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**The measurement, using a Venturi meter, of incompressible liquids flowing down a pipe
**

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Contents

1. Introduction 2. Measurement Of Flow. 3. Worked Examples 4. Vertical Venturi Meters. 5. Worked Example 6. Page Comments

Introduction

Venturi Meter are used to measure the velocity of flow of fluids in a pipe. They consist of a short length of pipe shaped like a vena contracta, which fits into a normal pipe-line

Venturi Meters have the following characteristics:• Theoretically • They • The

there is no restriction to the flow down the pipe.

can be manufactured to fit any required pipe size.

temperature and pressure within the pipe does not affect the are no moving parts.

**meter or its accuracy.
**

• There

Measurement Of Flow. the quantity flowing is given by:(1) For the proof of the above equation please click on the red button (2) Applying Bernoulli's equation at stations 1 and 2 (3) (4) . For a meter with the above arrangements of manometers.• Unfortunately the accurate shape required of the inside of the meter makes them relatively expensive to manufacture.

96 to 0. the actual velocity and consequently actual discharge is LESS than that given by the above equations. because of fluid resistance.99. . which usually lies between 0.(5) (6) (7) where (8) (9) Which can be written as (10) In practice. A coefficient of discharge is therefore introduced.

For the above arrangement the Quantity flowing is given by. A more practical arrangement is to measure the difference in pressure rather than the absolute values. (11) Where the constant K is specific to a particular meter and will include an allowance for a coefficient of discharge. since the pressures would require the use of long tubes. This is achieved as shown in the following diagram.In an actual meter it is not be practical for the tubes to be taken straight up as shown. To see the proof of the above equation please click on the red button (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) For any given meter this can be written as (18) .

fall below Assuming that absolute. for the meter is 0. Part 1) which it may be used. Example 1 A venturi meter with a 3 in. i.Sc. The pressure at the entrance to the meter is gauge and it is undesirable that the pressure should at any point.96 find the maximum flow for (B. They can be seen by clicking on the red button.Worked Examples The solutions to the following examples have been hidden. pipe-line. diameter throat is installed in a 6 in. Take the specific weight of the liquid as and atmospheric pressure To see the solution please click on the red button Applying Bernoulli to an ideal horizontal Venturi meter.e. one with no losses (19) Re-writing the equation .

96 (26) Example 2 Water is discharged from a pit through a 9 in. diameter pipe 200 ft. which is . at the output of which is fitted a horizontal venturi meter having a throat diameter of 6 in. and at 60 ft. If the barometric pressure corresponds to 34 ft. of .long. A constant head of 70 ft. of water (gauge) is maintained at the pipe inlet.(20) The quantity of fluid flowing along the pipe (Q)is given by:(21) (22) From equations (20) and (22) (23) (24) Thus for an Ideal meter:- (25) For the actual meter taking into account the of 0. below the meter. of water and the absolute pressure at the meter throat is not to fall below 10 ft.

The specific gravity of mercury =13. find the maximum discharge that may be permitted. the connecting tubes above the mercury being full of water.Sc. for the pipe. Part 1) To see the solution please click on the red button.water. Applying Bernoulli at A and B (27) As the pipe is of constant cross section there can be no change in velocity between A and B.6 (B. It can also be seen that at the Datum the Potential Energy is zero and so substituting in given values to the above equation:- (28) (29) . Under these conditions what would be the difference of level between two columns of a U-tube mercury manometer connected between the inlet and throat of the venturi meter.

As a result H. The above equation can be therefore written in absolute form as:- (31) The head in the Venturi meter throat must not fall below 10 ft.(30) The pressure at A was given 70 ft.the reduction in head in the throat of the meter is given by - (32) (33) (34) (35) (36) (37) . gauge which means that it was measured above atmospheric pressure which was 34 ft. of water absolute.

long and f=0. pipe connecting two reservoirs is measured by means of a venturi meter situated upstream of a regulating valve. which may be assumed to be constant. Neglect all other losses.006. The pipe is 4000 ft. . near to the entrance to the lower reservoir and 2 ft. below atmosphere. for the meter is 0. The difference in levels of the reservoirs is 50 ft. what is the minimum throat diameter permissible.(38) (39) (40) If the difference in Mercury levels is h (41) (42) Example 3 The flow of water in a 9 in.Sc. Part 2) To see the solution please click on the red button. The loss in the valve when fully open is 5 times the velocity head. (B.97 and all the losses may be assumed to occur in the convergent portion. above the level thereof. If the pressure at the venturi throat is not to drop more than 10 ft.

Applying Bernoulli between the entrance and throat of the Venturi - (43) Where is the loss of head in the convergent portion of the venturi. (44) (45) (46) .

(47) If there was no head lost in the venturi ideal inlet velocity as :(48) From equation (47) would be zero and writing the (49) Substituting this value for into equation (48) (50) Combining equations (49) and (50) (51) Substituting the above equation into equation (47) (52) (53) Substituting in values .

(54) (55) Let be the head lost due to pipe friction between A and B and let be the head lost in the valve. (58) (59) (60) Dividing equation (60) by (57) (61) . Then applying Bernoulli to the whole pipe length:- (56) (57) Bernoulli is now applied between the water surface of the upper reservoir and the throat of the Venturi meter.

(62) From which (63) Since (64) Vertical Venturi Meters. . It will be found that the formulae which have already been proved are equally applicable to vertical meters. The following section considers a meter mounted in the vertical. All the examples above and the theory have examined horizontal meters.

96 (B. Prove that for any flow the reading is unaffected by the slope of the meter. Use a direct application of Bernoulli's theorem taking the relative density of mercury to water as 13. if its relative density relative to water is 0. calculate the flow of fuel oil in gals. Part1) To see the solution please click on the red button .8 and the difference of level of the mercury columns is 7 in.6 and the meter coefficient as 0./hr. and the throat diameter in. If the mains diameter is in.Sc.Worked Example The following example is of a non-horizontal meter Example 4 A Venturi meter is connected at the main and throat sections by tubes filled with the fluid being metered by a differential mercury manometer.

Applying Bernoulli (71) (72) But for a given flow and are constant (73) Now the pressures at level XX .- (74) (75) From equations (73) and (75) . in the U-tube are equal and if the subscript m refers to mercury. then.

(76) Now (77) (78) From equations (76) and (78) and substituting values (79) From which (80) (81) (82) .

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