1. Organization of Russian logging businesses
Brian Moss Moss Petrophysics Ltd

The centralized system of control whereby the business activities of the logging industry within a given region were administered through Moscow committees in the Ministries of Oil and Gas Industries, to whom all regions were accountable. was typical of the management of many industries under the Communist regime. Subsequently, the upper levels of the management hierarchy have altered, both in their size and in their roles, but the practical arrangements at the local and even regional level have remained much as they always were. Wireline logging activities, encompassing both tool design and manufacture and data acquisition and interpretation. continue to be the responsibility of the local 'Geophysical Amalgamation'. The Ministry of Oil Industry now provides a coordination and logistics service to the regional Geophysical Amalgamations in whom the day-to-day management responsibility is vested. Former centres of excellence in design, manufacturing and interpretation development continue to provide specialist expertise to these regional Amalgamations. Regional 'Production Amalgamations' seem not to be involved with wireline logging, rather they are the clients of the logging service groups, Boreholes are drilled for a variety of reasons and both the well objectives and local geological conditions would dictate the composition of the logging programme in each case. Minimum logging suites run in the majority of wells typically comprise electrical. caliper, temperature and gamma-ray devices, in some regions being augmented by neutron-gamma and possibly density and/or acoustic porosity measurements. These minimum logging suites tend to be smaller than would be run in Europe and, except for the omission of an explicit porosity tool, they are comparable with those run over 15 years ago onshore in the USA), Socalled 'parametric wells' have a rather more complete suite of open-hole surveys run in both water-based and oil-based mud systems. These wells were the testing ground for determining appropriate interpretation methods and parameters. Mud logging as practised in the West is not performed routinely. MWD equipment may exist in prototypes but appears not to be widely used in surveys. In general, presentation of log data has not had the benefit of sophisticated plotting equipment routinely employed in the West. As a consequence, most log

hard copies are black and white and hand edited with details of scale changes, etc.; furthermore, they tend to combine many log curves onto a few plot tracks which can render the resulting product difficult to understand.

The former arrangements
See Figs 1.1 and 1.2 for 'organograrns'. Under the Communist government the oil industry was managed by three ministries located in Moscow: • The Ministry of Geology 'prospecting . activities) • The Ministry of Gas Industry • The Ministry of Oil Industry (responsible for

Oil and Gas prospects were commonly identified through seismic studies and confirmed by the bit in wildcat wells. These wells were drilled by the geological institutes, known as Geologia. After the initial discovery, fields were appraised by further 'research' wells which generally were extensively evaluated, providing data for the preparation of TEGs ('technical economic basis of organization'). These reports would comprise sections on estimated original hydrocarbons in place and reserves, proposed development plans and estimated project economics. Reserve estimates were submitted to the Ministry of Geology in Moscow for certification. Once certified, the responsibility for a field typically shifted to the local 'Production Amalgamation' (Neft) who would drill production and development wells and build all the infrastructure to recover and transport the oil/gas from the field. Although each of the above ministries administered separate wireline logging services (and design and support activities), the largest concentration of logging effort took place under the responsibility of the oil ministry by virtue of there being a much larger number of development and producing wells drilled compared to 'exploration and appraisal' wells. A ministry comprised various 'boards' each managing a particular business area such as drilling, production, transportation and geology. (Here, geology in the oil and gas ministries is presumed to refer to production/appraisal geology.) Included amongst the Ministry of Oil Industry Boards was the Oil Production and Field Geophysical

1. . Former business structure.-~~ ---~. Tyumen Geophysical Trust . . ~~--~--. . . . LSome logging Fig.. 1. . ! Geophysical Amalgamation 1 Production Amalgamation "Nett Geophysica' I Functional Board I Functional Board I 1 I I Functional Board Functional Board Geophysical LLogging operations Exploration Production Drilling I 1 Business Units contrOlling production I Fig.2. MINISTRY BOARDS e. Regional Geophysical Trust e. . . regional level.. .g.q.\ Ministry of Gas Industry I Ministry of Oil Industry Neff Production and Development Ministry of Geology Geologia Exploration and Appraisal Rese/1les Estimates Lsome Gaz Production and Development Lsome logging logging I PRODUCTION DRILLING BOARD 1 Oil Production and Field Geophysical Board TRANSPORTATION BOARD I GEOLOGY BOARD Lsome logging 16 ''TRUSTS" Regionally based Field facilities Research L e.~--. Tyumen GeophYSIcal Trust manages the loggIng within Western Siberia. former business structure. .. . . Production and Field Geophysical I Producing Region Producing Region I ProduCing Ragion .g.1.

Department which was the body that carried responsibility for well logging activities. They pay the 'corporation' to perform this function.) Apparently. Each principal producing area would have several functional groups (e.g.3 for an amended 'organogram' depicting current organizational structure of Russian logging business. In those producing areas where they did act in concert these joint groups are also referred to as •Amalgamations'. Nowadays there is a Ministry of Energy which comprises several functional committees including an 'oil committee'. These bodies represented the functions involved in oil and gas exploration and production. production and transportation functions within a single . Therefore. The Ministry of Energy gets money from the government. Commonly they were husband and wife teams wherein the husband drove the truck and performed the actual Logging jobs whilst his wife helped with equipment preparation and was responsible for producing the final log product for the customer. therefore. but not necessari Iy all acting together even at the local level. transportation. on behalf of the Production Amalgamations. These logging and geophysical 'services' (acquisition teams) reported to the Geophysical Amalgamations of the various regions. These latter organizations are some- . the functional management of logging activities is still organized by 'Geophysical Amalgamations' who have as their customers the Geological Institutes and the 'Production Amalgamations'. drilling. The local 'Geophysical Amalgamations' are also still in existence and continue to hold responsibility for the dayto-day management of the various components of the 'Iogging industry' i. However. However. What has changed now? See Fig. These bodies were directly responsible for all aspects of the logging operations from design and manufacture of the tools to data acquisition and through to interpretation of the data and delivery of interpreted results to the customer. the design and manufacture of the equipment and the acquisition and interpretation of the data. a principal research institute at Ufa. This Board comprised 16 'Trusts'. 1. The Ministry employs approximately 160 people and is therefore much smaller than the old Ministries of Oil and of Gas Industries. the main changes to the system since the change of government have taken place at the top levels. The Ministry of Oil Industry still exists. in some producing areas the regional management structure. one for each major producing region. a geological research expedition in Moscow and also numerous logging equipment manufacture shops.) each reporting to their own respective regional Boards. the Board had its principal research offices at Grozny and Tornsk. exploration etc. It represents the producers' interests and takes on the role of organizing the supply of materials and instrumentation etc. the West Siberian oil fields' logging operations were managed through the Tyumen Geophysical Trust. and reports to the local Production Amalgamations (or Neft).e. In addition. separate from the foregoing 'Production Amalgamations' despite the fact that these latter contain 'Exploration' units. drilling. By the late 1980s there were of the order of 5000 active logging crews who were running logs in about 2000 sizable oil and gas fields across the FSU and providing support for the exploration work outside the producing fields.. 95% of surface geophysical activity comprised seismic prospecting: electrical and gravity surveys being rare. (Gravity data are considered of military importance as they are utilized in inertial guidance systems employed in modern rocket technologies. the 'Geophysical Amalgamation' for a region was. The Geophysical Amalgamation of an area reported directly into the Geophysical Board of the Ministry of Oil Industry (see above) via one of the l6 regional 'Geophysical Trusts'. sometimes caned 'Neft-Geophysica'. The largest of these business units produced 100mmt per year. the amount of money spent on logging activities was similar to that spent on seismic activity. The ladies were also 'dab-hands' at interpretation by all accounts. The customers for the data and interpretations were the drilling and oil producing departments of the Production Amalgamations or the Geological Institutes performing delineation and certification work. one must remember that prices were centrally controlled and actual cash probably did not change hands when services were carried out. In a producing area. and was responsible for both field and exploration geophysics. In 1929 the Schlumberger resistivity logging method was introduced in Grozny and marked the beginning of the broader application of geophysical well logging in boreholes. which is then divided up by its various committees and invested in the industry. By way of example. but is now a .corporation . It is not clear whether the raw data formed part of the final product in every case. may have included exploration. There were 120 such Geophysical Amalgamations. and is. The first logs run in the FSU were temperature surveys in the Bibi-Eibath Field near Baku and were conducted in 1906. with little changing in practice at the local or even regional levels. Production Amalgamation' (Neft) that reported to the Min istry of Oil Industry.

_l -_ .g. . • Well logging crews. a Chief Geologist. This initiative has been active for the past six or seven years at the behest of Moscow. which undertakes all jobs involving explosives. Accept orders. • An interpretation group. . .MINISTRY OF ENERGY only c. . a Chief Geophysicist. . .#-. . who is responsible for all the results. The facilities generally comprise: • A tool shop. • A truck shop. 1. The only real difference is that they remain firmly tied to a particular region and have not (yet) expanded beyond their own areas. . . The intent is the standardization of logging equipment across all the regions. and a Controller of Services who is responsible for communications with the customer. which determines the physical and petrophysical parameters and reports to the chief geologist. . [f the interpretation is wrong then people are changed. . perform acquisition and Q. . • A standardization group. . whereas the historical practice has been for individual regions to develop their own tools and procedures independently . . . Current structure.. undertake interpretation of the data. . what akin to integrated oil and gas companies in the West. _-----Oi/Board J eoa/Board Gas Board L Producing Region Producing Region . . .C. . • A machine shop. . • A logging shop. . . . . . Tyumen Geophysical Trust . . Regional Geophysical Trust e. 160 staff ~~--. Recommend perforation intervals. I Producing Region · .3.. . Administration of well logging services Within a regional Neft-Geophysica group there is a Chief Engineer. Geophysical Amalgamation "Neft Geophysics" Production Amalgamtion Ministry of Oil Industry "Corporation" : Logistics and Supply . interpretation is under very tight control. · · · I Functional Board Geophysical I FUnctional Board Production I Functional Board Drilling FUnctional Board Exploration LLOgging operations I I I 1 BUSIness Units controlling production Fig. These four control the activity of the service. The logging company is financially responsible for the interpretation. standardization and the supply of spare parts is organized. repairing. Logging crews They are organized as 'integrated' logging crews for aU openhole services such as electric and radioactive . . where the registration of tools and equipment. All these facilities are not necessarily located in the same town. __ .~-~--~---------~---~-----. . I . . .

. Interpretations are most commonly returned as listings of results organized by stratigraphic intervals.. Now dedicated pes are used in the analysis of log data. the requirement. Once casing is set. Their tools are temperature rated to 200-2SQ"C and pressure rated to 1000 atm. Sometimes the actual core samples are distributed amongst different Institutes who may be studying different aspects of the same field. Detailed geological studies are usually performed by research institutes. a separate team is called in to run cased-hole radioactivity logs. Results are archived to magnetic tape. ~ o Well survey work is undertaken by other crews. Bashkeria. turnaround time for provisional interpretations was generally about an hour. Tape recording of data at the wellsite was introduced in 1974 to facilitate subsequent processing of the data. not seem to be available from Russian loguing organizations. Research Institute. in marshv terrain. 120-150"C and <1000 arm (600-800 atm normally). The open-hole crews commonly will run a quicklook radioactivity survey (probably a gamma-ray device) ro provide or confirm a recommendation t~ set casing. even whilst sharing the facilities with seismic processing. flow test data. even when other more complete openhale services are not required at that time. whilst the final interpretation could be ready within 24 hours. Therefore. The arrangement created problems in data transfer (both log and geological data) to the computing centres and back again. They also designed and built surface panels to support their tools. However. log and tesnng data in comparison together to ensure consistency of result Final certification of reserves was the responsibility of the Committee for Reservoir Calculations within the Ministry of Geology.. Also stored in these databases are core results . it should b~ noted that anecdotal evidence suggests that mudlogging is not commonly carried out: certainly not on production and development wells and generally not on 'research' wells above the prospective horizons..c. Their interpretations often fo~m the 'current' or 'operative' interpretation and were largely performed for Q. Ufa. rather than by the local teams. Within the logging companies there are scientific groups performing research activities to develop and master new techniques and new services. These require different equipment because often thev are working: on wells from which the rig has moved away. Su~h 'reservoir interpretations' involve core. These facilities commonly belonged to the regional Geophysical Amalgamations rather than to the logging companies. The databases are transferred to the Institutes by magnetic tape. There does not seem to be an accepted standard presentation style for results plots or other computerprocessed data. MWD survevins~ technolozv does .. From the early 19708 the processing of log data has become increasingly computerized. This institute reported directly to the Geophysical Board of the Ministry of Oil Industry. at the end of a well. testing is performed by a testing crew ~both DST and wireline IT) and production logging IS performed by a production logging crew. processing centres will handle about 1500 wells per year. . digitizers and modems to transfer data by telephone line. typically located in Moscow. title signifies Grozny Research Institute of Well Logs. the final report and data package comprising all logging and geological data had to be submitted within four days. and water resistivities. purposes.. They were responsible for designing production tools and units for deep wells. several wells are drilled from a single pad and spaced approximately 20 m apart: they are deviated away to their tarzets from this pad.logs and a plethora of other specialized ticular services: crews for par- • Perforating is accomplished by separate perforating crews. Initially. was for the processing centre to come up with provisional interpretations in 5-8 hours and. • Similarly. This is because most such work is related to field delineation and certification.. Well logging scientific institutes and similar bodies Note that the acronym VNI in a group's that it is a regional body. All results and analyses of logs are kept in databases. typically.. They undertook the design and manufacture of low-temperature open hole and production logging suites.. They have a complete suite of open hole tools marked by either a 3 symbol or a h symbol. Commonly. They also designed mud logging and MWD equipment here. When they started to establish this system. they used big computers originally intended for seismic processing work and frequently located in big towns and cities. However. ~e ~ o • Mud logging crews form a final discrete activity within the 'logging industry'. the Geophysical Amalgamations were supplied with electrostatic plotters. The field tape recorder was designed here and then went on to be used in the 'black boxes' of spaceships! . These people are the cream of the field engineers and interpreters. Typically.

Competes with the Central Geophysical Expedition in the design of and research into new algorithms and techniques etc. technical educational facilities extend to junior technical colleges and technical schools. Lower down the scale. • 'Parametric' wells in which physical and petrophysical parameters are determined for a particular field. • Production and development wells. and many different groups invited to run their logging equipment and/or interpretation algorithms. They used to be the sole supplier of tools to the Ministry of Oil Industry. Developed a new 'systematic approach' and designed new nuclear tools to meet their requirements. They produce tools not only for the Oil industry but also for other Ministries such as the Ministry for instruments. Grozny. to VNllGIK.) They reported to the State Commission for Resources. Experimental Methodological Parries. VNllP Institutes. Kumin.g. 'Research' and wildcat wells are generally drilled by the local Geological Institutes (Geologia) with the purpose of delineating discoveries. • Key wells or reference wells for geophysical studies. core and log a 'base well' in OBM. Design Bureau ill Kiev. Also designed electric logging suites. etc. VNllGIS. Their main duty was to design units for seismic work and to design the black & white and colour electrostatic plotters for geophysical and well logging applications. The Oil and Gas Research Institute of the Gutkin University in Moscow. Developed interpretation techniques as well. (Core analysis was also performed by the Geophysical Institutes. e 'Base' wells. they may well be involved with weapons factories because the latter are geared up to produce limited production runs of a highly specialized nature.g. but now many other facilities exist. Boreholes Across the Former Soviet Union wells would be drilled for different purposes i. microlaterolog and induction tools that were used in the regions. resources and reservoir results to Education Engineers are taught through the universities and through the Institutes associated with them. Moscow. core analysis equipment. Tver (Now 'Sovuzpromgeophysica '). Petroleum Institutes exist in regional centres such as Tyumen. Responsible for the evaluation of different resources. Design tools to reach 12km (e. which may be drilled to any depth depending on need. Design and manufacture open hole. GEOTROM.. Local manufacturing facilities construct to their designs. on Kola peninsula). VNIl Geophysical Research IIISTiwft:. These are drilled to appraise a discovery. Many universities also carry geophysical teaching and research facilities. In addition to these full-time education establishments.This institute reported directly to the Geophysical Board of the Ministry of Oil Industry. mud logging. They set out to cover all aspects of nuclear science from space to downhole within a single institute. These are specialized parametric wells drilled for research purposes. Another back-to-back practice is to drill. one using WBM and one using OBM. act closely with the main geophysical board in the Ministry of Oil Industry in designing software and algorithms for well logging and seismic. Had core laboratory facilities usually. This team designed the initial laterolog. For example. Design Bureau in Saratov.e. Developed dielectric logging tools in the late 1960s. then ream out and re-log with WBM. So-called 'base wells' will have been used to determine the best practices in a particular field. whereas production and development wells are drilled to develop previously delineated fields. These latter wells are drilled by the Production Amalgamations who get involved with a field only after its reserves are certified. enable both be shared. Responsible for the design and manufacture of production logs for W. cased hole. Ufa. In addition to the foregoing wells. Also have a strong interpretation group.: • Wildcat wells. There was often a high degree of communication between various institutes engaged in similar work. in a big gas discovery. Depending on the level of development at a partie- . two 'base wells' may be drilled. Siberia region. there may be a suite of shallow wells drilled in a region to evaluate shallow structure or to investigate the extent of shallow hydrocarbon shows/seeps etc. Good theoretical group. e. Central Geophysical Expedition. hydrodynamic (wireline test). that have an educative role. Also. Nuclear Physics and Geochemical institute (VN1IGAG). e 'Prospecting' or 'exploration' wells. Many technical universities have well logging institutes/courses as part of the curriculum.

ular moment in time a field might be classified as being partly or fully delineated. etc. SP and possibly the Induction). two suites of well logs are defined.) where 'salt' muds are defined as having Rm < 0. two separate trucks are commonly involved in the logging job. BKZ). a winch truck and a recording truck. the reality seems to be that somewhat smaller logging suites are the norm in most areas (see below). However. Microlaterolog. whilst 1:200 is used only for a short interval across the pay zone(s). and was also extensively used in Romania. or being on production/development to varying degrees. Y. Apparently. The former Yugoslavia has long maintained Atlas Wireline equipment. the factory boss where this tool was manufactured was able to secure a particularly good state-controlled price for his product! It should be noted that in some areas much offshore technology was in fact bought in from the West. this is an idealized list that is rarely attained. dipmeters are almost unknown and mud logging is only performed in wildcat or base/parametric wells. The amount of data available for each category of field will vary enormously. For instance. Since about 1985 density and acoustic logs became more common. Laptevs Standard Suite includes: • electric logging (' Lateral Electric Soundings' (e.g. Laptev (1978) offers an overview of the logging suites used in the different categories of wells drilled up to the late 1970s. Microlog) • radioactive logging (GR. both downhole and surface. nuclear-magnetic. at least so far as the committee preparing the current volume has experienced. Old PGAC equipment (forerunner to Atlas Wireline) exists in the Shtokman Field offshore Murmansk in the Barents Sea. Induction. Most commonly. This list actually comprises a 'wish list' of services that could be run in order to address some of the technical issues that exist in different regions. The actual suites run should depend on: • Pay zone lithology/porosity range • Mud type (saIt/fresh/OBM etc. formation testing (drill-stem and wireline) and sidewall coring are considered compulsory services in 'prospecting' wells Additional (non-'compulsory') devices include dielectric. All logging cables are made in one factory in the Ukraine. Poland tended to use Soviet technology as far as tool design was concerned. 'production' wells tend only to have SP in combination with lateral or conductivity curves and are not flow tested or cored as a rule. these wells are often cored and tested in addition to the log data acquisition although the cores may not always be retained. The Yemen is another example. On the other hand.captured and induced radiation .) • Minimum required logging suites for a given region Logs are produced at 1:500 scale over the whole borehole. In contrast. and impulse-neutron logging. The Poles also developed their own interpretation methodologies to suit their local requirements. tests and cores. At the wellsite. Rumour has it that the most expensive tool to run was the caliper. 'wireline data' from 'research' wells comprise the electrical logging suite (BKZ laterals of various spacings. In addition to the open-hole devices. microlog. in the author's experience. for example. SP. These may include: • acoustic and cement bond log (when these latter were introduced they were extensively used to verify existing cement integrity) • stationary and continuous impulse-neutron tools measuring dispersed. Laptev refers to the compulsory logs for different regions as a major factor in the final choice of tools run in a given welL Another factor possibly giving rise to incomplete datasets is that the data may have been interpreted by different Institutes and subsequently fails to be integrated into data packages available to the western companies. For wildcats. lithology. although here the actual tools used were locally manufactured to Russian design specifications. In an SPWLA conference volume. caliper. pressure. Petro Viet. Vietnam is one country where the state oil company. Most· research' wells are evaluated with open hole logs. prospecting. Standard and Supplementary. many casedhole services can be available within a given region. and production wells. gamma-ray and possibly a neutron-gamma porosity device. used Soviet technology to log all its early wells. However. Lateral Log (=Laterolog). Appendix 4 lists some of the recommended logging suites for the various sedimentary basins and producing regions. Neutron-Gamma log. As noted above. and has developed hostile environmental logging equipment because much of the onshore Pannonian Basin has a very high geothermal gradient.2 Qm at reservoir temperature • Special geological conditions (temperature. Thermal Neutron log) • acoustic methods • caliper log • dipmeter log • mud gas logging.

