A performance appraisal, employee appraisal, performance review, or (career) development discussion is a method by which the job performance of an employee
is evaluated (generally in terms of quality, quantity, cost, and time) typically by the corresponding manager or supervisor. A performance appraisal is a part of guiding and managing career development. It is the process of obtaining, analyzing, and recording information about the relative worth of an employee to the organization. Performance appraisal is an analysis of an employee's recent successes and failures, personal strengths and weaknesses, and suitability for promotion or further training. It is also the judgement of an employee's performance in a job based on considerations other than productivity alone.
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1 Aims 2 Methods 3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 External links
Generally, the aims of a performance appraisal are to:
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Give employees feedback on performance Identify employee training needs Document criteria used to allocate organizational rewards Form a basis for personnel decisions: salary increases, promotions, disciplinary actions, bonuses, etc. Provide the opportunity for organizational diagnosis and development Facilitate communication between employee and employer Validate selection techniques and human resource policies to meet federal Equal Employment Opportunity requirements. To improve performance through counseling, coaching and development.
A common approach to assessing performance is to use a numerical or scalar rating system whereby managers are asked to score an individual against a number of objectives/attributes. In some companies, employees receive assessments from their manager, peers, subordinates, and customers, while also performing a self assessment This is known as a 360-degree appraisal and forms good communication patterns.
The latest mantra being followed by organizations across the world being – "get paid according to what you contribute" – the focus of the organizations is turning to performance management and specifically to individual performance.
 See also
Employment integrity testing
he history can be dated back to the 20th century and then to the second world war when the merit rating was used for the first time. because they are vague. personality dimensions tend to be static. and while an employee can change a behavior they cannot change their personality. a person who lacks integrity may stop lying to a manager because they have been caught. but they still have low integrity and are likely to lie again when the threat of being caught is gone. In addition. The vagueness of these instruments allows managers to assess the employee based upon subjective feelings instead of objective observations about how the employee has performed his or her specific duties. Performance appraisal helps to rate the performance of the employees and evaluate their contribution towards the organizational goals. These systems are also more likely to leave a company open to discrimination claims because a manager can make biased decisions without having to back them up with specific behavioral information. For example. Performance appraisal is necessary to measure the performance of the employees and the organization to check the progress towards the desired goals and aims. An employer evaluating their employees is a very old concept. The scientific literature on the subject provides evidence that assessing employees on factors such as these should be avoided.
.It is an indispensable part of performance measurement. If the process of performance appraisals is formal and properly structured. which rely on factors such as integrity and conscientiousness. it helps the employees to clearly understand their roles and responsibilities and give direction to the individual’s performance. It helps to align the individual performances with the organizational goals and also review their performance. The reasons for this are twofold: 1) Trait-based systems are by definition based on personality traits and as such may not be related directly to successful job performance. are also used by businesses but have been replaced primarily by more objective and resultsoriented methods. causing them to be less reliable as a source of information on an employee's true performance.The most popular methods used in the performance appraisal process include the following:
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Management by objectives 360-degree appraisal Behavioral observation scale Behaviorally anchored rating scales
Trait-based systems. 2) Trait-based systems. are more easily influenced by office politics.
The UK (consistent with Europe) Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006. This has several implications for performance appraisals. Of course many employment laws.Performance appraisal takes into account the past performance of the employees and focuses on the improvement of the future performance of the employees. performance appraisal form (pdf) sample/template . '360° appraisals'. Here at naukrihub. personality and behaviour . see the Age Diversity information. Here is a basic performance appraisal form template. documents used. but the age issue is worthy of special not because the changes are relatively recent. 'skill-set' assessment and training needs analysis tips and tools
Important changes relating to age discrimination in UK employment law became effective in October 2006. including those relating to other forms of discrimination. Feel free to use and adapt it to suit your purposes. we attempt to provide an insight into the concept of performance appraisal. Ensure your systems. performance evaluation and assessment of job skills. the inclusion of age and dateof-birth sections on appraisal forms is not recommended (as for all other documentation used in assessing people). effective from 1st October 2006. while not unlawful. For further guidance about the effects of Age Equality and Discrimination on performance appraisals. For example.and tips for '360 degree feedback'. sample performance appraisal forms and the appraisal softwares available etc. An attempt has been made to study the current global trends in performance appraisal.
performance appraisals.downloadable pdf (revised August 2006) performance appraisal form (MSWord) sample/template . training and materials for appraisals reflect current employment law. and the training of people who conduct staff appraisals. in PDF and MSWord formats. also affect appraisals and performance assessment. make it unlawful to discriminate against anyone on the grounds of age. and other aspects of managing people. It's helpful to understand these recent laws also if you (young or old) are being appraised. graduate assessment days and group selection recruitment see the group selection information on the job interviews page.
. with implications for all types of appraisals and job performance and suitability assessment. the methods and approaches of performance appraisal.downloadable MSWord file (revised August 2006) For guidance on assessment centres/centers.
agreeing expectations and objectives. depending on the size and structure of the organization. and feed into business planning.tools. Performance appraisals provide a formal.
