Acoustics and Sound Insulation are the functional requirements of most of the buildings and have already been introduced in Chapter 4. These requirements can be achieved by considering three broad aspects, namely, (•) Adequate planning of buildings with respect to their surroundings ; (»») Acoustical design ; (Hi) Constructional measures for noise control and sound insulation. The first aspect, i.e., adequate planning of buildings, has already been covered in Chapter 3 on 'Functional Planning of Buildings.' The remaining two aspects of these building requirements for different >classes of occupancy will be covered under this chapter. The various terms, which are likely to appear at one place or the other in connection with acoustics and sound insulation, have been explained in Chapter 2 on Terminology under Group 11 on Plumbing and Building Services. 'Acoustics', as applied to the buildings, is the science of sound 'Which assures the optimum conditions for producing and listening to speech, music,' actual or reproduced as recorded music on cinema. The planning, acoustical design and construction have to provide for dissipation of the noises, external or internal (» e., outdoor or indoor noises) and insulation against sound. Due to the increasing use of radios, motion pictures, automobiles, machinery, etc. the much emphasis has been laid in recent years for the improvement of acoustical conditions of the buildings by controlling the acoustical .defects (described later in this chapter;. Sound-proofing and insulation against noises (».«., unwanted sounds) is as important as good acoustical design. Sound-proof rooms are absolutely essential in the case of film studios or sound studios cf the radio stations, and some laboratories, whereas the insulation of noises is important for hospitals, educational institutes, offices, bed-rooms, hotels, etc. Good acoustical conditions promote comfortable living, -efficiency of work, auditory of public buildings, etc. Therefore, the .modern practices of building design and construction should due importance to the improvement of acoustical conditions and-sound insulation, so as to exclude and deaden the noise and consequent disturbances. This objective can be achieved by considering the following two aspects: I. Proper control and remedy of the acoustical defects in buildings, i.e., Acoustics of buildings. 11. Proper control of disturbances due to noise (outdoor or indoor), i e., sound insulation of buildings. The incorporation of these two aspects in building design and construction, in view of sound snd noise effects, will be covered under the following main heads of this chapter. Part I. Acoustics of Buildings (1) Characteristics of audible sound. (2) Behaviour of sound and its effects (or principles of acoustics). (3) Acoustical defects. (4) Acoustics of buildings. (5) Sound absorbents or acoustical materials. Part II. Sound Insulation of Buildings (6) General discussion on effects and types of noise.(7) Transmission of noise. (8) Sound insulation vs. Sound absorption. (9) Transmission loss. (10) Maximum acceptable noise levels. (11) Means of noise control and sound insulation. The above heads will now be discussed under the subsequent articles of this chapter in serial order. Part I. Acoustics of Buildings. It involves the study of principles of acoustics for the planning, design and construction of certain rooms and buildings, which are free from disturbing noises and also provide the optimum conditions for qualities of speech and music The construction

in the form of waves (consisting of series of alternate compressions and rarefactions) is transmitted or travels in all directions through any medium whether solid. 3600 m/sec.p. liquid or gaseous (including air).p.e.p s. the unit area being perpendicular to the specified direction. It is defined as the flow of sound energy per second through unit area. for the sound to be heard by our ears. (cycles or vibrations per second). [Table 201 shows the relation of decibel rating to noises usually experienced. and that its response is approximately proportional to the logarithm of the intensity of sound For example. in any way. These are three following characteristics of Audible sound : (1) Frequency or Pitch. (2) Intensity or Loudness of Sound. This sound. a 'logarithmic scale' is used. to be audible). This vertical scale of intensities of sound will cover a range of 130 d Jj.sound waves... then effect of sound is lost and distinct pulses are experienced (i. Behaviour of Sound and Its Effects (or Principles of Acoustics) The behaviour of sound plays an important role in the acoustical design of buildings and rooms ox in sound insulation. the sound source and ear must be connected by. 203. On account of the wide range of noise levels and the importance of the effect of increase in sound intensity produced on the human ear. hence. an uninterrupted series of portions of elastic matter. the intensity or loudness is the strength of the sensation received by the hurnan ear and is proportional to the sound energy in th. and 4900 m/sec. the higher will be the pitch. respectively. i. It is defined as the number of cycles or vibrations per second (that strike the ear from the sounding source). It should be noted that sound cannot travel in vacuum and. In other words. The velocity of sound in water is 4 times of that in air. The sound continues to travel through. such as that of a shrill thistle.s. but even then.. they can be distinguished by virtue of their different tones. 