with velocity increasing to the right). casing details. Curves are not always confined to particular tracks . may not be recorded at the 1:500 scale. on which we have attemped to annotate the identities of the various curves plotted. colours used (see below). in different coloured pencils.) These original records never seem to emerge from the logging oper~ ations' facility. Either way. A problem that is observed with the use of pen plotters in the field arises through consideration of the . Therefore curves can migrate from one track to another across the log. The most commonly used depth scales are 1:500 for the bulk of data intervals. Some general considerations when examining Russian-style logging data All data are plotted on linear scales with the back-up scales having five times the base scale range. Sometimes. it is these which are most commonly available to Western companies. and distributed as black and white copies for general usage. Hence this tool sees only the invaded zane during this logging run. Typically. This can be either because so many curves are overlain one on top of another. gamma ray curves are normally used in the West). 1. The colours are referenced on the main log header. An example of such a log is provided in Fig. normally recorded by separate trips into the hole. depths logged. continuous traces has lead to many a story of difficulty in deciphering Russian log data.2 and in other examples from that chapter. Fig. This latter tool gained prevalence after 1980. but the curves are drawn most commonly as continuous lines. test intervals and other information is written on the same 'standard' log plot. They are simply left off the plot. core intervals. but the plot usually does not include a logarith- mic grid. somewhat analogous to the Composite Log used in various formats by western companies. the Laterolog is commonly recorded on a logarithmic scale.• mechanical and conductive flowmeters (these latter are unknown in the West and it is uncertain as to what their operating principles might be) • gamma-density sonde • resistivity of fluid column • piezo-electric sonde (believed to be a pressure sensor) • dielectric water content tool • high-resolution thermometers • casing collar locators • anecdotal evidence suggests VDL displays cannot be recorded with existing Russian equipment It is not known which is the preferred correlation measurement for reference to open-hole data (cf. All the resistivity curves. every well is provided with a 'standard' log. followed by the induction conductivity. Examples of such headers can be seen in Chapter 4. onto an 'original' given to the 'client'. by far the most common tool for saturation determination is the BKZ lateral sonde with various spacings. No examples of these cased-hole data were available for this publication. they are traced.e. close attention to the scaling of these particular resistivity data is required in order not to be caught out. Other Russian petrophysicists indicate that the gamma-neutron device is often used as a gas detector by following a time-lapse technique as follows. A neutron-log is run prior to running casing when the invasion is at its deepest and extends beyond the depth of investigation of the neutron device. or dye-line copied. such as the Microlog and the shorter normal ('potential') curves. This latter is scaled both in arbitrary units across a range of 1 to 4 and in count rates.on the log.4. All curves increase in their units of measurement from left to right An exception to this is the acoustic transit time where the Western convention is followed when plotting the basic data (i. by hand. are spliced and composited onto a single 'standard' log. and 1:200 over the zone of interest. Instead. date and time of logging runs. Use of the smaller scale for the non-reservoir intervals means that the finer resolution devices. 4. It is quite common for depth scales to be mixed within the length of a single log plot. Original data acquisition at the well-site is commonly to film or to pen-plotter. Laptev (1978) indicates that the 'neutron gamma' is a common open-hole saturation determining device in 'producing' wells. operator's name and so on. On this figure there also appears to be GR (natural gamma-ray) data and a neutron-gamma porosity curve. Having stated that no logarithmic scales are used. along with the induction. or because a logarithmic grid facility does not exist in the commonly used plotting capabilities. In the author's experience. Some three months or so after casing is set a second neutron run is made through casing. See Chapter 5 for many examples of such log plots. In general. and the fact that so many curves on them end up as black. (Stories exist of the original plots being reversed for subsequent logging runs if paper was in short supply. this 'standard' log presentation has a header record giving details of tools run (types and spacings used). If this run shows marked changes when compared to the open-hole data the formation is interpreted to be a gas-bearing zone that has had gas migrate back adjacent to the borehole in the interim. These coloured versions are then photocopied.

but not enough in number nor are they in routine use (both of which situations are due to lack of investment funds).1. November 23. 1992. Trans. and Krug. enterprise and has not featured in this discussion. pp 97-101.1992. there are computerized units available. making such affected curves difficult to digitize. Were they more freely used. J. W. The speed differential between pen and paper travel leads to the traces which actually curve upwards towards the plot margins. gas opportunities in Western Siberia .. 1. References Connelly. GAZPROM. Paper EE. huge. Evaluating oil. on the other hand. however. i. Laptev. log data acquisition and presentation would be improved. is maintained as a separate. are developing into integrated oil (and gas) companies with a strong regional basis.?Potential (normal) resistivities NeutfOn scales CPS and 1ight section high reslsttV\lity back-ups wrapping over I Back-ups I ?Spllce point? ! Microlag curves Fig. 1978.e.1: log and core data. Conclusions Logging businesses within the FSU are included within the Geophysical Amalgamations ('Neft Geophysica') in what are emerging as 'service company' combines. The Production Amalgamations (. Gil and Gas Journal.Neft'). movement of an arc of pen travel across a flat grid line. Distortion can occur if the pen moves very fast relative to the speed of logging. V. Evaluation of Oil Wells by Logging Methods in the USSR. . Presentations of historical log data are often difficult to unravel. An example of a single 'standard' log (see text). SPWLA Annual Logging Symposium. relative to the speed of the paper travel.

In addition. to a large extent. hence the ethic of 'time is of the essence' is absent from FSU operations. accomplishing an acceptable safety philosophy may be more easily achieved than in technically less advanced countries. which set the annual drilling objectives. Legislation exists in the FSU. gives rise to ineffective well completions. well design. Although the majority of wells drilled in the FSU are vertical. as a rule. The following overview of drilling and testing operations is. and periodic specialist support. The same may be said for safety. realise not only the limitations of the data. was also to blame for economic inefficiency in the oil industry. To this end. Roughly half of the rigs in the FSU utilize the mud Introduction Drilling and testing operations within the FSU are similar to those in the West. There is an evident lack of refinement and technical limitations are commonplace. Drilling and testing operations Bob Harrison Enterprise Oil It is essential that western log users wishing to integrate all the data from a well in order to evaluate the formation of interest. but reports suggest . Mud logging is not usually done in the FSU. their allocation next year was reduced accordingly. many of the observations made are typical of other Republics in the FSU. Appraisal drilling philosophy Historically. Massive diameters of invasion in the region of 11 to 12 times the borehole size are commonplace. particularly in connection with side-tracking existing vertical wells as a means of improving production. Pad drilling is growing in importance as it optimizes drilling time vs rig move time and reduces the environmental footprint. However. field appraisal is by means of progressive step-outs towards the field periphery and linked structures. Drilling managers had to maximize expenditure in order to guarantee their budgetary allocation for the following year. If they spent less than their budget. However. However. The former regime. technology. Perforating gun performance and quality in the FSU is inferior to that in the West which. with provision of selected materials. Drill stem testing is basic. there is increasing development of horizontal drilling techniques. difficulties in obtaining quality cementing materials mean that cement jobs tend to be poor. which covers all aspects of procedures and operations. Limited access to drilling chemicals means that most wells in the FSU are drilled with local water supplies. spending on drilling was steered towards operational costs and 'expendables' to optimize for both considerations. low-angle (20 to 30°) wells are drilled from pads in West Siberia. with mechanical Bourdon type being the norm. Any joint operation would clearly need to address this situation. coupled with inferior solids control. The major difference from western operations is the lack of commercial awareness. Hence. 'true' deviated wells are not attempted. usually from shortages of equipment. This has obvious effects on logging tool responses and means that the chances of getting a representative formation fluid sample from a wireline tester are slim. maximizing drilled footage per year put drilling managers at risk of having to equal or exceed this target in subsequent years. Following successful drilling of the initial welles). this chapter attempts to review the drilling and testing operations within the FSU and illustrate how they can impact on the log and flow test data. Data monitoring while drilling and testing is also haphazard and in many cases absent. tends to severely damage the prospective horizons. However. during the course of which field reserves are continually adjusted to increment their equivalent of PI reserves. all wells were deemed vertical and. but also the environment in which the data was recorded. based on experiences in West Siberia and South Kazakhstan. it is possible that an acceptable operating capability could be quickly established using the current infrastructure. along with the practice of perforating overbalance. Similarly. It is common 'safe' practice to drill with a highly overbalanced mud system which. with afterflow problems being common due to lack of downhole shut in tools. little evidence of practical implementation of the system.2. This will have severe implications should the operator wish to improve well performance via stimulation. safety and standards. Gauge technology is rudimentary. The Soviet oil industry was developed without a profit motive. This is largely responsible for the limited technical advances evident in the FSU and acceptance of lost time.

However. 0. although the subsequent careless treatment of the core can invalidate the information it provides (see Chapter 4). The latter criterion effectively provides a kick tolerance equivalent to the open hole volume at section TD assuming a gas influx with zero hydrostatic head. Selection of casing is made assuming total evacuation for collapse and a complete gas column to surface for burst. which includes casing design. Although there is concern over the pressure integrity of the exposed intermediate casing with drilling wear during production. Mud logging as such does not therefore playas important a role as it should. mud programmes. No other additives are used. however. A rule of thumb from South Kazakhstan is to use a ratio of section TD depth to previous shoe depth of 1. Casing design criteria are listed in the FSU in a similar manner to the West. Reintroduction of cuttings into the well bore is also seen to have an adverse effect on drilling mud parameters and probably (and more importantly) reservoir condition in the vicinity of the borehole. Virtually all wells are drilled with waterbased mud. grade. hence little control of fluid loss or free-water is attempted.5 and a tail slurry of 50-100 m of neat cement with an SG of 1. Liners are not commonly used due to lack of availability. coring was limited and recovery was poor. Freshwater pre-flushes are used as spacers. Casing depths are chosen to meet two main criteria: . No cuttings are taken during drilling. i. Potential drilling problems are highlighted while particular safety and procedural requirements are listed. • the mud weight.25 while providing the required trip margins. Basins in West Siberia and South Kazakhstan exhibit normal and slightly overpressured pore pressure gradients. Strings are internally pressure tested on drilling out.2 to 1. collapse and tensile limits. Zonation is a tool for well correlation and helps to identify extra layers across the immediate geographical area. Stratigraphic zonation infield appraisal wells is extremely detailed.logging services of the local Geophysika. largely being restricted to simple gas monitoring. As drilling expands in an area. should not exceed the formation strength at the previous shoe • the formation strength at this shoe should be sufficient to withstand exposure to the full pore pressure at the next shoe depth.45 psi/ft. Now. The margins of overbalance used are typically 10 to 15% over pore pressure for depths to 1200m. wall thickness.e. and 4 to 7% for depths greater than 2000 m. Cementing programmes are simple. bit programmes. needed to control pore pressure at a hole section TD. This approximately reflects the ratio of a theoretical formation strength gradient (for an impermeable formation) to hydrostatic pore pressure. some Geophysikas drill at least one well with oil-based mud on a discovered field to provide a reference for logging calibration and adjustment of reservoir parameters (see Chapter 1). Leak-off testing is not commonly used to verify predicted formation strengths or gain enhanced regional knowledge. while production strings are now cemented to 50 m inside the intermediate string. Consequently no samples are available for analysis. Mud programmes are designed to maintain a specific gravity (SO) in the range of 1. typically consisting of an extended lead slurry (35% bentonite dry blended) with an SG of 1. with frequent subzonation within main zones of interest. cement programmes. including size. This clearly has bearing on total data gathering and ultimate detailed geological understanding. greater efforts are made to take core through every reservoir zone of interest. Formation breakdown gradients are theoretically calculated while most probable pore pressure gradients are assumed. internal yield. typically hydrostatic.83 to 0.85. however. The resultant kick tolerance is more conservative than that employed by many western operators. but generally serves merely as a local qualitative guide. dating or stratigraphy.5 o CI100 m.86. Production is often accomplished without packers which results in a pressured live tubing-casing annulus. based primarily on electric log information. and detailing drilling parameters to be used with anticipated drilling progress. the principal source of wear is the excessive number of trips into the hole due to the poor lifetimes of drilling bits in the FSU. Cement volumes are calculated from the caliper runs during open hole logging operations. Surface and intermediate casing strings are cemented to surface by regulation. these criteria may be relaxed as greater understanding and experience of the region is gained. Temperature gradients observed within the area are typically 4 to 4. ft is sometimes used for detailed mapping of sand bodies or flow units (e. Post-cemen- Drilling operations Well planning and design An operations programme is produced for each well. largely because of unserviceable shakers. 5 to 10% over pore pressure for depths of 1200-2000 m. Timan-Pechora region). mainly due to a lack of availability. Casing designs for new areas are initially constructed using conservative design parameters.g. Until fairly recently. but only calling them out immediately prior to drilling the pay section. the maximum overpressure encountered in South Kazakhstan being 5% greater than normal.

less drill collars are used and so the drillpipe by the bit is more flexible and easier to drive and turn. There appears to be no torque measurement or pump-strokes indicator. Directional 'tie-in-point' data tends to be 'adjusted' after dependent and critical decisions have been made and corresponding actions taken. Due to lack of quality materials. Line-pull torque indicators are used. although understood. Rig floor equipment (tuggers. Lack of continuous drilling depth can cause problems (i. The weak points in FSU rig equipment are the compressors and the swivels. for example. it is also more prone to buckling if the drillpipe used is not up to the job. A record of weight indication . rather than provide WOB). and especially directional surveys. Subsequently obtained wireline data are used exclusively to infer up hole geology. It is standard practice during periods of continuous drilling to check the weight indicator every two hours by picking off bottom and verifying correct string weight recording. These problems will be compounded with the current trend towards more deviated drilling. away from the more horizontal section of hole (where it would lie on the bottom. as the driller wants to control flow (and drill bit RPM) and rotary RPM independently. In the case of the latter. cement jobs are invariably poor in the FSU. The CET allows the Russians to determine whether zone isolation has been achieved so that they can go ahead and stimulate the well with the better performance perforating guns should its productivity prove disappointing. this is partially due to the large amount of footage drilled without rotation (Le. drill crew and service hands. the rig floor pipe handling capability is of a reasonable standard. No other form of continuous measurement of parameters is undertaken. which facilitates handling but prevents the drillpipe 'sliding' in a highly deviated well. Adjustments in. Drill String and BRA The steel mills of the FSU were either unable to provide the quality of steel required for high grade drillpipe or steel of this quality was reserved for other purposes. not rig floor. no cuttings samples are collected. A further problem with FSU drillpipe is that the shoulders of the joints are machined at right angles. their prime movers (diesel or electric) are connected to the pumps. The common problems encountered when drilling with inferior drillpipe include twist offs. etc. from location to location using caterpillar-style tracks. rotary and drawworks via a common drive train. swivel design has not received much attention. pump SPM or rotary RPM are achieved by altering the prime mover RPM. The difference can be as much as O. the most popular cased hole logging services in the FSU at present. which western contractors are providing. providing no variable display log trace. the weight is moved higher up the string.6m. Drilling rigs Construction of many of the rigs is typically an A-frame type derrick on an independent substructure. This has developed as a simple checking mechanism and was introduced in previous years where early pipe designs led to many failures if weight on bit (WOB) moved outside relatively tight limits.e. i. Also. Another drawback with FSU rigs is that they are 'compound driven'. as a result.. In fact. with mast raised. A sonic cement bond log is also run prior to testing to establish a qualitative assessment of cement in place. Depth control is always made using drill string tallies. These measurements are verified by frequent 'strapping' of pipe when tripping for coring and testing and further corrected from logging results. In general. needs particular scrutiny and cross checking between company representative. is not used. However.). The FSU does not have a dedicated mudlogging function. this entire assembly being mounted on a large transport frame enabling the rig to be jacked up and moved. pipe tally errors. use turbines) and. Pump pressure is measured from the stand-pipe manifold.tation evaluation is carried out initially using a temperature log to establish a likely top-of-cement after 12 hours. Western contractors have Drilling instrumentation and mudlogging Rig floor instrumentation is limited to basic weight indicators. This tool is less refined than its western counterpart. RPM is calculated using a watch. iron roughneck) and the semi-automatic pipe handling systems (no derrickman is required under normal operations) are all pneumatically driven as are the semi-automatic integral slips and elevator. in which case SPM and RPM will both change. but are less common. is made using a Martin-Decker style chart recorder. Hence. wash-outs and fatigue failure of joints. lack of Rap curve. Subsequent operations are converted to the original rotary table datum. All measurements are usually in metres from rotary table. For example. Return signal forms are inspected visually at the wellsite.e. Depth control of logs. are the CBL-CET and pivot casing guns. and the concept of lag-time. There is no continuous drilling depth measurement. When drilling deviated or in horizontal wells. This is a problem in directional wells. this must clearly introduce a level of inaccuracy into the recorded drilled horizons.

