COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION

University of the Philippines Diliman

FORMAT GUIDEBOOK FOR THESES AND DISSERTATIONS

DILIMAN, QUEZON CITY JUNE 2008

This document is designed as a guide for preparing and presenting theses and dissertations at the University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication. This guidebook uses inputs from the style manuals of the UP School of Library and Information Science and the Ohio University. It was developed by the Thesis Format Committee organized by Dean Elena Pernia. The committee was chaired by Dr. Fernando D. Paragas with Prof. Yvonne T. Chua, Ms. Luzviminda J. Matulac, Dr. Perlita G. Manalili, and Dr. Arminda V. Santiago as members.

TABLE OF CONTENTS OF THE GUIDEBOOK I. General Guidelines A. Formatting of Text B. Formatting of Charts, Pictures and Illustrations, and Tables and Matrices C. Submission Procedures II. Formatting Guidelines A. Sample Cover B. Sample Spine C. Sample Title Page D. Sample Approval Sheet Page for B.A. Theses E. Sample Approval Sheet Page for M.A. Theses and Dissertations F. Sample Biographical Page G. Sample Acknowledgment Page H. Sample Dedication Page I. Abstract Page Samples J. Sample Table of Contents K. Sample Lists L. Sample Page Layout M. Sample First Page of a Chapter N. Subheads O. Sample Tables P. Sample Chart Q. Sample Graphics (Pictures, Illustrations) R. Sample Matrix III. Supplementary Materials A. Basic Outline of Chapters and Sections B. Basic Writing Guidelines C. Basic Citation using APA Style D. Basic Citation using MLA Style

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I. GENERAL GUIDELINES A. Formatting of Text Use the following for the entire document: 1. Citation and references: Use APA (American Psychological Association) 5th Edition or MLA (Modern Language Association) for in-text citation and the listing of references. Do not mix citation styles. 2. Font: Times New Roman 12 points or Arial 11 points normal, for the entire document, except for footnotes (see below). No other font may be used, even for the preliminary section. 3. Paper: White, 8.5” x 11”, 80gsm. No special paper may be used in any part of the document, except for photo paper for pictures, graphics, and other illustrations. 4. Margin: 1.5” for the left margin, 1.0” for the top, right, and bottom margins 5. Justification. Use ragged right margin because this is more readable than forced justify margin. 6. Spacing: Double spacing for the entire document. No additional spacing between paragraphs. Add an extra double space between sections. 7. Page numbers: Place page numbers in the header, on the top right corner. Follow these formatting guidelines for specific pages in the document. Examples are in Sections III and IV. a. For all pages preceding the first chapter, use lowercase Roman numerals (i, ii, iii…). However, page numbers shall first appear on the Table of Contents. Although the Title, Approval Sheet, Biographical Data, Acknowledgment, Dedication, and Abstract pages are counted in the pagination, their page numbers are not shown. b. For the body, use Hindu-Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3…). Numbering should begin with the first page of the first chapter, but the page number should not appear on the first page. Similarly, the first page of each succeeding chapter should have no page number. c. Page numbers stand alone, with no special formatting. Do not use dashes (-2-) or the word “Page” (Ex.: Page 2) to identify page numbers. 8. Footnotes should be used instead of endnotes to promote readability. Place sequentially numbered footnotes at the bottom of the appropriate page. Footnotes must be single-spaced, using Times New Roman 11 points or Arial 10 points. Footnotes must be separated from the main body by a short line.

B. Formatting of Charts, Pictures and Illustrations, and Tables and Matrices 1. Charts, pictures and illustrations, and tables and matrices should appear on the same page or on the following page after they are mentioned in the text. Put an extra double space before and after these items. Photo paper may be used for charts, pictures, and illustrations.

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2. Images must fit and be centered within margins. If a table, figure, or picture does not fit in a portrait page layout, change to a landscape layout. Put this landscaped page immediately after the page that cites the table, figure, or picture. The landscaped page must have a 1.5” margin at the top, and 1.0” margin on all others. Landscaped pages must be oriented away from the binding. 3. No text should appear to the left or to the right of the charts, pictures and illustrations, and tables and matrices. 4. Label charts, pictures and illustrations, and tables and matrices chronologically using Hindu-Arabic numerals. 5. Put titles at the top of the charts, pictures and illustrations, and tables and matrices. Ensure that these titles match those in the Table of Contents and in the document. Titles must be flush left, rather than centered, on the page. 6. Place captions at the bottom of the pictures and illustrations. Captions must be singlespaced. Separate captions from the text with an extra double space.

C. Submission Procedures The deadline for submission of theses and dissertations is one week before the last day for the submission of grades for graduating students to provide sufficient time for content and format checking, corrections and binding. For example, if the deadline for submission of grades is April 4, theses and dissertations must be with the advisers by March 28. Undergraduate and master’s theses must be hardbound using maroon leatherette with gold lettering. Doctoral dissertations must be hardbound using black leatherette with gold lettering. The filenames for the digital files (either the document version or the digital version of the production work) should be as follows: “Last Name, First Name Middle Name; the month and year of graduation; and the title of the thesis/dissertation (Ex.: De la Cruz, Juana Santos 04-07 A Case Study of the University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication) The CD/DVD must be submitted in a thin transparent plastic case without any special cover or label. Simply write the title and the name/s of the author/s on the disc itself using an alcohol-based CD/DVD marker. The ink of ordinary pentel pens penetrates the disc and destroys the files. Consult the CMC Library for an example.

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and the student . For Broadcast Communication . the department. the adviser.” Moreover. the adviser. .Three hardbound copies—one each for the library.One additional CD/DVD copy of the consolidated thesis in PDF format for the department 3.To be considered for graduation. the Institute. as another prerequisite for graduation. an undergraduate student should submit the following to his/her Department Secretary: 1. the Institute. the department.Four DVD copies of the production work—one for the library. where applicable.Four CD/DVD copies of the consolidated thesis in PDF format—one each for the library. the adviser.Four CD/DVD copies of the consolidated thesis in PDF format—one each for the library. and the student . and the student . an “applicant for graduation must submit to the Graduate Studies Department at least five (5) bound copies and at least one digital copy of the approved master’s thesis as a prerequisite for graduation. the adviser. and the student. PhD students who are applying for graduation must submit to the Graduate Studies Department at least one pre-print (or pre-publication) paper on the approved doctoral dissertation. the adviser. the department. Guidebook page 5 . the department. the adviser. These DVD copies may use a designed cover.One mini-DVD copy for the Institute 4. and the student . For Film . and the student.One hardbound copy for the library According to the 2006 UP CMC Rules for MA and PhD Students. . For Communication Research .Four hardbound copies—one each for the library.Four CD/DVD copies of any production work—one each for the library.One CD/DVD copy of the consolidated thesis in PDF format for the library . For Journalism . and the student 2.Three hardbound copies and three CD/DVD copies of the consolidated thesis in PDF format—one each for the library.

G. D. Cover B. Q. Title page Approval Sheet page Biographical page Acknowledgment page Dedication page Abstract page Table of Contents List of Tables Body K. E. M. H. O. Page layout First page of a chapter Subheads Tables Chart Graphics (Pictures. N. L. I. FORMATTING GUIDELINES External features A. Spine Preliminary Section C.II. Illustrations) Matrix Guidebook page 6 . J. P. F.

The month and the year of graduation must appear about 2” above the bottom edge of the cover. Only one of the following may appear on the cover: October for First Semester. vertically center your names around 5.5” from the top edge of the cover. Theses must be covered in deep maroon leatherette and dissertations in black leatherette. APRIL 2008 Guidebook page 7 . Please note the correct spelling of UP Diliman. SAMPLE COVER The title should appear 2. Your FULL name must appear about 5.A.5” by 11”. Use all caps. April for Second Semester. and May for Summer graduation. They must use gold lettering and Times New Roman. All text in the cover must be single-spaced. JUANA SANTOS DE LA CRUZ All theses and dissertations must be hardbound. AN ACADEMIC LIFE: A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION The full title must appear centered within the cover. COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES DILIMAN The name of the College and the University must appear about 3. Bound copies must measure 8. with the creative title (if any) on the first line.5” above the bottom edge of the cover. Alphabetically list multiple authors according to their surnames. on the cover. In case of multiple authors. Use all caps for the title. Use all caps. 14 points.5” from the top edge of the cover.5” from the top edge of the cover.

Do not use DE LA CRUZ J.S. remove periods after initials. UP CMC APRIL 2008 The bottom 2” of the spine must contain the initials UP CMC as well as the month and the year of graduation. For streamlined look. JS.) Name/s must be horizontally and vertically centered within this space. First name initials Middle name initials. SAMPLE SPINE The spine must use gold lettering and Times New Roman. which must be horizontally and vertically centered within this space. AN ACADEMIC LIFE: A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION DE LA CRUZ. 14 points. (Use DE LA CRUZ. Guidebook page 8 . The first 3” must contain the name/s of the author using this format: Surname. The middle 6” must contain the full title. as well as between the main items in it.B. JS There is a single 6point gold line at the top and bottom areas of the spine. East Asian names may omit the comma. All caps must be used.

and May for Summer graduation.(JOURNALISM) DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN COMMUNICATION Submitted to the COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION University of the Philippines Diliman In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Extra double space here.Top margin: 1” C. The title should be typed on the third double space. [STATE DEGREE] IN [STATE PROGRAM] Extra double space here.g. Use regular caps (e. The line “submitted to the” must be typed on the third double space. In the case of a longer title or multiple author/s. Your name should be typed on the fifth double space.BROADCAST COMMUNICATION . Right margin: 1” Bottom margin: 1” .(FILM) . AN ACADEMIC LIFE: Two double spaces from the top margin.COMMUNICATION RESEARCH .JOURNALISM . Remove a double space if the title is long or if there are multiple authors.5” Four double spaces from the last line of the title. [State Month Year] Only one of the following may appear on the cover: October for First Semester. Make sure you indicate the correct degree and program: BACHELOR OF ARTS IN . with no comma Guidebook page 9 between the month and the year. decrease this space accordingly. April for Second Semester.FILM MASTER OF ARTS IN COMMUNICATION (COMMUNICATION RESEARCH) MASTER OF ARTS IN MEDIA STUDIES . SAMPLE TITLE PAGE Please follow the system of capitalization as indicated in this example. JUANA SANTOS DE LA CRUZ Two double spaces from the name of the author.(BROADCAST COMMUNICATION) . A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION Left margin: 1. April 2008).

Masinag. [State Rank. AN ACADEMIC LIFE: A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION Nine single spaces from the title. SAMPLE APPROVAL SHEET FOR B. Make sure you have the correct names Professor Bituin N. The title begins on the fifth single space. Degree] and approved for the University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication by Make sure you specify the correct degree. PhD and degrees of your adviser and the dean. Name of the Dean.A.5” Guidebook page 10 Bottom margin: 1” . College of Mass Communication Left margin: 1. See previous page for the correct degree titles. THESES Four single spaces from the top margin. Name of Adviser. Remove a space for every additional line in the case of a long title. Ex: Type the name of the adviser on the fifth single space. Right margin: 1” [State Rank. The word “by” must be typed on the tenth single space.” has been accepted for the degree of [STATE DEGREE] IN [STATE PROGRAM] by Four single spaces from the preceding line.Top margin: 1” D. by JUANA SANTOS DE LA CRUZ (Author 2) Seven single spaces (Author 3) between the line of the (Author 4) first author’s name and the line “has been approved for. Degree] Dean.

D. Degree] Member and approved for the University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication by Four single spaces [State Rank. THESES & Ph.” has been accepted for the degree of [STATE DEGREE] IN [STATE PROGRAM] by Four single spaces from the preceding line. Name of Adviser. Masinag.5” . Degree] Critic Example for faculty entries: Professor Bituin N. Remove a space for every additional line in the case of a long title. Degree] Dean. Name of the Dean. Degree] Adviser Four single spaces [State Rank.E. Right margin: 1” by JUANA SANTOS DE LA CRUZ Four single spaces between author’s name and the line “has been approved for. DISSERTATIONS AN ACADEMIC LIFE: A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION Five single spaces from the title.A. Name of Adviser. [State Rank. Degree] Reader Four single spaces [State Rank. Name of Adviser. SAMPLE APPROVAL SHEET FOR M. The word “by” must be typed on the ninth single space. PhD [State Rank. Make sure you have the correct name and degree of your adviser. Name of Adviser. Type the name of the adviser on the fifth single space. College of Mass Communication Guidebook page 11 Bottom margin: 1” Left margin: 1.

De la Cruz Line 1 Line 2 Telephone Number Date & Place of Birth (+63-Area Code) First Three Digits-Last Four Digits Day Month Year. Organization WORK EXPERIENCE Position. School. Months working ACHIEVEMENTS Achievement 1 Achievement 2 Guidebook page 12 . SAMPLE BIOGRAPHICAL DATA SHEET BIOGRAPHICAL DATA PERSONAL DATA Name Permanent Address Juana S.F. Combine similar achievements in one line. City/Municipality. Months working Position. Honor (if applicable). School. Los Baños. For achievements. AY 2007-2008. 2nd semester. Organization Position. Province of School Primary Level Limit to one page per author. Months working Position. No pictures and special paper. cite the three most prestigious. Manila EDUCATION Secondary Level Honor (if applicable). City/Municipality. Laguna For work experience. Office. Example: College scholar: 1st and 2nd semester. of School ORGANIZATIONS Position. Office. AY20062007. Office. Philippine School for the Arts. cite the three most recent/comprehensive jobs you have had in college. Province Example for educational level: Valedictorian.

