractions with their least common The least common denominator.51. Add the fractions lip and l/q. 5) ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA 71 EXAMPLE 5. Cancellation of the The numerator can be factored into (s . and these can be canceled.2(1)/(3s2 + 5st + 2t2). 3a 4b2 Perform the indicated divisions: (b) -7- l5a2 16b3 r S2 7 t. The common factor (4~ . The operations and the final results are often simplified by reducing the fractions to their simplest terms by cancellation. Perform the indicated multiplication: R V(K +L) (K2 - L2)Q R3 Since K2 .) y) = 2x _ y. 2x + y is then canceled. The desired sum is (q + p)/pq.g .45. denominator is m2n2• Therefore. we V(~ The product of the two fractions.L2 is a difference of two squares.11 OPERATIONS WITH ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS Operations with algebraic fractions follow the same rules as for arithmetical fractions. EXAMPLE 5. we have EXAMPLE 5.48. this expression can be factored into (K get (~(K-L)Q R12 + L)(K . Reduce the fraction (3s2 - st . The operations with algebraic fractions can best be illustrated by examples as given below. Therefore.lml/: is m· L . the first fraction by q/q and the second by pip. The common The factored form of the numerator is m .49.L. after canceling common factors.~) ( +y = (~- .t)(3s + 2t) and the denominator into (3s common factor (3s + 2/) leaves the fraction in the reduced form (s .y). + 2t)(s + I). EXAMPLE 5. Reduce the fraction mgl. The reduced fraction is then EXAMPLE 5. Subtract a/mn2 from b/m2n.50.I I . multiplying obtain qlpq + p [pq. provided (2x + y) to 5. Therefore. The numerator is the difference of the two squares and can be factored into (2x + y)(2x . In a reduced fraction the numerator and the denominator have no common factors except 1.L)Q VR2 EXAMPLE (a) 5. is (K .47. EXAMPLE 5.CHAP.

An identity is an equation which is true for all values of the unknown. A linear equation has the unknown(s) to the first power. you must multiply (or divide) the right member by 6. equation or of the first degree equation in x. etc. is true for every value of g. 5 As in arithmetic. common factor(s). Cancel any Note that t may not be canceled because t is not a factor of t . if you square the right member. That is.b. if you add 2 to one member. 2g = 64 For example. In a quadratic equation the highest exponent For example. you must also square the left member. There are equations of higher degree but they are seldom used in elementary applications. This principle is sometimes known as the "golden rule oj equations": What you do to one member of an equation.72 ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA [CHAP. you must do to the other.12 2 DEFINITIONS An equation is a statement that two quannues are equal. + 6g = 8g A conditional equation is true only for specific values of the unknown. but an important principle underlies all these methods. while the numbers are its solutions. then the solution is correct. is correct only if g = 32. If we add -b to both members.8y + 15 = 0 is a quadratic or second-degree equation in y. For example. y2 . 5. if you multiply (or divide) the left member by 6. Likewise.I.13 SOLUTIONS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS There is usually a question implied in connection with an algebraic equation: What actual number must each symbol represent if the equality is to hold arithmetically? Determining these numbers is known as solving the equation. To check the solution is to substitute the determined value of the unknown into the original equation. you must add 2 to the other. very simple examples of an arithmetic equation. This is a common error! Equations 5. If an arithmetic identity results. we note that b has disappeared from the left member and has made an appearance in the right member with its sign changed. then multiply the numerators and multiply the denominators. a =c Consider the equation a + b = c + d. if we add -c to both members of the original . Algebraic equations have one or more unknowns. of any unknown is 2. Each type of equation has its own peculiar methods of solution. 1 + 1 = 2 and + 3 = 5 are Members or sides of an equation are the expressions on the two sides of the equality sign. invert the divisor. the equation becomes + d . 2g The word "algebraic" is frequently omitted. 3x + 7 = 16 is a linear For example. For example.

4t + 2. 5.4 to the right member and x to the left member of the equation.54. 5] ESSENTIAlS OF ALGEBRA 73 equation. To check. and the 165 term to the right side collect terms divide both members by 175 reduce by cancellation = 35 = 35 175 1 I = "5 = 0. 3x-x Transposing (with changed signs) . A bit of arithmetic reduces this expression to the equality 10! = 10 thus checking our solution. and the constant I to the right collect terms divide both members by 6 and reduce =8 8 4 3 6 v=-=- The final test of a correct solution is that it satisfies the original equation. In the above example. substitute 7 for x in the original equation: 3(7) . we obtain Note that all the terms containing the unknown are on the left side. c has disappeared from the right member and has appeared in the left member as -c.2) + 2 0. The first step is to eliminate the decimals by multiplying both members by 100. we substitute ("plug in") the number j for v in the given equation and obtain 2(j) = 1 + 5(~) + 2 J.2 Check: 3. we get = 4+ 10 Collecting terms on each side. the equation becomes a + b . EXAMPLE 5.v = 9 . We now apply this principle.63 + 1.28 + 2 2.15(0.4(0.28 = 2. Solve the following equation for v: 2v . provided the sign of the term is changed.15t + 1. EXAMPLE 5.4 = x + 10.2) + 1.140t = 200 . Solve the following equation for 3151+ 165 = 140/+200 3151 .c = d.65 = l." to the solution of any linear equation.52. EXAMPLE 5.65 J: 0. transpose the 1401term to the left side.CHAP.65 J: 1. Solve for the unknown: 3x . These results lead us to the following principle known as the principle of transposition: Any term of either member of an equation may be transposed to the other member. along with the "golden rule.4 d: 7 + 10 21=4d:17 17 = 17 The resulting identity shows that the solution is correct. x = 7. 2x= 14 Dividing each member by 2 gives the required solution.165 1751 1 I: 3. ~+ 9.I + 5v + 2 = v + 9.53. The procedure for solving quadratic equations will be given in the next chapter.I 6v collect terms on both sides transpose the v term to the left side. 7v+ 1= v+ 9 7v .28 .