especially in light of the high reactive clay content in Some reservoir sands. Salt saturated systems are not commonly employed. they are brought in by western service companies. This trend leads to smaller. but lack the refinement to prevent severe wellbore erosion and washout. surfactant and asbestos. Often the resistive mud causes Rxo to be higher than R1. low-pressure. heavy weight drillpipe. Massive diameters of invasion in the region of 11 to 12 times the borehole size are commonplace. consists of 25% diesel. This technique means that the zones of interest have very deep invasion due to the poor quality of the mud cake. For example. lighter rigs. this would certainly be questionable should deviated drilling operations be attempted. A major problem appears to be the lack of mud engineers at the wellsite. To increase depth capability and reduce torque problems it is typical for FSU rigs to use lighter aluminium drillpipe when drilling deeper than 2500 to 3000 m. each rig having its own tools. thinned with alcohol. with CMC used for rheological and fluid-loss control. 75% vegetable oil (a by-product of the local cotton processing industry). the lack of gauge protection is a major problem with obvious concerns for TC insert bits. .. Their oil industry's adaptive response was to develop turbines and mud motors. • gels fluid loss thickness of cake sticking coefficient dynamic viscosity The latter is calculated as a mathematical average of the Fann viscosity readings at several RPM. the drilling fluid employed is simply river water with no additives. The relatively low use of stabilizers has led to the available types being underdeveloped. and so potential hydrocarbon bearing intervals may be missed. Testing includes: . Their main components are water and bentonite. and additional additives (barite. This has obvious effects on logging tool responses and means that the chances of getting a representative formation fluid sample from wireline tester will be slim. their use would seem to be to reduce torque rather than prevent reservoir damage due to reactive days. safe drilling environment in South Kazakhstan enables lower grade drillpipe to be used. This mud tends to be extremely fresh and has a high resistivity in the range of 1 to 6 Qm. However. Mud testing is carried out in the main laboratory where systems were formulated and chemical quality checked. The drilling mud is allowed to develop during the drilling of shales which occur above the zones of interest. are virtually non-existent and stabilizers are rarely used due to the plethora of vertical wells in the FSU. This can lead to thinner beds (less than 20 feet thick) appearing to be wet. . The Russians also measure a coefficient of sticking. which has a masking effect on deep reading laterolog resistivity tools. the last employed as a 'binding' agent for unconsolidated sands). Like most materials. No special environmental precautions are usually taken when using oil-based mud systems. but as most wells are vertical. It is believed that a good correlation exists between this coefficient and actual problems experienced. The shallow. designed in South Kazakhstan. mud motors are commonly used. although often needed. still provides a workable environment downhole. some regions have developed their own specialist drilling and coring fluid to enable accurate and representative water saturations to be established on at [east one well per structure. Although MWD tools are used in some areas of the FSU to provide directional and drilling parameters. Intermittent rig site testing is also conducted with results reported daily.SG • viscosity (Marsh Funnel) • • . Barite is used for weighted pills if required. with the European style rounded shoulders. This is a significant constraint on the further development of deviated and horizontal well drilling. There are concerns about possible levels of reservoir damage caused by the simple muds used. effectively a measure of the inertial forces exerted by the filter cake on a standard sized weight. Hence. but also to frailties in design such as swivels. This clearly reduces the operational efficiency.. to drill highly deviated wells in the FSU. These appeared to be crude positive displacement motors commonly run in three sections giving an overall motor length of 30 m. A system. However. drillpipe is in short supply and heavy weight drillpipe is almost unheard of. The mud systems used are adequate for their purpose. Oil-based systems are not commonly used and are indeed prohibited in some agricultural areas. drilling muds within the FSU tend to be simple dispersed water-based polymer systems. Japanese. which work around the problems of limiting drill pipe rotation and allow deeper drilling with less horsepower at surface. suppressing their response. Drilling fluids In many regions of the FSU.had to import high grade. No equivalent of PV or YP is calculated. Drilling jars. On the rare occurrence where access to drilling additives exists. As they tend to be water-based with 10 to 20% of oil added.

supply. It is commonplace to find rigs which have been shut down for several weeks waiting on casing. mainly due to the fact that the only nozzles available are those supplied with the bit from the factory. Conventional overshots and grapples are. In the old Soviet regime. Specialist grades of casing and tubing have to be purchased from outside the FSU. well productivity index. In all cases these units suck and discharge into the same settling tank. There are some serious drawbacks to FSU test data. with simple listings of average Raps and average meterage per bit. boot baskets. Drill bits The FSU oil industry has a full range of tricone bits. and solids build-up is a common problem. Gravity and luck seem to be the main tools employed to find low side trajectory. Casing Casing produced in the FSU is mainly of the buttress thread profile and is generally reliable. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this state of affairs has not changed very much. In general. Where turbines are used. Hydraulics are not calculated or used as a drilling optimization tool. partly due to acquisition methods. Hole position is calculated using minimum radius methods. internal and external taper taps. it is preferred to run an electric wireline tool instead to obtain a multi-shot survey. some of which are adapted from agricultural units. However. and partly due to testing philosophy: . but low accuracy azimuth. provide an acceptable operating capability. particularly in Siberia. Fishing The Russians have a reasonably successful fishing operations record. Bit lifetimes are short (10 to 30 hours) and the rotary drilled meterage per bit is low in deeper formations. mill tooth and insert. ultimately. surprisingly. albeit flawed. casing had be ordered two years in advance of use via a centralized state-ordering organization. It is believed that the existing infrastructure.u). but even the standard grades are in short Testing operations The stated primary purpose of drill stem tests in the FSU is to obtain average reservoir pressure. and to determine the nature of the reservoir fluid (gas/condensate/oil). Bearings appear to be the major problem. The acquisition of a 'clean' formation fluid sample for PVT analysis is considered secondary. The latter provides azimuth and inclination at each station. they do not appear to perform anywhere near the same. the solids control capability of the rigs is poor. Notwithstanding the numerous problems within the FSU drilling industry. could.Solids control Most rigs have only one single-screen shaker. Unacceptable but small inclinations are corrected by subsequent reaming of the hole while larger inclinations may only be correctable by plugging back and side tracking to vertical. The performance of a one shaker set-up depends heavily on the settling of solids in the shaker tank as an important means of solids separation. Deviation Some form of single shot drop-in survey instrument exists in the FSU to obtain a through-string deviation survey during the drilling operation. reported on a quarterly and annual basis. typically at 25 m spacing. and the FSU even have some more specialized features such as extended and angled nozzles. open and cased. They use a wide range of fishing tools including jars. Rheological properties are initially controlled using dispersants. bit performance is much improved. with provision of materials and technology. There is close bit compatibility with western technology. not used. However. partly due to downhole conditions. and is specified by the same parameters. hydroconductivity (kh/. However. FSU survey tools provide reasonably accurate inclination. reverse circulating junk baskets. the adaptation of drill bit design for use with turbines at high RPM seems to have lagged behind turbine development and application. namely internal yield. with a range of different bearing types. but. It is provided in a range of weights and grades as in the West. dumping and dilution is frequently necessary. Further separation is achieved using hydrocyclone desilters. Perhaps this is related to poor measurement and control of WOB and pump pressure. many thousands of wells have been successfully drilled. There appears to be no other solids separation. FSU bit quality is questionable and while they resemble western bits. collapse and tensile strength. whose screens tend to be extremely coarse and so badly torn as to be effectively useless. Severe performance problems are experienced in hard or abrasive formations. with lifetimes of up to 300 hours being commonly quoted. ball grabs and some self-manufactured devices. Records of bit performance are invariably poor.

the well is drilled to TD and secured with production casing and a kill . lf the test interval is capable of producing t1uids to surface. with a suggested. Underbalance is achieved by pumping water into the drillpipe prior to setting the packer. The drilling rig is then replaced by a light workover hoist to commence the production testing phase. Having established flow. The test string is run in mud and surface control is effected with the BOP in combination with the rig choke manifold and gas boot. The well is then recompleted over the next zone of interest higher up the well. In South Kazakhstan. and severe formation damage • Inferior mud systems. disappointing. testing procedures and Open hole testing An open hole test is generally performed on every zone of interest following coring and logging. Tubing conveyed perforating does not exist in the FSU (unless a western contractor brings in the technology). and poor solids control. the well is cleaned up. The test procedure described above may take up to a fortnight. It is thought that this lengthy well testing procedure could be shortened to less than a week by using downhole packers and electronic pressure gauges to reduce the clean up. However. On completion of the test. and a flapper valve. a downhole filter. flow and kill valves). as use of the packer would alleviate afterflow problems and allow the use of early time data in an analysis. achieving stabilized rates. wireline. This exercise is repeated. is but • Many wells do not flow to surface due to a combination of poor reservoir quality. Note that it is difficult to obtain quality cementing materials. some attention needs to be paid to oil metering during the test.• Surface shut in means that early time data destroyed due to afterflow into the welJbore • Gas rate is not usually inferred from GaR monitored continuously. The production rate is estimated by recording the time to collect a known volume of hydrocarbon. it is completed with a 2-inch. which invade and damage the reservoir. used in South Kazakhstan. which are run in overbalanced conditions. is generally fit for purpose. the zone is isolated with a cement plug (placed via the tubing) and an inflow test is performed to confirm plug integrity. A typical open hole test string consists of a mechanical weight set packer run on drillpipe. All perforating equipment uses shaped charge technology. Having tested an interval. the well is deepened to the next zone of interest where the test sequence is repeated. A minimum open hole section of 50 m is required in order to accommodate the test string. EU thread type. but with the manufacturing of the shaped charge cones or the handling of the guns themselves at the rig site. maximum penetration of six inches being likely for a typical FSU perforating gun. one cannot assume that the test results from a producing well can be assumed to be indicative of that area Let us consider the various equipment in more detail. flowing. A three-hour pressure build up is then recorded. although rudimentary. but less common. A typical set of surface test equipment. with inferior drilling fluids in the borehole do not bode well for acquiring good test data • Some wells are tested simply to meet the necessary quota. The problem may not lie with the charges. Anecdotal evidence tells of numerous misfires. the test string is run part empty to achieve underbalance. Thereafter. the well is closed in and bottom hole pressure build-Up recorded until a stabilized pressure is achieved. wells are perforated in mud at overbalance conditions with disposable. After the well has been perforated. ineffective completions. the flapper valve enSures that a sample may be retrieved from the drillpipe on unseating the packer to kill the well. a carrier for one downhole pressure gauge. if hydrocarbon flows to surface it is produced to a flare pit for three hours and burnt. swab. Regulations prevent the flow and build-up period exceeding six hours. Explosive specifications suggest a much poorer performance to that currently used in the West. Perforating Typically. string. and build up . Surface testing equipment The surface equipment used in the FSU. and many cement jobs within the FSU tend to be poor as a result. which allows fines invasion into potentially productive zones • Poor cement jobs and use of primitive. tubing string (no accessories) and test tree (master. Hence. through one or two larger choke sizes. consists of the following: Cased hole testing Following the last open hole test. through-tubing. periods. prior to killing the well and retrieving the test string. Occasionally. Well productivity is then determined by flowing for a sufficient duration to achieve stabilized bottom hole pressure (generally about a day) on a 3 to 4 mm choke. The quality of the test data should also improve significantly. strip perforating guns. Scallop guns are also available. perforating guns.

The above rules of thumb are not valid if the well has been drilled with oil-based mud. which necessitates the recovery and re-running of the gauge throughout the drawdowns and subsequent pressure build-ups. The more gas is collected and the lower the formation water content. which is run on wireline to approximately 50 m above top perforation. with bypass for the installation of a gas orifice or manometer to monitor gas flow rates Pressure gauges and data analysis Open hole tests are usually recorded with one mechanical (Bourdon type) pressure gauge. no pressure transient analysis is performed on these tests. The analysis is continued until the recovered pressure gauge indicates that a stabilized pressure has been reached. fluid sampling is generally conducted downhole during the cased hole testing with two tandem sample runs being made. the higher the probability that waterfree gas will be produced on test. However. For oil-bearing formations.+ in the gas is 0. The well's productivity index is determined from the step rate tests. The data quality of these pressure build-ups is very poor due to : • wellbore storage distorting the early and mid time data (no packer. the criteria for determining the character of the fluid saturation from a wireline formation tester sample (for wells drilled with water-based mud in the Tartarstan region) are as follows: Oil-bearing formation.5%). The tank is pumped out to the flare pit when full • Upper separator outlet to gas flare. direct to the flare pit • Positive chokes inserted into choke flange (typi cally 3 mm. For example. Presence of oil in the sample and the quantity and composition of gaseous hydrocarbons in the gas/air mixture. Cased hole tests also use a single mechanical pressure gauge. in West Siberia. 0. Hence. Gas-bearing formation. presence of released hydrocarbon gases whose composition is typical of water-bearing horizons (i. tion fluid sample will be obtained via a wireline tester. Residual oil-bearing formation. similar to the Amerada RPG-3. If the value of the ratio is greater than unity the formation is often mobile oil bearing.0% and of i-Cs. it is impossible to make any confident estimates of the degree of formation damage. Large quantities (several tens of litres) of gas sampled with the presence of more than 10% formation water in the sample confirms the presence of free gas in the reservoir. The typical content of i-C. Gases from residual oil-bearing formations tend to contain over 5% f-C4 and over 4% i-Cs. Pressure transient analysis is normally performed on the final cased hole pressure build-up. Water-bearing formation. the presence of free gas is confirmed.• 3-inch flowline via a choke flange to a vertical gas separator (80 bar working pressure) . but with high water saturation.3 to 5.0% in a mobile oil-bearing formation. many wireline tester fluid samples are still taken. Significant presence of formation water in the sample. Fluid sampling and analysis The massive invasion inferred in many FSU wells means that it is unlikely that a representative forma- . Only one clock duration is generally available (16 hours). If open hole tests are limited to a duration of six hours as in South Kazakhstan. the absence of insignificant volumes of i-C4 (less than 0. The value of the ratio i-Cs/n-C5 is claimed to distinguish between mobile and residual oil. For example. 5 mm and 7 mm) • Lower separator outlet to open.e. C1 content over 70%). during production testing of such a formation it is likely that gas and water will be produced. which is run and retrieved in the packer. using the 'Horner Method' to determine the reservoir's average pressure and permeability. mechanical skin factors of 1 or more are commonplace. In an attempt to render the information from such tests useful. if it is less than unity the oil is likely to be residual.3-inch bypass flowline. Hence. the presence of heavy hydrocarbons (CSH12 and higher) in the sample is typical. calibrated tank for oil measurement (dipped three or four times a day during test). incorporating a choke flange. even after stimulation.5 to 4. [f the amount of gas in the sample exceeds the volume of the cylinder by a factor greater than three (typical FSU cylinder size is 20 litres) and the formation water content in the sample does not exceed 10% of the volume of mud filtrate in the cylinder. although studies suggest that virtually all the wells are damaged during drilling. surface shut-in) • employing mechanical pressure "gauges of lower accuracy and reliability • the need to recover and re-run the gauge every 16 hours compromises the late time data Hence. notwithstanding the problems with deep invasion.3%) and i-Cs (less than 0. the Russians have developed several rules of thumb based on trace element analysis to infer the nature and type of the fluids in the formation under test on a region by region basis.

Latysheva. Oil and Gas Journal. It is standard practice to analyse three samples. A. Moscow. W. p102. Dec 28. V.All PVT analysis is usually performed by the local Geophysika. but if the results show a significant variation. using References Krug. whose laboratories have conventional black oil evaluation capability. it is checked by an external certifying authority. 1. 1992. It is felt that significant increases in well productivity would result from improved completion techniques. Moscow. a fourth sample is also analysed. Dobrynina. there is a vast amount of test data available. reservoir perfornance. chap. current western technology and know-how. G. but it must be used with caution. Nedra. 14. 'Interpretation of Geophysical Logging Studies of Oil and Gas Wells'. Although much of the laboratory equipment is of an elderly vintage. Nedra. & Connelly. 6. M. 'Processing and Interpretation of Geophysical Well Logging Data'. M. chap. Here are considerations in evaluating Russian flow tests. 1990. . Bearing in mind the above difficulties with well testing in the FSU. 1988.

The authority accorded to drillers in the FSU (backed up by the Ministry of Geology which was ultimately responsible for their production targets) allowed them in many cases to veto the taking of cores where this would have significantly slowed down drilling. but they include the fact that drilling associations' targets have been based principally on total depth penetrated in a year rather than hydrocarbons found. There has also been less pressure than in the West to make a discovery in the first well. The reasons for this different approach. together with recent wells in mature provinces (such as the North Caucasus. similar to those in the West. There was a tendency. particularly in areas of giant and supergiant fields where major resources were allocated to the geological and engineering appraisals of fields m order to maximize production. although the reasons for coring and the subsequent analytical techniques show marked differences. it is such fields that have attracted the greatest attention from western companies. Older wells. to drill a 4000 m well where they could more quickly drill two 2000 m wells (even though a prospective target was not reached). In provinces such as West Siberia. it is therefore necessary to look both at the 'traditional' approaches which are still widespread. Mahmoudov (1986) cites an example from the Van' yu site in the Komi Republic where superfluous drilling was undertaken in the 1960s because of the site's convenient location. for geological arguments to have more impact on the drilling and coring programmes in the less-mature hydrocarbon provinces within the FSU. 'parametric' or 'structural'). often drilled (at least ostensibly) for research purposes rather than the hydrocarbon industry. are complex. for example. thus enabling dry wells to be drilled without loss of face. and the material obtained much better preserved. at least in principle. are often cored much more extensively than other wells. Such cores have often been used only for basic lithological identification. and at the more sophisticated methods used in many of the fields to which western specialists are tending to be exposed. The same author claims that unnecessary drilling has also taken place under the pretext of appraising a structure. A basic factor behind this difference is a contrasting approach in the siting of wells. and because it was possible to justify the expenses of infrastructure.4. for example. but varied from one part of the FSU to another depending largely on the relative strength of the drilling association compared with that of the geological or exploration associations in any particular location. and rarely for more than a single measure of porosity and permeability. Although newly discovered and giant fields of this type account for a relatively small proportion of the wells drilled in the FSU. the Precaspian Basin of Kazakhstan. for example. In considering the practice of core analysis in the FSU. Such fields have usually been developed to the highest standards attainable in the FSU. Timan-Pechora and the Volga-Urals. onshore Azerbaijan. are frequently uncored or represented only by one or two 5 m spot cores (commonly with poor recoveries). but that the material from them may be housed in one or other of the research institutes rather than an oil industry organization. associated with the nature of the Soviet system. The situation was not everywhere so one-sided. not least because early exploration in a new area was often undertaken under the guise of drilling one or more stratigraphic wells (which fall under various categories such as 'reference'. Coring equipment A very extensive range of drilling and coring equipment has been and remains available within the FSU A good review of such equipment is provided in the January 1993 issue of the Russian journal Neftyanoe . It is worth noting that stratigraphic wells. since this enables high total penetrations to be attained within a few closely spaced wells. so that delays which would have been involved in reaching geologically preferred sites could be avoided. many of the more recent wells have been cored throughout the reservoir zone. Pressure by the drilling associations to maximize the thickness of strata penetrated in a year is said often to have led to wells being drilled in inappropriate locations. For the same reasons drillers have refused. Core analysis techniques Graham Blackbourn Blackbourn Geoconsulting Coring techniques in the FSU are. parts of the Volga-Urals province and elsewhere) in which well evaluations are often based almost entirely on SP and resistivity logs. such as beside existing roads.