1.and application of sound absorbents and sound reflective materials should provide the optimum conditions for the growth. When a sound originates from any source either as a speech or music. about 10 times in wood. should have some medium for its transmission from one place to another. A standard tone has a frequency of 1006 c. (i. intensity or loudness is a measure of the quantity of sound energy which is measured as below. brick and steel are 1310 m/ sec. The frequency or pitch is a measure of the quality of sound and it does not. 12 times in brick. The velocities of sound through water. it is transmitted from the source in all directions. (3) Measurement of Sound. (3) Tone or Tone Structure.p.e. The range of variation of intensity is very large. Therefore. 2 and 3. The average sound travels in air at ordinary temperature and pressure with a speed of 340 m/second. and 15 times in steel. Experiments have shown that the ear does not respond in proportion to the intensity of sound. (Intensity of sound is a purely physical quantity whereas loudness depends upon characteristics of ear. that of whispering. if the sound intensities vary in proportion of 10 : 100 : 100D then the actual effect caused on ear will be proportional to the logarithm of 10 : 100 : 1000. If the frequency of sound is below 20 c. affect the velocity of sound. It is that characteristic or quality of sound by which various sounds can be distinguished from one another. while the lowest audible sound has a frequency of sound below 20 c. So. has a frequency of 20 000 c.s. The greater the number of cycles. sound intensity being measured in decibels. and loudness of a noise is compared with it by hearing.s. till it impinges (or strikes) on some .e. The highest audible sound. the decay and the steady distribution of sound in such rooms or buildings Characteristics of Audible Sound Sound consists of a series of alternate compressions and rarefactions that are set up by a vibrating body. The loudest and almost painful sound is about 1013 times the intensity of sound which is just audible by the human ear. This velocity of sound depends upon the nature and temperature of the medium through which it travels. one cannot hear such a sound). Two sounds may have the same frequency and intensity.

non-hygroscopic. in a way all these are interrelated and influence the acoustic and sound insulation with a varyiDg degree. But unless properly controlled the reflection may result in acoustical defects.4. For the normal frequency of 500 cycles per second. is represented by 'Reflection coefficient' and is most important in acoustical design of the buildings. by thejirga_to_th e energy striking the area. For covered seat As seen from Table 204. These defects which require due consideration for improving the acoustical conditions are described below : (1) Formation of echoes. 4ransmiMianJos8^ This "transmission loss is an index or measure of the effectiveness of a barrier or surface in insulating against the transmission of outside sound to the inside of room and vice versa.204. one has to remove or minimize all the defects in acoustics by considering suitable intensity of sound and an acceptable level of reverberation.20 rc 2-sabins.. (2) Reverberation.g. assuming that sound wave will completely pass through it. floor or any other barrier. a part of it is reflected back. The part of sound absorbed by the surface and transmitted through the surfaces are considered together as being absorbed and are represented by the 'Absorption Coefficient'. Acoustical Defects Perfect acoustic conditions in a room or in an auditorium are obtained when an average sound rises to a suitable intensity in every part of the auditorium with no echoes or distortion of the original sound and then dies out quickly enough so as not to interfere with succeeding sounds. when 0. This transmission loss varies directly with the frequency of sound. sound waves impinge or strike against a resilient and porous surface then considerable energy is dissipated as heat passes through its pores. floors and ceiling should possess the following qualities : (1) It should have a high coefficient of sound absorption for economy. whereas transmission of sound plays vital role in the insulation conditions of the buildings. It should be noted that the coefficient of absorption for an open window is taken as