(d) and (e) both signs appear. -1. 5 EXAMPLE 5. 1-71 + 1-331 = 40 40 . -0. (e) IqI + 14 I~ I = I~ I + I~ I = I~ I + I~ I :: The sum is O. The sum is -27. Find the sum of the following numbers: (a) -8.062 (e) -v The absolute values of the given quantities are their magnitudes (a) (b) without the signs. (c).9 1-1.9 .17 = 23 7.1. 7.32 5 265· 9 5+ 509 32 =F 509 =F F Check: 265 265 265 265 = J J ~(509 .6.8. 4 16 -6 .09 since the numbers in the larger sum have a plus sign. Solve the following equation for F: 265 265· 265· = ~(F .2.211 = 1.1.1 12.74 ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA [CHAP.23. (b) 1121+ 151:: 17 The sum is . -7. 5" 9 = j(F I . Thus I +3~1 = 3! (e) I . (d) The sum is . -5. In (b). +5 absolute values and attach the common Subtract all the numbers have the minus sign. the smaller sum from the larger and attach the sign of the larger absolute sum to the difference.55.32 to the left side carry out the indicated operations interchange the left and right members 9 . 0.09 The sum is 6.81+ 17.= F .0621 = 0. -9.61 + 1-0.0.01+ 10.0. 5.5.-6 = 0 .21. add their 1-81 + 1-61 + 1-91 + 1-41:: 27. (d) -5.32) ~(477) J 5(53) = 265 Solved Problems SIGNED NUMBERS 5. -6. -4 (b) (a) (c) 0.11 = 7.32)$ 51 multiply both members by 9 and divide by 5 remove parentheses transpose . if v < 0 5. 14 . Give the absolute values of the following: (a) 7 171= 7 1-151 (b) -15 (c) (c) +3! (d) -0.81 (c) 10.vi = 15 (d) 1-0.32).062 = t" if v ~ 0 = -v.81 = 6. -33 Since sign. Add absolute values of numbers with the same signs.

giving the answers: (a) . (e) 1. 5) ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA 75 5. 9qr. (e) There are no like terms.2 (c) = -2n.3 of like terms and attach to the corresponding + 9)a = 14a = 12qr (b) (1 .St (c) -19m. and so the products have a plus sign.T + R ~z. Simplify the following indicated divisions: (a) - -24 4 (b) - -24 -2 (c) (c) 7.4)(-2) (d) (6)(-S)(2) The minus sign is attached to each of these The The number of negative signs is odd in parts (a). (a) (b) (c) 12-20::::12+(-20)=-8 7-(-7)= 7+7 = 14 (d) -2.6)T2 + R (-I +9- (d) (-5 +4)T = -T + T2 +R = T2 .7.CHAP.0. -3qr.3)n. The number of negative signs in parts (b) and (e) is even.2 3 + 7)qr + (+7 .S ( d) +14 -0.98) = 35 -3. Express the sum of the Add the coefficients unlike terms.80 (e) 0 + (35) = -7-7=-7+(-7)=-14 5. -3a (b) -13t..2. answers are: (b) 18.-7 (c) -7. (d) . In each of the following pairs of numbers subtract the second from the first: (a) 12. Subtract the second quantity from the first: (a) 8a.60.4.5.. (c) .S)(-])(-0. + 7T2 + 4T . -3n"z R.8.82 + (-0.6T2 literal parts. n"z.S -:--2.2. Determine the sum of the following and simplify: (a) 8a.48.82. 5.2 (e) - o -6 Applying the rule for division of signed numbers. (a) (8 . (d). -6m .3. products. -35 Change the sign of the second number and add the two by the addition rule for signed numbers.20 (b) 7. the answers are: (a) -6 (b) 12 -3 (d) -70 (e) 0 OPERA TIONS WITH MONOMIALS 5.98 (e) 0. The sum is ~x - ~Y+ 5. Multiply the following: (a) (-6)(+8) (b) (-2)(-9) (c) (-2)(-2)(-2) (e) (-1.7 (d) . 7qr (d) -ST. -3a (b) + 9a (c) -qr. (c).6.