or even exceeded. or with multiple inward-facing cutting wheels. however. In practice. and remaining core was either simply discarded. or was packed for storage but without any serious attempt at preservation. Maybe in theory the driller was required to present an ordered sequence of core to the geologist. and little value was attached to obtaining longer cores. but in practice this appears usually not to have happened. Furthermore. and vary greatly from one hydrocarbon province to another. despite the extensive list of equipment theoretically available. both at the wellsite. Until very recently most cores were taken primarily as 'spot' samples for the determination of lithology and single values of reservoir and fluid parameters. Where efforts have been made to preserve core at the wellsite. A recent Russian book on the theory and development of orientated coring in the FSU (Yushkov 1989). together with methods for generating and interpreting the data obtained from the cores taken. Problems or particular requirements are more frequently dealt with on an ad hoc basis. the procedures which are used in the FSU are far less standardized. Institutions such as VNIIBT have been responsible for the development and testing of a wide range of sophisticated drilling and coring equipment. provides detailed designs of numerous devices for taking orientated cores and how they have been used since 1952. In many situations the wellsite geologist only needed one good sample for lithological description and laboratory analysis. techniques used. No examples of wellsite analyses of any type have been encountered. Coreheads are reported to have been in very short supply in recent years. The available coreheads achieve penetration rates of the order of 1m/h. but typically 80 rnm. As has been noted above. and careful handling of core at the wellsite was of little importance to the driller. in principle. and therefore the equipment employed. 4. in a brief review of procedures such as this. with a record of hydrocarbon shows and other obvious features (Fig. but is subsequently diverted to the annulus by dropping and seating of a steel balL Cores are typically 5 or 8 m long. both at the wellsite and in the conventional Core analysis laboratory (Blackbourn 1990).1). This was partly because of varying subsurface conditions. illustrated by a few examples of how core has been handled and analysed in the Soviet republics. In contrast. they do not appear to have followed any standard procedures or have displayed any degree of . Reliability of equipment is also said to have been poor. tend to be far less sophisticated in the FSU than in the West. so that methodologies vary from one hydrocarbon province to another. similar to types used in the West. which was devoted to the 40th anniversary of the founding of the All-Russian Research Institute for Drilling Technology (VNIIBT). A standard core barrel is. virtually all aspects of core handling and analysis. Core diameter is very variable. the usual complete separation between the drilling and geological organisations within the FSU led to a situation where each was primarily concerned with meeting production targets. in practice there have often been shortages. for example. and may cut three or four cores in relatively soft formations. The high levels of education of the Soviet workforce.Khozyaistvo. so the pressure on the driller from this quarter may in any case have been minimal. Those used are typically either of an outward-facing tri-cone variety. tended to vary from region to region. to note techniques used in the West which are not used in the FSU. but only a very small proportion of this has gone into production beyond the prototype stage. but also because of different provinces having developed separately at different times. but only one or two in harder sections. At best there may be a note of the lengths of individual lithologies. and equipment chosen was constrained by availability. It has a steel inner barrel. Drilling fluid passes through the inner barrel when running in-hole. and to cope with particular problems. in the laboratory and during subsequent storage. whereas the equipment actually available at the wellsite has been extremely limited in quality and scope. and the equipment for taking longer cores does not appear to exist. The present author has been to several former wellsites where the main evidence that drilling activity has taken place was the presence of discarded tri-cone bits and lengths of core. As noted above. coupled with the central planning and poor standard of manufacture of oilfield equipment. PDC or stratapax coreheads do not appear generally to be available. even where particular efforts are being made to maximize the value of the core. The geologist and engineer in the FSU rarely had any substantial requirement in any case for an ordered sequence of core (this is discussed further below). western standards. bearing assembly and core catcher. WeUsite and related procedures In the West there is a remarkable degree of uniformity in the handling and analysis of core. Wellsite core descriptions in the FSV are very basic. have led to a paradoxical situation in which design of such equipment has in many areas been at the level of. specific special core handling and special core analysis techniques have been adopted worldwide. little or no orientated core is cut in the FSU. However. It is simplest therefore.

this requirement was not matched in the FSU. Limestone. rctl '" = diameter oil flow rate (m3 I day) gas flow rate (m3 I day) gas factor Translated core descriptions: 1. and prompted by the recognition that western techniques were leading to greatly enhanced exploration and production successes. argillaceous. with little or no predictive requirement. dark-grey. Depths in metres = choke :. dark-grey. Limestone. massive. almost black. except in very recent years. has largely been driven by the requirements of both geologists and engineers for increasingly detailed models of the reservoir. massive. Section of 1:500 composite log over hydrocarbon-bearing of recent North Caucasus well. description of and analytical procedures conducted on cores. However. Wells on some fields in mature areas number considerably over 1000.2m). typical level of core interval sophistication. 2. 3. and numbered in preparation for laboratory treatment and plugging. Reservoir models were traditionally constructed by drilling large numbers of wells on a field and using log signatures (principally SP and resistivity) to determine the reservoir geometry. similar to that described above. and improvements in the recovery. sealed in hessian and wax._ . Limestone..1. similar to that rlescribed above (2m). -'1~i()~.: _ r~ ~ . compact. In one example cited from Kazakhstan. Limestone. Core analysis In the West. Nature of fluid saturation from geophysical logs uncertain. 4. Resistivity I SP logs. although a signifi- . compact. dark-grey. Limestone. The technique of freezing unconsolidated cores at the wellsite does not appear to have been used in the FSU. 4. Fig. illustrating description. an increase in the average proportion of any well which has been cored. homogeneous. argillaceous.n ··'_c d"'T QH Qr ::: Tested ::::::: interval. with white calcite inclusions. _. Black indicates proportion recovered. LocatIOn of 8m core sample. with vertical fractures (O. cores were commonly broken into sections approximately 100 mm long.

This generally only required a single value for each of these parameters. However. This was particularly the case where a reduction in the confirmed figure may have resulted. which was always the most likely outcome of a second look. or by immersion. the absence of powerful computing or plotting facilities in the fSU (again until very recently) has prevented large amounts of core and related data from being used efficiently in reservoir modelling or other areas. Data comparing core analysis results from the FSU with analyses conducted on the same samples in western labs are not available. The practice of appraising an accumulation by drilling numerous wells is said to have been one of the greatest obstacles to the development of small oil accumulations which could not support (economically or technically) more than one or two wells (Mahmoudov 1986). especially over the reservoir interval. Porosity is also sometimes measured from thin sections by optical petrography. and there has therefore been nO reason for closely spaced analyses.Swirr). based on the sparsest of evidence. thereby placing the full weight of the state behind the porosity figure generated. Various analytical methods are used. The constant requirement to maximize hydrocarbon production in the short term provided further support to the policy of drilling numerous wells as rapidly as possible and producing from them at the highest rates. Porosity and permeability are the most common parameters measured. 'Open' porosity is limited to pores which are in communication with one another. Data with errors of this magnitude. In this case. had been analysed to a greater degree of accuracy than is normal. It is still not uncommon to read statements in the Russian industry literature such as 'the porosity of the Late Jurassic reservoir in such-and-such a field is 17%'. It has however been reported that such data show that the porosity results are very accurate. and therefore without requiring sophisticated reservoir models. in Moscow. Cases have been reported of friable cores being restored using resin to enable porosity to be measured. although not unambiguously. A greater proportion of the well section is being cored.cant proportion of these will always have been abandoned for technical reasons before completion. 'effective' porosity (in the FSU) is considered to represent the maximum porosity which could be occupied in the reservoir by hydrocarbon fluids. although of reasonable indicative value. the oil saturation. Furthermore. for which the FSU data were reported to be very accurate. although the frequency may be reduced if the sand is reasonably homogeneous. Demurov (1993). would not be considered acceptable from a western core analysis laboratory. This has usually been conducted in the FSU using a simple volumetric method. but not routinely. and saturation of residual oil and initial water are measured routinely in some hydrocarbon provinces. the net reservoir thickness. Vertical plugs are sometimes cut. The principal purpose of porosity measurement was in reserve estimation. It is usually assumed that porosity measured (where not . the oil density and the porosity. 'open'. and dividing this figure by the expansion coefficient of the oil under reservoir conditions. so may be considered as equivalent to 'effective' permeability in the West. in a paper on deformation of the pore space due to the pressure exerted on the sample during capillary pressure testing. Plugs (commonly 25 mm in diameter) are cut parallel to bedding planes at a spacing of about 25-30 em. indicates that porosimeters used in the FSU are accurate to no better than 3-4% of the porosity value. some Russian-language authors do not recognize 'open' porosity. This seems to have provided a powerful disincentive to argue with or debate the accepted figure. These policies stilt prevail by default in some areas. without particular concern about the long-term future of the field. Furthermore. and for them 'effective' porosity has its western connotation of being composed of communicating pores. or therefore to generate further data. are quite staggering. or more precisely: Effective porosity = Total porosity x (1 . the generalizations which have been made in the FSU regarding reservoir parameters. since initial pressure was firmly in favour of an unrealistic inflation of the reserves. but in the younger and more prolific hydrocarbon provinces practices are increasingly beginning to resemble those of the West. and this was the main reason for the long-held practice of cutting one or two spot cores and carrying out single analyses on each. 'effective' and 'dynamic' porosities are defined. the recovery factor. Dynamic porosity is defined as that through which oil is able to pass in reservoir conditions (sometimes also termed capillary porosity). Bulk volume of the plugs is measured using a caliper. Despite this. 'Total'. It is likely that the plugs provided for comparison with western results. Porosity Porosity is measured gravimetrically using water. whereby recoverable reserves of an oil accumulation (expressed in tonnes) are obtained by multiplying together the area it covers. or less commonly by the use of a Boyle's law gas porosimeter. most of which are basic but provide data of a fair quality. the reserve figure obtained was ultimately confirmed by the State Committee for the Calculation of Reserves.

Other analytical techniques used on core No measurements of relative permeability or capillary pressure (using mercury) are made routinely. Permeability in the FSU is increasingly being quoted in millidarcies (or darcies). The former (K"b. the West. Descriptions of sedimentary structures are usually limited to terms such as 'inclined bedding'. There is not thought to be the capability for in situ saturation measurements in the FSU. or 10 rn" (f. ability 1 rn" is defined as the permeability of a porous medium through which. and where the fluid phase fills the entire pore space. frequently using techniques comparable to those in the West. XRD. It is therefore used in the determination of relative permeability. The carbonate content of core samples is commonly measured. IRspectroscopy and other analyses). as in the West. [(po to open porosity. as with the porosity values. although facilities for doing so exist in some research institutes and are conducted if required. severely reduces the use which can be made of available core data in the FSU. orf) Sedimentological descriptions and depositional modelling Sedimentological analysis and depositional modelling are almost unknown disciplines in the FSU. or whatever) is the permeability of a porous medium for gas or a homogeneous liquid. K. as is the practice in . and the results tabulated as weight percentage of four or five size fractions.) rather than as part of a structured core analysis programme. a fluid with a viscosity of 1 m-/s would tlow through a cross-sectional area of 1 m2 at a rate of 1 m-'/s.. numerically equivalent to miUidarcies and darcies respectively. A wide range of other analytical techniques are of course employed on cores. petrophysical etc. and the amount of residual oil calculated. although they can usually be distinguished from the context or the values given. and SInce 1m" IS . 15 equivalent to 1. using acid digestion. especially on more friable core. The perme. Depositional environments are distinguished on the basis of gross lithological or palaeontological indicators such as the presence of coals. Sakhibgareev 1989). Permeability Permeability is usually measured by flowing water or paraffin through a plug (or sometimes whole core). then passing ten pore volumes of water through it. within the limits of experimental error.. Core is therefore virtually never subject to systematic logging. Soxhlets are also used for saturation measurements. 2 and 2 respectively.a pressure drop of 1 Pa. 'finely laminated' or 'massive'. glauconite. Not only does it prevent any precise modelling of depositional environ- Saturation measurements A measure of residual oil saturation may be obtained by saturating a plug with oil at reservoir temperature . In practk. Note that the same abbreviation is therefore sometimes used for both effective porosity and effective permeability (see below)..e the_perme~bHity is_Yiually c~ed in u~its of 1O:~5 m" (10 x f. A value for the initial water saturation may be determined by gravimetric means. where there are no physical or chemical interactions between the fluid and solid phases.. The absence of any core logs.otherwise designated) is effective porosity (in the western sense of porosity within communicating pores) (Moiseev 1990).02 x 10 mD these two values are. These include optical petrographic analyses of thin sections (and occasional SEM. m and n are 1.g.L-). Electrical property measurements appear to be quite reliable. Nonetheless there is no reason to suppose that permeability values obtained are not also of reasonable indicative value. It is commonly assumed that a. refers to total porosity. Both absolute and effective perrneabilities are defined. or simply K. although in practice they are seldom made. These are usually restricted to descriptions of the main detrital and authigenic mineral phases. Effective permeability (K is the permeability of a porous medium for a given gas or liquid where another liquid or gas phase is also present in the pore. and Kpd to dynamic porosity (although other abbreviations are also used). it is probable that only better-quality plugs have been released for comparison. Porosity (commonly measured as a fraction of 1) is often termed the coefficient of porosity. which Soviet literature claims is preferable since it is an SI unit whereas millidarcies are cgs units. and are considered to be reliable. their relationship with depth and other factors. and their impact on reservoir quality (e. [(pel or K"t to effective porosity. ammonites etc.L-). but usually as incidental further studies (geological. although some attention has been paid recently to diagenetic processes in sediments. although it is still commonly given in m". Where distinguished. Grain-size determinations by sieving are commonly made. Permeability results from laboratories in the FSU are reported to be good although. with . sometimes abbreviated to Kp' and should not be confused with permeability. and pressure. except on very rare occasions.

B ~: e-i ~I r-i .nCe ti "!: l~~ I~ . =x'-tl :. .- » » u-.::.:::: l.rj -i.('i Z c . e- I i I c. -.J .l21 cr.::.

r.: . 1 ("I 1"1 1"1 1 '>' " '" c..g 1 .g 2 ~ I- C - '- . "·1 1 ..:: ::: ~. vr:• ...~ '-~ . .~ 1 <c.1".1 v-.. i 1/.. r-I i sr.:::: ~ . 'f - 2 .~ J.r-.r~ ~.... o 2 ::: .. ~.~j ::: .~ '" .c:~ . r-~ 1 r-t .

after Khanin (1980) porosity ('t) (rusable volume') Gas. so as to retain formation fluids.rmeability (](rt-m-l ('darcies') ".2 and 4.8-11 8-14 10-16. because of the absence of such reservoirs with intergranular porosity. it would have been quite normal without undertaking further analyses to accept that it had an irreducible water saturation of between 12% and 22%.5 26. and Table 4.3 3. core which has been kept is sometimes remarkably well curared. tops or bases of beds.001-0.3-10 3. and this can include long cored sections.8-21. It is important to recognize that. and Tables 4.5 5. Core preservation and storage Measures to preserve core at the wellsite.5 20.5 0.5 ".01-0. 20 323.[ Reservoir permeability [( iII IV v VI Medium-grained sandstone Fine-grained sandstone Coarse-grained siltstone Fine-grained siltstone Medium-grained sandstone Fine-grained sandstone Coarse-grained siltstone Fine-grained siltstone Medium-grained sandstone Fine-grained sandstone Coarse-grained siltstone Fine-grained siltstone Medium-grained sandstone Fine-grained sandstone Coarse-grained siltstone Fine-grained siltstone Medium-grained sandstone Fine-grained sandstone Coarse-grained siltstone Fine-grained siltstone Medium-grained sandstone Fine-grained sandstone Coarse-grained siltstone Fine-grained siltstone '" 16.5 . as Table 4.5 18-20 21. the nature of stratification etc.5 <0. Classification of clastic hvdrocarbon Class Rock name Effective 10-20% of carbonate cement. Stored core is kept on shelves in sheds or warehouses.ments and therefore reservoir geometry and palaeogeography. for which there are several systems of definition of reservoir class.01 Low 2-8 3.8 Very high 0. Table 4. if a carbonate reservoir was determined on the basis of its porosity and permeability alone to belong to Class III. and where they are taken they are not usually very sophisticated.5-1 High 0.6 .1-0. in the sense of being clean and tidy. Owing to the traditional overmanning of industry in the FSU.1 Reduced 0.2 in particular demonstrates.6-12 0. An example of sealing core in hessian and wax has already been given. tables of this type tended to be used much more definitively than would be the case in the West.3 illustrate recent classifications of carbonate and clastic reservoirs respectively. even if its prior treatment has been so poor that its value for further analyses is limited.8 12-20. Failure by western specialists to recognise the extent to which assumptions of this kind have been made in the FSU explains many of the problems westerners have in understanding how their counterparts in the FSU have arrived at reserve figures.5-23.. group and type. p. and this is the case with hydrocarbon reservoirs.5-26.5-5. The classifications are primarily based on porosity and permeability values. but they encompass a range of reservoir characteristics. or packed in crates.5 Moderate 0. but it also leads to the loss of structural information which may be available from cores. and cannot be related to geological features such as coarsening or fining-up sequences. in the FSU.4 gives a similar classification for sealing lithologies. Material from some 'reference' wells (a type of stratigraphic well. For example. Reservoir classification lt is a characteristic of Soviet science that things have been carefully classified and defined. Most of the differences between the various published systems are relatively minor. see above) is sometimes kept by research institutes as archive core. production forecasts and numerous other results. are not always taken. The analytical data has to be used in isolation. Furthermore.5-29 11-[5 14-18 16.3.29 15-[6. Where core is kept it is usually packed in wooden boxes or other receptacles.001 Usually of no economic significance 2 3.

but also frustrated by the shortcomings and difficulties which have prevented them from using their scientific knowledge to its best effect. The majority of those working in the hydrocarbon industry in the FSU are skilled and intelligent. Some laboratories hold many thousands of plugs from core which itself may have been destroyed or lost. These are often also held in the research institutes (together with all the associated data) and can provide considerable information on the general nature of the succession. because of the high volume of drilling. This largely explains why: • No effort is made to obtain long lengths of core.3 <0. based on analyses they had undertaken in their spare time. and there will be inevitable frustration at the low density of data points and the uncertainty which remains over the accuracy of much of the data. both core and associated data are very thinly spread.0--0. and not necessarily all housed in one place. either in . Like any of us they are proud of their work. will provide far more useful information than simply reading the data sheets.01--0. Way-up or other markings are rarely made. Furthermore. Considerable effort may need to be exerted before a usable volume of data is obtained for any area or field. Despite these limitations. Samples taken for any reason are usually sections of whole core.6 0. and to find out the conditions under which the analyses were made and exactly what was measured (since these are by no means standardized). cores remaining after basic sampling and lithological description are disposed of.5 5. the longest core barrels in frequent use are 8 m. thus destroying valuable sequence information.7-1. Making conversation with the people who produced the data. who provided examples of coring and core analysis procedures he had encountered in the FSU. 'model' wells have been created. discussing its merits and shortcomings with them on equal terms.02--0. • Cores are almost never slabbed.3 Very high High Moderate Reduced Low Absent long sections in many areas. Core plugs used for analyses are often retained by the responsible laboratory. and 5 m is common. There will still be significant gaps. if the required effort is made to obtain as much of the data as possible for any area. then a great deal of usable information can be gleaned. by assembling cores and other material from a number of wells in a restricted region. or a series of spot samples. or photographed in either white or UV light. • In many hydrocarbon provinces. and will have spent many years familiarizing themselves with their basin or field. but nonetheless the effort is usually worthwhile. terms of sequence or way-up.1--0.0 >1 Liquid permeability (m-) (-10" mO) Breakthrough pressure for paraffin-saturated rock (MPa) >10 Sealing capability A B C D E I I 1 I F <I x 10'" x ICF-I x [0.Table 4. Each of these people has a wealth of experience and knowledge.05--0. After Khanin (1980). I 0. Group Maximum pore diameter (microns) 0. but for many it was not possible to apply this resource because of the rigid limits to individual expression imposed by the Soviet system.7 0.5-2. and can only properly be understood in the light of the demands placed on and priorities faced by the hydrocarbon industry in the FSU until very recently. but low proportion of the total section cored. Information routinely obtained by core analysis in the West was either obtained in the FSU by other methods. rather than as a continuous record of the rock sequence. The position of a sample within a cored interval is often not recorded. It would not be the first time if they told you they had much more data at home.05 0.4. because they were not satisfied with the 'official' results! Acknowledgements. The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance given in preparing this chapter by Bob Beckinsale of Core Laboratories in Aberdeen. There is another hidden bonus in making this effort.1-1.:11 x 10':"-1 x 10" x 10\°_1 X 10" x 10"'-1 X 10'\' >1 x 10'" 10--5. It is still largely the case that core is considered as a spot sample. Many of the practices appear quite incomprehensible to the western specialist. Classification of sealing litholoeies in terms of their permeability and other parameters. so as to cover as much as possible of the stratigraphic section.0 2.2 0. and striking up a relationship of goodwill and trust. Conclusions Principles and practice of core analysis in the FSU have in many respects been quite different from those of the West. or was simply not required. • Very little effort is made either at the wellsite or subsequently to maintain the integrity of core. Poor recoveries are the norm in many areas.