unity. In nut-shell.. An ideal material for sound absorption for use as lining walls. (2) It should be fire resistant. apart being absorbed by the surface where it may die out in the material or be transmitted in part to another side of the barrier. such as the enhancement of loudness enrichment and of total quality of sound. This absorption cofficient of surface is the ratio of energy absorbed .10 to 0. bent and fixed. worked. e. To achieve this. numbering 20. Note. echoes and reverberation. the reflection and absorption of sound have an important bearing on the acoustical conditions of the buildings*. However. not liable to attack by insects and vermin. . durable. and hence the absorption will be relatively high. These defects are covered in the following article.surface such as wall. heat-insulating.. of high structural strength. If the part of smtndjra nsmitted through the s" »-farg_gT_b_arjier ris considerea^jndependjnllyrthe reduqtip^_JnJntejisiiy_Qf_souad •tmeasured in decibels) ln^passing^jErough_the^harrier_ia_ Jailed. ceiling. This reflected sound. in practice. TEevalues of absorption coefficients for important surfaces are given in Table 20'4. which remains in the room. . The value of coefficient of absor ptio n~w ll 1 de pen a onjjgjireqjiejncxofsojuid. and capable of being easily handled. The reflection of sound has certain virtues in acoustics. unaffected by decay. from where.

a standard sound of "definite frequency (say. so jt can be measured quant itetiwlyJbyJtheJeng^ ofjime required for tie sound tp^ become lnauBibLejifter stoppingjtfie source. which can be achieved by suitably using the absorbent or acoustical materials for different reflecting surfaces.). the echoes will build up to a maximum # intensity... a181+asat+at8t+ 0. etc. (5) Exterior noise nuisance or outdoor noise effects. l/17th_pf a second and the reflecting surfaces are situated at a distance greater tl\an 15 _ jfletres^_ The defect usually occurs when the shape of the reflected surface is curved with smooth character. and thus there is a repetition.after £ decay or _This reverberation time seujjd source has stopp_£cL_This reverberation time basically depends on tKe~voTume~and absorption characteristics of the surfaces. the remaining part is absorbed by surfaces in the form of heat energy which has been converted from sound energy by friction) on the surfaces. and to use the rough and poron* materials for interior surfaces to disperse the energy of echoes. 1000 c. particularly. This time varies directly with the dimensions of room but inversely to the absorption present (see Equation 20" 1). is "called" A certain amount of reverberation is. the produced* sound waves. The remedy of this defect is to select the proper shape of the auditorium and surfaces. (2) Reverberation. therefore. happens when any sound which originates in or enters a closed space is successively reflected by the smooth boundaries of the enclosed space. In other words. of course. (4) Insufficient loudness.16 V .) is generated and the effects on the formation of echoes and reverberation defects are studied. just when a direct sound wave is already heard. which is S^ 5 d diiih^ifLxLBr. According of Prof. Under such circumstances either very Jittle or no energy is lost in multiple-reflections and. (1) Formation of Echoes. As already pointed out. after being reflected (a part only. coming from the same source. Sabine of Harward University. result in the formation of echoes.16 V 0. The formation of echoes normally happens when the time lag between the two voices or sounds is about. For the purposes of comparison. Echoes cause disturbance and unpleasant hearing. An 'echo' is produced or formed when a reflected sound wave (from the surfaces of walls. reaches the ear.s. causes and remedies. lReverberation?i5 the E«iQd__flf_lime Jn seconds. desirable for improving the qualities of sound.. continuing for a very long time. Reverberation Time and Optimum Time of Reverbera tion. ceilings and floors several times even after the source has died out. ceil ings. T_bjjsprolongation~or* sojimLafter the source producing it has died~~out. The remedy of this defect lies in selecting a correct time of reverberation known as optimum time of reverberation. As reverberation refers to the EeriodjpX_Erolongation. echo i^an indirect or a reflected voice which is heard just after the direct hearing of the voice coming from the same sound source. whereas too large a reverberation creates confusion in hearing.(3) Sound foci and dead spots. roufs.p. and (6) Summary of acoustical defects. But this reflection of sound waves does-not stop even if the sourge_producing_them has ceased or _djfid_ojit_ aftet-it-Aas once started or taTc^3^|^' i he souWTs fenicted back and forth against the walls.[20-1 (a)! ( ° ---------. the time of reverberation can be calculated by the following formula (known as Sabine's formula after the name of the research worker): 1 6 F . This.