-5m + 8m2.4a{a .4mJl -JJl = -2m (c) -7. we obtain: (b) 28a2b2 (c) (a) -31 -10m2n2 (d) 16a2 (e) 0.(x .76 ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA [CHAP.3y) .30 . or factoring out m and interchanging s. 5 (d) S.12)7tr = 7.477tr (e) + 2.l2nr (e) -Sm.5rs (b) 14mn by -7n (d) 2(eD)/3 by el2 Simplify by dividing the numerical coefficients and canceling Set up each indicated division as a fraction.5[21 + I . (a) Sa + 3a = (8 + 3)a = (b) -13/+(-5/)=(-13-5)/=-181 (c) -19m+6m=(-19+6)m=-l3m (d) 5. -8m2 11a Change the sign of the second number and add the numerical coefficients of like terms.5y[2y + [2 - 3(2 . -2. common factors.47nr.(2x (e) 2 .511 = -5r SIGNS OF GROUPING 5.4 + I] = 31 - 10f .s.5r2s -7- 1. Multiply the following pairs of monomials: (a) (3y)( -y) (b) (4ab)(7ab) Multiplying (c) (-Smn)(2mn) (d) (40)2 (e) (-3.2) = 5lY + [-4 + 5y) .{[3x .t)] (d) 3 .4y) .5r11 1.51 = -121 + 15 4 (b) 5lY + [2 .2) .4y] . Divide the following: (a) -32t -7- 4 (c) -7. Simplify: (a) 31 .a .2Srt)( -O.b]} Working from the "inside out".2ts) separately the numerical and literal coefficients of each pair.9.5[(2t (b) 5{y + 1) - (4 .6} = 30y .65r12s 5.127tr = (5.2} = 5lY - + 5y - 2} = 516y . the results are: (a) 31 .2} + 2(x - + 1)] + 3} 5)] + 4} like (c) 2 .47 + 2. and combining terms.5 + 20 .6 + 9y .10.[S + 2(3 - a) .5). the answer is m(8m .{x .597tr factors. applying the rules for signed numbers at each step. (a) -- -321 4 = -81 2 (b) .

-12n .-2 -i- r= 4n2.3a .4 (b) a3 .II + b) = 2 - 16a2 + 44a .-2 1'21 =""""f2 a _ 3m.3a2 + 3a .4a{a .a . (e) r +y r +6x21 2x3 -6x21 + y + 2yl Ans.4a{4a . -6x2y2 + y (a) 2_x2 .4a{a .Sbm-I 7an -2bm -2 9an .[3x .-l a _ 3mra 4n2r (d) ( -+mr 2 2) -----r 2 1 2 OPERATIONS WITH POLYNOMIALS S.x2 .2) .2a . I I Ans.I and -a3 + 2a2 + 2a (c) 26m + IOn + 14p.3x + I sx2 + 7x .x .{x. (b) 3a2 + 3a + 2a2 + 2a -a2 + Sa - .+m~)~ I I (a) V = 2[vo + Vo + at] = 2vo + at) = Vo + at/2 I (b) d= vot+'2a? 4n2.Sp 38m + 13n + 9p .5bm .4ab (d) 3 .2 S.20 Ans.I.I + 3] =S-x-~+~=S-x-x-2=3-2x (e) 2 . Add the following + 1 and sx2 + 7x .20.[II .{[3x .rY/r + ~at)r 2[ (d) (m.2bm (e) ~ + y\~ + 6x2y2. -3an .-2 (c) ---:rr m.[S + 6 . 12m + 15n .x + 2 .5p (d) 5an + 3bm + 4.CHAP. 5] ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA 77 (c) 2 . Simplify the following expressions: I (a) V = "2[vo (b) d = (vo + (vo + at)) (c) e.(2x + I)] + 3) = 3 .b]} = 2 .11.12.3x (a) 2 Arranging the polynomials vertically so that like terms are in vertical alignment and adding.SOy = 101+ IOxy. we obtain 2. tan .4 7x2 +4xa3 -a3 3 Ans.2x .Sy(2y+2x .x + 101 + lOX)' .4a{a . (d) San + 3bm + 4 -3an .10] +4) = 2 .SOy .bJ) = 2 .4bm + I Ans. (c) 26m + IOn + 14p 12m+ ISn -20 -12n .{x- 101- IOxy+SOy+4} 4 =2 .II + 3a + b) = 2 .(x .