1993. Caithness. A. Fall Church. S. G. Nedra. Core Measurement t'Kemometry') [in Russian]. Moscow. Deformation of the pore space in samples during parametric studies [in Russian]. No. M. Demurov. The Soviet Oil and Natural Gas Industries (Problems of Reserve Estimationt. 1990. V. S. 1982. A. Delphic Associates. 1980. Nedra. Geologiya Nefti i Gaza. Khanin. Nedra. A. A. . Yushkov. Secondary Alteration of Reservoirs During the Formation and Destruction of Oil Accumulations [in Russian]. G. Moscow. N. 21-22. K. Nedra. Sakhibgareev. A. Moscow. Virginia. 1986.4. 1989. Leningrad. Mahmoudov. I.References Bagrintseva. Moiseev. Whittles Publishing. Blackboum. 1989. Nedra. Oil alld Gas Reservoir Rocks 111 the Hydrocarbon Provinces of ElII! USSR. The Applicatiol! of Geophysical Methods ill the Process of Developing Wells [in Russian]. R. Cores and Core Logging for Geologists. 1990. Moscow. F racmring of Sedimentary Rocks.

sometimes with disastrous results. Galvo B shows the 1 minute timing marks on the film. and leads to a profusion of errors in digitizing. The logs are traced using using pre-prepared millimetre paper (Fig. being opaque. Trace B represents time pips every minute and galvos C and D represent actual logs. then the colour definition is lost and. previous run. 5.ihe 'CCL' trace is actually the 10 m magnetic marks being picked up from the logging cable as a galvo display.2) and then a header and scales are attached to to the top i !i ! Ii I I I I Fig.1 shows a copy of an original acquisition log photographic strip print.e. dot. Raw acqusition log showing a galvo trace (A) similar to a eeL with deflection every 10 m.5. It is important to understand the standard log recording and transcription process in the FSU. especially the Cyrillic alphabet. did not lend itself to direct diazo copy process as with as western logging films. but also between individual local logging companies. of the strip. The tracing on the millimetre graph strips is done using coloured inks to help differentiate the curves. scales and wellsite header information are all hand drawn. where the various header features have been annotated. Initially these well logs were digitized using the same techniques and assumptions as if they were western-style logs. and two galva traces C and D.). but historically recordings were made as analogue records on opaque photographic paper. This can be highly frustrating. To make matters worse. One can observe in Fig. I Log transcription The first problem encountered by western specialists dealing with this kind of data is its unfamiliarity. but displayed at different scales. It is up to the logging operator to tie in with a known event on the log (i. Please note that there is no direct depth recording onto the photographic paper/film. as an additional way of recording depth (assuming good knowledge of logging speed is available). This chapter illustrates the types of problems that are encountered when dealing with them.3 illustrates a 'standard log presentation'. if any photocopy is done of that print. "This type of data is seldom available for direct scrutiny in the archives and in nearly all cases the data is available as hand-traced copies taken from the raw acquisition photographic film. the depth was seldom directly recorded onto the photographic paper. 5. Figure 5. Once a reservoir has been established. Figure 5. the logs. However. Problems with raw log data Waclaw Jakubowicz Hampton Data Services Ltd In the last five years an enormous amount of paper well log data has been collected by the many western companies working in the FSU. This is the source of the majority of problems found in handling this type of data as it allows significant human error to be introduced to the dataset. This is the primary depth control in the majority of the analogue logging units. It has no depth lines or numbers and no differential coding on the logs themselves. Besides the underlying grid.1. solid etc. This paper record. in the absence of any curve coding (dash. The galvos C and D are the same curve. The kicks are induced by magnetic marks on the logging cable every 10 m.) and extrapolate the depth every 10 m. The presentation standards not only vary between exploration. and the well passes from exploration to development and produc- .1 what appears to be a casing collar locator (eCL) log at A. and the header template. casing etc. it is sometimes impossible to differentiate the curves. development and production. Modern logging units with direct real time digital recording capability are now run regularly. 5.

.. _ 16mm r T r .. BOmm I I -po 144mm 160mm .. ._ c 10 mm 20mm 94mm 104mm 14mm Fig.1) and the galvo records are traced by hand onto this paper..oJ'.... Typical well log display graph paper.2. This paper is used to overlay the raw field acquisition plots (Fig 5. . 5.. 8 MO.~-m --"~ 80mm I 14 . 1 A 10 mm 80mm 30mm 190mm I 80mm N i - . .

1 : :ill~U'-1 J£. ..lllllit .~III'. tI."l.OIo.R~1l1i Mllie. logging speed: K. c• ~bll H_'· ~..:..£6:.tt1. . A.-.a..--~ .:::clO'I. ~S"a" .MtlLL! ..S. colour of curve: F. operator.C. m: \. repeat section interval: I._. c.3. curve names: E. 1 u :.. ~.ao.--- . C.. sonde type and number. ~-i.?:.C:LO/l. " \1""'1 I I j. A PTHhIH: KAPOT AJK 1:500 lUilJI. .IIOUUI.Lr.-----------J-/-i! . "co. .d:rA.. 5.\'..JtY.'I:t..aa/. G. .UiBlern ~...t'l . ..::_ac..d. lb.:. l:iI'.. :. ·---"-r l" 1·"UI.1)~1.lrlll.iOIn.l n'K... L > •• o I M o CI nc I~ o M ___ k_ .''' I }1'i. curve scale parameters: 1."·. -~!"G"pot"P"" Tnu "j'lLic. display title (standard log in this case)..m )["'---. 3<".11' .'I.I.• .~ .. J"IUl:U I.(. Fig..!t2 ..... L..f:1'I' • 200 4-""00 \~\I Y:l. logging date.lW r.OQb..~·rllllp.'...I..1\'j'jUB.t""..:!/...:{Q. casing sizes and depths and well TD: D. ~..:"'"[1 l'ilCTlIl)lt. t::>"."~I . ______ llll ~~--l1JD. .. - .DHnul! 11 'ml C' I \ HI! 1\ "'0'72P Ca.".. basic wellsite information...'.·II~TUp ..coco._ C .£6"" .£..j~f 11 . ".. · I:t.:11." ---~..H~//ceH"bl 0/'61% )1> •• '"\'". remarks..u... 1\. .... . l .'p~lIua " 1l1l.. mud parameters.. --..pp_..u3c.~\U· ._..hi.. The merged and hand traced standard log display.2'i.UG! ....._ E U-L~ r'·~'FI.J.- .. ~. .G/. well name: B._ C8l:>I£.. ~~'I _rl~~"'~- \"..1H C'I...(.. . curve scales.~ J. r ·CtJ. M.M. .'~. logging interval: H.QCUIa:.t.4.··" "". Zo. __ .S!.:c .•.d:X:'.. p.'l"TiL1')'~r-"-'---' CT A HP.

. · ~ - t~~•••••• ". core data.. Usually the data in this format is fairly clear.... ..~.. Often more detailed information is added..._ .. tion groups. Note also that this log has Russian Cyrillic mnemonics..6 are sometimes available. but the interval velocities and shot values are again hand drawn on a sheet with minimal grid on a large sheet of paper.'"" . lithology and stratigraphy are displayed on these panels (A).._ .u .. • ·n .4.'n •. .. . Often detailed core. - ". This is prone to calibration error.... The curves themselves have a very subtle coding in terms of variations of line thickness. respectively.. production testing results.. These 'reservoir panels' can be up to a metre wide. Large regional studies and seismic tie-ins require time vs depth plots........ . .. and with occasional curve coding... and the full curve descriptors are not available such as A2MO. M.. "'''II~'I'''In''I'' .... is manually drawn. ' r-... u.••• iU _ "' •~. the mnemonic is too ambiguous as it does not always mean the same curve.. .~ . ILWn .I . I~""'M'" •• . __ \1... then these logs are again re-drawn on wide display sheets."II"'_'~""'"__ ....... as at A.. '~'III" • .SN.."". Computer generated plots as shown on Fig. there is no pre-set millimetre paper..4..... 5.. . . with lithology. including the grids.. but do not define the spacing of the particular tools used to record the logs. as shown on Fig... -~ I.... Reservoir display panel.. ::. However. . but everything... __ 1' T •• ~' ... etc. These descriptors are drawn by hand..5 illustrates such a plot where checkshot values are plotted from a vertical seismic profile (VSP)......® ...... For these displays. The KC3 curve is used to denote a generic 'standard resistivity curve".. 'M I .. These are very important plots for depth tie-ins. Figure 5.. ~ I. .'_l ..th-" . . with individual logs displayed in separate tracks. These logs have never been drawn in coloured inks... In this example a header has been filled in by hand from one of the standard templates.. This can all but disappear if the reproduction is of poor quality..... ~"n~ 1". The mnemonics Of3 and Orr3 are logical since they define a gradient resistivity curve and a potential resistivity curve. with fewer curves per track.. well test data......L.".. S. .. 5.. .."'" ..... _f· .. l...... ...... pf""Io.... .~___ -_ ...:_... Fig.1 ..~ . ..

which usually indicate that the data is drawn in the left-hand track..IN and AIMO.IN curve is dashed (the labels are not on the original print and have been added by the author).. ~• . the curves are displayed in a similar order to the curve names on the curve header table.._ -_ ..IN. 5. we see the gradient tool descriptors AO. Looking at the header.BEPTV1KAnHIt1 ...e. • . Well time-depth plot.. i. Reading from left to right. The chcckshot and sonic calibration times arc plotted as points (A).7 the complex BKZ gradient logs show some attempt at curve differentiation with curve coding since the AIMO.S.4MO. r J ~. The caliper is the third curve etc. One can decipher the gradient log display using knowledge of tool . Curve differentiation In Fig. _--+--- Fig... one gets an indication of the curve order. 5.

...>..~:lU...e...:s2Q." "..k.6. . I'J('TI'''to...~ Till! " ••~t'_"l n. I(....i..... i t 0<1 .~I~.~ 50 0 J{ + om _l ~ao. ~~ _.! .- I --1- 1. -]-0"2. I.. J_u~. \ r... ...) :'el'l...'~ '...sN) s..9.. I~ ·. ----- ue ern 'Ji1 HC3 l~ tMo.'" .q~"-JJ-_..5 sea nc 0.~~ ~ _. !"".' -.~II'·'i. . ~ ~- II. ~tr~'I'~. I' llhC::i.B . j i ~ \o1... B M '2. I1(S.~I~~~W_" ~_..5.-.. To prove that not all well log print data are hand drawn. u'''~".. \3 L :AI-1K-lvIl '.' I I ~ ! ..J.. '~.-..... ""...'...BIU -I'~:.1 ~~~:~. I jfw...~-'-._.. - "'!l~a '. __ Orl'3 I A.. n . .._£___. this output shows a standard log with a computer generated output.0 ~e e is -._... T-.. I .K 1:500 (I..._ -. \ ""'t vG:{1l1C6 _Ita _ ...~:::. "... 5.K <Pi I nc : IhtMa...../1Mr{...C .. ~~.<. I :1....Lt -·....'tlHl"/~. j.. 19 a fu c:.'6r-:.._ .."~Il-~ j.e (NO.'5cha I .CT AHJ(A PTHhIH KAPOTA. q .. 5 (l.'-..O HMo. i~~~'Q' " 1~"' ~-·M.." n...'2~Q ~ 412.f .Ch=! ? 110 Fig. '·I~·ru".'f.' \'3 .1 :....·..~~-..\l.-'1"..0 15..1....."..-----_. I I KC 2> lor::..._..."...~::J I '" I P' I ..OJ'. ~'15.:::...-. '" -. \I __ ... .__ c__ ~._' _ ~1'C'I'~r-ll~'II'. 1""'!!Q.mr. '\) '0 lS. I -_.I.. - -------_:I-_.I.(J.. 0. _••• . C~ e S.Jh_hl'llllI '"'''~I'...:-r~~~.III _.I..~\O I .._...------".~..o: ~ 11I.as or] 11K C. +.l\\<.I.I .1 \._(.·.~::"~:_~~'-_\.Dr< ...~ I:I:IL..".._ .17£11...~"I': i .s" I ~11-'-'-. -- i I..t«L$M'2A Ib . r'····· • . "" '--1-1!---I---·---i--r--~I-L'B:'J r.. -) \-.1'. __ .. __ .1.r . ~ _I'.I. ~..~.!c...~ ...~'::"":II'''_I_'C''_'_' I'" ..... . ./l~N"U-... ~cli'..~~.Ot.\' r....... :!!lo'''' ...=.f "'· ...-:- ""'oWI'I+ "~II~"'.~o. ~ ~ ""c _ " .-..~6 I '" \ T _.. .0 ~5p. ~ tuo( -"'-"-'''-'-'f r~. 'I"'Q:.00 ._~ ._ !>l '5 c::J I 0 __ \ kClooh.'""" F::...0 j6. --~---i--!-I l' [\ 66.· ...

L.."'.hl~IUw :io.' _ \. . 1 . !i.:[0 _ . the logs are coded linear and solid..nupa __ C"f . ..-. Ii ..I'3 1:201] thl~..IN. A.. 104"OIJI 'I..1'1.1.O\1 1Jliof • . - _.ftJ!i(/ t':ft:""l-t~-& _.5M2A © t -..0Ml.OMO._>."~. 0.1N ~ "'\ A1 MO. Al.c..\ ..4MO... E. . I. i_'_'·_'·_·~I__'·_··_·_' ! q.7. IU I .""..1N NO..".. I i "'. In this example... KOMIIJllHC r.:_(I.... C.."·."h~'...:7 .It I ~. ".. 5. --- ~" r --I: Fig.": I."u ./"' :---... ~.Ii j ~ ''''.o:...!:aJ'-'L ?d"tf' ~. .ON... .._..0A.~·. r .0..:7 '" /1 A8M1N ® @ AO. A8.... B. ••h' $/'.• ~-- I.I'-I \l..-. AO....'. __ i '....Oj" __ m4 ~1'I1.:::~:. but this is rather unusual.."U" • t· JJ.1 •. II ." I '. .5M2. THU""Jt·. '_ .. ~t. ·•••• :.4MO.:.3(.. N0. I:o! AU 'I..IN.. A 'Complex BKZ' KOMTIJ1EKC 6K3 multi-lateral log display..":":... mud resistivity.. f ® .

@ . I~KYI5.~..2) amplitudes of TIl and TT2.. " r.a C t'. 5. .114/ ViJonf(lUIJI H. r"y611l11 ll.. An acoustic log display: A.-c..:i.:.il<>A . C..' ..ctr". T( L...ii.. T"nnpHO~pI I'm .s a sr ! o o .. ~ THe x.. V. ..n WM . .. J. .~ .•..K<KT> pacrsop • .:C:.' pltop r<ooCJf... ..Il"..2 IT = 0. . :" 1I.. . ueWeHTl1Kl C •• 1" '" "/... '·U....: i· ~.. " npH re "n'pnyp..lynop r"~6KHO Cl«Il __HHa • KAPOTA)I( w. II ~ .. . I.. B.8. ..2 m spacing between near transmitter and single receiver..".7'6.... ~\2) .n•• w....4U \ 1. a ® .?/7 ij'y . t::6.i1t:~u. . . scales for TIl and TT2. _ AK). sonde spacing U:O. F..C:fDOP li...__ ______ ~ --JlJlio1J. Log curve names (ACl.2) transit times TTl and TI2.. a« LI..tlTep-UlIW 1I:IOMR N.I.~~O ~/O ® . p.4 m spacing between transmitters and 1.tu ..Yo...':> coap.." er .//JIC fl· . ... ._ ® ---- 11lItH2 ___ 3.54Q 4'aO?OO . l\OJIotura . 1+11 ... DT Delta .6 CIl..CHl'fECl(HA· !\oll.". BR. E. G. I._ .. ~~s ::~...~Y. scales of attenuation log. -='._.."" : . tw... sonde type.. 0.. scales of DT.'?~.. ....6 .. .. " .-'90. -<:c/~/<:!«li. scales of amplitude logs. Ii JC""'~ t!<. ......INeTp ear: LIDO .. Han:p . 1'" 01\: _ ...n.L£C -~O .:"«-9IH. Dec P3CTDOP.?. 1:200 ON>I ... -- 9"e.a:l .£1i: . 19ACl)lA(2) attenuation of first arrival TIl and TT2... tIC •• ~.-r Fig..00~OTOPHfl ___._ R5T.. -:74.-:.T).lt..!!!t.

. A. . tlll .h':c1'~._© I-i.-r. - ..I1_iIJ u.0 ....ul lin! M3 n...:'..~".. ..1' .p ..11 .. .....-1'1111.~ _JI.. c..-" I ..___ lP .... )L/~...I)+j"'aOt _ _____________ ..Zl&P' N..?d' /..TiII ~pa 1):'-' i :".....6 ".. 'C. (I'Ir6-..::::.J........ IL ~L.. __... M Ii'" 63 4l1p..--~-- ·~."I'1_ .."_. 5.lIII:D1:'" Pillc. IoIC'lO"...... n. .. scales of Neutron and GR..ij..• S -----0 ...F { .._ -------.7 ~ "'" a..J 1----j ~n·c: _---.. "11 /..~. < R ... H •• ~ ~I~'~ __ "...:7 V..g.rl3 (111'15 .... 0 -~ tf: 0 00 -1'- !"" ...::.-r...//.....:_ ____::::_:_-....:.It .. nI .f3 1'1'. a. ~ IDlI~"" •• IIIiI ..._ I .. _113 (-.:=./' -------. I'K Gamma Ray: D..:.... HfK M3 near detector.. ..._ . 0(.H~ w. u"'- ( 6' (i Gt::::r/ i ~•• __ .... ! ..Q. Irro ..n.....~ 1-----.laJ -. .(op K ...../. ....ap''--- C..? 7 E .... i: n. .tb' "'::..9.. neutron source type and number: B._______________________________ ______ --- .. c.IS. .1 I I .I.DWjHqcr .7 ...£<------""" && IV"6l:1!P ..E. .!!... "I V..• .. ! .IC1'II'!M.....CIC ..gill-"'l"_.IIt_ ""'.....:.../'v" ~~.. ..._ .. "_ Itlt'f.lIto .IO"'--?h5 ?...I-_'QI .....JDG '...a1t64".?d'/O ~ .. .' cOO #Jt..."f/t' 0 '" 0 N'0"t/ ~ 4z.r•..._-<-=:.... source strength: C.c" H4'1""oiI -11"+Q.Jt..700-.'.:f. Or..-UI "-~ .:Dp-ocr.-....01'1.. A standard radioactive log with dual detector neutron and gamma ray. 0.... '0."""Mn-u...a.UM~I '~OAKTKIHWII ~.. ..v#n -... 1.p ' U ••• '_fl .JM -t«: (/5 Gc.6...h..p.:./ ::: Jl'fr t5 •• """ . • lHn . curves HKTE3 far detector..:...:en .. A~ . :: i Fig.T X /Ot'" .:._!A...?t2. §.