connected with the hall or room have also to be taken into account. Conference Committee Rooms. too short a time produces an effect of deadness with loss of brilliance. Assembly Council chambers etc. ««.. there will be no reverberation in an open air theatre)..8 to 3 seconds 1 to 1.3 to 1. etc. etc r^f-Music Concert Hall 5. ceilings.Hall 7. (2) While calculating the total absorption units. between 3 to 2 seconds as fairly good .5 second 1. floors. walls. From formula 20 1 (b) T--^-~ ■ > z» as for optimum time. between 2to_liTseconds as good and-betwefn 1$ and i second as very gocd. But this is not feasible in practice as the size of the Hall or .. Parliament House. or a a. and on the other hand. = Total absorbing power in m* sabins.5 seconds 1. it is considered to be iery bad . The values of optimum reverberation for important buildings. etc.. Optimum Reverberation Time and Audience Factors For Acoustical Design Optimum Type of Building l^Ginema Theatres 2. = Area of absorbing surface ms. ^seconds I to 1.e. (m) From (»). Public Leciur. floors. 6. after accounting for the audience (i.5 to 2 seconds 2 to 3 seconds Audience factor to be accounted in Acoustic design Two-thirds T«o-thirds One third Full Quorum (Most probable size) One-third Full General Remarks on Reverberation factor (i) If the time of reverberation works works out to a value greater than 5 seconds. This unit of sound absorption is m* sabins which is equal to sound absorption of one square metre area of fully open window. Table 20'5. it is clear that if the volurre can be reduced consider a My then there can be reduction in optimum time of reverberation. S a 8 or A—Total or sum of the absorption of various absorption units. o3.5 second 1. between Sao <3 seconds as bad . corresponding to «!. the audience (or occupants) and the articles.-etc. Churches 3.e. the most probable-size audience) presence are given in Table 20*5.). «3. «i. (Obviously. it follows that shorter times of vit-rations are better from acoustical considerations. Too long a time results in an overlap of speech with the loss of intelligibility . Very Large Halls reverberation time by Sabine's formula 1. Law Concert. ceilings. The time of reverberation is the principal factor in achieving the good acoustical conditions. (3) The values of V and 2 as or A can be directly worked out from the plans and specifications of the structure it question and it is also possible to design the structure for the assigned or given value of time of reverberation. etc.=Coefficients of absorption of individual unite 1*' ' (such as walls.OT where t—Reverberation time in eeconfo. 8j. This is essential because the presence of people and articales reduces the time of reverberation. s2.»-etc.6OQ. 4 % Note : (1) A' can also be expressed as the total absorbing power in m sabins. i. The correct reverberation time in between the two limits for different building purposes is called 'optimum time of reverberation'.