2xy + 2_1 -2e +5 .15.xy)(3xz + y) <p2 + 3p .13.7c (e) 1a2 . (b) ~(e) 4mn G)r+~ + 2n2 - (e)~-y+rl y2 I 5.xy - 31 by (a) -4 (b) 2xy (e) -3y (d) r (e) 51 each tenn of the polynomial (c) (d) by the given monomial.10 (e) 1a2 . Dividing each term of the polynomial (a) r .16. Multiply a2 Multiplying (a) + 5.3p .2b + 7.xy + 41) -:. change the signs of all the terms of the subtrahend. (a) -6x + 4y -7x .3x + I.2 (b) «(3 - (d) (lOc2 (e) (x3 - - 25c) -:. 7x + 5y 3a2 .y Ans.3x+ I a2 .3e Ans. Perform the indicated divisions: (a) (a2 .8 4p2 + 13p .2ab2 - 3ab2 + 2b3 = 6a3 - a2b .12x + 8 Ans.4)(2p .I) (e) (2a2 + ab .xy2 p2 + 6r .31 = lOr . and add like terms. _3p2 + P + 5 (d) 6a .3y)(5x (b) (c) + y) (d + 2)(3d +J) (a2y .0/ + Sxly 3rl 5. we obtain: -8r .S 7p2 + 12p .2b) (d) by each term of the second and simplify where possible: Multiply each term of the tirst expression (a) lOr 3d2 + 2xy .b2)(3a .9x+ 7 14x2.lOe -12a + 7e -6a .13xy .41 + 12mn3 (d) ry3 + x4y4) we obtain: rl 6mn) -:-6mn by the given monomial.20xy + 121 -6ry 2x4 .10.ISxy2 - + 9y (e) IOrt + 25xyt .5ab2 + 2b3 .lip + 4 (e) 6a3 4a2b + 3a2b .IOe. 12a .(-5c) -:- 3t2 (c) (24m2n2 + 2/) -:.IS Ans. (e) 4p'l 3p2 P.78 ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA [CHAP. Subtract the second expression from the first: (a) -6x (b) (c) + 4y.31 + df + 6d + 2/ (b) (e) (d) 6xlyz + a21 2p3 - - 3ryz . -6a2 .4.14.6. -a2 + 9x - 7 Arrange the polynomials vertically so that like terms are in vertical alignment.8p + 4 = 2p3 + Sp2 . (d) + 13p .7b . 2b 6a -7b .151t (b) 4xly + IOrl.Sy -13x. Perform the indicated multiplication: (a) (2x . S 5. 5.7b .15xy . (b) 3a2 6a2 9a2 - +7 +8 2b + IS Ans.

2y)2 (c) (m + 2n)3 (e) (1 (b) (2a + 3bi (d) (3p _ q)3 (j) + 1.2 + g) + p)(l -I .m)(2r (h) (2r .19.5t) + (1.5J ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA 79 SIMPLE PRODUCTS 5.(p2 + 2mp + m2) = 4? (h) p2 .5t)2 = I + 3t + 2.-2 (d) + Znrh 9 x2 _ 41x2 9 .y)(2x (b) (l + y) (e) (0.27p2q + 9pq2 -l + b + e)l = -[(2a + b) + ef = -[(2a + b)2 + 2e(2a + b) + 2] + 2(\)( 1.m)(2r + p + m) .2mp .4ae .lS.25t2 (j) -(2a = -(4a2 + 4ab + b2 + 4ae + 2be + e2) = -4a2 .p . Factor the following: (a) d2 - cd (c) 2n.bl .(p + m)2 = 4? . difference of the squares of the quantities.p) .m2 (2r .CHAP.2be .p) + m] = (2r .p + m) = 1(2r .2 .p .p)2 _ m2 = 4? .m)(2r + p + m) = [2r .g)(0.m)(2r .(p + m))[2r + (p + m)] = (2d .p) This product is equal to the Each expression is the product of the sum and difference of two quantities. (a) (3x)2 (b) (2a)2 (e) (d) (e) + 2(3x)( -2y) + (_2y)2 = 9x2 .04 _ gl FACTORING 5. Expand the following expressions: (a) (3x .17.2 (g) (2r .4rp + p2 - m2 S.4ab .12xy + 41 + 2(2a)(3b) + (3b)2 = 4a2 + 12ab + 9b2 (m)3 + 3(m)2(2n) + 3m(2n)2 + (2ni = m3 + 6m2n + 12mn2 + 8n3 (3p)3 12 + 3(3p)2( -q) + 3(3p)( _q)2 + (_q)3 = 27p3 . (a) 4x2 (b) I_ p2 (d) vi - v~ (e) 0.p .mJ(2r .5t)2 -(2a + b + e)2 we obtain: (g) (2r . Expand the following by inspection: (a) (2x .p .p + m) Using the rules for squaring and cubing binomials.