.As with other tools. will appear to follow each other closely._. 5. Experience and knowledge of basic logging theory and the resultant curve characteristics.. .. 5. In this case. for example the mud resistivity log A is flat. apparent depth offset) than the NMA gradient log.. DT will nearly always look like the odd one out of the curves... whose units as . it is important to record the tool types. all the curves makes it difficult to distinguish curves. as Tl and T...-_..us/m.. This spacing is important since it can vary from tool to tool.. .. .~'. Further. .. . indicates there is a 0. Combination of such knowledge makes it possible to differentiate such complex curve datasets. shown in Fig 5.. and the DT log. DT.4 m spacing between the two transmitters. is obtained by the difference between the two . Also the AMN gradient log appears deeper (i.8. the interval transit time..10._ __ _--- Fig. Similarly with sonic logs as shown in Fig. the 8.. . ----..e.. Often the lack of coding physics is required.. and two transmitter transit times T! and T2 are plotted together. the spacing B. especially the sonic sonde transmitter-receiver spacings.8.5 m gradient log B has less character and frequency contour than the 0.45 m gradient log D.

when analysing logs recorded with dual detector neutron tools. transmitter times (T2-T)) divided by this spacing. . Curve recognition in a resistivity suite can be problematic.10. 't' Fig. In Fig. ' " .'. 5. .. This can constitute a problem since the other logs often need differentiation themselves. Occasionally there is a difference in intensity or thickness in the curves. but this is never fully diagnostic.9. With 'radioactive logs' such as those shown in Fig. Once the well logs have been photocopied.11. . it is difficult to differentiate the curves. With the lack of coding. If such help is not available it is imperative to use an SP or other log from different prints to try to determine the likely geology. a second neutron curve helps to differentiate the similar neutrons from that of the GR. the two gradient logs on the right-hand track might be distinguished by curve thickness. A knowledge of the physics of the .10 and 5. recognizing the difference between a gamma ray (GR) log and a neutron log can be very difficult.~ . 5.1" ~i . 5.: !: ' 1':". but this is seldom possible.." f. Sometimes.11. .. they lose their colour coding and are reduced to black and white as in Figs 5. .

. It is best to calculate the underlying conductivity scale and the function of the conductivity curve through one of the appropriate curves on Fig.: ~.900 24001 J650 3900 I 5WO ... such as the A2MO. 9l..t:Juonu' t'JUMf!fI/(J tJatiue ~ ~-% :::J "'. The chart shows that the curves are a function of tool type. but the spacing has not been taken into account. as shown at S100m on Fig 5. The micrologs C shown in Fig.5N curve appearing deeper. with the A2MO. logarithmic. by assuming the wrong scale. Errors are often made in digitization.-A · . Figure 5. ::::-~~ :::J~<-: <:... whereas the conductivity scale appears to be functioned 0-24-13-8-7-5 mSie/m. 5.UlltblU Ynl10mt1limel1MIOe ctlopRB . and only the skin-effect-corrected resistivity values are written at D. The DT log is the time difference between the two transmitter arrivals in microseconds. . Log scales Induction logs present another problem in that they are nearly always (historically) recorded in conductivity units (nrSie/m) on a linear scale. 5.tJ '-'::. In addition to this confusion over the resistivity scales. L.. U-M A 1/'1 N7 MtJ. a correction chart as shown in Fig.15) shown at A is also wrong. On Fig.vi s 9 /0 · - N M IV . will have a tendency to 'peak' at the base of a significant bed.15f1?. f----71 NQJ/leHmpaiJo!J (c!JepI'j df1uJ) / ? 3456 -ftttt Cr. nor reciprocal.860 ?lj 1 I-- Fig.12. one-receiver combination with a spacing of 0. whereas the inverted gradient log will have a tendency to 'peak' at the top of a bed.A NO) M8A -.J A NOplo'iA NO" MI 5 · .. NO.- \ )I /.)1..~-_l )A :-:-hN 11 I -1 I NO. -1--- . I I // / 7 / 8 I' .14.13 needs to be used.\. 5. p. The tool descriptor at B for the sonic sonde. the DT log (Fig. the conductivity scale has not been drawn.:reMa ycmotto8o H JOf/(Ja. 9 10 YCf{/ ·do !400[ 500 500 /00 1/50 \?sof !500 12575 12501 3750 ! 500 2615- ffauNeffo' ~~~ qcrasotio« 0.?5N . Here the linear scale 0-80-160-240-320 is described as being Qm.I A N l.. I . Lateral/normal sonde electrode arrays. the resolution of the gradient logs decreases. by studying the curves on the print it is obvious that the scales should be the other way round and that the first value for resistivity should be infinity and not zero. It is only with a thorough understanding of how the electrode array of the tools affects the resolution and character of the curves can we hope to be able to differentiate the data.10. indicates that the tool has a two-transmitter. As a result the two curves will have an apparent depth mismatch. . --:-7 -':-:?A~'1N A 6 7 .?S/'1l. as the electrode spacing increases. 5.f----< -. -. ~.A AI. --:b-.. from tools with different electrode spacings as shown on Fig.550. ...OoJ990nl 1(. Even the original Russian authors of the data have been confused between resistivity and conductivity.13.11 are easily differentiated from the gradient logs by their high frequency and. Therefore... 5./I.5 m between the two transmitters. ~M . The Qm scale is neither linear..?5t....?5r-r0. This record is seldom 'skin-effect' corrected. 5.SN. In Fig. 5. In fact..... tool behaviour is required. A standard gradient log... the DT is . To determine the skin-effect corrected resistivity.15 illustrates such confusion at C.{jUJtCl.11 there are various resistivity curves._ 2500 I no 1.~ ~~J 4- C.12. i J__ I -- -- . 5.\ /! . .

iI. noCll..: rt~I~J. K_ft JoIIU. Log quality control Preparation of well logs from the FSU should not be done without experienced specialists close at hand. . ~L'I·1iG f @ Depth scales Depth scaling Can cause further headaches for digitizers.16 the log scale does not make sense since the 0. SP and GR in track 1 allows correlation curves to be checked.". ... scale in Qm.1L .L. and to see if the data 'makes petrophysical sense'..l. to add to further confusion..m. Because of all the various problems mentioned above... 4-<pO-75: ~.. sonic and density can be plotted in Track 3 (with porosity increasing to the left) to allow one to check the coherency of the data and to see if it correlates with the other logs...... leads to occasional error in writing the depth.. 5.~~OJ(c.nll TlOlHIIUHoI .. 5.A4"-"' •.. the ability of the draughtsman to vary the scale and write depths on the prints manually.n . These curves represent different sonde types: l.....us/0..a..18 shows. the depth scale can suddenly change from 1:500 to 1:200 as the data enters zones of interest. This scale is not logarithmic.. 5.u.U 50 I I I I I I 2 I' 5 '0 CKSAlKHH . aDO oJ':.5<1>1-2: . B.. 1I~""I"U . In this example. I !I.13. nl-~"I'lI. I i I /' B ::> Q ~ > 5011 J I ! i I I I I 61 z o o 200 2"Y I . 6 C'II"''''_IoI. In Fig.u IIrf. Relationship between raw conductivity logs without sonde error correction and sonde error corrected resistivity values. etc.'-1111 . not in . but the linear scale shown at A.-._ It Ij~ ..I-Q1'~I11I"' V...'I"(..r :Il... nt 100 I 0. However. ~"s. Hence. the scale for the inverted gradient log N0.a.1.--'-"'-_r~t. Fig.III . 5. cCl.MCcrlol1.. It is imperative that users merge and splice the data into a single data file so that it can be presented on an API style plot as shown in Fig. . logging speed: D.·. RIL = 1000/CIL."-.. .-. This is possible since the depth scaling is manually controlled by the draughtsman... The display of all the resistivities on a common logarithmic scale allows us to check if the curves have similar values in shales. However the conductivity scale is not marked on the print.u-_u-.t.-1 QI2Q. A standard induction log display: A.t~~pm'~HI I''''' fI~»M' C . the depth of 2500 m appears twice.. TTr'y . The curve is plotted on a linear conductivity scale without sonde-error correction.. Displaying the caliper. VI I 20UU /P .iU't~JI.631: 5. OKC·6:1f 8I1l-4: 3....1 . sonde calibration panel...~I!il'i'r.. This problem is quite common and. ... one of which is clearly in error. I 1 5 1 I I I : I I " This allows the user to compare the coherency of the data between log prints.2 and 100 Om values are at odds with the other values.2 13._ K~"'n ~~••:"e:n....~~ •• ~~~N 0" UJW~"~"_ t~F-. as depicted in Fig 5.. ko6D -(.14....830-9: 4.. In Fig.m.5 1 ! I.IJ~C' 12 1 2' 1II. .20. l. 5. " .1. account for curve separation.5 m. 11< __ 'f:f ~ 2D' :.$.: :1 ..us/m but in ._ •• __ ' RESISTIVITY y".0.~ •• "."..~19Ii"r.5M2A is not the logarithmic scale just below the curve name.::c..17. •• or..jJil ~. One cannot rely on standard overlay techniques after digitization. Ir' ~c •. 1..UiI"NlllC"_' Fig... As Figure 5. the curve scales are not always written close to the curve descriptor... sonde type..19.t. N 4t. The porosity curves. _.. ® --~'~-. Kn.7.. such as neutron... M. the DT values have to be multiplied by 2 in order to obtain Jts/m scaling. and the relationship between conductivity (non-skin-effect 'Corrected) and resistivity (skin-effect corrected) is given in Fig 5...~~--~----~~-~4-r~~rl=. 1I (. The scale marked in Qm is skin-effect corrected.. .. C. invasion effects.. 6<P1..~.

This shows an example were the curve scale is in error because individual values are wrong i. At A.'- 6' POlY'" »>: 0.5 m spacing between the two.© @ ® 0-40-80-120 Fig 5. At 8. the DT scale j.transmitter arrivals taken into the calculation of DT.e. In fact. the zero should be to the left at D.m 4fO".16. there is an error in induction log scaling.e.. 0.3 0.ls/m is in error since it has not had the 0. To make matters worse.us/m. transmitter.5 receiver). 8 1030 50 100 Fig. . the m Sie/m zero value is offset by 20mm. because the linear scale should be in m Sie/m and not in Qm as shown. sonic sonde spacing lf20. 5.2 3 5 A -----------. Therefore the scale is us and not . (i.5H]1. 0. Common scale problems are caused by simple human error.1S.5f1. a e OHM. At C.5 transmitter!' 1.2 and 100 Qm values.

. . li8y.H 1250oX.SAl.1 I ~r 1.6 NO..T .N OH.00 . _ .-_ .:OOO~HH I ka&epHoMempu~jw 20 I .:.5 z A M ~o ON. - --------<-_.. 0 0 2 rkto 25 IS 75 ON.eg 0 0 0 NHM..MAClliT AS i··500 . . -_. Ek. _ •• __ 'T.17.)! A8MjN5 !130 10 50 230 330 430 u~ /~ . : 10 r I I I::J I~ II :::J \D 10:1 ::<: i::J :C"O 0 II I Ak: LJ..N 19U 200 4.:::.-. i Hrk'6 " ? ~k r=rK ' 4 5 20 xkp/ij ~kP/~ \ 0 0 m 125 250 375 0 ~. :"... ) I 1 I I I i 0 .. This shows a misleading display of scales. . '0 eN :c Hfk-60uu I . S 25 125 15 50 75 2500H. • i::":::..M 10 D... This is an example of a log print where the depth scale changes from 1:500 to 1:200 at A.K TTe--+ »IIMosA' W ub Kb i Fig.N . 30 .~~ iO Qu.5M2A lateral scale is not the logarithmic scale but the scale marked at A.. Fig S. since the NO.18. 5.

..._-.. ka6epHuMempuR20 50 . w __ !.sA5 25 125 AaMiNn 0 : 5 10 15 OM. .. .f Iva 200 400 . r~ :. Fig.8y... . 40 tH . --.4 k I I i E J:_ < ::n 1.~ . ~ IIMo.. This shows a misleading display of scales.".j ..:~ -~~:: - .~ iI i I 0 Hr~5 I ? Rt [JK 4 6 20 Hkp/4 HkP/~ \ m 250 375aH. .. --~. . This is an example of a log print where the depth scale changes from 1:500 to 1:200 at A..fO~b .17.: :.N Ak:IlT -I ~KH I .. _n_ .5M2A lateral scale is not the logarithmic scale but the scale marked at A. " _ ..M 0 125 OM. Fig S.P. 4 :CI) .lS.5 M zA 40 ON..sA' ~b .eg 0 0 NnM o..M 1250 DH... . _-_ ... --_. - TICI ---+ . since the NO.M 0 25 15 n~. MACWTAE i: 500 : I a: . ..~ 50 75 CH. S.5 !.U.:::i 0 I :::..1000 " '10 < 0 :::J lO Hrk-60l.2 1.. ) 130 230 sse 430 ~k /K I 0 0 rkIjl 2 10 50 250 0 15 D.: 0 J: EK- No.__..

._ f-_. 1-1- I:: -r-- . This is an example where the depths have been written on the print in error.- 2490m 1- : f-_. !: 0 n 2470 I··· • m . _-- -.. . I 2500 m .! :::. . - co m OJ I I 2500 i> e c: -- ® m .19.- r- Fig.! -. 5. At A the value should be 2480 m.

~.. ."' ~~.:.....'.. .."..' ~-=t--ll--" -_ --.~:. _...:.. " : :: .. . '" .:. ..·· it..~.--.t)o ..... -~ P -.:::··· . ... lV ~~ ..~~ .. ~.'~ .I.._.~:. ' J .. ' __ '" .j. ··.') ! < c: 1 ! Ie'" . ~~~.:.::.. ~ eer-: .. . .~=.. ') I .(~ ..._ ..:::..~ "'e'~r{' "... /I¥-\ I"-...:'.. . . . :_... -... ".__ ... ~~.." rs··~~ l'\..rg..::: ~ ~~ ~::. _. ..<: _Jl2.' _~ \I '-'0.:...' I-....k..· . __ ...20. u£"< .... .·· .'~ .. :'::':' "<: ...f . . I'~ J.......~...~f·... i ._ .... .·. tJ . _- I~ "::7": 1':-:-....... . :. ··lP~~·· :. ~/. -. .... z ._ ...... ~\ I· ..1=') -).'.._..r. ..I .... t--._w .' -A-++-l-+++--+-+---l-+-~K_~:::.. 1-... ).. 1""':....._' ' ....f... . ::::~I~ ~ .:' ') J ..:~::: .. 5.. ".. ·........ .J. . ...1... _ ~ .''. w_. · .... 7~~···· J4' .+-+-+-... ~~<. ~~.." " Fig... :' ...... Redisplay of data in API-type scales is an invaluable tool in QC. ~ ""'.' . < .:1 It " .. ... I --~. "'-"'. ~.. . [ \..~ r!...::.. ~I ...... .-... .... -_. • . l.. <nt "'1 . /~.. ...<~~~.. ... I . ( ..: :~~ 9 ~ t:"~.. .-..... ~~l.r... -F :. . ~ .i...::--~"+.... I..~l?"Y'i ~ 4" I~.-:J.__ "1 ....j . -.. . .....--:: _ ..1.F·..\ (~.. . __ -:::>::.. .... ..

Spontaneous Potential Nigel Davis Nigel Davis Associates The Spontaneous (or self-) Potential (SP) is one of the more important logs commonly available in the FSU. using a relationship of the form: tpsp : I~ Static SP Jdiagram - Ec -- Sd = tpMAX (1 . in the SP curve arise from electric currents flowing in the mud in the borehole. for T in OF. Under favourable circumstances it may be used to estimate porosity. Ec' which is the sum of the membrane and liquid junction potentials. This results in a conventional current flow in the opposite direction. Where current flows there is a potential difference between the sand and the shale.24T. in the upper half . and this potential is known as the membrane potential. The measurement of the SP is the same as in the West and.:Static SP diagram-potential in mud when SP currents are prevented from flowing. for example in western Siberia. of Fig.. If the electrolytes contain sodium and chlorine (C}-) ions only. then a current will develop due to the movement of sodium (Na+) ions through the shale from the higher to the lower concentration fluid. A.1 shows the direction of conventional current flow if the formation water is more saline than the mud filtrate. giving a good contrast between the resistivities of the mud filtrate and the formation water. The curved arrow in the upper half of Fig.1.VshSP) This is widely used. represented by the straight arrow. the SP may be used to: detect permeable beds. Most wells are drilled with fresh water.. This is due to the properties of clay minerals which allow the movement of positive ions. and the SP curve usually has plenty of character. or K = 65 + O. Here. such as porosity from the neutron tool.133T. respectively. This is known as the liquid junction potentiaL If the permeable formation is not shaly. Fig. the greater mobility of the CI. both positive and negative ions are free to move from one solution to the other.1. . The relationship is given by: Ec =- K log (aw/amf) where K =. aw and amf (formation water and mud filtrate) and the absolute temperature. as in the West. but not the negative ions.. Introduction Deflections. as an aid to correlation: to estimate values of formation water resistivity: and as a shaliness indicator. and is often preferred by the Russians to other methods. for Tin "C. 6. or anomalies. Rmf and Rw. Schematic representation of potential and current distribution in and around a permeable bed (after Schlumberger 1972). is dependent on the chemical activities of the two solutions. 6. Another component of the potential comes from the edge of the invaded zone.ions results in a net flow of negative charges from the higher to the lower concentration liquids. with large deflections opposite permeable beds. ---:SP log-potential in mud when SP currents are flowing.6. where mud filtrate and formation water are in contact. If a permeable bed is bounded above and below by thick shales and the salinity of the mud filtrate and the formation water are different. then the total emf.61 + O. 6.

and does not use charts for conversion from Rwe to Rw. or occasionally in zones of very low permeability where no mud cake is effective. but wider experience suggests that there is little basis for this. The SP is corrected by hand for bed thickness effects. Comparison of SP and differential SP log responses. the non-invaded sand and the surrounding shales.1. The kick corresponds to the point of inflection of the ordinary SP curve. Rmf may be estimated by one of the empirical relationships.) The output trace. using. (The exact spacing is unknown at the time of writing.aiso an erectrokmenc component (or streaming potential) to the SP which arises from the flow of an electrolyte through a non-metallic. the relationship: SSP = .3. for example. a differential SP is run as an aid to bed boundary identification. Formation water resistivity For formation water resistivity estimates. and takes a value of 1. 6. the observed SP deflection from the shale base line will be close to the static SP.. On the 'Standard Log' presentation. and may occur due to movement of mud filtrate across the mud cake and by tiny amounts of filtration into the shales. equal to (60.. . In thick clean beds.. Schlumberger Chart SP-2 to convert between Rw and Rwe. Occasionally..O. It is interesting to note that. For thin beds. where the available mud data allow. with positive potential to the right. Scales vary.3T). inflection Shale volume The Russians place a much greater emphasis on interpretation of the SP than many western petrophysicists.0 in the cleanest sands.. and the value of 'a-SP' is estimated for each layer.625 0. and a kick to the 1 uere IS right at the base of a sand. then the potential differences observed in the mud would be equal to the total emf. but sometimes a value of mud resistivity is recorded.-:. Note that some Russian texts recommend the use of . The device uses two closely spaced electrodes. 6. (Schlumberger) = [1. The electrokinetic component is usually negligible. Published Russian charts look very similar.. which occurs at the bed boundary.1 .K log (RmfeIRwe) may be used. As shown in Fig. If the currents were prevented from flowing by insulating the sand from the shale as schematically shown in the upper half of Fig.2.5 mY/cm. In most cases. 6. the SP deflection may be corrected using empirical charts such as Schlumberger charts SP-3 and SP-4.75 e. while most Russian textbooks employ similar charts and methods. 'a-SP' is the SP reduction factor and is defined as: 'a-SP' = (SP - SPshale)I (SPsand - SPshale) _ -:'Shale.2.--SI:lam-:_. Itenberg has a slightly different relationship for the temperature constant K. and 0.625 (MW)]Rm where MW is mud's specific gravity. Interpretation There have been some reports. Rmf is not measured at the well site. but instead uses a correction table for varying ratios of (RmtIRw)' . a schematic of which is shown in Fig.1. or: Rmf or Rmf = 0. In many cases. but it is thought to be of the order of 20cm or so. but care needs to be taken if the well was logged with a mud causing a large overbalance. and a typical scale would be 12. the invaded zone..--::: -Point of ::-. The SP curve which would be recorded under such conditions is called the 'Static SP Diagram'. such as Schlumberger Gen-7.. 6.--- Fig.0 in shales. 6. current flows in the borehole. conventional quantitative estimates of water resistivity using the SSP deflection in m V give reasonable values. that the SP deflection differs by various factors compared to western tools. porous medium. An example is shown in Fig. It is equivalent to (1 . gives a sharp kick to the left at the top of a sand. based on back-to-hack logging with western logging companies. as in the western convention. The SP is presented on a linear scale. the SP is usually positioned in the centre of the log. but are usually marked on the log. often referred to as SSP..VshSP) if a linear relationship between the SP and shale volume is used.