. Performance appraisals generally review each individual's performance against objectives and standards for the trading year. Each staff member is appraised by their line manager. and fostering positive relationships between management and staff. and delegation of responsibilities and tasks. Annual performance appraisals enable management and monitoring of standards. which commonly also coincides with the business planning for the next trading year. Directors are appraised by the CEO. process. and training and planning issues Probationary reviews appraisals elements and factors Tips on completing your own self-assessment performance appraisals
performance appraisals purpose .for individuals. Performance appraisals also typically feed into organizational annual pay and grading reviews. crucial jobs. tips and guidelines 360 Degree Appraisals . improve organizational performance. and for the organization as a whole. Appraisals help develop individuals. process. regular review of an individual's performance.and how to make it easier
Performance appraisals are essential for the effective management and evaluation of staff. Performance appraisals are also essential for career and succession planning . Staff performance appraisals also establish individual training needs and enable organizational training needs analysis and planning. tips and explanation Appraisals timing with pay reviews. and a plan for future development. recorded. agreed at the previous appraisal meeting. Formal performance appraisals are generally conducted annually for all staff in the organization.Also on this page: Individual Skill/Behaviours Assessments and Group Training Needs Analysis (TNA) tools. templates. communicating and aligning individual and organizational aims. templates. attitude and behaviour development. Performance appraisals are important for staff motivation. who is appraised by the chairman or company owners.
to include accountabilities relating to corporate responsibility. Appraisals (and work) all tend to be easier when people communicate well and know each other. common interests. progress. quick. whatever. So don't wait for the annual appraisal to sit down and talk.in whatever form they take . aims. life.or whose people are not used to talking with their boss . hopes and dreams. The process is seen as a difficult administrative chore and emotionally challenging. development. social responsibility and whole-person development
There is increasingly a need for performance appraisals of staff and especially managers. and especially more relaxed. Put off discussions and of course they loom very large.
. the TV.which then defeats the whole purpose. The annual appraisal is maybe the only time since last year that the two people have sat down together for a meaningful one-toone discussion. If you are a boss who rarely sits down and talks with people .. Managers and appraisees commonly dislike appraisals and try to avoid them. To these people the appraisal is daunting and time-consuming. There lies the main problem . career.and the remedy. if the boss meets each of the team members individually and regularly for one-to-one discussion throughout the year. makes appraisals so much easier because people then know and trust each other .Job performance appraisals . and then when the actual formal appraisals are due everyone will find the whole process to be far more natural. then take the lead. So sit down together and talk as often as you can. and easy . No wonder then that appraisals are stressful .
appraisals.and a lot more productive too. The boss or or the appraisee can instigate this.are therefore vital for managing the performance of people and organizations. Meaningful regular discussion about work. directors and CEO's. If you are an employee with a shy boss.which reduces all the stress and the uncertainty.then set about relaxing the atmosphere and improving relationships. the universe. etc. Appraisals are much easier.
Appraisals must address 'whole person' development . be creative and imaginative in discussing. suggestions. The organisation must decide the extent to which these accountabilities are reflected in job responsibilities. gender. effective from 1st October 2006. When designing or planning and conducting appraisals. or maybe mention it at your exit interview prior to joining a better employer who cares about the people. the best employers recognise that growing the 'whole person' promotes positive attitudes. and also develops lots of new skills that can be surprisingly relevant to working productively and effectively in any sort of organisation. Sustainability.
. etc. If you are an employee and your employer has yet to embrace or even acknowledge these concepts. along with other characteristics stated above.not just job skills or the skills required for the next promotion. Abraham Maslow recognised this over fifty years ago. Age. beyond the usual job skill-set. corporate integrity and ethics. The UK Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006. This means people who are young as well as old. disability. In fact the opposite applies. and to retain the best staff. whole-person development is a crucial advantage in the employment market. unless proper 'objective justification' can be proven. etc.represented by various converging corporate responsibility concepts including: the 'Triple Bottom Line' ('profit people planet'). in which all employers compete to attract the best recruits. Increasingly. judgements. Appraisals must not discriminate against anyone on the grounds of age. make it particularly important to avoid any comments. questions or decisions which might be perceived by the appraisee to be based on age. and incorporate this sort of development into the appraisal process. not just the work. motivation. which would then naturally feature accordingly in performance appraisals. Developing the whole-person is also an important aspect of modern corporate responsibility. seek to help the 'whole-person' to grow in whatever direction they want. corporate social responsibility (CSR). Significantly also. advancement. race. See the Age Diversity information. religion. Fair Trade. and separately (if you needed a purely business-driven incentive for adopting these principles). is not a lawful basis for assessing and managing people. do them a favour at your own appraisal and suggest they look at these ideas. discovering and agreeing 'whole-person' development that people will respond to. while this appraisal outline is necessarily a formal structure this does not mean that the development discussed with the appraisee must be formal and constrained. More about this aspect of responsibility is in the directors job descriptions section. Therefore in appraisals. sexual orientation. not just to identify obviously relevant work skills training. (consistent with Europe).
so the more we can help folk understand their own special potential. for good reasons. additional responsibilities.it's a fundamental process the list goes on.transparent. to help people understand their natural potential and strengths and to help managers understand this about their people too. Think about everything that performance appraisals can achieve and contribute to when they are properly managed.in whatever form.including unused hidden strengths career and succession planning . Performance appraisals offer a way to protect and manage these valuable face-to-face opportunities. It is likely that the critics of the appraisal process are the people who can't conduct them very well. short.
are performance appraisals still beneficial and appropriate?