3t)3. R2 (c) r2 9 . The written as 2x2 .3x . the first step in factoring is (p )(p). Rewrite the expression as (2x)2 .Ilx + 15. (b) The given polynomial (e) This difference is the square of a binomial. + 5)(n + 5).x . 5 There is a common monomial factor in each of the given expressions. The factored form is (v . Divide the expression by 9.22. I) or (6. whose terms are 2y and -3t. Divide the expression by 2. Factor the expression using these numbers and write it as (9x)2 + 10(9x) + 9 = (9x + 9)(9x + I).21. = (b) The factors are (b (e) The factors are + I )(b (j + 5)(J .3)(2x . Factor completely the following: (a) p2 + 7p + 12 3b . Therefore.20.2(llx) + 30.2)(2x2 +x - I )/(xl . the factored form is (3x (a) The binomial + 4y)(3x . The factored form is is the cube of a binomial (2y . with a and e factors of (b) b2 - + lOx + I + b)(cx + d). Switch the coefficients of x to obtain 81xl + 1O(9x) + 9. following answers: (a) d(d .3r) or (2y .3t)(2y . Rewrite the expression as (9x)2 + 10(9x) + 9. Factor the expression using these two (2x)2 . (a) Since the coefficient of ~ is 1.e) (b) ab(b (e) 2rrr{r Removal of this factor yields the + h) 4/) (e) 3m(2m2 + mn + 4p) + a + ab) (d) xl '9(1 - = '9 (I + 2y)(I xl .3).Il(2x) + 30 = (2x .9) (d) Multiply the trinomial by 9 and write it as 81xl + 9( lOx) + 9. Look for .5).361t + 54yt2 - 27~ v2 - 2vs + s2 is the difference Therefore. Simplify (2x2 . Look for two numbers that add up to 10 and multiply equal to 9.2) or (4.4) . In the cross-product 7p.II and multiply equal to + 30. and b and d factors of the constant term.16.s)(v . Hence p2 + 7p + 12 factors into (p + 3)(p + 4).5).11(2x) + 30. . The original trinomial can be written as 9xl + lOx + I (x + I )(9x + I). only the last set of factors satisfies this condition. Factor completely the following: (a) (b) 9xl . All the given trinomials can be factored into products of the type (ax the leading coefficient. the coefficient 7 is the sum of the factors of 12. (e) 8y .4y). = (e) Multiply the trinomial by 2 and write it as 4xl . = coefficient of x to obtain two numbers that add up to numbers and write it as original trinomial can be 5.4 (c) (d) i -4j 9xl 45 (e) 2x2 .s).2).16 of two squares.3r)(2y . 5.6)(2x . which may be (12.11(2x) + 30. Switch the 4xl .80 ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA [CHAP.2y) 5. of two squares factors into (~+ (~-f)· f) The factored form is (n (d) The given polynomial (e) The given polynomial is the square of a binomial. a I and e = I.Ilx + 15 (x .

_q_ P _ 2q (a) Canceling (b) Factoring.. Then factor and cancel the common terms (2.3y)(x .I I) (e) 2a2+a-l a2 _ I 4x2 (b) 2x+y' 9.y) (c) Factor c4 - I into (2 written as + 1)(2 - I) and (2 .I) = (2x + 1)(2x _ I) = 4~ _1 5. the result is + I)(c + 1).23. Then the given expression can be 2ab(cl + l)(c+ l)~ (Q-1) The result is 2ab(cl (d) The factors of p2 factors.CHAP. Perform the indicated operations and simplify: 16a2b3 (a) 8a2b 4ab : 2b ( c) 2ab(c4 - c. the result is ~(2x of this algebraic fraction are factored. 5] ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA 81 If the numerator and denominator canceled.Q-"1)( a ~a-I) + I) a+ Th e resu I·is --. = (2x + 3y)(2x xy - . 2a2 . I t a-I FRACTIONS 5. the result is 4ab2.-a(a + I) 2x2 - xy . and the common factors are ~~ + 1)~(2x . 4x2 - 9.1) into (c + I )(c - I).a -.3y)· ~(x .2q).y) ~~ After cancellation the result is (2x .3y) . the common factors.24.y) a2 The given expressions can be written as ~2x T = (2x + y)(x . Express each of the following in the form of a single fraction: (a) --- 5 1 T 3T (b) I +1_ y y (c) x-I --+-- 3 2 I-x . 4q2 are (p + 2q) and (p . 2x+3y (d) pq p2 -4q2 + 2q2 . ~~'q Rewriting the given expression and canceling common q~~=1 (e) First invert the second fraction and multiply.

2m .I = 2R2 -8 2R A 2R2 . then multiply the numerators and multiply the denominators .25.x) 3 2 3.1 14/(3T) (b) LCD = I- Y l-Y Y --'1+--= l-Y l-Y (c) LCD becomes l-Y+Y I-Y =lj(I-Y) = x-I and the denominator of the second fraction are multiplied by . Ii = -8 . 5 (e) m2 4 +2m +1 --- 2 m +1 of arithmetical fractions.I.1 (d _ 6)2 -. =r: (e) 2d2 + 5d .3 2d .05 lOa x) factors first.82 ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA [CHAP.I x.1)2 (-1)(1 .2R .2 =---=--=I/(x-I) x. the expression If the numerator x-I (d) LCD -+ 3 ( . Perform the indicated operations and simplify: (e) (~s~/)(~~\) x . Then multiply the numerators and multiply the denominators (b) Invert the second fraction.I x. add the numerators (a) LCD = 3T 3'5 -3T .d2 . since the denominator I _m m I • _2 __ m 4 .36 ( (a) Cancel common d) 80 (0. + this is the LCD.m) (m + I)(m + I)- + 1)2 5.2(m (m + I)(m + 1) +I + I- + 1)(m + I)- + 1) _ 4 ..= --3T = 3T 1 15 .. After determining the least The procedure is the same as for the addition common denominator. cancel the common factors.2RA -(8 2R2 + 2RA) 2R2 of the second fraction is (e) Factor m2 m+ + 2m + I 4 (m into (m + I )(m + I).2 (m 2(1 .