Next. The example in this page is culled from http://www. Double-space and justify your text. provided ongoing support throughout the thesis process. Finally. Glito. substantially improving the finished product. Their comments and insights created an informative and interesting project with opportunities for future work. This is an optional page. I received equally important assistance from family and friends. make it sound professional since the thesis/dissertation is an academic document.pdf. Mr. In addition. focusing on those who directly helped you in conducting your study. I wish to thank the respondents of my study (who remain anonymous for confidentiality purposes). Dr. benefited from the insights and direction of several people.edu/ThesisExample11. I wish to thank the complete Thesis Committee. SAMPLE ACKNOWLEDGMENT PAGE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The following thesis. Lito N. as well as technical assistance critical for completing the project in a timely manner. First. Consolidate your acknowledgments if you are part of a group.G. In addition to the technical and instrumental assistance above.uky. Limit your acknowledgments to one page only. my Thesis Adviser. exemplifies the high quality scholarship to which I aspire. Bituin N. Pasencioso N. Note that there is no “e” after the letter “g” in acknowledgment. allowing me to complete this project on schedule. Guidebook page 13 .gradschool. Each individual provided insights that guided and challenged my thinking. If you decide to write one. Masigasig provided timely and instructive comments and evaluation at every stage of the thesis process. Masinag. My colleague. while an individual work.

SAMPLE DEDICATION PAGE DEDICATION To my parents Victorio and Milagros de la Cruz For instilling in me From an early age The desire to obtain a UP degree This is an optional page. Guidebook page 14 . make it sound professional since the thesis/dissertation is an academic document. Limit your dedication/s to one page. If you decide to write one.H. Double-space and horizontally and vertically center your text. Consolidate your dedications in one page if you are part of a group.

(2007). the Emperor lost his legitimacy in the eyes of the people. De la Cruz.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/abstracts. As the newspapers became increasingly numerous and powerful. (The text above has 163 words). include a concise explanation of how it relates to your research. J. This change in political culture is apparent in Emperor Pedro I's gradual loss of control over the mechanisms of power. a short description of your methodology. If your thesis has a production component. University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication.html. It must succinctly contain the following: a statement of your problem/s and objectives based on a synthesis of your related literature review and theoretical framework. Newspapers and their editors were leading forces in the effort to remove power from the hands of the ruling elite and place it under the control of the people. Newspaper editors and their journals helped change the political culture of late First Empire Rio de Janeiro by involving the people in the discussion of state. Rhetoric and Riot in Rio de Janeiro. newspapers helped change how politics operated in the constitutional monarchy of Brazil.unc. This dissertation examines the role of newspaper editors in the political turmoil and strife that characterized late First Empire Rio de Janeiro (1827-1831). ABSTRACT PAGE SAMPLES ABSTRACT Include the proper citation of your work.I. and a brief discussion of your most pertinent findings and interpretation. this dissertation analyzes all available newspapers published in Rio de Janeiro from 1827 to 1831.S. In the process. Guidebook page 15 . Your abstract must be 200 words or less. To explore the role of the newspapers in the political events of the late First Empire. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. The abstracts above and on the next page were downloaded from http://www.

To explore the role of the newspapers in the political events of the late First Empire.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/abstracts. It must succinctly contain the following: a statement of your problem/s and objectives based on a synthesis of your related literature review and theoretical framework. Newspaper editors and their journals helped change the political culture of late First Empire Rio de Janeiro by involving the people in the discussion of state. ABSTRACT PAGE SAMPLES ABSTRACT Include the proper citation of your work.I. 'Freedom is a constant struggle': The dynamics and consequences of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. newspapers helped change how politics operated in the constitutional monarchy of Brazil. This dissertation examines the role of newspaper editors in the political turmoil and strife that characterized late First Empire Rio de Janeiro (1827-1831). State University of New York at Stony Brook. the Emperor lost his legitimacy in the eyes of the people. Newspapers and their editors were leading forces in the effort to remove power from the hands of the ruling elite and place it under the control of the people.T. K.html. This change in political culture is apparent in Emperor Pedro I's gradual loss of control over the mechanisms of power. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. In the process. The abstracts above and on the next page were downloaded from http://www. a short description of your methodology. As the newspapers became increasingly numerous and powerful. Andrews. this dissertation analyzes all available newspapers published in Rio de Janeiro from 1827 to 1831. Guidebook page 16 . (1997). include a concise explanation of how it relates to your research. Your abstract must be 200 words or less. (The text above has 163 words). 1960-1984. If your thesis has a production component. and a brief discussion of your most pertinent findings and interpretation.unc.

The time period studied in this dissertation includes the expansion of voting rights and gains in black political power. Guidebook page 17 . This dissertation examines the impacts of social movements through a multi-layered study of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement from its peak in the early 1960s through the early 1980s. I use two major research strategies: (1) a quantitative analysis of county-level data and (2) three case studies. Typically these groups acted in response to movement demands and the leverage brought to bear by the civil rights movement. newspapers and published reports. 'Freedom is a constant struggle': The dynamics and consequences of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. ABSTRACT PAGE SAMPLES ABSTRACT Include the proper citation of your work. movement infrastructures had an enduring legacy in Mississippi. political parties. Indeed. State University of New York at Stony Brook. By examining this historically important case. This dissertation challenges the argument that movements are inconsequential. K. By propelling change in an array of local institutions. Data have been collected from archives. Andrews.T. The Mississippi movement attempted to forge independent structures for sustaining challenges to local inequities and injustices.I. and the rise and fall of federal anti-poverty programs. or economic elites as the agents driving institutional change. some view federal agencies. I clarify the process by which movements transform social structures and the constraints' movements face when they try to do so. 1960-1984. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. (1997). the desegregation of public schools and the emergence of white-flight academies. courts. interviews.

with the right column width pegged at 0. Significance of the Study D. Use Times New Roman 12 points. SAMPLE TABLE OF CONTENTS Use this as a checklist for the needed pages/sections in your thesis: TABLE OF CONTENTS The first page number appears on the page of the Table of Contents. They are not the required minimum contents for each chapter. Note that only the first-level subhead is included in the Table of Contents. Locate it 0. INTRODUCTION A.5” I. Scope and Limitations The subheads indicated here are only for formatting purposes.J. vii Page i ii iii iv v vi vii x xi xii Title Page Approval Sheet Biographical Data Acknowledgments Dedication Abstract Table of Contents List of Tables List of Matrices List of Figures Insert a two-column table. Statement of the Problem and Objectives C. Background of the Study B.5” from the top and align it with the right margin. 1 1 5 7 10 Guidebook page 18 .

In creating these lists. but put a double space between titles. LIST OF TABLES Number 1 2 3 4 5 Profile of Respondents Title Page 1 1 5 7 10 LIST OF FIGURES Number 1 2 3 4 5 Title Page Guidebook page 19 . pictures. number all your tables consecutively using Hindu-Arabic numerals without decimal places (E.. Make sure that the titles in these lists are the same as those in the body of your document.5”.) . 1. begin a new page for each list. illustrations. insert a three-column table and label each column accordingly.75” while the third column has a width of 0. In your actual document.1.0. 1. 2. SAMPLE LISTS The following examples serve as a guide for the look of your lists of tables. The first column has a width of 0.. matrices.K. Details for the titling of tables and other collaterals are in Section IV. 3 and not 1. 1.2. Single-space titles. Also. and other graphics). and figures (which includes charts.g.

Footnotes are located at the bottom of each page.5” from the top and align it with the voluptateright margin. Guidebook page 20 Bottom margin: 1” 1 . 1995). margin: 1. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Nemo enim ipsam voluptatem quia voluptas sit aspernatur aut odit aut fugit. 12 points. Make sure that the footnote and its referent are on the same page. consectetur adipisicing elit. sed quia consequuntur magni Left Right margin: dolores eos qui ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt.1 Use superscripted Hindu-Arabic numerals for footnotes. sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. vel illum qui dolorem eum fugiat quo voluptas nulla pariatur? The page number appears on the second page of each chapter. The text uses the same font and font size as the main body. Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium. consectetur adipisicing elit. quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.5”. Footnotes are numbered consecutively using Hindu-Arabic numerals.L. adipisci velit. Ut enim ad minim veniam. Its first line is indented by 0. 2 Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. Use footnotes rather than endnotes. sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. separated from the main text by a line. totam rem aperiam. The footnote text is single-spaced and the justification is ragged right. Use nihil velit esse quam Times New Roman.5” 1” Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. eaque ipsa quae ab illo inventore veritatis et quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt explicabo (Cicero. sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident. Ut enim ad minim veniam. qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet. sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem. Locate it 0. quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. consectetur. Neque porro quisquam est. SAMPLE PAGE LAY-OUT Top margin: 1” Quis autem vel eum iure reprehenderit qui in ea molestiae consequatur.

1995). But there is molestias excepturi praesentium voluptatum deleniti atque corrupti quos dolores et quasan extra double space between sections. in all caps. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident. eaque ipsa quae ab illo inventore veritatis et quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt explicabo (Cicero. Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium. expedita distinctio. Neque porro quisquam est. id est laborum etin-text citation. adipisci velit. There are no extra spaces between paragraphs. The bottom part of the page must be devoted to footnotes. INTRODUCTION Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet. totam rem aperiam.M. nisi ut aliquid ex ea commodi consequatur? Paragraphs must be indented. CHAPTER I. Nemo enim ipsam voluptatem quia voluptas sit aspernatur aut odit aut fugit. ragged right justify. Ut enim ad minim veniam. Do not use any footer. sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem. consectetur. Ut enim ad minima veniam. quis nostrum exercitationem ullam corporis suscipit laboriosam. At vero eos et accusamus et iusto odio dignissimos ducimus qui blanditiis and double-spaced. Guidebook page 21 . sint occaecati cupiditate non provident.Et harum quidem rerum facilis estnot dolorum fuga. using either APA or MLA. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. There is no page number on the first page of each chapter. if any. SAMPLE FIRST PAGE OF A CHAPTER The chapter must be labeled with the appropriate Roman numeral and title. Do et mix citation styles. consectetur adipisicing elit. quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. sed quia consequuntur magni dolores eos qui ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt. sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. similique sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt READ the supplementary materials for details about mollitia animi.

I. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident. The Second Subhead Neque porro quisquam est. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem. in all caps. sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Quis autem vel eum iure reprehenderit qui in ea voluptate velit esse quam nihil molestiae consequatur. Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium. ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt. sed quia consequuntur magni dolores eos qui The second-level subhead must be centered. qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet. quis nostrum exercitationem ullam corporis suscipit laboriosam.N. italicized. eaque ipsa quae ab illo inventore veritatis et quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt explicabo. and labeled with the appropriate Hindu-Arabic numeral. consectetur. A. SUBHEADS The chapter must be labeled with the appropriate Roman numeral and title. Nemo enim ipsam voluptatem quia voluptas sit aspernatur aut odit aut fugit. sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. consectetur adipisicing elit. adipisci velit. vel illum qui dolorem eum fugiat quo voluptas nulla pariatur? Guidebook page 22 . Ut enim ad minima veniam. totam rem aperiam. Ut enim ad minim veniam. The first-level subhead must be centered and labeled with the appropriate letter in caps. The flush-left third-level subhead is labeled with a lowercase letter. 1. nisi ut aliquid ex ea commodi consequatur? a. The First Subhead This is the only subhead that appears in the Table of Contents (TOC). It must be the same as the one in the TOC. INTRODUCTION Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. The Third Subhead There must only be three levels of subheads to promote readability.

Gender) must be centered within the cell. Consolidate similar data in one table with spanner heads. Examples of notes include sources. Number tables consecutively using Hindu-Arabic numerals. Remember that since tables are visual aids. then centered in the cell. “N” indicates total sample size. among others.g.O. consectetur. Extra double space before a table.7 Instructions: 1. as shown in the example. Single-space the table. Column heads and spanner heads (e. 6. Place a table immediately after the paragraph in which it is first cited. 3. they must be located after they are cited.3 49. adipisci velit. 4. Figures must be aligned right. Include notes on the last merged row of the table. Separate Table Numbers from the Table Title Titles must be concise and italicized. Table 2. Distinguish percentage figures from frequencies through a single decimal place.6 50. 5. If it does not fit on the page where it is first cited. while row entries must be flush left. multiple response items. 2.4 55. sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem. SAMPLE TABLES Neque porro quisquam est. Ensure that titles are the entered the same way in the TOC. Profile of Respondents (N=365) Gender Male Female Age 21 to 34 35 to 57 Notes: Frequency Percentage 44. Do not compute percentages for sample sizes where the units of analysis number less than 100. place it on the immediately succeeding page. Include an extra double space before and after the table. qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet. In other words. Guidebook page 23 . the discussion must precede the table. Use either raw frequencies or proportions.

put independent variables on the columns and dependent variables on the rows.3 47.5 59. p < .7 27. p = .7 1.F (3. N = Sample size).30. p < . p < .00.01 Guidebook page 24 . p = Significance score) .7 18. For bi-variate and multi-variate tables with Chi-square tests of significance.316 = 5.00 change the notation to p < .Table 3.9 3.4 56.06.01 Instructions: 1.8 4. If SPSS shows p = .2 1.79 First employment Underemployed The same Better Chi-square (n=142) (n=178) 19. Include the following statistics: . p = Significance score 4. Change in Job by Gender and Age Sample Change in job (N=320) 27.99. p = . N = 320) = 1.01) F (Degree of freedom. For cross-tabulations.76. create a table that shows mean scores and standard deviation. Sample size = ANOVA value. remember to include the following statistics: . p = Significance score) 5.4 14.01) t (Degree of freedom = Computed T-test value. N = 320) = 30. For t-tests and ANOVA. Computed Chi-square value.1 2 χ (3.0 68.9 2.1 2 χ (3. Indicate the sub-sample sizes with a small letter n.t (318 = 3. 2. 3.5 Male Gender Female Age 21 to 34 35 to 57 years old years old (n=161) (n=159) 26.2 13.7 33.32 χ2 (Degree of freedom.χ2 (1.1 7. N = 320) = 1.0 54.7 12.