5..2 O. Estimation of a-SP in a terrigenous section and identification of reservoir zones using SP log.7 0.8 0.5 0. in a similar manner as is practised with the gamma ray log (see Chapter 7).SP E a.. 6.'. varying both sides of the straight line depending on the lithology... . and in many producing areas is the primary input used to determine porosity.1 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 -- rp(%) Fig. SP log. 1. This parameter. boundary of reservoir/non-reservoir: 4.6 [(en E I 0.4 0. porosity declines from this maximum value as shaliness increases • variations in porosity due to variations in sorting and/or secondary mineralization are not large • formation water salinity does not vary vertically or areally a non-linear relationship between the SP and shale volume. dean sandstone line: 3. 5. is widely used as a reservoir quality indicator. ': 'r: . Use of the SP to determine porosity assumes that: • the maximum porosity occurs in the cleanest sands and has a consistent value .9 (1) I 0::1 0. -~ 25mV .t smax 2240 5 4 "'-''- "1 I Fig. • .. Non-linear relationship between a-SP and shale volume for terrigenous deposits with high (1). '. 'a-SP'.1 1 c. 0. shale line: 2. Porosity Fig.3. medium (2) and high (3) mineralization of formation waters (after Dobrynin 1988).4 shows an example of non-linear relationships. (Lower Cretaceous deposits of the Kuma Vallev plain (after Itenberg 1971).. \. squared log response equivalent to earth model or zones from quantitative interpretation of SP (after Dobrynin 1988).r "I 1. Figure 6. medium (2) and low (3) activity of clay material and low ( I).+ o <J) 0. Graph of the dependence of the SP reduction factor a on porosity q.4.~ . 6. . 6.3 0.

then a plot of porosity against a-SP. S. but loses accuracy at porosities above 20%.Principles. Itenberg.ur course. where the local operating companies prefer the SP derived porosity over porosity from the neutron log. for example. where porosity is given by: whether the assumptions are valid. Moscow. Nedra.615 1 which is valid for a porosity range of 12 to 20.VshSP) has been found satisfactory.5.OS2cp .M.23 (1 . Log Interpretation Volume 1 . Schlumberger 1972. In many cases a function of the form: cp ::::: CPMAX (1 . or shale volume from the SP will reveal References Dobrynin. shown in Fig. .) 1988. V.VshSP) + 4. or from resistivity porosity in water zones. 1971. Itenberg (1971) quotes an example from the Lower Cretaceous in the Kuma Valley. Study of Oil and Gas Series from Well Logs. then a relationship may be developed which is specific for the area. If so. In areas where there is some porosity information. It could be argued that porosity is not being determined from SP but that the reduction in assumed maximum porosity is being calculated (see Appendix 3). Moscow.24 (if a linear which is equivalent assumed) to: Vsh relationship is cp(%) ::::: 9. Interpretation of Results of Geophysical Studies of Oil and Gas Wells. (ed. from cores or wells with porosity logs. Mir Publishers.3%. Functions of this form are in use by Russian operators in at least two areas of western Siberia.0. a = 0. 6.

one rontgen is the quantity of radiation that will produce 2. as small features become smeared by the averaging process. with the tool hanging in the derrick and well away from any sources of natural radioactivity. that is to say that halving the source to tool distance results in a four-fold increase in radiation level. The log can therefore be treated as a series of discrete measurements of the average radioactivity of the interval of well traversed by the tool during one time constant. bed boundaries do not appear to move significantly. The conversion is not exact. are presented on Figs 9. 1 rnicrorontgen/hour is equal to 71. but are not related to FSU tool technology. A reactive network (RC filter) is used to damp the recording galvanometer accordingly.7. Three areas are discussed: tool accuracy and repeatability. run in combination with neutron tools. increasing the logging speed requires a Measurement units and tool calibration Logs may be scaled in one of microrcntgens/hour CuR/h).0 pR/h per centimetre of chart width. Geiger counters were phased out in the West in the 1970s. Typical log scales are from 0. A background measurement is made. J = 840air2 where J is the level of radioactivity in microrontgens/hour with a source with a radium content of a milligrams (specified on the manufacturing certificate) at a distance of r metres from the tool. An example log from a sand-shale sequence is presented on Fig.. and could be used on western logs. known as the 'time constant'. This is illustrated on Fig. typically a few seconds. This is not likely to be particularly helpful to log users who will find the conversion factor 1. along with translation of the header and scale information. . such as the neutron and gamma-gamma (density logs). Compared to a western log it appears to be shifted to the right. The log value is proportional to the number of counts received over a specified period of time. potassium and uranium content in the formation exist in the FSU but are rarely run. This text does not discuss them. They were developed in the FSU. Gamma ray detection is by scintillation detectors or Geiger counters. 7. One source lists a factor of 10. but are still in use in the FSU. increasing the time constant worsens the vertical resolution of the log.4 for Geiger counters and 15 for scintillation detectors. Scintillation counters yield higher count rates and therefore improved statistical accuracy. it is subject to perturbations caused by the borehole environment and its accuracy is limited in thin beds. Gamma ray Christopher Skelt Scott Pickford Group As in the West.1 X 109 pairs of ions in one cubic centimetre of air at one atmosphere pressure and O°c.uR/h . It is a curve proportional to formation radioactivity and. By definition. and depends on the tool characteristics.4 to 9. Some techniques to enhance the tool's accuracy are presented here. Clearly then. with a x5 backup (0.66 femtoamperes/kilograrn. The tool is calibrated in the field using a radium (!:l6Ra) source of known strength as a standard. They are also physically smaller. indicating that a large contribution to the tool reading is not coming from the formation. Some real logs. Chart recorder calibration is achieved using internal pulse generators. 'Spectral' type gamma ray tools. Like a western log. femtoamperes/kilogram or counts (impulses) per minute. followed by a series of readings with the source at reducing distances from the tool. the gamma ray log is run in open hole for bed delineation and shale volume estimation.1 to O. However. Tool linearity is checked using the inverse square law.1. At a given logging speed. microrontgens/hour is probably the most commonly used.1. A gamma ray log from the FSU can be expected to look much like a western log. 7. and in cased hole primarily for depth correlation. it can be treated in the same way. while recording.6. but are less robust and more temperature sensitive. bed boundary location and thickness compensation: correction for the effect of readings not originating from the formation.::10 to 15 API units of more practical use.2. although not scaled in the familiar API units.. measuring thorium. Most gamma ray logs encountered in the West are run in combination with neutron logs.5 to 1.uR/h per em) for more radioactive formations. which improves vertical resolution. Of these alternatives.. providing incremental increases in radioactivity. Time constant This discussion is also relevant to other nuclear logs.

Bed boundary location The choice of time constant has implications for the depth reference of the log. based on experience. to pick bed boundaries at the point where the trace begins to move to the characteristic value of the next bed.667 m (2. 7. There is therefore a trade-off between a high time constant to achieve high statistical accuracy and a low time constant ro improve bed resolution. unfortunately.1. defined in terms of the permissible percentage error on the nuclear log reading in the thinnest beds that need to be resolved. it has not been possible to obtain an example.1. Some measure of the statistical uncertainty can be ascertained from the calibration record which should. when used for correlation logging (Ministry of Geology and Ministry of Oil Industry 1985). a nuclear logging suite run at 1800 ft/h (6 in/s or 550 m/h) would be run with a time constant of two seconds. while a gamma ray run for depth correlation in combination with (say) and induction tool at 3600 ft/h (1 ftls or m/h) would be run with a time constant of one second. resulting in poorer bed resolution and a more pressing requirement to compensate for it. Using more consistent units it reduces to a distance travelled of 2400/3600 ::::0. include a recording of 100 X r seconds of log with the calibration source in place at the time constant used for logging. The fundamental principle of FSU style bed boundary picking may therefore be summarized as follows: noo . depending on the logging requirements. Alternatively. For example.5 t600 Geiger counter 6 --- 3 Bed bounonss SOD 400 12 200 18 130 925 ~ o __ '--_L_J. reduction in time constant to maintain the log's vertical resolution. though rarely does. Procedures exist to derive appropriate time constants and logging speeds.. Table 7.890 r----. Q) Increasing time constant _ -------- Scintillation counter Time constant r (s) Logging speed v (mth) l. Table 7. Typical time constants for FSU logs run at similar logging speeds are longer. determine the compromise. In the West. will be involved with the process of determining logging parameters. where increasing the time constant is shown to cause the log to become more sluggish.---. 5 10 GR (J. as on Fig.. and slower logging speeds. The logs supplied to western users have usually been composited from a series of runs and do not include calibration records and. a recording of the same duration is made with the tool stationary in the well. For detailed logging a speed of 400 rn/h and time constant of 3 s are typical. Whereas western practice is usually to locate bed boundaries at the mid-point between high and low values of adjacent beds. 7. one common practice is to match time constant and logging speed such that the tool travels one foot during the time constant.2 ft) per time constant period.1. working from th. This issue is transparent to western log users as depth references for nuclear tools are adjusted to take account of the distance travelled during the time constant. The tool background level of radioactivity should be recorded on the log heading. The methods are not discussed here as it is unlikely that western users The product 1: X v is seen to be a constant (= 2400 m s/h).c GR (~R/h) a 15.lR/h) Fig.e bottom of the well in the same direction as the log was run. Example log and effect of increasing time constant. reducing the time constant increases the statistical uncertainy on the log as the number of emissions from the formation will vary proportionally more from one time constant period to the next. although bed boundaries do not move. Because of the random nature of radioactive decay. FSU practice is. Time constant and logging speed recommendations g_ . Beds identified from the log appear to western eyes to be displaced in depth from the log. Resolution of thinner beds requires less tool travel during the time constant period.1 lists a series of maximum logging speeds and time constant recommendations for FSU tools. Industry practices.

0 Borehole environment correction Generalities The purpose of the environmental correction is to correct the tool reading for a number of effects: vt « 9600 1.2. .0 0.0 Bed thickness (m) Fig.4 = 7.2 0.66 7. It is worthwhile to apply this formula in beds up to three times the thickness travelled during the time constant.2 m. The implications of this are discussed in the section 'Shale quantity from the log' .5.5 GR (!lR/h) =- a (rv + b) log (1 .5 --''--''---' 9. Gamma ray bed thickness corrections.62 prior to correction. 7. / . or if thin sands are present in massive shales. ..uR/h. Bed thickness correction on log.6 U ::J -0 t:: 0 ro E E ro 0 ~ :>. I 0.4 0..8 0. The chart has been constructed for a series of time constant logging speed products (r x v) using the general formula: d -----------. In these circumstances the curve may not achieve its full displacement and either overstates the amount of shale in a thin sand. or understates the shale in a thin shale bed. the corrected gamma ray index IGR for the bed is 0.uR/h in the shoulder bed below 880.4. The log was run at 400 rn/h. Substituting in values gives: lcorr = --_ 0.f30R)' for this chart are: Fig. . yielding a time constant logging speed product of 1200. This exercise should be carried out with reference to the calibration log of statistics. • -. -. Shale line Clean line .42.f3GR)' Coefficients a and b depend on the detector size. The corrected gamma ray value is then given by: 1 corr - - lbed -Jshoulder f3 +1 shoulder where lshoulder is the gamma ray value of 8.0 Correction in thin beds Use of the gamma ray to evaluate shale content of the formation requires accurate bed boundary picking.0 Bed thickness (m) 10. A worked example of thin bed detection is shown on Fig.0 ------_.'Starting at the bottom of the well mark the base of the succession of beds at the depths where the level of radiation begins to change. Figure 7.8.8 m and lbed is the minimum value of 7.2 is used to extract a gamma ray reduction factor of 0.8 and 880. Velocity x time constant.lR/h) 10 883 '-'-5.Bed boundaries 885 o 5 GR ().0. which gives an indication of the smallest change in radioactivity that can be treated as a meaningful feature. ~ 0.3. This example is adapted from Itenberg (1971) and is based on a 30cm long detector. The appropriate line from Fig..66. More objectively. ..4 + 8.uR/h reached at 880.--- vr VI: VI: =0 = 600 Whether or not this is significant in the context of the entire log evaluation is up to the analyst to judge.--- 1200 Vt = 4800 10. Specific ~alues d = . . and the chart is used to determine the gamma ray reduction factor PGR which will be used to correct the gamma ray reading. especially if shale is present as many relatively thin beds embedded in massive sands.1 1. 7. 7.. A 0.--. .6 m thick sand bed is present between 880.2 is a chart to correct for this effect.5 ..-.Vt :. 7./ It / .0 (rv + 0.2. compared with 0.' 850 $! ~ 1.3) log (I .2 m.3. with a time constant of 3 s. It is assumed that the bed thickness is known.

2. There is also a rather awkward requirement for a zero radioactivitv bed (in the FSU carbonate reefs are considered to emit no natural radioationj to be logged. These are similar to those accepted in the west. the level of radioactivity after applying the corrections should be an absolute measurement.2 .5 " E . Thin beds notwithstanding. The specific radioactivity of the mud is given by qmud = JGR=o . 7.9 u o 1. and noted on the log header.Jbkg• = I The Western Atlas publication Log Interpretation Charts (1985) plots Larionov's functions as well as similar relationships from a number of other workers (Clavier. it is necessary to know the magnitude of the background signal.Jbkg.4. electronic noise or a number of other factors. The specific radioactivity of the bed with radioactivity J is given by qbed J . frequently used in the West. Gamma ray environmental correction.). before logging.Q 0- . which cannot be attributed to real changes in formation radioactivity.g'g . Detailed method If environmental corrections are to be made.2 1. etc. Steiber. This is recorded with the tool hanging in the derrick. Shale quantity from the log Non-linear correlations between gamma ray index IGR and shale volume are favoured in the FSU. They are all similar in that the predicted shale quantity falls on a bow-shaped curve lying below the line V'h = IGR' . This is an important point as in the West the gamma ray is usually treated as a relative. in physical units. This mav be due to housing magnetism. The appearance of the log presented in Fig. On Fig.6 0. overstates the amount of shale present in the formation compared with that determined from these curves. The linear relationship. Gamma ray environmental corrections are regarded with a certain amount of scepticism in the West for two reasons: 200 20 15 10 6 6 4 3 . one pragmatic way to improve the appearance of an FSU gamma ray log is simply to subtract either the background signal. e Even after correction. 7. 7.?.B 0.5.uR/h. Hole diameter d (em) Fig. The same considerations are likely to apply to gamma ray logs run in the FSU. These charts were developed by comparison between logged values and core data. considers the shale volume to be closer to 50%. However. 3. before plotting the log. Typical values are Jbkg< 1 andJGR=o == 2. 7. In order to make the corrections. In view of this. significant discrepancies between logs are still often observed.2 1:1 ~ ci. Note the background signal recorded on the log heading J bkg and read the log J GR=O opposite the non-radioactive bed. measurement. Knowledge of these charts should prevent misunderstandings between Russians claiming net sand with shale volumes of 25% when the western user. They are not tool specific and are similar to other relationships! proposed elsewhere. preserving the proportions of the log. although they are infrequently used here.CD residual signal comes from the tool when it is in A a zero radioactivitv environment. 1. e The mud attenuates the radioactivity received from the formation. loosely in proportion to mud weight and hole size. 7.2 '5 .4 0. A positive contribution to the tool measurement therefore comes from the mud. they are done after making any bed thickness corrections (Fig. Some example relationships from Larionov (1969) are plotted on Fig.0 O. in many areas this is probably an unreasonable requirement. • In the FSU the mud is assumed to contribute radiation. probably indicating non-net sand.3). and an educated guesstimate has to suffice.$! I:: .4 n is the ratio n = qbed1qmud' The correction factor rJ for a given hole size is read from the chart. rather than absolute. CJ) o 10 20 30 40 50 60 e If the hole is more or less in gauge the correction is linear throughout the zone of interest. or a little more.1 could be improved in this way. of the strength of formation radioactivity..o c:: Il ~ ell U ~ o o 'u . accustomed to using the linear relation.

. 11 rp Vsh Porosity from the gamma ray log In some circumstances..V. Anecdotal evidence suggests that some Russian practitioners prefer to use the SP than the gamma ray as a porosity indicator.371. Technical Information for the Well Logging..2 0.1.. feldspar.. porosity is needed to calibrate this relationship.. Nedra.00 0.g..80 IfJ =a- b X Vsh -..6 0.S. Heslop 1975).8 0. such as mica.0 J [GR Gamma ray Index.. This may be from core or other logs. It is based on the principle that effective porosity reduces linearly with increasing shale content as a result of a well defined relationship between grain size and shaliness.969. 1.. Larionov V.. Paper F. glauconite etc.) Logging speed (metres/hour) Time constant (seconds) Gamma ray reduction factor Specific Radioactivity Ratio qbcd/qmud Gamma ray correction factor Shale volume Porosity References Heslop. Study of Oil and Gas Series from Well Logs.33x2..~ "' <lS E '0 "iii . The relationship is of the form: Gamma ray value (rnicrorontgens/hour etc. Porosity ill Shaly Sands.·1) (3 q I! V. Clearly.. Borehole Radiometry..iCX. the gamma ray is used to determine porosity in a similar way to that described in Chapter 6.21 . 1975. Glossary o 0..5 0..·1) . I GR v •••• . Ministry of Geology and Ministry of Oil Industry. Moscow. 1971.1 0.50 m This approach is well documented in western literature (e.5. Mir Publishers.. This is considered to be an acceptable approximation in fluvial and deltaic sequences.c (1) :::J :0- 0. .7 0.) Gamma ray index (J -Jclean)l(Jshale -Jdean. A. Moscow. unless they work in areas where the gamma ray in sands is affected by radioactive minerals..90 0. Moscow. typically where a limited logging suite was run.Older rocks ---'--Tertiary rocks VSh = 'GR r 0 Vsn = 0. 7. possibly from another well in the same field.n " 0083x2 Fig. Nedra.. It is not clear why this should be. Determination of shale volume from gamma ray IIH. Itenberg S. 1985...60 0.9 1. SPWLA Symposium.Linear relationship .