l_=9/2 3 3 0.96 = 0.2 5. Factor and cancel like terms.8 1. .--T}(d (d . To accomplish this.3s + I IOOx 80x 25x I . Solve the following equations: (a) y/3 = 12 (e) (b) S = (l/2)n (c) (l/8)d = 2.6)2 (2d .096 0.6)~ + 3) (d + 6)(d-'t)} (2d-1j (d + 3)(d + 6) d.27. divide each side of the equation by the original coefficient of the unknown (a) 1='3 (b) 40 = 8a (c) 0.1 12 (b)40=$a 8 $ 40 8 (c) (). Multiplying the numerators and the + 3s + I .6 d2+9d+18 d-6 EQUATIONS 5. 5] ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA 83 (c) There are no common denominators factors and hence no cancellation gives the result 2s2 2s2 is possible. the coefficients become I.5 (d) 3 n = 1S 18 = 26 8x s If the given fractional coefficients of the unknown are multiplied by their reciprocals. multiply by the first.CHAP. Solve the following equations: (a) 3h = 12 (e) 0.26.x) =4- = (e) Invert the second fraction and multiply by the first: 2d2 + 5d - 3 d2 - 36 (d . multiply the remaining factors in the numerator and denominator. ().:1' = o.d.8 (e) 0.J (d) Jy J = 13! 3 = ~r ~ 131 £1 y=-2=. and simplify x 100 80(0.:1'p 5 ().8r To solve an equation of the first degree it is necessary to have the unknown on one side of the equation with coefficient I. The other member of the equation must also be multiplied by the same reciprocal.05 .96 r=-= 0.05 -x) lOOx 80(0.1p=S Jh 12 h='3=4 a=-=5 5 p=-=50 0.20x (d) Invert the second fraction.I) respectively.

4 = 2x - 12 .4 db 2(-4) .4 = 2(x .5 In .3 Check: (d) 12 + 2 =c db 14 . ~ J = 25 = 117/2 Jx (e) 18 .25 = 1.75 = 1. $" = ~.3 = 7 (d) 12=c-2 (e) S + 2. ~n z (c) $ . (a) a (b) = 8.J= 12·3 y= 36 n = 10 d=20 n 9 x (b) 5•2 I = -1 .x -12+ remove parentheses transpose the unknown terms to the left side: transpose .75 .10) 2x . Solve and check the following equations: (a) a +6 = 8 (c) b .2 = 12 (e) S = 1.29.75 (c) b +3 Check: 10 .50 Check: -0. 5 (a) ~ J .84 ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA [CHAP.4 to the right side 2x-2x+x= Check: 2(2) .75 5.25 S = -0.4 :k 2(2 . $d = 2.6) .6 9.(-8) odb -8+8 . Solve for the unknown and check the following equations: (a) 16=2(t+3) 16 = 2t + 6 10 remove parentheses transpose 6 collect terms on left side divide both members by 2 16-6=2t = 2t =t 5 or t =5 16:k 2(5) Check: +6 + 10 10+4 16= 16 (b) 2x .2.25 1.50 + 2.75 (b) 9 = 5 +d Transpose the numerical terms so that the unknown is alone on one side of the equation.(2 . $" ~ 2 18 13 .5=d =7 a =2 10 14 Check: 2 Check: d=4 b= c= + 6 db 8 9 :k 5 + 4 db 7 12 8 =8 9=9 7=7 12 :k 1.28. ~ = IJ 5 •8 (d) ~.g = 58 t S.10) 4..6) .(x .

8).0889)(84) 2240 4 = 2240 .41 :b 0.41 75.25.41 = 0.CHAP.34 = 3.25 + 2.0.34 5. 5] ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA 85 (C) 4 + 10 = 7 3b 10 3b 10 3b = 7-4 transpose 4 collect terms on right side multiply both sides by 10/3.15) = 320(15 .75 . LCD of 6 and 10.25i 75. Solve the following equation for S: 300S(99 . + 2.60 = 9 + 15 4a = 24 a=6 6 Ch ec k: 2(6) .30.0.0.W' • Jb = ~ .09 3. .09 multiply both sides by 100 transpose terms collect terms divide both sides by 50 = 25.W' multiply both members by 30. cancel common factors remove parentheses transpose collect terms divide both sides by 4 2a-32a+3 10a-15=6a+9 lOa .09 J: 1. J J . 300 • S .0889 Check: 300(0.12+3 -6-= ---w- (e) 0.75i . 50.W' J b= 10 Check: 4 + 3(10) J: 7 10 30 • 4+-=7 10 (d) -6-=-105 (2a .25(5) + 2.3) 3 (2a + 3) )6 ~ =)6 .41 3.3 J: 2(6) + 3 10 12-3 . the reciprocal of 3/10 =3 . + 209 = 209 + 41 = 250 i= 5 Check: 0.75(5) . 84 = 320 • 7 S = 320·7 300' 84 remove parentheses on both sides divide both members by 300· 84 cancel like factors carry out indicated division ~ 320' 7 = 45 ~ 0. .