2008 from <www. removing extra lines. Guidebook page 25 . Examples of notes include sources and multiple response items. Overseas Employment Statistics [Data in Microsoft Excel files]. 4. Include notes at the bottom of the chart. and distinct shades of gray. place it on the immediately succeeding page. Streamline charts. Retrieved March 17. SAMPLE CHART Chart 1. As with other visual aids. white. For sources. Include an extra double space before and after the chart. Consecutively number charts using Hindu-Arabic numerals. (2005). In other words.000 Number (in ‘000) 800 600 400 200 Sea-based 0 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2003 2004 Year Source. Single-space the text in the chart. If it does not fit on the page where it is first cited. Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. 1984-2002 1. follow APA guidelines. Annual Deployment of Overseas Filipino Workers. charts must be located after they are cited.P. Place a chart immediately after the paragraph in which it is first cited.gov. Total Land-based Instructions: 1.ph>.poea. Instead. 2. Do not use color in distinguishing the categories in the charts. 6. use patterns or a palette of black. 5. zeroes. 3. etc. the discussion must precede the chart. as shown in the example above.

a booth with a traditional hut. Instructions: 1. from top left: Last year’s beauty pageant winners. Include all pictures. illustrations.Q. Consecutively number figures using Hindu-Arabic numerals. 4. Images from the 2005 Philippine Fiesta in America Clockwise. Include notes after the caption. follow APA guidelines. Place a figure immediately after the paragraph in which it is first cited. figures must be located after they are cited. the discussion must precede the figure. SAMPLE GRAPHIC Figure 1. food items sold turo-turo (point-point) style. 3. Include an extra double space before and after the chart. place it on the immediately succeeding page. Single-space the caption. and graphics under figures. Examples of notes are sources. Consolidate similar images in a collage as shown above. and a parade of colors. In other words. a booth selling Philippine cable TV services. in which case. Crop pictures to save space. As with other visual aids. 2. If it does not fit on the page where it is first cited. 5. Guidebook page 26 .

and the Viagra Carrie drinks wine at the dinner with Big. Vertically and horizontally center column heads. Episode 9. Place a matrix on the same page. Notice the title format and the single-spaced text. Miranda drinks at the Comic bar then when she meets Steve. Since these extended matrices organize transcripts. Instructions: 1. 3. Matrices must be formatted the same way as the other organizing tools. during their regular meal at Café. the going-away party for Jeremy. include an extra double space before and after the matrix. Guidebook page 27 . SAMPLE MATRIX Matrix 1. Also. Consecutively number matrices using Hindu-Arabic numerals. Sample Episode Codes for Sex and the City Item Alcohol Episode 7. Include only summary matrices in the body of the document. Brunch with alcohol. The Chicken Dance They drink at the footsteps of the apartment next to Miranda’s while chatting. where it is cited. The Man. café and also during the wedding. 5.R. or on the next page immediately after the page. raw transcripts must no longer be included in the thesis. Miranda eats rice pudding. 2.” Samantha looks drunk at the wedding reception. for instance. the Myth. Place extended matrices—such as those that include verbatim interview transcripts—in the appendices. Mountains of vegetables. They even walk with “open containers. Nutrition Meals are served during the love triangle date. Samantha is at a bar drinking wine when she meets the old guy. Cocktails at Denial. Brunch al fresco at Vermouth. 4.

. Significance of the Study. This section must contain the following: 1.g. A. population data. Figures (if any) I. This must state why the study is being done. in a 100-word paragraph). a specific geographical area) that are going to be used to study the communication or media concern.. [For example. Matrices. An introduction and explanation of the chosen cases (e. a media organization. Basic Writing Guidelines I. It must draw arguments from the background of the study. reviews). This chapter provides an overview of the entire work. II. VII. Instead. the introduction first introduces corruption in media outlets by explaining envelopmental and checkbook journalism.III. The research problem itself must be a clearly articulated research question or a series of questions. 2. it must link the problem to the arguments presented in the background of the study (ideally. statistical trends. timelines. IV. It then explains why beat reporters are the best people to study for this type of corruption in media. III. VI. C. An introduction of the communication or media concern that the work seeks to discuss using historical and baseline data (e. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS A. Basic Outline of Chapters and Sections The following are suggested chapters and sections that may be used for theses and dissertations. anecdotes.] B. INTRODUCTION. V.g. the related literature. the study Guidebook page 28 . This section must not only be a listing of the problem and objectives. Background of the Study. and qualitative insights (e. media facts and figures). Title Page Approval Sheet Page Biographical Data Page Abstract Table of Contents Lists of Tables. Statement of the Problem and Objectives.g. the population of young adults. Introduction Review of Related Literature Study Framework Methodology/Research Design Results and Discussion Summary and Conclusion Implications and Recommendations Bibliography Appendices B.. quotations.

and theories from previous studies as published in academic and scholarly-reviewed documents such as journals. There are generally two ways of presenting the study framework. “This chapter reviews related literature. journals. Please use the appropriate APA or MLA in-text citation format. what theoretical approaches have been used and which have not been used as regards your research question. then contrast these with dissenting results. and dissertations. (An example would be to have a series of paragraphs that begin with “A thesis by…. what has been done and what has not been done. afterwards. It must provide a preview of the implications and recommendations. pleasure was…). REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE. research anthologies. This chapter presents the theoretical—sociological. Another Guidebook page 29 . In other words. humanistic—foundations of your research.The literature that is being reviewed must be organized according to substantive concepts/themes that adhere to the objectives of the study. it serves as a blueprint as to how the variables/concepts in your study relate to one another. theses. . . dissertations).framework to explain 1) how the study can illuminate a specific communication or media concern and 2) why the chosen cases can best address this concern. Cicero (1945) said/argued/ wrote. Some helpful tips in writing the review: . Also. use the present tense. III.g. II. explain how these arguments relate to your own research.The literature links your study to previous research. Do not say. books. in relating related literature to your own research. Further. use the past tense (e.) . methods. refrain from organizing the literature into “local studies” and “foreign studies” unless the research objective of the study is to compare territorial perspectives. .g. One approach that is perhaps useful for qualitative research is a conceptual framework that combines the theoretical concepts and conceptual constructs that are used in the research. STUDY FRAMEWORK. However.” “Another thesis by…. critical. Finally. Group together similar findings. never organize the related literature review according to document type (e.” and “Yet another thesis by…”.The literature must not be an enumeration of previous studies.” . This chapter must provide a substantive review of the findings. This facilitates the connection of your study to previous knowledge and helps you articulate the significance of your research. Thus. a review must cogently compare and contrast what has been argued in literature on the communication or media concern that is at the heart of the current work.In citing related literature.Conclude this chapter with a synthesis of research gaps—what is known and what is unknown.Textbook definitions and the etymologies of concepts must appear in the introduction. it explains how previous scholarly arguments inform your research. According to Cicero (1945). Thus. theses. . it must not appear as an extended annotated bibliography..Begin the literature with a description of the concepts that are being explored in the chapter. not in this chapter.. Provide a critique of the literature being reviewed.

a quantitative. Guidebook page 30 . Quantitative studies that involve statistical analysis must include this section. This links the framework and the methodology. D. A. Thus. Thus. This section must match the components of the research instrument. Thus. Conceptual Level. this section discusses how specific variables or concepts were operationalized into particular measures or indicators. It explains each concept in the theory and the inter-relations among these concepts. Thus. B. Theoretical Level. cross-sectional. make sure that this chapter’s text is changed into past tense. Research Design and Methods. or a triangulate approach? Did it use a one-shot. which is discussed below. this chapter is written in the future tense. This section explains the choices in the conduct of the research. In the proposal stage. Statement of Hypotheses. Each hypothesis (labeled as H1. Should the research involve several theories. Concepts and Indicators/Variables and Measures. IV. avoid unnecessarily complicated models and arguments that cover a bigger ground than what the research does. the section includes a literature-based critique of the theory. This section explains the specific measures for the measures or indicators that are being used in the study to explore particular variables and concepts. or longitudinal approach? Which specific methods were used? Why? B. the discussion of the theoretical level must not solely depend on a textbook compendium of theories (such as Littlejohn’s). The use of models is encouraged since this helps visualize the relationships among variables and measure or concepts and indicators.approach that is perhaps useful for quantitative research is the three-level operationalization process. E. H2a. during thesis writing stage. a discussion of how the theories integrate—which concepts are either included or excluded. Operational Level. It discusses the theory’s author/s and historical roots as well as the original context for which it was developed. Remember that theoretical framework must be parsimonious. This chapter describes and explains the logic behind the gathering and analysis of research data. A. but on a thorough research of the theory’s evolution itself and a comprehensive analysis of its concepts and arguments using various scholarly sources. each individual theory must be discussed as described in the preceding paragraph. It explains the soundness of how a concept as originally defined by its author translates into the current effort. METHODOLOGY. for instance— must be included. C. Then. Operational Definition of Terms. H2b…) must be introduced by an explanatory paragraph. This applies the theory or the integrative theory into the thesis/dissertation. Did the study use a qualitative. Moreover. This section includes terms that are used differently from their dictionary definitions. This section explains why a chosen theory best informs the research.

households or groups. especially in the implementation of the sampling scheme. newspapers or news articles) were chosen for the study. Research Instruments.7 70 75 80 90 95-99 100 Proportion/Fractions 1/5 1/4 1/3 1/2 3/5 2/3 ¾ 4/5 Ratios 1 out of 5 1 out of 4 1 out of 3 1 out of 2 Majority 6 out of 10 2 out of 3 Exactly 7 out of 10 3 out of 4 4 out of 5 9 out of 10 Most All 2 out of 10 2 out of 8 More than 3 out of 10 5 out of 10 A big majority About 7 out of 10 6 out of 8 8 out of 10 Almost all Guidebook page 31 . Findings can only be organized by method if the study is primarily methodological in nature. a section in the Results and Discussion chapter must draw from both quantitative and qualitative data to address the objectives.C. Thus. analyzed. Units of Analysis and Sampling. Rather than simply regurgitating the elements of the instruments. Never use percentages for sample sizes where the units of analysis number less than 100. this chapter must not be organized according to methods to promote consistency across theses and dissertations and ease of access to their findings. F. This section describes the questionnaires that were used to gather data. this chapter must be organized according to the specific objectives. and the rationale behind these protocols. For instance. G. It can also include a timetable or a budget report. Percentage 20 25 33. This section must explain the parameters of the study. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION*.3 50 51 60 66. use proportions or ratios. Also. This section describes in detail the protocols that were followed during data gathering. a qualitative study is not designed to do so. To ensure that the research does address what it originally sought to do. do not say that a qualitative study is limited by its inability to provide representativeness and generalizability because. it explains how these units were selected using probability or nonprobability sampling. E.. and interpreted accordingly. Instead. This transmutation table below must be used for quantitative data. D. this section must explain the logic behind the design of these questionnaires. This section explains how and why the data were organized. in the first place. This chapter presents the findings of the study. Data Analysis. In the case of studies that use triangulation. Scope and Limitations. Thus. Data Gathering/Generation and Construction. an answer to a specific objective must draw from both quantitative and qualitative data. This section also explains any changes between the proposed and the implemented data gathering procedure. This section explains how specific units (e. An important caveat is that a concern that is not within the scope of the study must not be considered as a limitation.g. III.

. cite previous studies and theories in making your arguments.When discussing data.5”. pictures or matrices.Discussion must precede any visual aid such as tables. compare and contrast the findings with what has been earlier found in literature or argued in theory. It may also offer a new theory—this is particularly important for a dissertation. Thus. cite previous studies and theories to support various arguments. Conclusion. It must chart future directions on the same topic but use a different methodology. charts. This section describes the practical implications and applications of the findings. . This section explains 1) the theoretical value of the findings and 2) the soundness of the original study framework. This chapter must include the following: A. There are other possible implications and recommendations. In doing this. It must chart future research directions on the same topic but use a different theoretical perspective. V. Theoretical Issues. Quotes that are longer than three manuscript lines must be indented by 0.The findings of the study must be linked to the earlier chapters. A. research instruments. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION. Examples include recommendations on improving media literacy and communication practice. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. IV. Guidebook page 32 . It discusses the implications of the methods. To compose a sound and solid thesis or dissertation. This answers the general objective by discussing the findings across specific objectives. use the past tense because there were gathered weeks before the write-up is composed. Any research must ultimately answer the question “So what?” This chapter directly answers this question on at least three levels (see below). the units of analysis. This section explains the soundness of the methodology as it was implemented. Summary. sampling scheme.Some helpful items to remember in writing the results and discussion: . However. This succinctly answers the research question. B.All direct quotes must be italicized and attributed to specific informants (use pseudonyms if needed). . use the present tense when making inferences across findings. Methodological Issues. Non-English quotes from interviewees and FGD participants must be followed by an English translation in brackets. C. and data gathering procedures on the resultant findings. B. Practical Issues.

Basic Citation Using APA Style Neyhart. If you refer to the title of a source within your paper. E (2007). The Owl at Purdue University. capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: NaturalBorn Cyborgs.g. capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change. This resource was written by David Neyhart and Erin Karper. and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. In-Text Citation Capitalization. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay. from The Owl at Purdue University Web site: http://owl. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text. If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material. D. and adverbs: Writing New Media. and Italics/Underlining • • • Always capitalize proper nouns. Guidebook page 33 . you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference. pronouns. Note: APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using signal phrases to describe earlier research.. in-text citations. 2007. Retrieved October 17.purdue.english. In-Text Citations: The Basics Reference citations in text are covered on pages 207-214 of the Publication Manual. Last full revision by Jodi Wagner and Kristen Seas. 1998). offers examples for the general format of APA research papers. Jones (1998) found or Jones (1998) has found. endnotes/footnotes. Additional material by Kristen Seas. Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs. including author names and initials: D. nouns. e.. (Jones. follow the author-date method of in-text citation. There Is Nothing Left to Lose. revised according to the 5th edition of the APA manual.g. or making reference to an entire book. E. This resource.. article or other work.edu/owl/printable/560/. Last edited by Dana Lynn Driscoll on June 6th 2007 at 2:25PM Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. (Note that in your References list. Jones. APA Citation Basics When using APA format. Quotes.) When capitalizing titles.. and the reference page.C. only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media. adjectives. & Karper.