by sabine formula. $. («») Concrete floor=600 m2 . to make up the deficiency of actual absorption available for a hall or room in order to obtain optimum reverberation time or con-ditioDF. Assume two-thirds of the audience to be present and work out the following : (a) Number of absorbing units and time of reverberaticn (6) Number of extra absorbing units required so as to get an optimum reverberation time of 1. (c) Coefficient of absorbing material of area for fixing material is 180 m3. •Absorption power of one person^Absorption of seated persons — Absorption of seat.. an audiecce factor (based on most probable size audience) of a particular enclosure in question is taken as J. i.10 60 4. (v) For good acoustical results (or conditions).16 V where. Curtains 100 0 40 40 5. speech and music).2 seconds.02=0. (in) Celotex ceiling = 600 m' . The total absorption present in the hall with 2/3 audience. Solution. =0.. is termed as 'Acoustical correction*.44* 264 6. To account for thh aspect in deciding the obtimum time of reverberation.03 18 3. is equal to 900x2/3 = 600 persons (For absorption •coefficients of different materials. Seats (wooden) 900 0. the usual practice to have good acoustical conditions is to increase 'X as' [or 'A') value and this is possible because the increase in the use of sound-absorbing materials can be made. Hence. This addition of absorption units. the latter is more important. The capaci. So. . per m* or per So.y of such a hall is of 900 wooden seats. presence of audience or people in a hall or room reduces the time of reverberation.e.PvOom has to be fixed it certain \alue. whereas the available time of reverberation is the function of the size of auditorium and absorption Illustrative Example: On Acoustical Analysis and Treatment for Correction : Example 1 An assembly hall. Absorption Surface Area or (m«) coeff. If the enclosure rr auditorium is to be used as cinema theatre ot^er_pubncaddres"s %8ienaj-t€Ftrme'DTreverbeia-" tion selfctedishouldl>c»KolTrw1icTeOTifor^ it stijuid Ee~~~Ton"g~Hroough:—For enclosure to be used for both the purposes (i.44 (o) Now. This is on account of the absorption provided by the audience clothing. a theatre will have a greater time of reverberation when it is empty than the one when it is occupied by the audience.) depends upon the purpose for which it is to be used. The loudness or the intensity of the sound would depend originally upon the source and finally upon the dimensions of the room. Refer Table 20"4). or full.16XF 0 16F 0. has its dimensions as 30 m x 20 m X 8 m. auditorium. having rectangular shape. 0. ball. These audience factors for the buildings to be used for different purposes are given in taLle 2O"5.46-0. I*u ~ A ~ 414 F=Volume of hall= 30 x 20 x 8=4800 m». and (iv) Light curtains=100 m1. (Hi) The optimum time of reverberation for an cixlcsme (i. Concrete eoo 0. Cement plaster 700 2. enough loud-ness U necessary with optimum reverberation to enbarce the qualities of sound. <tc.e. The time required for the reverberation would depend upon the type of auditorium and the type of sound. an average value between the two can be adopted. or room. whereas the reverberation would depend upen the aHerption prcsfrt in the room Of these two. Total absorptioD=414 m'-sabins.02 Absorption • unit in m* sabins (A) 14 1.02 18 ■ Persons 600 0. The areas of different surfaces used are : (») Cement plaster=700 m*. (iv) As already mentioned. Ceiotex 600 0. the time of reverberation is give« by • •(from equation 20'l) 0.