0. 5 5.25 12=--0.15).E. transpose 60 10 the nght SIde simplify right member multiply both members by 60V 1 I ---60 3 30 V = 60 -3V = 60 60 V =-= -3 -20 divide both members by .5-1) 60 V (1 --30 to 1) .32.5)(-2)30 60 V I I -1 perform operations in parentheses 60+V=W V simplify the right member I .86 ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA [CHAP. Solve the following equation for E: 12 = 115 .112 0.1 "'" 800 5. the product of the means equals the product of the extremes remove parentheses simplify 21 .315 21 P P = 800 1115 = 800 + 315 = 1115 transpose 315 to the right side divide both members by 21 16 = """"2l "'" 53.b 50' 21 (38.33.25 simplify the left member transpose .1 .E to the left side and 3 to the right side simplify the right member = 112 .l.25 (12)(0. 115 .+ _!_ = (0. Solve the following equation for P: ~~ = P ~615· 21(P ..3 .25 12 _3_ J: 12 = 12 5.E 3=115-£ £=115-3 £ Check: multiply both members of the equation by 0.21 • 15 = 50 • 16 21P .25) = 115 .15) = 50· 16 since the given equation may be regarded as a proportion. P .31. Solve the following equation for V: 11 -+-=(1.1 21(53.1) Check: J: 800 800.

2w)/n P .8 (b) F = 1.56F 1.CHAP.321 transpose Vo and .vo)/32 or 1 = (v (d) P = red + 2w. 5] ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA 87 FORMULAS Many of the formulas used in science and technology are first-degree equations.273 or K = C + 273 1. = nd transpose 2w divide both members by n = (P .34.Vo = 321 v . 5. for d.321 = v .8C transpose 32 divide both members by 1.32t or Also. for K C+273 =K transpose .32 = F-32 --=C 1. for Vo.273.8 (c) V = Vo + 32(. for t 0 ---II: 1+ bt or divide both sides by (I + btl Vo = V/(I +bl) .~ O.8C + 32. Vo for Vo.8 17. = vo transpose . for t v .Vo 32 =t . Solve the following for the indicated symbol: (a) C = K .8 E.321 divide both members by 32 v .8 or C =. for w P-2w P-2w --=d n or Also.!_ 1.nd = 2w d P-nd -2-=w transpose nd divide both members by 2 or w = (P V nd)/2 (e) V = Vo(I + bt). for C F .

32). Evaluate the unknown with the given values for the other symbols: (a) C = ttd: n = 3.32) c = ~ ()-8')2 9 C (d) R perform the operation inside the parentheses or and cancel = S(2) C = 10 OF = Ro(l + at). F = 50 of substitute the given values in the formula S C = 9(SO. V = 20 rn/sec.14d = 3rl"4' d 3rl"4' or d substitute the given values in the formula divide both sides by 3. R = 10 I ohm.56cm = 3.OOOa collect terms on left side divide both members by 20.000 I ~ --=--a 20.000 ~ 1 a=--=O. t = 5 sec 20 = 80 20 .35.S6 3.80 -60 +a' substitute the given values transpose 80 collect terms on the left side divide both members by 5 = Sa = Sa $a -S-=I -60 -12 =a or (c) C a = -12 -- m/sec s = -12 m/sec 2 = (5/9)(F . 101 101 Ro = 100 ohm.Vo Voh divide both members by Voh .OOOa 100 20.88 ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA [CHAP. b = lOft.100 1= = 20.S6 12.OOOa substitute the given values remove parentheses transpose 101 .14 4 C = 12. V = Vo V- + Voht Vo = Voht remove parentheses transpose Vo --=t V .000 x 10 -s / 0C 3 (e) V bhH = -3-.14.OOOOS=S 20. h = 5 ft 100=--:3-- 10' S' H substitute the given values .Vo)/Woh) or t = (V 5. t = 200 °C = = 100(1+ a • 200) 100+ 20. 5 Also. 12. S Vo = 80 m/sec. V = 100ft .14 =d = 4cm (b) V = Vo + at.

7 5. 12a (b) 5.39.37.4ab as indicated: 0. -5/8 (e) 3.5.-6 pairs of numbers. -si.6 3. Find the absolute (a) value of each of the following: (e) -6 -5 (b) 10 (d) -I subtract (e) -g 5. -5.-3/4. 5.-6 -9. -4. 8a2b2.38.41.-2. Find the products Determine (a) (d) 3.ry2. -9 (e) -1.6. -12 (b) -3t. 5.36. (e) the first number from the first: (d) 0. 5] ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA 89 100 • 3 _ 50H • J - J multiply both sides by 3 and cancel 300 = 50H ~ divide both members by 50 H 6 3OO=~H ~ 6 =H or = 6ft Supplementary Problems The answers to this set of problems are at the end of this chapter. -12 (b) -2. -5ry2. 5.0/.8. -2 10 (e) 1/2.43. of the numbers in the sets of Problem expressions: (e) the sum of the following x 3x. In each of the following (a) pairs of numbers. 6t.40. -5 (b) -4.56. -20. ° 5. -4.4. -3xy. 5. 10 -3. 2t products: (e) (e) Simplify each of the following (a) (xy)(ry) (3x)(5xy)( -2x2yl) (0.39.CHAP. -I.5xyz) (b) (3ab)( -2ab2) (d) (-2abc)(3a2b2) 5. 10. -xy.1)2 (g) (2x (h) (3x + 2zi + at)2 (f) -( 4x + 7)2 + 3y + 5)2 (x + y + I)(x - y . (e) subtract the first number from the second: (d) 0. -5 (e) (b) 5.2b)2 (d) (l (e) (r+0. -30 5.44. -5x.2x)( -1. -5. _3pq3 (d) 24alJ22. In each of the following (a) 3.42. 3r 5.7xy4 Multiply (a) (2x (b) yl (e) (4a . -4 -8.I) . Divide the first expression (a) -IOmn. Find the sum of the following (a) numbers: -3. 2m2 by the second: (e) (c) 6p3q2. 7. -6xy.6. (c) r.2xy)( -0.0.

