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UNDERSTANDING THE GAS LAWS
The ideal gas law is a general law for the pressure, volume, and
temperature of a gas that includes both Boyle's law and Charles' for
gasses as special cases.

arly Hot Air Balloons Led to Gas Laws - Claude-Louis Desrais

When a gas is compressed into a smaller volume, its temperature
and/or pressure increase. The reverse is also true. When allowed to
expand rapidly, a gas's temperature decreases. One can freeze
carbon dioxide by opening the valve of a compressed carbon dioxide
gas cylinder and improvising a filter to catch the dry ice particles.

8oyIe's Low

Robert Boyle first person discovered Boyle's Law
Boyle's Law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure
of the gas is inversely proportional to its volume when the
temperature is kept constant.
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When the volume of a gas is reduced, the pressure
of the gas increases.

EXAMPLE BOYLE'S LAW

For example if you half the amount of volume of gas, the pressure will double.

Ìf you have a gas under 1 atm of pressure, in a 300 mL container, what would be
the pressure of that same gas in a 150 mL container ?

1 atm x 300 mL = P2x 150 mL

To find P2, you must isolate it by dividing each side by 150
The equation will be:

P2 = 1 atm x 300 mL
150 mL

this becomes 300 mL over 150 mL, and the answer is: P2 = 2 atm.

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1he oxygen cooled nde hlgh pesse so LhaL Lhe vol¯e of Lhe oxygen can be
edcedŦ
ue Lo Lhe hlgh pesse ln Lhe Lankţ Lhe Lank ls ¯ade of ¯eLals whlch ae had
and LhlckŦ

chor/es´ Low

acqes Chales was a lench hoL al balloonlsL and sclenLlsLŦ Pe
dlscoveed Chales' lawŦ
Chales' law sLaLes LhaL fo a flxed ¯ass of gassţ Lhe vol¯e of Lhe
gas ls dlecLly popoLlonal Lo lLs absolLe Le¯peaLe when lLs
pesse ls kepL consLanLŦ
8y sLdylng Lhe elaLlonshlp beLween Lhe vol¯e and Lhe
Le¯peaLeof a gas aL a consLanL aL¯osphelc Le¯peaLeŦ
As Lhe Le¯peaLeof Lhe gas ln a balloon lnceasedţlLs vol¯e
also lnceasedŦ
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Ŧ 1haL ls

ƹ consLanL o

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1he ldeal gas law ls an eleganL lnLegaLlon of gas laws LhaL wee
dlscoveed as sepaaLe laws fo speclal casesŦ ÞhyslclsLs always
look fo sch eleganL ways Lo co¯blne ¯lLlple laws lnLo a slngle
sl¯ple lawŦ

Charles's Law says the volume of gas increases, when the
temperature of the gas is increased.

The equation for this is:
V
1
/ T
1
= V
2
/ T
2

To maintain the constant, , during heating of a gas at fixed
pressure, the volume must increase. Conversely, cooling the gas
decreases the volume.
as temperature increases, the volume of the gas increases.

.IIIIf.7IO. OI fW.HIIS`
I.M.

When the air in a hot-air gas
balloon is heated at
atmospheric pressure, its
temperatures.
According to Charles' law, the
volume of a gas increases
when its temperature is
increased at constant volume.
The balloon rises when
buoyant force on the balloon
is greater than the weight of the
balloon.

PRFSSuRF lAw

E 1he pesses law sLaLes LhaL fo a flxed ¯ass of
gassţ Lhe pesse of Lhe gas ls dlecLly popoLlonal
Lo lLs absolLe Le¯peaLe when lLs vol¯e ls kepL
consLanLŦ

E 1he pesse of a gas lnceases wlLh lLs
Le¯peaLeŦ

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APPLICATION OF
PRESSURE LAW

When the car is moving,
the tyres will roll on the
causes compression on the
tyres.
This will increases the
temperature in the tyres
& therefore increases the
air pressure in the tyres.
When the air pressure in
the tyres becomes higher,
it might explode.

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