(p. Type the entire quotation on the new margin. and song titles: "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds". The parenthetical citation should come after closing punctuation mark. place the author's last name. "Students often had difficulty using APA style. television series episodes. The Wizard of Oz. 199). "Students often had difficulty using APA style. or albums: The Closing of the American Mind. articles from edited collections. Friends." Italicize or underline the titles of longer works such as books. Long Quotations Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of typewritten lines. the year of publication. Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles. but she did not offer an explanation as to why." Short Quotations If you are directly quoting from a work. especially when it was their first time" (p. television series."). what implications does this have for teachers? If the author is not named in a signal phrase. 1998. Jones's (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style. and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. According to Jones (1998). year of publication. "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry.• • • Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's Vertigo. edited collections. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. and omit quotation marks. especially when it was their first time citing sources. and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p. p. and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin. 199). movies. Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. indented five spaces from the left margin." (Jones. She stated. documentaries. you will need to include the author. 199). Start the quotation on a new line. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. 199) Summary or Paraphrase Guidebook page 34 . Maintain double-spacing throughout.

In-Text Citations: Author/Authors APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system. 1993) In subsequent citations. Citing an Author or Authors A Work by Two Authors:Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Berry. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined. Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) showed. cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. 1994) A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. There are additional rules for citing indirect sources." in the signal phrase or in parentheses. Guidebook page 35 .. only use the first author's last name followed by "et al.) According to Jones (1998).. but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.. (Wegener & Petty.If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work.. & Harlow. (Harris et al. p. in the signal phrase or in parentheses. and sources without page numbers. et should not be followed by a period. you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference. 199). APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones. Harris et al. 1998. (2001) argued. Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. (Kernis et al.. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. Sun.. (Kernis. 1993) In et al. 2001) Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author. titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks. Cornell.. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use "&" in the parentheses. electronic sources.

2000) Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works..A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using APA. (E. January 4. 2002. use the name Anonymous as the author. Robbins. (E.. (Berndt. A. separated by a semi-colon." 2001). Johnson. b. and the date of the communication. In the reference list. 2001). 2001. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication. 2000) Second citation: (MADD. treat it as the author's name (Anonymous. the fact that it was personal communication.. c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Personal Communication: For interviews. cite the communicators name. and other person-to-person communication. Johnson.. 2001). P. November 3. Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author. L. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Do not include personal communication in the reference list. use lower-case letters (a. First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD]. If the organization has a well-known abbreviation. personal communication. According to the American Psychological Association (2000). Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency. include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. 1998) Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year. Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that.. letters. Harlow. use first initials with the last names. 2002). e-mails. Guidebook page 36 . order them the same way they appear in the reference list. mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. 1983) Authors With the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion.

g.: Guidebook page 37 .(as cited in Smith. (Mind over Matter section. like Web pages. Note: Never use the page numbers of Web pages you print out. Electronic Sources If possible.. people can use the Find function in their browser to locate any passages you cite. 2003. ¶ 5) or (Hall. provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. para. para. Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA. e. Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given. Sources Without Page Numbers When an electronic source lacks page numbers. . According to Smith (1997). 6). Note:When citing material in parentheses. p. Johnson argued that..).. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. 2001. cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style." followed by the paragraph number (Hall. If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings.Citing Indirect Sources If you use a source that was cited in another source.." n. In the text.102). you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. Footnotes and Endnotes Because long explanatory notes can be distracting to readers.d. name the original source in your signal phrase. different computers print Web pages with different pagination. or the abbreviation "para. When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs. use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n. use the ¶ symbol. as above. place a superscript numeral immediately after the text about which you would like to include more information. set off the citation with a comma. APA style guidelines recommend the use of endnotes/footnotes." (for "no date"). Note that in some electronic sources. Kenneth (2000) explained.d. 2001. 5)...

When referring to any work that is NOT a journal. underlining. This is called hanging indentation. each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. the first word after a Guidebook page 38 . etc. capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle. Reference List: Basic Rules Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. for a contrasting view. 120-135). or Web page. not a yak!" (p. create a separate page labeled Notes (with the title centered at the top of the page). label this page References (with no quotation marks.Scientists examined the fossilized remains of the wooly-wooly yak. starting with the earliest. centered at the top of the page. likewise. pp. Weller (1998) reiterated this point even more strongly: "I am an artist. see Wollens (1989. Below are examples of two kinds of notes. If the work has more than six authors. Authors' names are inverted (last name first). give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work unless the work has more than six authors. for an insightful analysis of this extraordinary animal. 124). It should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay. Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay. especially chapters three and four. list the first six authors and then use et al. 2 Explanatory or additional information considered too digressive for the main text 3 In a recent interview. see Pyle (1992). such as a book. Evaluative bibliographic comments 1 See Blackmur (1995). On the problems related to yaks. after the sixth author's name to indicate the rest of the authors. At the end of the paper. article.). Basic Rules • • • • • All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. If you have more than one article by the same author.1 Number the notes consecutively in the order they appear in your paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list. single-author references or multiple-author references with the exact same authors in the exact same order are listed in order by the year of publication.

& Harlow. 7-10. A. Use the "&" instead of "and.. 10341048. Cruz.. Stacks. Writing labs and the Hollywood connection. Reference List: Author/Authors The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list. regardless of the type of work (book. list the first six as above and then "et al.. Berry. H. R." Remember not to place a period after "et" in "et al. underline. D. or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.. T. E. & Petty. Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals. and proper nouns. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Do not italicize. while the last author name is preceded again by "&" Kernis. Capitalize all major words in journal titles. Guidebook page 39 . electronic resource. DeNiro. (1993). etc. et al.. G. Two Authors List by their last names and initials. (2002). Cornell... E. Journal of Film and Writing. article. 213245. Three to Six Authors List by last names and initials. (1994). 11. Karper. T." Harris... R. C. followed by author initials. T. There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. R." which stands for "and others. 1190-1204. P. D. Sun.) Single Author Last name first. 44(3).. 66. 65. (2001). P. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.. J. D. M. Hoffman.. M. Friendship quality and social development. More Than Six Authors If there are more than six authors. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology. Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Berndt. Current Directions in Psychological Science." Wegener.• • • colon or a dash in the title. commas separate author names.

J. Unknown Author Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed." 1993). Wegener. 1312-1329. Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. Friends' influence on adolescents' adjustment to school. References that have the same first author and different second and/or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the second author. & Keefe. J. 1993) and ("New Drug. Berndt. & Klein. Springfield. Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions. T. R. European Journal of Social Psychology. MA: MerriamWebster. R.(1993). Psychology. or the last name of the third if the first and second authors are the same. 24. Berndt. Berndt. NOTE: When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named. Educational Psychologist. 34. (1999).). 15-28. Two or More Works by the Same Author Use the author's name for all entries and list the entries by the year (earliest comes first)..J. Berndt. A. 25-43. list the one-author entries first. Kerr. When an author appears both as a sole author and. in another citation. Child Development. & Law. Public Policy. (1994). (2000). T. T. (1999). T. (2003). E.J.. Wegener. parenthetical citations of the two sources above would appear as follows: (Merriam-Webster's. 66. & Petty. D. 6.Organization as Author American Psychological Association.. T.. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. K. Fleming. T. 629-654. E. Petty. Guidebook page 40 . D. (1981). L. (1995). as the first author of a group. M.. D. use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name. Friends' influence on students' adjustment to school. For example. J.. N.

The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined.: "Berdnt (1981a) makes similar claims. Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. etc.. Article in a Magazine Henry. H. organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. Harlow. A. and is followed by the volume number which. & Author. The periodical title is run in title case. The New Criterion. 636-643. The title of the article is in sentencecase. the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. 135. followed by a period. III.. therefore. J. Scruton. A. with the title. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. B. and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended. Time. Then assign letter suffixes to the year. T. Child Development. Making the grade in today's schools. pages. volume number(issue number).. Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list.Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year If you are using more than one reference by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) published in the same year. T. publication year goes between parentheses. The eclipse of listening." Berndt. (1996). Article in Journal Paginated by Volume Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one. is also italicized or underlined. C. 15(30). 408-416. 55. (1981a). Title of article. (1983). Author. Guidebook page 41 . Article in Journal Paginated by Issue Journals paginated by issue begin with page one every issue. Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. R. 893-896.. (1990. B. Author. (1981b). J. F. C. Developmental Psychology.g. 28-31. Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. April 9). meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. 52. Berndt. (Year). 17. Title of Periodical. Reference List: Articles in Periodicals Basic Form APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials. A. e. 5-13. W..

The Country Today. (1991). Location: Publisher.. December 28). Ripples versus rumbles [Letter to the editor]. Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. A Translation Laplace.). Review Baumeister. C1.. (Original work published 1814). B4 or pp. R.J. R. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. & Valencia. P. 12. A. No Author Duncan. or pp. W. Letter to the Editor Moller. but you should also include the state if the city is unfamiliar or if the city could be confused with one in another state. (F. C. Guidebook page 42 . (2000). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. New York: Anchor. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style. (2005. The unabridged journals (K.). Scientific American. A philosophical essay on probabilities. Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. Truscott & F. multiple pages take pp.. August). & Brooks-Gunn. pp. S. p. Consequences of growing up poor. 38. Washington. G. Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control ]. DC: American Psychological Association. 1A. R. 466-467. Kukil. 287(2). e. Edited Book. F. NOTE: For "Location. Trans. p. Contemporary Psychology.Article in a Newspaper Unlike other periodicals. (1993). G. A. e. (Year of publication).V. Emory." you should always list the city..g. Ed. (2002. pp. B2. R. 2A. Reference List: Books Basic Format for Books Author.g.). Schultz.. S. B2. Calfee. New York: Dover. (Eds. Edited Book with an Author or Authors Plath.. L. S. J. (1997). Single pages take p. C3-C4. (1951).

M. Models of reading aloud: Dualroute and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. (1997). however.). Work Discussed in a Secondary Source List the source the work was discussed in: Coltheart. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. & Haller. Dictionary of the history of ideas (Vols. NOTE: When you list the pages of the chapter or essay in parentheses after the book title. M.NOTE: When you cite a republished work. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing.D. B. 100.). Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. in the text. 1-4). P... R.. (1993). name the original work. G. & Egan. B. Title of chapter. This abbreviation. The battered child (5th ed. Reference List: Other Print Sources An Entry in An Encyclopedia Bergmann. Title of book (pages of chapter). In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. New York: Springer. Atkins. P..E. 1-21). 107-123). New York: Scribner's. and transformation. M. Wainrib (Ed. J. Edition Other Than the First Helfer. J. Location: Publisher. Curtis." before the numbers: (pp. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica. use "pp. M. Editor (Eds. In B. A. (Year of publication). pp. (1993). reference in the References. Multivolume Work Wiener. R. A. 26. & Author. & Drugman. 589608. (Ed. 501-508). it should appear with both dates: Laplace (1814/1951). Article or Chapter in an Edited Book Author. In the text. R. Keme. Editor & B. NOTE: Give the secondary source in the references list. list the Coltheart et al. P.. and you did not read the original work. (1973).). and give a citation for the secondary source. transition. Psychological Review. like the one above. work in your text. B. For example. use the following citation: Guidebook page 43 .). In A. Relativity. except for newspapers. does not appear before the page numbers in periodical references.. if Seidenberg and McClelland's work is cited in Coltheart et al.S.. O'Neil.

year. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites.C. Conference Proceedings Schnase.: Author.). (1990). Government Document National Institute of Mental Health. A. Retrieved May 2. Report From a Private Organization American Psychiatric Association.. 1993).. 62. A. from http://www. (Eds. (2000). A.com/articles/writeliving Online Scholarly Journal Article Author. & Author. B. B. Proceedings from CSCL '95: The First International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning. . Title of Journal. Y. Dissertation Abstracts International. volume number. Boston College. Author. D. Mahwah.alistapart.L. & Haller. from http://www. Retrieved month day. year. Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. 10 tips on writing the living Web. Title of Online Periodical. Washington. Government Printing Office. including an issue number in parentheses. B. Essays in urban transportation (Doctoral dissertation. from http://www. (2002).someaddress. 2006. NJ: Erlbaum.com/full/url/ Bernstein.. Retrieved month day. Curtis. DC: U. Dissertation Abstract Yoshida. E.com/full/url/ Guidebook page 44 . Atkins. A. volume number(issue number if available).In Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart. Title of article. Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (2nd ed. J. B. (2001). (1995). 2001).S. Title of article. (Date of publication).). & Author.. ADM 90-1679). & Cunnius. Include all information the online host makes available. Washington.L. 149.. 7741A. Reference List: Electronic Sources Article From an Online Periodical Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. (Date of publication). M.someaddress.