(t) Extra absorption units for required or given times of reverberation.75 to 1 second.0 on units 17. 20 m2).5 on the other can be proviced Ans.-j-----A —56 in2-Sabins. Ans.) = 75-54=21 m8-sabins (say. Ans. (ii) From answer of (t) it desired to use the materials on both the faces of revolving panel. . . i — Total absorption uiiits<=54 m'-sabins where Volume of 200 m (i. say 75 tn'-sabins Extra absorption units required (for t=0J5. 1 =. The absorption power of other surfaces of the studio may be taken as 8. 0. No.16X4800 7(8 A ./ *• A 016 V Therefore. of absorption units = 414 m*-sabins. .l Time of reverberation=1. (e) Coefficient of absorbing material = ^ 1 ftomI.10. therefore. Ansv • • >.5. seconds theo (6) when optimum reverberation time is 1'2 absorption power of the hall is calculated as below : 0. (»») Coefficients of absorbent materials on the facts of revolving panel.16X4800 . 4=74. Solution. Extra absorption units required (<=1 second) =5654=2 m a -sabins.76. The ceiling of studio is provided with acoustical tiles having absorp tion coefficient of 0. i.5 m2-s>tbins.16 F 0. — A I =0*3 (approx). Work out the following for the studio. sec. say. Curtains in heavy-folds Other material sursaces _ _ _______ Nov. or Area of revolving panel= (3) Sound Foci and Dead Spot : (A) Sound Foci.9 seconds is much higher than the optimum value. Example 2.9 seconds ^approx). glazed window with perforation or hail felt with coefficient of absorption as 0 5 on one face and wooden panel with coefficient of absorption as 0.Hence. extra-absorption required=640—414 =226 ^ Ans.e.2 seconds. t— = 1. 0-16x350 For reverberation time of 1-second. Ans. 3.n . . Curtains in heavy folds are provided on one of the short walls.5 2.9 seconds. iiii) Area of revolving panel= jr~r =40 m2 ' }■ Ans. . 10.Ther/^.. (») Total absorption units are calculated as below : } Surface material Acoustical tiles Area in 70 35 Absorptio 0. .4=640 Therefore.40 n cotffi^ 0. It is required to provide revolving panels in the studio in* order to vary reverberation time from $. V =10x7x5 ma=350 ma 0 J 5 = O16X350. .. A studio has dimentions as 10mx7mx5m. 1. J ns" Note : This time of reverberation of 1.16 V 0. having ratio coefficient=21/2 = 10. {Hi) Area of wall panel. to decrease this time of teverbations some extra-absorption units have to installed in the hall.5 m* in 8. Jn^case of .50 per ient Absorpti 28.

This defect can be rectified or remedied by arranging the hard reflecting surfaces near the stage or sound source and also by pro-. the lack of sound reflecting flat surfaces near the sound source or stage and excessive absorption of sound in (he hall. whether actual or reproduced as cinema. Causes and Remedies. should be carefully adjusted so as not to cause sound foci and dead spots (5) Exterior Noise or Outdoor Nuisance. But. This causes concentration effect tor the reflected echoes Ifn3 consequently creates a souud ofjarge intensity! These spots of unusual loudness or intensity are known as 'Sound Foci'. avoiding provision of deep-balconies . Dead Spots. 20 5. (1): Insufficient Loudness.<2j^Laped~f:£Jle£!J^^ enclosure. ventilator and window openings. use of adequate number of windows or dooropenings. radio broadcasting studios. This defect can be eliminated by providing suitably designed (rather geometrically designed) shapes of the interior faces including ceilings or by providiug the absorbent materials on focussing areas. public lecture halls. refer Table 20 6 as per IS : 2526-1963. are known as 'dead spots'. and this results in bad acoustics. In case of theatre buildings and wge auditoriums. depending~upon thecurvature of these surfaces. etc. it is acoustically desirable that the speaker's voice or music from stage should be easily audible in all parts of the hall > ?!UIorm ^tensity of loudness. Acoustics of Buildings The buildings. Due to the high concentration of reflected^ sound at sound foci. viding the absorption of the hall of such an amount that an optimum time of reverberation can be assured. . etc. The location of loud-speakers. such as auditoriums. The study of acoustics of buildings can be split into the following three main heads : (1) Requirements and conditions of good acoustics. (6) Summary of Acoustical Defects. such as use of loudspeakers for larger length of the halls 01 by limiting length of hall to about 25 metres . music. This defect is caused mainly due to poor sound insulation and partly due to poor planning. called sound focus. adequate design provides proper control and remedy of the acoustical defects in buildings. (2) General principles and factors in acoustical design. conference rooms. deserving acoustical treatment. the sound waves uia get properly reflected and uniformly spread all over the interior of the enclosure. as described in Article 20'4. This defect can be rectified or corrected by installation of suitable Sisusefs. Iii other words. This defect is an outcome as a side effect of the sound foci. These spots^oTTow sound intensity causing unsatisfactory hearing for the audience. The depth of balcony space should not be more than 2| to 3 times of the front height leading to it. To achieve this. for refleglejl_s&uad_ rays to meet at a point. (B. should be properly planned and adequately designed for acoustics before they are actually constructed. cinema theatres. thereJs bpjin^jpJbe^eQoien^y_^fjr^flectedj£und rays at some other points. This defect can be corrected or rectified by providing adequate insulation against sound for various components of the auditorium and through proper planning in relation to the surroundings. when the direct sound from the source is inefficient than the sound is required to be reiuforced by loudspeakers. there is possibility. The exterior noise nuisance i. results in this defect of insufficient loudness. law courts. carried inside the auditorium or hall through loose door. This is essential because designing for acoustics assures the construction of certain rooms and buildings (as mentioned above) which are free-from disturbing noises and also provision of optimum conditions for producing and listening to speech. enabling uniform distribution of sound in the hall or any other enclosure. For this. This is usually achieved by employing other measures as well. Under these circumstances. if used. open air theatres.