10xy+ 15xy2 (e) 2a + 4abc -? .3[(2x . Factor each of the following: (a) 2x' .x2 + 3x .10 (b) 12~ (d) t2 +2t .8x 5.2 by: (c) x .33 (h) 20~ +x(i) -15~ I (b) 3p2 + Tpq _ 6q2 (c) 2m2 + 13m .3ayl (e) 2m2 + 2m +7 . Perform the indicated divisions: (a) (IQc2 .49. Factor a monomial from each of the following polynomials: (a) 5~ .y -2 (b) (d) 2x .3y) (b) 2t - +x .2 - 2vs + s2 (c) a2b2 (d) rs2 - 2ab + I (b) 9n2 + 30n + 25 + 8rs + 16r -4 (e) ~ .r . Simplify each of the following expressions: (a) (2p2 .2 + 16x .(4t + 6[-4(a + 4t .5t2 (g) 4~ +x .(4x + y) + 2) (r +I- 3(t .3) 5.50...3ae + OOcd (d) 2.52. Factor each of the following polynomials: (a) 16yl .- (3a2) (d) 2(y . Simplify: (a) 2x . Perform the indicated multiplications: (a) (3x .128) ~ (p .q)3 5.45.2Se) ~ (-Se) (e) (24m3n2 16m2n3) ~ (-8m3n3) (e) (5pq .IS (f) p2 + 3p 5.90 ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA (CHAP.4 5.-(pq) (b) (12a3 + 002).2y)(6x + 5y) + y) (c) (pq - 2)(p2 (d) (2r .53.2v) 5. Factor the following: (a) z.z.2y)(x (b) (3x .2 (e) 5xy 5.46.2))} (e) 2y .~ (c) 402b2 - 252 (e) s(t~ .2 (d) 402 (e) 6s2 - 2ab .1 5.xy2 .t~) (d) _1 -4. Multiply as indicated: (a) (2x + y)3 (c) (4x (d) (I + 3y)3 + bt)3 (e) (a + 0...51.2.I )(t + I) + 2) + (e) (2u + 3v)(4u .J .I») + I + t) 5.2ac + 203 (e) Ba ba -+2 2 (b) 3abc .1)3 (b) (5p .2b2 Tst .3)(3y + 1) ~ 4(y .3x{2x + (1 .48.55..54.2) (e) 4 .5a{2a (d) t[3t2 . 4x2 5. Multiply 3.47.2r) . Factor each of the following polynomials: (a) L.8) d2 . 5 5.4n2 2n2 (b) dn + 2n2 • d---2-n .7 (j) 21~ + l l.x2 (a) +x -3x .3pq2 + 2p) .

57.-l _-_I p q rl t (b) rl(~ .05)(O.y)/(2x + y) 5.63.2y + 12 6 + 2t = t + 2t + 3t 2(4h .h2:.5(98. Simplify the indicated differences: (a) .x)2 (r + X)2 R+h m m 5.3) 120.y)(2r . Solve the following equations for the unknown and check the solutions: (a) c +3 = 8 (b) h - 3 =6 (c) 12 =d- 2 (d) 0.OS)(9.E) + 8.7 .7S(98.-- 1 1 (c) _. Simplify: (a) 8-77 1 2d (c) 3 2" M? 2rrML(~ 4rr(R~ .xy . Solve the following equations and check the solutions: (a) 18(10 .-.60.59.8)(l0) (c) + O.c_) h-.61.tl) L 2 (d) (I/R)+(1/1100) 5.44 (e) (2a)/3 =4 5.62.64)F (b) (0.6U = 1. Simplify the following sums: (a) - 1I +uv (c) 'h + q2 rl rz +ML2 2 (e) mR2 ( -2-+mR2 )a R (b) - 1 bt +dd I (d) -ML2 12 5.30.Rr)L R1) (b) q- A(tz .3) = 94. n2_1 (a) n2 +2 (m_I)2 (b) (m + 1)2 (c) a2+b2 a+b a3+J (d) a2 + y2 (p_Z)3 (e) p2 _ Z2 5.CHAP.7 .10) 10 + 3) - = 14 (e) 19-5E(4E+ 1)=40-10E(2E-I) 5. when possible._(/__. Simplify the following products: (a) 21rs3 (2p + ql • 4p2 _ q2 (lSr2s) (c) (R GMm + h)2 GME (e) -r2 (I ) Mr - (b)f(v~s)(1 +~) (d) crr~f?4)C~2) -7 Mgr (e) 5.4 + x = Sx 3y 6 (b) 2y +6 - (c) 4t (d) S(h = 3 .SE = 130 = (0. 5) ESSENTIALS OF ALGEBRA 91 (d) (3x .26. Solve if possible the following equations and check the solutions: (a) 3x .58.56. Which of the following expressions can be simplified? Perform simplifications.77F ._!_) 5 r2 (d) ----- m (r .

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