Whitmeyer. 535-555. year. move up the URL to http://www. Journal of Abnormal Eating. This will allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. from http://www. or Report List as much of the following information as possible (you sometimes have to hunt around to find the information. Journal of Buddhist Ethics. (Date of publication). L.someaddress. NOTE: When an Internet document is more than one Web page. Title of article. If there is a page like http://www. but the APA manual says that this is not required. Web Page.Retrieved February 20. & Author.com/full/url/.d. B.edu/jbe/twocont. A.htm. Title of document. (2000). Retrieved month day. the URL is not required. A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. A. (For more about citing articles retrieved from electronic databases.com/somepage. Social Science Research. (2000). 8(3). & Pease.cac.) for no date. Chapter or Section of a Web document Author. Article From a Database When referencing material obtained from an online database (such as a database in the library).M. from http://Web address.somesite. Use "Electronic version" in brackets after the article's title.htm doesn't have the information you're looking for. from http://www. and somepage. Retrieved February 20. (2002). 29.) Smyth. B. B. Retrieved month day.com/): Author.. D.html If the article appears as a printed version as well. provide a URL that links to the home page or entry page for the document. Then add information that gives the date of retrieval and the proper name of the database.. A. A. I. B. In Title of book or larger document (chapter or section number). A study of enjoyment of peas.somesite. J. 8. M. from PsycARTICLES database. You can also include the item number or accession number in parentheses at the end. year. Parker. don't be lazy. Also. Power through appointment [Electronic version]. (Date of publication). A.. & Author.. 2001.Kenneth. Nonperiodical Web Document. see page 278 of the Publication Manual.psu. provide appropriate print citation information (formatted just like a "normal" print citation would be for that type of work). if there isn't a date available for the document use (n. L. A. A. 2003. Guidebook page 45 .

(1999. and Other Personal Communication No personal communication is included in your reference list. or discussion group. personal communication. and the date of the communication in your main text only. Follow the date with the subject line. Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting Message posted to an online newsgroup.) Retrieved March 10. personal communication. (E.3/mod/mod_rewrite.earthlink. Robbins. Frook. D. In Apache HTTP Server Version 1.Engelshcall. Motion Picture Basic reference list format: Guidebook page 46 . Computer Software Ludwig. S. 2006. Robbins. R. the thread of the message (not in italics). Module mod_rewrite: URL Rewriting Engine. use their real name instead. January 4. (2002). Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication.org/docs/1. instead. and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board.com/forum/messages/00025. as in other types of references. 2002).html NOTE: If only the screen name is available for the author. though you parenthetically cite them in your main text: (E. A. New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia [Msg 25].3 Documentation (Apache modules. Email. P. then use the screen name. (1997). November 3. however. July 23). 2001). T. Be sure to provide the exact date of the posting. forum. E-mail E-mails are not included in the list of references. from http://httpd. Provide any identifiers in brackets after the title. not the home page of the Web site.apache. Include the title of the message. Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources Interviews. B. Message posted to http://groups. PsychInquiry [computer software]. parenthetically cite the communicators name. if the author provides a real name. January 4. 2001).html NOTE: Use a chapter or section identifier and provide a URL that links directly to the chapter section. the fact that it was personal communication. New York: Worth.

(Producer). W. (2001). D. (Date of publication). United States: Paramount Pictures. Really big disaster movie [Motion picture]. & Smithee. City of origin: Studio or distributor.L. Note: If a movie or video tape is not available in wide distribution. Hollywood: American Broadcasting Company. I. Single Episode of a Television Series Writer. (Date of broadcast or copyright). (Available from Purdue University Pictures. IN 47907) Television Broadcast or Series Episode Producer. November 1). Creatures and monsters. P. New York: Central Broadcasting Service. A. Country of origin: Studio or distributor. A Television Series Bellisario. (Producer). M. (Producer). P. (1992).D. Los Angeles: Belarus Studios. I. Wendy. full address and zip code). P.Producer. P. M.F. 500 Oval Drive. (Writer). Producer (Producer). In P. W. (Director). Exciting action show [Television series]. Guidebook page 47 . D. Writing labs: A history [Motion picture]. (Director). Series title.D. (Director). M. W. Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. (Director). Title of broadcast [Television broadcast or Television series]. & Director. The nightly news hour [Television broadcast].R. (Producer). Title of episode [Television series episode]. A Motion Picture or Video Tape with International or National Availability Smith. (Writer). Television Broadcast Important. S. J.D. (Producer). The rising angel and the falling ape [Television series episode]. In D. (2002). & Martian. A Motion Picture or Video Tape with Limited Availability Harris. & Turley. (Date of publication). & Director. (1990. (Director). D. Dude (Producer). add the following to your citation after the country of origin: (Available from Distributor name. (1986). J. West Lafayette. City of origin: Studio or distributor. (Producer).

For more about citing audiovisual media. W. Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. (Date of copyright). see pages 266-269 of the Publication Manual. (Recording date if different from copyright date). On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from song writer]. (1975). Location: Label. W.Music Recording Songwriter. B. London: Big Pig Music Limited. Taupin. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Guidebook page 48 .

will look something like this: Burke. Literature. 2007. Immediately following a quotation from a source or a paraphrase of a source's ideas. Guidebook page 49 . or italicize or underline it if it's a longer work. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work. so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question. Basic Citation Using MLA Style Kunka.. Karper. from The Owl at Purdue University Web site: http://owl. for the Burke citation above. you place the author's name followed by a space and the relevant page number(s). In-Text Citations: The Basics Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style is covered in chapter six of the MLA Handbook and in chapter seven of the MLA Style Manual. Both books provide extensive examples. Your in-text citation will correspond with an entry in your Works Cited page. Kenneth.purdue.english. Last full revision by Karl Stolley and Kristen Seas.). Last edited by Allen Brizee on February 26th 2008 at 4:47PM Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource. referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what's known as parenthetical citation. 1966. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (2nd ed.edu/owl/printable/557/. Berkeley: U of California P. use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name.D. & Barbato. J. Additional material by Kristen Seas. additional revision by Dave Neyhart and Erin E. in-text citations. Basic In-Text Citation Rules In MLA style. This resource was written by Jennifer Liethen Kunka and Joe Barbato. et al (2008). When a source has no known author. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (6th ed. and Method. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life. which. Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3). endnotes/footnotes. J. The Owl at Purdue University. Retrieved March 10. and the Works Cited page.

In-Text Citations: Author-Page Style MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. Dewey 21). The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase. Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263). tells readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. they'll have different expectations of what constitutes common knowledge. not in the text of your sentence.. separate the citations by a semi-colon: . For example: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).We'll learn how to make a Works Cited page in a bit. 1967. well-known quotations or common knowledge. London: Oxford U. based on audience.as has been discussed elsewhere (Burke 3. Guidebook page 50 .. and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. Multiple Citations To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference. You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs. under the name of Wordsworth. where. William.P. but right now it's important to know that parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay. they can turn to the Works Cited page. When Citation is not Needed Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text. Remember. Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263). If readers want more information about this source. both (263) and (Wordsworth 263). If you're writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal. they would find the following information: Wordsworth. The citation. Lyrical Ballads. this is a rhetorical choice.. but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses.

For example: Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles (79. if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence.). For instance.). you would format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma. Miller 12). include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others.). paragraph (par. part (pt. if two or more authors have the same last name. give the page number of your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page. provide both authors' first initials (or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. pictures. who may have a different edition of a classic work like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto. book (bk. Miller 46). Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author If you cite more than one work by a particular author. use an abbreviated version of the work's title. or electronic sources. For example: An anonymous Wordsworth critic once argued that his poems were too emotional ("Wordsworth Is a Loser" 100). include the name that begins the entry in the Works Cited page).). Additionally. follwed by a shortened title of the work. by page numbers: Guidebook page 51 . ch. In such cases. chapter (ch. when appropriate.) as available. 1). such as films.). (For non-print sources. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Anonymous Work/Author Unknown If the work you are citing to has no author. Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children ("Too Soon" 38). or other media. but additional citation information can help literary scholars. though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year ("HandEye Development" 17). TV series. Citing Authors with Same Last Names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken.Author-Page Citation for Classic and Literary Works with Multiple Editions Page numbers are always required. followed. section (sec. and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol. of course) followed by a semicolon. others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A.

9 of the MLA Style Manual (which begins on page 102). For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers. you will format quotations differently depending on their length. Below are some basic guidelines for incorporating quotations into your paper. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation. For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures. use "qtd. chapter. a lion.7 of the of the MLA Handbook (which begins on page 80) and in section 3. and an eagle (New Jerusalem Bible." each with faces of a man. "Visual Studies" 63). commas. Formatting quotations using MLA style is covered in section 2. in" to indicate the source you actually consulted. and they don't do that well" (qtd. Punctuation marks such as periods. For such indirect quotations. in most cases. as each version varies in its translation. and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Formatting Quotations When you directly quote the works of others in your paper. since you've established which edition of the Bible you will be using. and verse. 1. rather than citing an indirect source. chapter and verse. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text. Short Quotations To indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse) in your text. An indirect source is a source cited in another source. provide line numbers) in the text. All future references can then just cite book.Visual studies. For example: Guidebook page 52 . Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse.5-10). a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source. because it is such a new discipline. and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. you want to make clear which Bible you're using (and underline or italicize the title). in Weisman 259). Ezek. may be "too easy" (Elkins. followed by book (do not italicize or underline). an ox. Note that. Citing Indirect Sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source.

and omit quotation marks. Earnshaw's door. or else attracted by hearing his voice. maintain original line breaks. it crept to Mr. and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. Long Quotations Place quotations longer than four typed lines in a free-standing block of text. style will win her prizes becomes the woman with a mission. though others disagree. or even in their room.) For example: Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them. dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184). and there he found it on quitting his chamber. According to Foulkes's study. dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184). Start the quotation on a new line.According to some. Guidebook page 53 . at the end of each line of verse: (a space should precede and follow the slash) Cullen concludes. (23) Adding or Omitting Words In Quotations If you add a word or words in a quotation. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay. Only indent the first line of the quotation by a half inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. not to win prizes but to change the laws of history. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. /. By chance. I was obliged to confess. you should put brackets around the words to indicate that they are not part of the original text. Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)? Mark breaks in short quotations of verse with a slash. hoping it would be gone on the morrow. and I had no more sense. with the entire quote indented one inch from the left margin. hard work. "Of all the things that happened there / That's all I remember" (11-12)." Adrienne Rich explores the roles of women in shaping their world: The faithful drudging child the child at the oak desk whose penmanship. When quoting verse. (Bronte 78) Poetry will be handled something like this: In her poem "Sources. I put it on the landing of the stairs. so. maintain double-spacing. Inquiries were made as to how it got there.

. in an essay on urban legends. 120-35. NOTE: According to the 6th Edition of the MLA Handbook. but do use brackets around ellipsis marks you add.. which are three periods (. especially chapters three and four. 2 You can also use endnotes or footnotes for occasional explanatory notes or other brief additional helpful information that might be too digressive for the main text: In a 1998 interview. you should indicate the deleted word or words by using ellipsis marks. and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78). she reiterated this point even more strongly: "I am an artist.) preceded and followed by a space.Jan Harold Brunvand. however. states: "some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" (78). Appendix B. For example: In an essay on urban legends. for an insightful analysis of this trend. allow you to use endnotes or footnotes for evaluative bibliographic comments. not a politician!" (Weller 124)... see Pyle. and the MLA Style Manual. Footnotes and Endnotes Because long explanatory notes can be distracting to readers. Also note that the MLA Style Guide still requires brackets. if there are ellipsis marks in the quoted author's work. for example: 1 See Blackmur. for a contrasting view. brackets are no longer needed around ellipses unless adding brackets would clarify your use of ellipses. certain publishers encourage or require note references in lieu of parenthetical references (see the MLA Handbook. see Wollens pp. If you omit a word or words from a quotation. On the problems related to repressed memory recovery. MLA discourages extensive use of explanatory or digressive notes. Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale . do not put brackets around them. For example. so as to distinguish them from ellipsis marks in the quoted author's work. most academic style guidelines (including MLA and APA) recommend limited use of footnotes/endnotes. Appendix A. MLA style does. however. 3 Guidebook page 54 . so it's probably best practice to follow the MLA manual appropriate to your assignment or publication. for other systems of MLA citation).

note references appear before dashes: For years. which should appear before the Works Cited page. footnotes should begin four lines (two double-spaced lines) below the main text. Guidebook page 55 .6 Scholars have argued for years that this claim has no basis. page number header as the rest of your paper. The list of endnotes and footnotes (either of which. scholars have failed to address this point8—a fact that suggests their cowardice more than their carelessness. for papers submitted for publication. but double-space between individual notes. in plain text without quotation marks). Works Cited Page: Basic Format According to MLA style. you must have a Works Cited page at the end of your research paper. Single-space notes formatted as footnotes on the page. However.7 so we would do well to ignore it. It should have the same one-inch margins and last name. Works Cited page preparation and formatting is covered in chapter 5 of the MLA Handbook.Numbering Endnotes and Footnotes Footnotes in MLA format are indicated by consecutively-numbered superscript arabic numbers in the main text after the punctuation of the phrase or clause the note refers to: Some have argued that such an investigation would be fruitless. Double space all citations. The notes themselves are listed by consecutive superscript arabic numbers and appear double-spaced in regular paragraph format (a new paragraph for each note) on a separate page under the word Notes (centered. Formatting Endnotes and Footnotes The MLA recommends that all notes be listed on a separate page titled Notes (no quotation marks or italics). daggers. but do not skip spaces between entries. Label the page Works Cited (do not underline the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page. Basic Rules • • • Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. This is especially important for papers being submitted for publication. and chapter 6 of the MLA Style Manual. should be listed on a separate page. All entries in the Works Cited page must correspond to the works cited in your main text. or other symbols for note references. as indicated below) should correspond to the note references in the text. In the case that you need to format footnotes on the same page as the main text. Do not use asterisks.