(2) General Principles and Factors in Acoustical Design. which deserves the acoustical design and fact. the desired intensity is achieved by raising it through the sound amplification system. greater importance than either length or breadth.(3) Practical cases of some acoustical buildings. the initial sound should be clear and distinct so that there is no possibility of distortion in speech after being produced. The shape of the room is more important consideration in the acoustic design of an auditorium.. stating arrangement and audience.. sound foci. the initial sound should reach the audience with the same frequency and intensity. etc .e.«pace is made~avanable for proper distr~ibution~oT'music. (C) Shape. (1) Requirements and Conditions of Good Acoustics. the prime objective is the most favourable enrichment of tonal quality and total blending of the sounds. a« it is the governing factor in correcting the defects. music as well as speech. otherwise it will lead to acoustical defects such as formation of echoes._height_is_of. (B) Volume (i. sound foci and dead spot.2to concert Halls=4.. (for sound films) / However. In building. in case where no . size and height. (E) Reverberation. (iv) In the hall. (G) Sound Absorption. This can be done by having suitable intensity of sound and an acceptable time of reverberation (Tables 20"3 and 20'5). etc. It is particularly necessary to keep the level of the outdoor noise low by proper orientation and site selection. The following values may be ta'cen as a rough guide for deciding the volume of an auditorium : (») Public Lecture Halls=2. In planning the volume of the nal1.7 m3/person. (C) Shape. should be reduced to such an extent that they do not interfere with the normal hearing of music Or speech. The volume of the room should be in proportion to the intensity of sounds to be generated in it.. In selecting a site for a AirpOTlS7^n^ulTnaTTsTaijl1s^nie1its7etc.air-conditioning is provided and doors and windows are normally kept open during the performance. In case of low intensity of sound and longer distances. But in the design of music rooms. (A) Site Selection and Planning.2 m3/person. (ii) The sound produced should be evenly distributed over the entire area covered by the audience. the site sel should be in the quietest requir treatment. The volume of musical concert should be qiiiis_lirge so the sufficient . la\out. when particularly used for speeches.6 m3/person. Size and Height). whether originating from inside or outside of the hall. Depending upon the noise level of the surrounding area on site. halls of small ■voluroFsUre used for comparatively weak sounds.the best guide for deciding the volume of a proposed auditorium would be the "detailed study of an existing auditorium used for the similar purpose.. (B) Volume. the structural design should be arranged to provide necessary noise reduction. For theatres (required for speeches). (F) Seat. Where an ^H3ir iorium is to be used for both^ i. i e. This is on account of the ' tact that a small increase in height results in the considerable increase in the volume. {Hi) Cinema Theatres=3.e. (D) Treatment of interior surfaces..8 to 3. ■orientation. {iii) It should be remembered in the design of rooms intended for speaking purposes that the prime objective is intelligibility of speech. so that the background ncise level ■of not more than 40 to 45 decibels is achieved within the hall. Some of the general planning principles and factors which play an important role in creating good acoustical concitions are as follows: (A) Site selection and planning. the same may be provided with an inleraediate_yolume. The following requirements and conditions should be fulfilled by a building having good acoustics: (») The initial sound should be of adequate intensity such that it can be heard throughout the hall.7 to 4. like echoes. unwanted sounds). which are due to the . on the ether hand.e. When air-conditioniig is provided special care should be taken to reduce the plant noise and the grill noise. when used for music and dance purposes. (vi) All noises (i. (v) In the hall. {H) Musi. dead spots. noises prevailing or foreseeable in that area surroundings consistent with other req ments e should be considered for their effects on the acoustical so that intelligibility of speech and tonal quality of are not affected".