It is sometimes fashionable in the 'modern age' to dismiss traditional processes such as performance appraisals as being irrelevant or unhelpful. before or after.. the happier we shall all be. My advice is
. There are a lot of people out there who are in jobs which don't allow them to use and develop their greatest strengths. defining. Be very wary however if considering removing appraisals from your own organisational practices. etc delegation. aims. and there are various .have been a mainstay of management for decades. values.assessment and agreement identification of personal strengths and direction . Appraisals . It's a common human response to want to jettison something that one finds difficult. and find roles that really fit well. understanding and relationship resolving confusions and misunderstandings reinforcing and cascading organisational philosophies. priorities. redefining priorities and objectives motivation through agreeing helpful aims and targets motivation though achievement and feedback training needs and learning desires .all good managers should be able to conduct appraisals well .Incidentally the Multiple Intelligences test and VAK Learning Styles test are extremely useful tools for appraisals. for example:
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performance measurement .personal and organisational team roles clarification and team building organisational training needs assessment and analysis appraisee and manager mutual awareness.
People have less and less face-to-face time together these days. employee growth and development counselling and feedback manager development . medium and long term clarifying. strategies.
A 'no good . Particularly . All that said. In fact performance appraisals of all types are effective if they are conducted properly. which for them becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.for managers and appraisees alike.
. be very sure that you can safely cover all the aspects of performance and attitudinal development that a well-run performance appraisals system is naturally designed to achieve. and thereby also the organisations for whom they work.not doing it' negative attitude to their own appraisals responsibilities (teams). Leaving everything to a single make-or-break discussion once a year is asking for trouble and trepidation. This attitude and behaviour then cascades down to their appraisees (all the people in their team) who then not surprisingly also apply the same 'no good . performance appraisals that are administered without training (for those who need it). As with anything. without explanation or consultation. Help anxious managers (and directors) develop and adapt appraisals methods that work for them. Managers need guidance. Well-prepared and well-conducted performance appraisals provide unique opportunities to help appraisees and managers improve and develop. others prefer 360-degree-type appraisals. and ideas change over time as to what are the most effective appraisals methods and systems. others suggest using little more than a blank sheet of paper. Especially the detractors and the critics. There are various ways of conducting performance appraisals. And so it goes. Look out especially for the warning signs of 'negative cascaded attitudes' towards appraisals. the people involved. usually because they are uncomfortable and inexperienced in conducting them. There are lots of ways to conduct appraisals.not doing it' attitude in the middle ranks is almost invariably traceable back to a senior manager or director who holds the same view. and conducted poorly will be counter-productive and are a waste of everyone's time. training and encouragement in how to conduct appraisals properly. Be flexible. and if you are under pressure to replace performance appraisals with some sort of (apparently) more efficient and cost effective methods.this removes much of the pressure for managers and appraisees at formal appraisals times. help them. Some people advocate traditional appraisals and forms. and particularly lots of ways to diffuse apprehension and fear . where people need help doing the right thing. and better still if the appraisal process is clearly explained to. This is most often found where a senior manager or director hates conducting appraisals. The senior manager/director typically will be heard to say that appraisals don't work and are a waste of time. agreed by.to hold on to and nurture these situations.encourage people to sit down together and review informally and often .
there are many different methods of performance evaluation. never use a staff performance appraisal to handle matters of discipline or admonishment. the individual. the assessor.
effective performance appraisals
Aside from formal traditional (annual.or job-related tests Assignment or task followed by review. so never. In certain organizations. quarterly. The use of any of these methods depends on the purpose of the evaluation. The formal annual performance appraisal is generally the over-riding instrument which gathers together and reviews all other performance data for the previous year. explained. including secondments (temporary job cover or transfer) Assessment centres.
types of performance and aptitude assessments. including formal performance appraisals
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Formal annual performance appraisals Probationary reviews Informal one-to-one review discussions Counselling meetings Observation on the job Skill. performance appraisals are widely regarded as something rather less welcoming ('bollocking sessions' is not an unusual description). ask yourself whether it is being properly trained. never. if performance appraisals aren't working. or monthly) performance appraisals. agreed and conducted. which should instead be handled via separately arranged meetings. Performance appraisals should be positive experiences. and the environment. which provides a basis only on which to develop fear and resentment. don't blame the process. in order to get the best out of the people and the process. six-monthly. inc
.Just like any other process. The appraisals process provides the platform for development and motivation. so organizations should foster a feeling that performance appraisals are positive opportunities.