• • List page numbers of sources efficiently.. The Education of an E-Designer. short prepositions. PhD" appears simply as "Bigbrain. but do not capitalize articles. DDS. Jr.1 and 3. when needed.. for entire edited collections. do. Guidebook page 56 . you should provide enough information so that the reader can locate the article either in its original print form or retrieve it from the online database (if they have access). include suffixes like "Jr. If you refer to a journal article that appeared on pages 225 through 250. or conjunctions unless one is the first word of the title or subtitle: Gone with the Wind. Author names are written last name first.) or degrees (PhD. list solo-author entries first: Heller.6 of the MLA Style Manual. Martin Luther King. however. A Rhetoric of Motives.6. When an author or collection editor appears both as the sole author of a text and as the first author of a group. articles) Listing Author Names Entries are listed by author name (or. Steven. Kenneth. A book listing an author named "John Bigbrain.) with names. middle names or middle initials follow the first name: Burke." with the suffix following the first or middle name and a comma. MA. etc. editor names). and use three hyphens in place of the author's name for every entry after the first: Burke. a work by Dr. More than One Work by an Author If you have cited more than one work by a particular author. A Grammar of Motives. There Is Nothing Left to Lose Use italics or underlining for titles of larger works (books. magazines) and quotation marks for titles of shorter works (poems. ---. Capitalization and Punctuation • • Capitalize each word in the titles of articles. order the entries alphabetically by title. Sir. Martin Luther." Putting it all together." or "II. Jr. ed. For additional information on handling names. etc. books. If you're citing an article or a publication that was originally issued in print form but that you retrieved from an online database. David Foster Do not list titles (Dr. consult section 3. The Art of War.8 of The MLA Handbook and sections 6. John". etc. Kenneth Levy. list the page numbers on your Works Cited page as 225-50. David M. would be cited as "King. Saint. Wallace.

Kenneth. Title of Book. Henley. talk to your instructor. you may list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. Paula. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. last name. If your particular case is not covered here. Boring Postcards USA. If there are more than three authors. Patricia. Design Literacy: Understanding Graphic Design. Gillespie. Chaos: Making a New Science. Jean. Firstname. first name. visit the links in our additional resources section. Books First or single author's name is written last name. subsequent author names are written first name. use the basic forms to determine the correct format. 2000. 1999. Simulacra and Simulations. or email the OWL tutors for help. Boring Postcards USA has no known author: Baudrillard. 1987. Book with More Than One Author First author name is written last name first. Steven and Karen Pomeroy. Works Cited Page: Books The MLA Style Manual provides extensive examples of print source citations in chapter six. In this case. no period after "et") in Guidebook page 57 . Book with One Author Gleick. the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers provides extensive examples covering a wide variety of potential sources in chapter six. The basic form for a book citation is: Lastname. James. The Hummingbird House. and Neal Lerner. consult one of the MLA books. use a shortened version of the title in the parenthetical citations in your paper. Burke. Year of Publication. Work with No Known Author Alphabetize works with no known author by their title. Place of Publication: Publisher.Heller. Boston: Allyn. New York: Penguin Books. Denver: MacMurray. (the abbreviation for the Latin phrase "and others". A Rhetoric of Motives.

2004.place of the other authors' names. UT: Utah State UP." followed by the translator's/translators' name(s): Foucault. and Geoffrey Sirc. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. UT: Utah State UP. parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: (Encyclopedia 235). List books alphabetically by title. A Translated Book Cite as you would any other book. Trans. Guidebook page 58 . 2004. The Films of the Eighties: A Social History. et al. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Michel. and add "Trans. 1993. a committee. Martin's. 1998. Palmer. Richard Howard. Logan. Use quotation marks and underlining as appropriate. use three hyphens and a period instead of the author's name. New York: St. New York: Vintage-Random House. Encyclopedia of Indiana. 1988. ---. Allergies in Children. Dickens and New Historicism. Selfe. Anne Frances. New York: Random. or you may list all the authors in the order in which their names appear on the title page. Cynthia L. Book by a Corporate Author A corporate author may be a commission. 1997. or Wysocki. Wysocki. Two or More Books by the Same Author After the first listing of the author's name. For parenthetical citations of sources with no author named. use a shortened version of the title instead of an author's name. Logan. or any group whose individual members are not identified on the title page: American Allergy Association. Anne Frances. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. William J. Book with No Author List and alphabetize by the title of the book. 1993. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP. Johndan Johnson-Eilola. New York: Somerset. For example.

2004. 1984. which is usually a revision of the original. Ed." Title of Collection. followed by a comma and "ed. A Subsequent Edition Cite the book as you normally would. Erdrich. and Marguerite Helmers. Bronte. eds." Hill.. Peterson. "Title of Essay. First name. Charlotte. Jane Eyre.Republished Book Books may be republished due to popularity without becoming a new edition. Year. Oxford: Oxford UP. New York: Routledge. "eds. Margaret Smith. Gender Trouble. Anthology or Collection List by editor or editors. Sharon and Debra Hawhee. Defining Visual Rhetorics. or a chapter of a book. Nancy J. Reference. New York: Pearson/Longman. or Collection Book parts include an essay in an edited collection or anthology. 1993. Ed. but add the number of the edition after the title." or. An Edition of a Book There are two types of editions in book publishing: a book that has been published more than once in different editions and a book that is prepared by someone other than the author (typically an editor). Mahwah. insert the original publication date before the publication information. 2004. Butler. Guidebook page 59 . 1998. A Work Prepared by an Editor Cite the book as you normally would. but add the editor after the title. The basic form is: Lastname. Toni Morrison: Critical and Theoretical Approaches. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP. Pages. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. For these books. Charles A. Judith. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Louise. ed. Crowley. A Work in an Anthology. for multiple editors. 1999. Editor's Name(s). 1990. 1997. New York: Perennial-Harper. Love Medicine. 3rd ed. Place of Publication: Publisher.

" Rose and Weiser 153-167. Carter. New York: Allworth Press. Ben Rafoth. 26. If the specific literary work is part of the same author's collection. the title of the essay. "Red. 1994. 12-19. Kincaid. "Girl. and the page numbers. then there will be no editor to reference: Whitman. NH: Heinemann. 1999. 24-34. "The Tiger's Bride. and Irwin Weiser. Robert. Peeples. Rose. 13-24. New York: Dover. "'Seeing' the WPA With/Through Postmodern Mapping. Ed." The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories. 154-169. the editor's last name. New York: Vintage.'" The Education of a Graphic Designer. Red Rose. Poem or Short Story Examples: Burns. simply list the author's name. New York: Penguin. 1998. The Writing Program Administrator as Researcher. For individual essays from that collection. New York: Dover. Steven Heller. NH: Heinemann. For example: L'Eplattenier. the MLA indicates that it is optional to cross-reference within your works cited list in order to avoid writing out the publishing information for each separate essay." Rose and Weiser 131-40. Philip Smith. You should should consider this option if you have many references from one text. 306-307. Jamaica. "Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers. "Finding Ourselves in the Past: An Argument for Historical Work on WPAs." A Tutor's Guide: Helping Writers One to One. Cross-referencing: If you cite more than one essay from the same edited collection. Walt. To do so. "Graphic Design Education as a Liberal Art: Design and Knowledge in the University and The 'Real World. Barbara. "I Sing the Body Electric." Selected Poems." 100 Best-Loved Poems." Burning Your Boats: The Collected Stories. 1995. Ed. Ed. Swanson. Tim. Portsmouth. Tobias Wolff. Portsmouth. 1995. 2000. Angela. eds.Some actual examples: Harris. 1991. Ed. Guidebook page 60 . Muriel. include a separate entry for the entire collection listed by the editor's name. Gunnar. Shirley K.

the total number of volumes. write the name of the authors and then give the name of the part being cited. Butler. number of" before listing the title of the entire work. Winston. then the page number(s): . 1980. Trans. The Age of Revolution. which should not be italicized. 2. Cambridge: Loeb-Harvard UP..as Quintilian wrote in Institutio Oratoria (1:14-17). New An Introduction. Or. always include the volume number followed by a colon. Institutio Oratoria. E. Churchill. if you want to reference the larger multivolume as part of your citation. S. include the volume number after the work's title.Article in Reference Book: For entries in encyclopedias. Guidebook page 61 . Trans. you may include "Vol. When citing multivolume works in your text.. A Multivolume Work When citing only one volume of a multivolume work. H. Quintilian. if the reference book is organized alphabetically. or after the work's editor or translator. a Foreword. cite the total number of volumes in the work. "Ideology. 1997. or an afterword. Also. dictionaries. don't list the volume or the page number of the article or item. Vol. underlined or enclosed in quotation marks. a Preface. a preface. 4 vols. Winston. S. as most are. 3rd ed. E. Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication. If the volume you are using has its own title." The American Heritage Dictionary. When citing more than one volume of a multivolume work. or an Afterword When citing an introduction. cite the piece as you would any other work in a collection but do not include the publisher information. and the date. a forward. H. The Age of Revolution. 1957. 1980. Churchill. Butler. Cambridge: Loeb-Harvard UP. New York: Dodd. and other reference works.

Introduction. 1-13. 110th Cong.g. Cong. ed. Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose.Farrell. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. For congressional documents. Hugh Dalziel." For example: Duncan. Berkeley: U of California P. Women's Health: Problems of the Digestive System. By Kenneth Burke. 2006. Washington: GPO. Washington: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. New Haven: Yale UP. If the writer of the piece is different from the author of the complete work. followed by the agency and any subdivision that served as the corporate author. 2007. (The New Jerusalem Bible Gen. gen. Norms of Rhetorical Culture. A Pamphlet Cite the title and publication information for the pamphlet just as you would a book without an author. A Government Publication Cite the author of the publication if the author is identified. Other Print/Book Sources Certain book sources are handled in a special way by MLA style.. Government Accountability Office.. followed by an abbreviation of the book and chapter:verse(s). 3rd ed. 1:2-6). Otherwise start with the name of the government. Climate Change: EPA and DOE Should Do More to Encourage Progress Under Two Voluntary Programs. e.) United States. Hearing on the Geopolitics of Oil. Thomas B. (GPO is the abbr. Your parenthetical citation will include the name of the specific edition of the Bible. be sure to include the number of the congress and the session when the hearing was held or resolution passed. New York: Doubleday. 1984. 1985. 1993. followed by the publication information: The New Jerusalem Bible. any editor(s) associated with it. then write the full name of the complete work's author after the word "By. for the Government Printing Office. Introduction. 1935. xiii-xliv. Guidebook page 62 . Susan Jones. By Farrell. The Bible Give the name of the specific edition. Senate. Washington: GPO. United States. 2006. 1st sess.

as you'll learn below. Sacramento. 2000: 70-71. Poniewozik. 2006: 143-8. and a Revised Critical Rhetoric: Toward a Dialectical Partnership. Bile. Diss. Feminism. of Social Services. 2004." Time 20 Nov. 2006. CA: California Dept. Ann Arbor: UMI. Basic format: Author(s). "Toward a Conception of Religion as a Discursive Formation: Implications for Postmodern Composition Theory. Jeffrey. Ohio University. 2002. treat the title as you would any book title and include the date it was published at the end. AAT 3104911. Article in a Magazine Cite by listing the article's author. Follow with the date with date and remember to abbreviate the month.Your Rights Under California Welfare Programs. 2007." MA thesis. Tarez Samra. Stolley. If the dissertation is published. 2002. like magazines. and scholarly journals. Dissertations Dissertations and master's theses may be used as sources whether published or not. Purdue University. Dana. Buchman. Documenting Institutional Identity: Strategic Writing in the IUPUI Comprehensive Campaign. Diss. putting the title of the article in quotations marks. If the work is not published. Karen Lynn. newspapers. Karl. Purdue University. but include the designation Diss. Ecology. put the title in quotation marks and end with the date the degree was awarded: Graban. Purdue University. "Towards a Feminine Ironic: Understanding Irony in the Oppositional Discourse of Women from the Early Modern and Modern Periods." Diss. Works Cited: Periodicals MLA style is slightly different for popular periodicals. Guidebook page 63 . 2006. Cite the work as you would a book. 2005. (or MA/MS thesis) followed by the degree-granting school and the year the degree was awarded. "TV Makes a Too-Close Call. and underlining or italicizing the periodical title. Ann Arbor: UMI." Title of Periodical Day Month Year: pages. "A Special Education." Good Housekeeping Mar. "Title of Article. James. AAT 3191701. You may also include the University Microfilms International (UMI) order number if you want to: Bishop.

Choice Apr. SC] 29 Apr." Editorial. 2007: 7. If You Can Really Call It Living. K. include the abbreviation "Rev.Article in a Newspaper Cite a newspaper article as you would a magazine article. Krugman. of" plus information about the performance that is being cited before giving the periodical information. late ed. "New Health Center Targets County's Uninsured Patients. of Radiant City. Linda K. John. Paul. If there is more than one edition available for that date (as in an early and late edition of a newspaper). H." New York Times 21 May 2007 late ed. "Life in the Sprawling Suburbs. as shown in following basic format: Review Author. by Author/Director/Artist. Brubaker. Rhetoric. "Presidential hopefuls get final crack at core of S. IN] 5 Dec. Matt Zoller.. 24 Oct 2003: A14. Andrew. A Review To cite a review.g. An Editorial & Letter to the Editor Cite as you would any article in a periodical. ed. Behre. 2007: 1377. Hamer. of Performance Title. include the city name in brackets after the title of the newspaper. American Journalism Review Dec." Washington Post 24 May 2007: LZ01. 2000: 20. Trembacki. Guidebook page 64 . 2006/Jan. dir." Post and Courier [Charleston. Bill." Purdue Exponent [West Lafayette. Wall Street Journal east.). Gary Burns and Jim Brown. of Sport. Seitz. ed. identify the edition following the date (e. If the newspaper is local. and Gender: Historical Perspectives and Media Representations. "Brees Hopes to Win Heisman for Team. 2007: A11. Democrats. "Fear of Eating. "Of Mines and Men. Rev.C.: E1. but note the different pagination in a newspaper. 17 May 1987. Title of Periodical day month year: page." Rev. Weiller. Robert. "Title of Review (if there is one).: A1. but include the designators "Editorial" or "Letter" to identify the type of work it is." Rev. Fuller. New York Times 30 May 2007 late ed. Letter.