. there are no definite rules regarding the optimum height of a hall for good acoustics. the ceiling height for a room or hall to be used for speech a> d music is kept varying from l/3rd tp 2/3rd_Jpne-third to two thirds) of the width of the room or hall. "Thejpjyer ratio should be adopted for very large halis and higher ratio forsmaH rooms. From the total number of seats to be provided in an auditorium. total cubical contents can be worked out and then from the relevant ratio. free from reflection defec^-1 Usually the shape of auditorium is e*presse4 in terms of the ratio* ■«f-hejgbt. whereas the shape is to be geometrically arranged in view of better audibility {i. length. width and height can be determined. ~~ The ratios of height to width to length (H : W: L) are indicated for different types of auditoriums with volume per seat. However.reflection of sound waves. This is~necessary because. The volume is decided en the tot-' Qurnber of audience. The increasing use of s^ujad^mpjifiershas made the shape aspect of planning ail the more important For better distribution of the intensity of sound it is not the volume only but the shape of the auditorium also plays an important ro'e. A p p r o x i m a t e c a p a c i t y i n n u m b e r o f p e r s o n s .e. io practice. Some such ratios and corresponding volumes per seat are given below as a rough guide (Refer Table 20-7j. width and length of the hall.

Seuna torface Stop Fig. It should be further ensured that thejaalh difference-between the direct and the reflected sound at no listening point shou)d.ejcceedl2roetres The t>ide walls should aj£o be splayedjar spread ouTTucTTfriaT they help in "rcmrorcTng the sound by £way>f favourable reflections for large halls. Lecture hall big 3. 20 1 and 202. In case of long halls. all reflections of the original sound must reach the listener within 45 milli-seconds of thedirect_sound.It should be further noted that the behaviour of souod in a hall is different from that in the open'asr and it is easier to create desirable acoustic conditions in an auditorium rather than in open air theatre The floor plao of the auditorium m3y have many typical possible shapes. 203.5 150 to 300 400 to 500 i 500 to 1000 800 <o 1000 (normally) up to 750 (snnll theatres) I . Alongwith the overall shape and size of the auditorium. Lecture Hal! small 2. circular. as shown in Fig. *e . L_ dear wot 1. effective ceiling and wall reflectors should be withirLJSjnetres of the: sound source.0 3. Lecture halis with Loud-speakers 2. horse shoe. The ceilings and side walls should provide fqvniiraftfc ■reflectk>KS_j)r reinforce the sound that reaches the rear parts of a large auditorium! Ceiling_splays or spread outs and appropriately tilted portions of the ceilings can be arranged or 3evised to reinforce the sound. such as rectangular. fan-shaped. Any sound reaching him after 45 milliseconds Til the arrivaTof direct sound will be heard as echo. as shown in Figs. Fan-shaped fioor plan of an auditorium showing favourable tefl ctions from side walls.5 4.0 to 3. the treatment of interior surfaces.0 to 4. (D) Treatement of Interior Surfaces. 203. ceiiling and side walls also play an influential part in the acoustical design. In order to avoid the interfering echoes. oval etc.