John N. Guidebook page 65 .g.1 (1996): 41-50. If the journal uses continuous pagination throughout a particular volume.Anonymous Articles Cite the article title first. "The (Super)Marketplace of Images: Television as Unmediated Mediation in DeLillo's White Noise. or call the Purdue Writing Lab (765-494-3723) for help. Alaknanda.3 (1986): 33-49. "Title of Article. "Staging Identity: Frances Burney's Allegory of Genre.Issue (Year): pages. e." EighteenthCentury Studies 31 (1998): 433-51. Works Cited: Electronic Sources The MLA Style Manual provides some examples of electronic source citations in chapter six. Mosaic 19. however. Emily. If your particular source is not covered here. "Business: Global warming's boom town. you must also provide the issue number following the volume. however. Modern Fiction Studies 40 (1998): 251-81." The Economist 26 May 2007: 82. Tourism in Greenland. talk to your instructor." Title of Journal Volume. Actual example: Bagchi.g. email the OWL tutors. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu. consult the MLA Handbook." Women's Health Weekly. If each issue of the journal begins on page 1. "Aging. Women Expect to Care for Aging Parents but Seldom Prepare. use the basic forms to determine the correct format. and finish the citation as you would any other for that kind of periodical. the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers covers a wider variety of electronic sources in chapter six. only volume and year are needed. Journal with Non-Continuous Pagination Duvall. e." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 15.3 (1994): 127-53. 10 May 2007: 18. An Article in a Scholarly Journal Author(s)." Arizona Quarterly 50. Journal with Continuous Pagination Allen.

Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sometimes found in copyright statements). which makes later reference easy. book. >]). Thanks for your patience. Below are a variety of Web sites and pages you might need to cite. to keep your own copies for future reference. be sure to properly encode your carets. Some Tips on Handling Electronic Sources It is always a good idea to maintain personal copies of electronic information. HTML's paragraph tag). revision. An Entire Web Site Basic format: Name of Site. We are working to correct this limitation in our computer code. using a program like Adobe Acrobat. as carets are also used to set off HTML. Special Warning for Researchers Writing/Publishing Electronically MLA style requires electronic addresses to be listed between carets. Most Web browsers will include URL/electronic address information when you print. Also learn to use the Bookmark function in your Web browser. Date of Posting/Revision. printed between carets ([<. article Any version numbers available Date of version. You may find some MLA example text on the Purdue OWL that is not double-spaced. When writing in electronic formats. Date you accessed the site [electronic address].Please Note: MLA documents should be double-spaced throughout. Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources Here are some common features you should try and find before citing electronic sources in MLA style. XHTML. better. It is good practice to print or save Web pages or. This is a dangerous practice for anyone writing or publishing electronically. or title of project. and "Web site" or "Web sites" are written as two words) and Web pages are arguably the most commonly cited form of electronic resource today. XML and other markup language tags (e. Always include as much information as is available/applicable: • • • • • • • Author and/or editor names Name of the database. Web Sources Web sites (in MLA style.. the "W" in Web is capitalized. or posting Publisher information Date you accessed the material Electronic address.g. when possible. Guidebook page 66 .

Privacy & Security.com/exec/obidos/ tg/browse/-/551434/104-0801289-6225502>.org/w/index. the Amazon.It is necessary to list your date of access because web postings are often updated. so we'd need to simplify the citation: Amazon. Dept. include "Course home page" or "Dept.wikipedia. or the entry or home page for a collection of pages you're referring to: "Caret.amazon. 2005. Be sure to include the complete address for the site. Survey of the Literature of England. or provide the path to the resource from an entry page with an easier URL. others use frames. To address this problem. A Page on a Web Site For an individual page on a Web site.purdue. Begin the path with the word Path followed by a colon. followed by the date of access and URL. Here are some examples: The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. 26 Aug. 28 April 2006.com.edu/english/>. Course home page. English. 2003. Felluga.amazon. home page. Make sure the URL points to the exact page you are referring to.edu>. For course or department websites. followed by the name of each link. so the URL appears the same for each page.purdue. Purdue University. Path: Help. 10 May 2006 <http://en.edu/english/theory>.html>. list the author or alias if known. and information available on one date may no longer be available later. 31 May 2007 <http://web. "Privacy and Security. either refer to a site's search URL. 31 May 2007 <http://www.purdue.cla. separated by a semicolon.com/>. 10 May 2006 <http://www. 28 Nov.ics.com URL for customer privacy and security information is <http://www.edu/~felluga/eng241/index. Guidebook page 67 . Dino. Felluga." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Dino. Long URLs URLs that won't fit on one line of your Works Cited list should be broken at slashes.php?title=Caret&oldid=157510440>. 2006. of English. Purdue University.cla.purdue. Purdue University. For example. home page" after the name of the professor or department and before the institution's name." 22 May 2006 <http://www. followed by the information covered above for entire Web sites.english. Aug. 23 April 2006 <http://owl. when possible. Dept. Some Web sites have unusually long URLs that would be virtually impossible to retype. 2006-Dec.

include the artist's name.html>. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide. 10 May 2006."How to Make Vegetarian Chili. New York. Include the complete information for the site where you found the image. Twittering Machine. birds. a gallery or museum) that houses it (if applicable). cite as you would any other Web page. Madrid. but make sure you're crediting the original creator of the image.webshots. or Photograph For works housed outside of an online home. Museo del Prado. the owner of the online site for the image is different than the image's home museum: Klee. Sculpture.g.jpg) may make verification difficult or impossible." eHow.mcu.. but we could also provide the user's profile URL.>.html. 1800. The Artchive." 22 May 2006 <http://artchive. The link will provide a stable URL that wikipedia recommends using when citing. Francisco. 22 May 2006 <http://community. 1922.com/user/brandychloe>.es/i64a. Guidebook page 68 .jpg>. Path: Albums. the year the work was created. Purdue University Writing Lab. The Family of Charles IV.edu/owl/resource/557/01/>. like a JPEG (.com/artchive/K/ klee/twittering_machine. Museum of Modern Art. Stolley. In this next example. the image was found on the Web site belonging to the work's home museum: Goya. an online photo-sharing site ("brandychloe" is a username): brandychloe. Here's an example from Webshots. Including a Painting. Great Horned Owl Family.com. 22 May 2006 <http://museoprado. great horned owl family.com/ how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili. Note: Individuals using Wikipedia should use the "cite this article" link located in the "toolbox" area on the right side of the navigation.webshots.jpg. Doing so helps others verify information about the images creator. In this first example. 12 May 2006 <http://owl. 22 May 2006 <http://image46. including the date of access. e. The above example links directly to the image.html>. and the institution (e.com. brandychloe. Paul. 10 May 2006 <http://www.ehow." The OWL at Purdue. Great Horned Owl Family.g. followed by the city where it is located. where as linking directly to an image file. and give the path for reaching the image.com/ 47/7/17/41/347171741bgVWdN_fs. "Klee: Twittering Machine. For other images.purdue. Karl. An Image.english.

g. Date of Publication. For example: Bernstein. some electronic journals and magazines provide paragraph or page numbers. the name of the library through which you accessed the content." Guidebook page 69 . For example: Grabe. An Article from an Electronic Subscription Service When citing material accessed via an electronic subscription service (e. Purdue U Lib. Wheelis. Date of the message. West Lafayette.sciencedirect. Do not include a URL to the article itself. This same format may be used for personal interviews or personal letters. "10 Tips on Writing The Living Web. 2002). Mark. "Title of the message (if any). No. a database or online collection your library subscribes to). If a URL is available for the home page of the service. article title.cdc. include it. Instead of "Email to John Smith.. and the description should be appropriate.An Article in a Web Magazine Author(s).com/>. you must include volume and issue information." Emerging Infectious Diseases 6. These do not have titles." Computers and Education 44 (2005): 409-21. again. 8 May 2006 <http://www. Mark. include them if available.htm>. date." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites. 28 May 2006 <http://www. ScienceDirect. 4 May 2006 <http://alistapart. 149 (16 Aug. IN.com/articles/writeliving>. Date of Access <electronic address>. including the library's city and state. periodical title." you would have "Personal interview. when available.gov/ncidod/eid/vol6no6/wheelis. E-mail or Other Personal Communication Author. First. Also." Title of Online Publication.. "Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. "Title of Article. plus date of access.6 (2000): 33 pars. and page number information) followed by the name of the database or subscription collection. An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal Online scholarly journals are treated different from online magazines. Mark. because it is not openly accessible. cite the relevant publication information as you would for a periodical (author. "Voluntary Use of Online Lecture Notes: Correlates of Note Use and Note Use as an Alternative to Class Attendance. and volume." E-mail to person's name.

Andrew. "Re: Online Tutoring.org/lists/techrhet/subscribe. cleaner416. 2006 <http://forums. Name of listserv. Not Including the Author Neyhart.interversity. 3 Mar." E-mail to Joe Barbato.devshed. Javascript Development." Online posting. and separates E and mail with a hyphen. 1 Dec. Guidebook page 70 . Date of access <electronic address for retrieval>. Weblog Postings MLA does not yet have any official rules for citing blog entries or comments. make sure you consider the credibility of the weblog site and/or the author of the posting or comment. "Title of Posting. use the username for the post. we suggest the following for how you would cite blog entries and comments depending on the author or sponsor of the weblog. E-mail Communication Between Two Parties. MLA style capitalizes the E in E-mail. If you decide to use blogs. Date when material was posted (for example: 18 Mar.html> Discussion Board/Forum Posting If an author name is not available. 2000. you may find yourself referencing blogs more often. <http://www. Also. 1998).E-mail to You Kunka. 15 Nov. a password-protected list archive)." E-mail to the author. "Add [<b>[</b> Tags to Selected Text in a Textarea" Online posting. 2000. If the listserv does not have an open archive. If you are drawing on a blog as a source.g. 2004. give the URL for the membership or subscription page of the listserv.html>. "Re: Modernist Literature.. check with your instructor or editor to see what their stance is on incorporating evidence from blog entries.com/javascriptdevelopment-115/ add-b-b-tags-to-selected-text-in-a-textarea-209193. or an archive that is open to subscribers only (e. David. A Listserv or E-mail Discussion List Posting Author. 8 Dec. But as the technology becomes more widely used for academic discussions.

Adam. "Putting Health into the Patient's Hands. 30 April 2007. "Perhaps ironically . Speech!" Debra Hawhee. Date Accessed (URL). "Title of Blog Entry. Title of Weblog.blogs. Also refer to the screen name that appears as the author of the comment. First. 30 April 2007 <http://dhawhee. Google.. even if that author is anonymous. Title of Weblog. 23 May 2007 <http://dhawhee. "Comment Title. Speech!" Weblog entry. Date Posted. but include the corporation or organization that sponsors the weblog." Author of Blog Entry. Guidebook page 71 .com/2007_05_01_googleblog_archive. 23 May 2007. Hawhee. E!." Weblog Entry. identify that it is a weblog entry and then follow the basic formatting for a website as listed above. "Title of Entry." Weblog entry. Jewcy.com/daily_shvitz/imagining_jewishness#comment>. If the site doesn't have a public archive. Inc.Citing Personal Weblog Entries List the author of the blog (even if there is only a screen name available). Debra.html>. Citing Entries on Organizational or Corporate Weblogs/Blogs List as you would for a personal blog. Blogos. 23 May 2007 <http://www." Monica Osborne. 21 May 2007. but identify that the posting is a comment and not an orginial blog entry by the organization or weblog author. "Hail.jewcy. Blogos. NOTE: Give the exact date of the posted entry so your readers can look it up by date in the archive. Date Comment Posted. Date Accessed (URL). If possible." Weblog comment. Anonymous.html#comments>." Weblog comment.blogspot.blogs.html>. 27 May 2007 <http://googleblog. 30 April 2007. "The American Jew and the Diversity Debate.com/d_hawhee/2007/04/index. Last Name. NOTE: Some weblog sites don't require titles for comments." Weblog comment.. provide the name of the particular entry you are referring to. follow the suggestion under "Listserv" citation above. "Imagining Jewishness. Screen Name. Bosworth. Citing Comments Posted to a Weblog Follow the same basic format for blog entries. "Hail.com/d_hawhee/2007/04/hail_speech. include the archive address for the posted entry as the URL in your citation as you would for an online forum. so you should just list the first few words of the comment itself to provide enough identifying information for the comment. The Official Google Blog.

An Article or Publication in Print and Electronic Form If you're citing an article or a publication that was originally issued in print form but that you retrieved from an online database that your library subscribes to, you should provide enough information so that the reader can locate the article either in its original print form or retrieve it from the online database (if they have access). Provide the following information in your citation:
• • • • • • • • • • •

Author's name (if not available, use the article title as the first part of the citation) Article Title Periodical Name Publication Date Page Number/Range Database Name Service Name Name of the library where or through which the service was accessed Name of the town/city where service was accessed Date of Access URL of the service (but not the whole URL for the article, since those are usually very long and won't be easily re-used by someone trying to retrieve the information)

The generic citation form would look like this: Author. "Title of Article." Periodical Name Volume Number (if necessary) Publication Date: page number-page number. Database name. Service name. Library Name, City, State. Date of access <electronic address of the database>. Here's an example: Smith, Martin. "World Domination for Dummies." Journal of Despotry Feb. 2000: 66-72. Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale Group Databases. Purdue University Libraries, West Lafayette, IN. 19 Feb. 2003 <http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com>. Article in a Database on CD-ROM "World War II." Encarta. CD-ROM. Seattle: Microsoft, 1999.

Article From a Periodically Published CD-ROM Reed, William. "Whites and the Entertainment Industry." Tennessee Tribune 25 Dec. 1996: 28. Ethnic NewsWatch. CD-ROM. Data Technologies, Feb. 1997. For more help with citing electronic sources, please use the Documenting Electronic Sources page from the OWL. Guidebook page 72

Works Cited: Other Non-Print Sources
Below you will find MLA style guidance for other non-print sources. A Personal Interview Listed by the name of the person you have interviewed. Purdue, Pete. Personal Interview. 1 Dec. 2000. A Lecture or Speech Include speaker name, title of the speech (if any) in quotes, details about the meeting or event where the speech was given, including its location and date of delivery. In lieu of a title, label the speech according to its type, e.g., Guest Lecture, Keynote Address, State of the Union Address. Stein, Bob. Keynote Address. Computers and Writing Conference. Union Club Hotel, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. 23 May 2003. A Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph Include the artist's name, the year the work was created, and the institution (e.g., a gallery or museum) that houses it, followed by the city where it is located. Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo del Prado, Madrid. If you're referring to a photographic reproduction, include the information as above, but also include the bibliographic information for the source in which the photograph appears, including a page or other reference number (plate, figure, etc.). For example: Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo del Prado, Madrid. Gardener's Art Through the Ages. 10th ed. By Richard G. Tansey and Fred S. Kleiner. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace. 939. See our page on citing electronic resources for citing artworks found online. Broadcast Television or Radio Program Put the name of the episode in quotation marks, and the name of the series or single program underlined or in italics. Include the network, followed by the station, city, and date of broadcast. "The Blessing Way." The X-Files. Fox. WXIA, Atlanta. 19 Jul. 1998.

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Recorded Television Shows Include information about original broadcast, plus medium of recording. When the title of the collection of recordings is different than the original series (e.g., the show Friends is in DVD release under the title Friends: The Complete Sixth Season), list the title that would be help researchers located the recording. "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry." Friends: The Complete Sixth Season. Writ. Andrew Reich and Ted Cohen. Dir. Kevin Bright. NBC. 10 Feb. 2000. DVD. Warner Brothers, 2004.

Sound Recordings
Sound recordings list album title, label and year of release (for re-releases, it's good to offer either the original recording date, or original release date, when known). You only need to indicate the medium if you are not referring to a compact disc (CD), e.g., Audiocasette or LP (for long-playing record). See section about online music below. Entire Albums List by name of group or artist (individual artists are listed last name first). Album title underlined or in italics, followed by label and year. Foo Fighters. In Your Honor. RCA, 2005. Waits, Tom. Blue Valentine. 1978. Elektra/Wea, 1990. Individual Songs Place the names of individual songs in quotation marks. Nirvana. "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Nevermind. Geffen, 1991. Spoken Word Albums Treat spoken-word albums the same as musical albums. Hedberg, Mitch. Strategic Grill Locations. Comedy Central, 2003.

Films and Movies
List films by their title, and include the name of the director, the film studio or distributor and its release year. If other information, like names of performers, is relevant to how the film is referred to in your paper, include that as well.

Guidebook page 74

Movies in Theaters The Usual Suspects. Dir. Bryan Singer. Perf. Kevin Spacey, Gabriel Byrne, Chazz Palminteri, Stephen Baldwin, and Benecio del Toro. Polygram, 1995. If you refer to the film in terms of the role or contribution of a director, writer, or performer, begin the entry with that person's name, last name first, follwed by role. Lucas, George, dir. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. 1977. Twentieth Century Fox, 1997. Recorded Movies Include format names; "Videocassette" for VHS or Betamax, DVD for Digital Video Disc. Also list original release year after director, performers, etc. Ed Wood. Dir. Tim Burton. Perf. Johnny Depp, Martin Landau, Sarah Jessica Parker, Patricia Arquette. 1994. DVD. Touchstone, 2004.

Additional Resources
It's always best to consult the current MLA Style Manual or MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for any MLA question. If you are using MLA style for a class assignment, it's also a good idea to consult your professor, advisor, TA, or other campus resources for help—they're the ones who can tell you how the style should apply in your particular case. For extraordinary questions that aren't covered clearly in the style manual or haven't been answered by your teacher or advisor, contact the Writing Lab for help at (765) 494-3723 or email us at this form. Below are some other resources for using MLA style and writing research papers that might also help answer your questions.

Print Resources the Modern Language Association
• •

MLA Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 2nd Edition (ISBN: 0-87352-699-6) MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th Edition (ISBN: 0-87352-986-3)

Abbreviations in MLA
There are a few common trends in abbreviating that you should follow when using MLA, though there are always exceptions to these rules. For a complete list of common abbreviations used in academic writing, see Chapter 7 of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers.

Guidebook page 75

R. HTML P.. Nov.. E.. Harper... QC Guidebook page 76 . unless it is a proper name: US. os.. ns (among many others) Categories of Typical Abbreviations: • • • • Time designations: Jan.. unless referring to an internet suffix. Amer.. Use a period if the abbreviation ends in a lower case letter. CD. J. USA Scholarly abbreviations: abbr.e. MA..edu. White NOTE: This also applies to PhD and EdD even though there is a lower case letter in the middle. Eng. anon. Manchester. sec. Ger. ex. rpm. conf.gov (URL suffixes) Use periods between letters without spacing if each letter represents a word in common lower case abbreviations: a. . James.. No. esp. i. yr.. Tolkein... . UT. so you should know the basic rules of abbreviation endorsed by the MLA to concisely provide your readers with reference information. B.. R.com.g.Do not use periods or spaces in abbreviations of all capital letters. D. SIRS Abbreviations in Citations Citations should be as condensed as possible. McGraw. Geographic names of states and countries in book citations when the publisher's city is not well known or could be confused with another city: Logan. . Sherbrooke. Thurs.m. Geographic names: AK.. Publishers names: Cambridge UP.. i. Exceptions: mph.e. e. where the period should come before the abbreviation: assn. Remember to follow common trends in abbreviating time and location within citations: • • Month names longer than four letters used in journal and magazine citations: Jan. Sept. Eng.

). Advertisement List the company. Guidebook page 77 .) MIT P (The MIT Press) NCTE (The National Council of Teachers of English) SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series) UMI (University Microfilms International) Works Cited Page: Other Print Sources This section includes MLA works cited information on sources other than books. W. Publishers. ERIC. Inc. & HarperCollins Publishers. Consult Chapter 7 of the MLA Handbook for a more complete list. Publishers. Inc. and its Statutes at Large cataloging number. date it was enacted. Norton) and only the last name of the first listed for a publisher with multiple names (e.g.g. periodicals.g. Norton for W. You only need to provide your readers with enough information for them to identify the publisher. Assn.g. Advertisement. business abbreviations (like Corp. Inc. Brown and Company. GPO) Use only U and P when referring to university presses (e. 3 Dec. broadcast network.) Harper (Harper and Row.g. Press. • • • • • • • • Acad. Abbreviate Pub. MLA suggests a few rules for you to follow when abbreviating publishers: • • • • • Omit articles. and descriptive words (e. Dev. its Public Law number. make sure you can identify the name of the act.) Use the acronym of the publisher if the company is commonly know by that abbreviation (e.Shorten publisher's names as much as possible in book citations. 2000: 151. Inc.) Gale (Gale Research. Many publishers can be identified by only acronyms or a shortened version of their names. and electronic sources. McGraw for McGraw-Hill) Use standard abbreviations when possible (e. the publication. or Web address where the advertisement appeared: Lufthansa. or Soc. Cambridge UP or U of Chicago P) Here is a short list of publisher abbreviations that you might use. MLA. Inc. (Academy for Educational Development. A Legal Document To cite a legal act. CBS.g. Time 20 Nov. Advertisement. House) Cite only the last name of a publisher with the name of one person (e. for Educ. 2000. or organization. Staples. or Inc.) Little (Little. business.

1976). v. 19 Nov." Date of Letter. and Stat. such as patents. 1.L. 25 June 2005. "Doonesbury. NOTE: If you are referring to a well-known historical document like the US Constitution or the United States Code (USC). Cartoon. Sipress.Long-Term Performance. Aviation and Transportation Security Act. A Cartoon or Comic Strip Cite the artist. US Markets . or those you received as the author/researcher. the title of the cartoon in quotations." Comic Strip. unpublished letters from archived collections. 2001. 2007. and the appropriate designator identifying the type of document it is. To cite a court case. Published letters are cited like works in a collection: Author. of Transportation. you don't need to include it in the works cited and can simply use an in-text citation like (US Const. No. 115. "Title" (if one). Letter xyz of Title of Collection. and the date of the ruling. sec. 1997/98. 2004: 16. Include the appropriate designator after the title. Trudeau. Pub. the case number. A Map or Chart Cite a map or chart as you would an anonymous book or pamphlet. 1) or (17 USC 304. 107-71. Publication information. New York Times Co.597. Editor. Guidebook page 78 . Tasini. Stat.of the US. L. Austin. name of the court where the ruling took place. Garry.. Refer to The Blue Book: A Uniform System of Citation if you are going to work with several different kinds of legal documents in your research. New Yorker 18 Oct. TX: Martin Capital Advisors. Map. A Letter or Memo Only cite those letters that are published letters. art. Star-Ledger [Newark] 4 May 2002: 26. you need to identify the primary parties involved. Chart. Madison. Supreme Ct. 00-201. before the two numbers. David. WI: Wisconsin Dept. Do not use any quotation marks or italics in these citations. Wisconsin.

Thus you would not include this as a source on your Works Cited page. A Manuscript or Typescript Cite the work by its title or by a descriptive term like "Notebook. Simply consider these documents as you would other unpublished papers or presentations. either through handouts or PowerPoint slideshows. "Title of Handout/Notes/Slideshow. and the library or archive location where it is housed. Notebook 32. 2006. Date. Seas. U of California. Mark. Our suggestion is that you track down a source on the topic you would like to reference in your notes. however. Guidebook page 79 . Berkeley. Class/Lecture Notes Taken By Student MLA does not have any official rule for citing class or lecture notes taken by a student during a class. Archive location. Institution. Dept. Irwin Weiser stated." the type of material it is. ".. Purdue University. if the item is something that a professor or classmate said that is uniquely their own observation. Dept. Mark Twain Papers. Kristen. For example: In a lecture on 5 October 2004. any number assigned to it. of English. Date notes were received. Letters to researcher are cited as "Letter to the author" as follows: Author. 25 Aug. Or. Introductory Composition. "Conference Guidelines. Class/Lecture Notes Distributed by Professor MLA also does not have any official rule on class/lecture notes that are provided to a class by the professor. in a graduate course on composition theory.Unpublished letters are cited like manuscripts: Author. Dr. Because such notes are documented by a party other than the student. Name of Course." Course handout." Course notes. Letter to the author. Twain. we would suggest that you include these in your Works Cited unlike other class notes. you should quote them in text without a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence.. but use the designator "Course notes" or "Course handout" to identify the type of document it is. Just provide as much identifying information in the text itself. For notes that are purchased or handed out in class: Instructor's Name. Collection title.. ts. Letter to Recipient. Date received.

on. Purdue University. John." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 14. 24 May 2007 <http://www. Dir." Course notes. 25 May 2007 <http://www. Works Cited "Business Coalition for Climate Action Doubles.cs.org/article. 2007. 2007. 24 May 2007 <http://www. Perf. Bill. "An Inconvenient Truth." Course notes. "CS 380S Week 4: Format String Vulnerabilities and Integer Overflows. Course home page. Dept..edu/homes/cs390s/refs. <http://www. if known). Clinton.purdue. 2006. Keyword: Climate.com/>.nytimes. <URL>. Leroux.nytimes. Environmental Defense Organization.For notes available online as PDFs & PowerPoint slides on course site: Instructor's Name. Guidebook page 80 . Cornelia. dir. Al Gore.com. 31 Jan.environmentaldefense. Marcel. 24 May 2007 <http://rogerebert. Davis Guggenheim. 2005. Date accessed from site. May 2007. 5 Mar." Rev. "Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet. Robert.com>. Lawrence Bender. Institution. 2 June 2006.1 (2007): 27-36.suntimes. Secure Programming.org/>. Cooler Heads Coalition. Gowdy. "Title of Document. 2007." New York Times on the Web 22 May 2007.html>. rogerebert. Course title. New York: Springer.globalwarming. Course home page. Dean. 25 May 2007 <http://video. of Computer Science. Meunier. 8 May 2007. Date distributed (or created. of An Inconvenient Truth." Environmental Defense. Interview. Davis Guggenheim.html> MLA Works Cited Example Page Works Cited This handout provides an example of a Works Cited page in MLA format. Global Warming. Dept. "Avoiding Self-organized Extinction: Toward a Co-evolutionary Economics of Sustainability. An Inconvenient Truth. New York Times on the Web. Global Warming: Myth Or Reality?: The Erring Ways of Climatology. Pascal.cfm?ContentID=5828>.com/2007/05/22/science/earth/22ander. Ebert.

Economic Theory and Global Warming.2 (2006): 31-34." Science 9 Nov. Legal Information Copyright ©1995-2008 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. Additionally.0 standards. "After Kyoto: Alternative Mechanisms to Control Global Warming. The OWL at Purdue now conforms to W3C. Nordhaus.0 Strict and CSS 2. 24 May 2007. the site passes the Cynthia Says test for ADA Section 508 compliance. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Contact Dana Driscoll to share your comments and concerns. Shulte. broadcast. Bret. Myron Scholes. Climate change laws seem inevitable. Michael. or redistributed without permission.Milken. Uzawa. ---. 2003. Gary Becker. reproduced. and Daniel Kahneman. Guidebook page 81 . rewritten." New Perspectives Quarterly 23. 24 May 2007. but their economic impact is unknown. William D." US News & World Report 14 May 2007. "Putting a Price on Pollution. open-source Mozilla Firefox). This material may not be published. Please report any technical problems you encounter.4 (2006): 63. Hirofumi. "On Global Warming and Financial Imbalances.org-validated XHTML 1." American Economic Review 96. All rights reserved. We also recommend updating your Web browser to the very latest version available (the OWL at Purdue recommends the free. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. "Global Warming Economics. The Writing Lab & OWL at Purdue University care about accessiblity and content quality. 2001: 1283-84.

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