0 g/cm392°F 29000 psi 1300 ft/h 144.7-3. etc. depicted in Fig. are listed in Table 8. favour the density log.1.2 MeV.2% 200°C 120 MPa 400 mfh 3650. Radiation emanating from the source and arriving at the detectors is collimated to focus the tool's response on gamma rays that have travelled through the formation.15-0. These are two detector instruments. In contrast. development. near Moscow. yielding high density counts and low neutron counts. Example density logging tool set. This terminology was once used in the West. Density Christopher Skelt Scott Pickford Group Density logging tools are referred to in the FSU as 'gamma-gamma logs' (Tf'K) because they use a gamma ray source and gamma ray detectors.0) X 103 kg/ern- 1. 8. Density tool specifications. The majority of the written matter on this subject concerns tools that are analogous to the compensated formation density genre of tools such as the Schlumberger FDC. 125mm 128 kg I37CS 2921b 1280 Bq . The specifications of one such tool. sizes and specifications Russian density tools come in two sizes: a standard Table 8.1. held against the borehole by a spring loaded powered caliper arm. caused by a combination of high differential pressure and poor solids control in the drilling mud. but has fallen into disuse. Source to detector spacings are typically 15-20 cm for the short spacing and 35-40 ern for the long spacing.1.) and geological environment (principally high porosity.8. The aims of this chapter are: • To introduce the various logging tools. This is a 42mm diameter sonde with a combination spontaneous potential elec- (1. Tool types. emitting gamma rays with energy in the range 0.9in ±1. This is rather surprising to a westerner. • To explain the methods used in the FSU to transform count rates to bulk density and compute porosity from density. Western practice is usually to consider the density log to be the primary source of porosity in preference to the neutron or sonic log. defined as greater than 10% or low porosity) the density log is listed as an optional extra. carrying a radioactive cesium (137CS) chemical source. GERS also manufactures a litho-density type tool known as the rrK-rrc. and to suggest alternative methods that may be more appropriate for western log users. One view is that the Russians are reluctant to run density logs because of the high risk of sticking. the Cf'Fl-Z ArAT manufactured by the GERS Research Industrial Corporation 'Soyuzpromgeophysica' in Tver. run eccentered in oil and gas wells. 8. parametric. Density measurement range Relative error Three hour temperature rating Maximum pressure Logging speed Tool length and diameter Tool weight Source type Source activity size tool with powered caliper.1.4. • To describe maintenance and logging practices which should help the reader to form an opinion as to the reliablity of density logs he is dealing with. and guide him when obtaining information from FSU partners or colleagues. the density is run less often than the neutron log in the FSU. and a slim (42 mm) tool designed primarily for coal borehole logging. rather than through the wellbore. especially because here conventional wisdom is that high porosities. In the lists (Chapter l ) of recommended logging suites for the various types of well (exploration.7-3. Fig.

trode and no caliper. It claims to operate over a range of effective atomic number (corresponding to the photoelectric capture cross section which we know as Per) from 6.5-22 and bulk density from 1-4 g/cm-, with an accuracy of ±2% on the density measurement. Although this tool was designed primarily for coal borehole logging, it may be of interest for logging small diameter hydrocarbon wells. Single detector tools are also referred to in the I iterature. A schematic diagram of one such tool (Itenberg 1971. page 67) (Fig. 8.2) shows the spacing to be 30-50cm. It uses a 2-10 microgram radium equivalent cobalt (60Co) source emitting gamma rays with energy of 1.17-1.3MeV. separated from the detector by a lead screen, a steel screen and a further lead screen. The log from this tool is recorded either in counts per minute, or in so called .arbitrary units,' defined as the difference between count rate from the tool in a large water tank with and without the radioactive source. There is an inverse relationship between count rate and bulk density (/ cc Lp) allowing some form of calibration in formations of known density. The depth of investigation is said to be ten or eleven centimetres into the formation. which is similar to that of a typical western tool. Not surprisingly. rough hole conditions limit the tool's accuracy. Logs from single detector tools should be interpreted with care as the

quality control offered by the t:J.p correction of a compensated tool is absent.

Engineering issues
One of the texts (Technical Information for the Well Logging 1985) used in preparing this chapter deals with the generalities of acceptance testing, periodic maintenance, calibration and log quality control. In many ways it reads like a 'calibration manual' published by a western logging company, with all references tool types removed, and includes many clauses which may be considered to be statements of the obvious. It is not clear what, if any, authority it carries, but it is believed that it provides readers with a useful insight into the division of responsibilities within the logging organisations. and gives some general information about what can be expected from a density log from the FSU. It was written during the time of the Soviet Union, so it cannot be assumed that the same set of institutions is still in place.

Tool maintenance and periodic calibration
Each tool set. made up of downhole tools and surface equipment, carries a 'licence' or 'passport' issued by the manufacturer. This includes a tool history sheet where maintenance and repairs are recorded. A calibration is made in a standard aluminium block immediately after manufacture. and is used as a standard against which subsequent calibrations are compared. Every two months, or after tool repair, a master calibration is made. There are moves to increase the period to three months in response to improved technology. This involves: • A calibration of the tool in a standard aluminium black in the logging shop, where near and far counts are recorded. Another source refers to the use of three blocks with different standard densities. • A compensation check using artificial 'mud cakes' of one and two centimetres thickness. • A check that the springs used to hold the tool against the borehole operate smoothly through their entire range, and provide a force between 20 and 50 kg. • A plateau check of count rate stability with varying voltage on the detectors. The artificial mud cake and other standards are subject to checks by a regional metrology centre. Field calibration before logging is done with a more portable aluminium block, part of the tool set displayed in Fig. 8.1. Unlike in the West where portable aluminium calibrators were treated as having an individual characteristic apparent density which was not necessar-

c _o ·0 co
<.l '"




~0 0"0


Fig. 8.2. Example single detector tool.

ily the nominal electronic density of aluminium. Field calibration blocks are assumed in the FSU to have the density of aluminium. although there is a recognition that they are less accurate than the laboratory standard. Various claims are made about tool measurement accuracy. These range from :±:0.02 g/cm-' to :!:0.03 g/cm- mean deviation and ±O.OS g/cm-' maximum deviation quoted in Technical lnformation for the Well Logging (1985) and ±2% of the measured density quoted in the GERS tool catalogue. No doubt the meaning of logging tool accuracy is as passionately debated in the FSU as in the West, and these figures. combined with pride in the Motherland and sustained by caviar and vodka. should provide for lively discussion with FSU associates.

Operational practices
Many of the regulations listed in Technical Information for [he Well Lagging (1985) seem self-evident. but presumably were written down because they cannot be taken for granted. They are worth repeating as they may be of interest to anyone seeking to do a quality control audit on FSU data or operations. • Before running the log check that the tool serial numbers correspond to those on the ·passport.' If they do not, the equipment should not be used. • Check that the tool performance was within specification at the last periodic check. which was made in the past two months. If this is not the case. the tool should not be run. • Check that the rubber parts ('0' rings. rubber bumpers) are greased and that the moving parts operate smoothly. • The chart recorder zero recorded on the log. should be checked and

treating it as a more or less quantitative formation density from which we extract porosity and lithology information. This is not the case with logs from the FSU. where the log may be of long and short spacing count rates or an intermediate parameter known as F, usually supplemented by the computed formation density. Bulk density logs are usually scaled in g/cm-' and occasionally in kg/m-. It should be noted that the tool actually responds to electronic (as distinct from bulk) density. The difference between the two is recognized by both western and FSU log users and is usually ignored. For media whose atomic weight is twice the atomic number electronic and bulk density are equivalent. This is a good approximation for most common elements occuring in sedimentary rocks, apart from hydrogen, which has an electronic density twice the bulk density.

The spine and ribs pLot
The spine and ribs plot is a graphical representation of the relationship between count rates and computed density for a two detector tool. The physical basis of the plot is thoroughly described by Tittman (1986, pp. 115-119 and Figs 40 & 41). A summary of this approach is provided here as many log users are unaware of its principles, largely because it is transparent to the user of a western log. A schematic spine and ribs plot is presented on Fig. 8.3. The spine is the locus of points corresponding to the long and short spacing counts recorded when the tool is placed in front of a semi-infinite homogeneous medium. The scaling of the axes is tool dependent, and as expected low counts correspond to higher densities. Clearly, in front of a homogeneous medium, the density indicated by both detectors is the same, and only one detector is needed to determine the density. If a lower density medium is placed immediately in front of the tool, a proportion of the path taken by gamma rays from source to near detector will be in this layer, causing a count rate increase. A smaller proportion of the path to the far detector is in this layer, so a relatively smaller increase is observed at the far detector. On the plot this is represented by a displacement from point A to B. With thicker layers, the majority of the gamma rays arriving at the near detector travel entirely within the low density layer . This condition is represented by point C. Further increases in layer thickness are represented by almost vertical displacements towards D, reached when the entire path to the far detector takes place in the low density layer. In this case the density read from the spine is of course that of the low density layer. In practical cases the short and long spacing points tend to plot quite close to the spine, and can be

• The scales on the log should be confirmed. and should be such that the traces only go off scale in open fractures or faults, where the hole washes out. • The depth scale is chosen according to whether the log is run for correlation (1/500) or for detailed analysis of reservoir zones (1/200). • Log quality control includes a check of the before · and after survey calibration. A repeat section of 10 -15% of the logged interval, up to a maximum of 50m is made. • Tool type and serial numbers of downhole and surface equipment, radioactive source type and log scales are to be entered on the log header.

Density determination from count rates
In the West operators are accustomed to being supplied with a bulk density by the logging company and








B ~/

Mud cake thickness increasing

o o

'u <tI

OJ c;




Short spacing count rate (loganthmlc


Fig. 8.3 .. Spine and ribs' plot.


1.2. 1.3

1.4 1.5 1.6

treated as having been displaced from the spine along a line parallel to the line from A to B. With very heavy muds the mud cake density may be . higher than the formation density, and the rib leaves the spine to the southwest.

Short spacing count rate ratio . art soaci

cal f short/I short


Fig. 8.4. Determination of density from long and short spacing count rates.


I {long {short = K [n -yc;;r- + K2 In -,-car long short

+ K3•

The PKC-l


Figure 8.4 (from VNIIneftepromgeophysica) is a linear approximation of the spine and ribs plot showing graphically how density is determined from calibrated count rates with this tool. It is important to note that on this plot the 'ribs' are straight. A more thorough analysis predicts a family of ribs leaving the spine at the formation density, initial!y following similar curves, separating with increasing mud cake thickness, and finally returning to the spine at the mud cake density as measured by the two detectors. Clearly there is a limit on the mud cake thickness where this chart can reliably be used. The compensation is said to be valid in hole sizes between 20 and 30 em with 3 em mud cake thickness, and it is recognized that the compensation algorithm rapidly breaks down with increasing hole size. There is no evidence of a 'hole size' correction to compensate for the difference between hole and effective pad curvature, nor is there any evidence that this type of correction should not be required. For western tools standardized for an eight-inch hole, corrections of +0.02gtcm3 are typical for a 12-inch hole, representing an error in computed porosity of about 1 pu. The chart has been constructed using the formula:

Approximate values of coefficients K1• K2 and K3 are -0.873, 1.400 and 2.637. With the tool in the calibrator, the equipment is adjusted to read 2.6 g/crn-', the electronic density of aluminium. The system then measures the difference between the bulk density read in the calibrator and the formation density. This rather subtle distinction IS claimed to increase measurement accuracy.




crtt.z tools

With these tools a different aproach is used to compute density from count rates. The intermediate parameter F is determined from the recorded (I) and calibrated (leal) count rates from the long and short spacing detectors. F is presented on a linear scale with corresponding density values also noted.















Figure 8.5 (Adapted from a chart by VNIIGIS - All Union Scientific Research Institute for Geophysical Investigations) shows the relationship between F and p for these tools. The curves are constructed using the formulae:

-.. attributed to VNIIneftepromgeophysica. 8.8 Q) E ro Qj --~---: 2. 2.:=====:....025 M' --- p "" 2.. For tools other than these two.. which will introduce a considerable error into the determination of porosity from gamma-gamma logs.9254 +IO.005 r- t i~:..0 .. Q) I. I a 4 8 12 (uR/h) 16 20 Fig. . Plot the data to confirm a linear relationship./ /..0003941 + 0.015 ~------7"/:./' ..- o 1G. . If the data fall on a straight line.. "- a.6.i.- I rrrt .41~-/+----.. Consequently the computed bulk density (which reduces as count rates increase) is slightly too low....6 .::_j 3.-/.-- c: 0. -..7""/::. "- 0.. 8..~. A chart! for the PKC-l tool is reproduced in Fig. ."'.j .. 8. ..8 / /' / ---/------4 " '6 0. while in salty muds a value as high as 1./ 0./' .----.4 2. correspond to the mineralogical density of the rock being studied. Transform the densities from p to 1/1 np.~.4 0 2. o= eXP(0.030 r.' ~ E -------p=2.5.21 ern· 2 ! ~ ~.. Natural radioactivity Fig..0 1. especially when compared with other uncertainties associated with the tool measurement.. which is of course much easier on a linear scale. This correction should be added to the bulk density. As expected.~...' This should be treated as a warning to users supplied with a computed density porosity which is not backed = 0. .2 pro 2 P :::exp (0.8)2-1..~./ o / /_/ . ~p // /. Determination of porosity from bulk density Once a bulk density has been computed most western log users are likely to continue using familiar standard log analysis routines.. ! Adapted by rescaling the x axis in .3336F)'" ern ... C3 .---. --. This is said to hold in moderate salinities..0 0.. In practice.. and is used in western Siberia.000231 (p_1. it is likely that density can be derived in a similar fashion to that used to prepare this chart: 1.. Local procedures may exist.. Average matrix density may not.010 r-"T-> --_/_ .. .65 g/cm-' and of carbonate rocks 2.2 co a. however. Density correction for natural radioactivity.:."L----l .?:'iii 0. One such relates water density to fluid salinity as: PWa[er = 1 + 0. Itenberg (1971) states: 'The average matrix density of sandstones is 2.L..uR/h from an original scale in femtoamperes/kg. .75 g/cm-.020 I- = 2./----~ I.-... a curve fit yields coefficients a and b in p = exp 1/(a + b F). -~'-'---.::.6.... Nonetheless some specific remarks may help explain how porosity is obtained from the bulk density in the FSU..:. Since log analysis tends to concentrate on formations with low levels of natural radioactivity. the correction in zones of interest is likely to be very small..9 g/cm-.~~~~:g .--___4 / _/ / . E r: 1.Q c Q) /. The natural gamma ray input needs to be compensated for tool residual signals and borehole environmental effects (Chapter 7) before using the chart.8 and 0. slightly reducing the computed porosity./~'----:. western operators often digitize FSU logs before running a CPI. Determination of density from F.._--_.'.7142 }0. usually expressed in response equation form: Pb::: (l-ip)Pm[x + <PPfl· Correction for natural radioactivity A small proportion of the gamma ray counts recorded at the detectors arise from natural radiation..3016F) . Recommended practice is therefore to digitize F and transform the digitized curve to bulk density. the chart shows a larger correction is necessary in dense formations where count rates are lower and natural radioactivity makes up a larger proportion of the total counts.-.' _~-:··::"·" . c Q) / /" _/ . The same linear relationship is used. 3.62 x a.6 Bulk density g/cm3 .. p pairs from the log scale or a graph of the tool response.·~··:-·=·-:"' : _l -I -.:. -:-::.6 -9 0..2. in a ternperature range from 50 to 70°C.. The lines on the chart can be approximated by the formula: op In oil based mud it is normal to assume a fluid density between 0.2 g/cm-' may be used. ti § 0 0. Pick off F.L.

••.71 g/crn-) will be several percentage units too high.• _ •. if a sand with an assumed matrix density of 2.:...71 and 2. .. From studying the literature the Russian method appears to be to assume constant matrix density when computing porosity. The logging speed is chosen such that the product of time constant and logging speed v merres/hour and i seconds is less than 2000. _ " . Nedra._. Technical Informalion for the Well Logging. _.:.~~. New York. -. 1985. the error in computed porosity is given by: flip =. and then compute an error based on the difference between assumed and actual grain density._ >c_-+-+ ._.65.3s30__==___ CD _ .~_~~ _0> __ 5..85 g/crn-.. 2..028.~ _"•...2. This looks like an interesting application of the tool that should be considered in the light of the Western practice of running the density log in cased hole in an attempt to determine formation density in wells where open hole logs have not been obtained. The general consensus is that the recorded bulk density is accurate to within about ::!:0. If the matrix and fluid densities are accurately known this translates into a computed porosity that is accurate to within about two porosity units. Academic.. -- z~:::-: . ~_~ ~ =-::~:~::. 8. That is to say that computed porosity is low by 0..._~_. •..) Porosity References Itenberg.7._..88) ::::-0._--'.6 x (2.• . This involves calibrating the tool in a device made with the same casing. The log is scaled so that the log values cover 6--8 ern of chart width. the density reading should be within ±1O% of the reading in the calibrator. "> ------ _ .2 x 0.up by raw data... S. In particular it implies that porosities computed in clean limestone (Pm!x = 2._". The error depends on the proportion of 'impurity' Vimp with a different matrix density Pimp' For example._. _...0.-._. +-+---~ .88 g/cm-'. ""_" __ rn· -1'_0" .~. Tittman. S. J. -u .:~. Study of Oil and Gas Series from Well Logs. Fig. 1986. Mir Publishers.._____ . Ministry of Geology and Ministry of on Industry.__..__ ~-'-.. Example log.~.03 g/cm-._. .__ . In caves which are known to be well cemented. One possible explanation for this approach may be that density to porosity conversion is often done "Usingcharts with lines at constant matrix densities of (for example) 2.~. Use of the density log for cement evaluation Technical Information for the Well Logging (1985) describes the use of the Density Log for cement evaluation. _~_. 1971. Geophysical Well Logging. __ .• __ " . set in cement.65 g/cm-' contains 20% mica with a density of 2.65 ...~.-<o_o-.028. It should also serve as a warning that some so-called gamma-gamma logs finding their way out of the FSU may not in fact be logs of formation density.---- __ . •.~_~_..•___. Another source (VNIIneftepromgeophysica) provides a formula to evaluate the error arising in rocks with variable matrix density which has been assumed to be constant when computing porosity. Moscow. . Pi~.::~::::==..::::~'-~-:~::.: ~::.'=.. Glossary I [eal p op F (J v r ] cp Count rate (counts per second) Count rate in calibration block (counts per second) Density (g/cm ' or kg/rn ') Density correction for natural radioactivity (g/cm-' or kg/m-') Intermediate density parameter Water salinitytw/w) Logging speed (metres/hour) Time constant (seconds) Gamma ray value (rnicrorontgens/hour etc.. "-. Moscow.

The capture gamma ray count (' impulse') rate is the basic output and more often than not this is presented on the log with no further manipulation.1. if sufficient core porosity exists. which can be assumed to be equivalent to 40%. The former is assisted by the presence of a lot of water which in practice means high total porosities (with high Sw values) and/or large boreholes filled DRST-2 DRST-3 DRST-3* PKC-2t PK4·841 2NNKT neutron gamma neutron gamma neutron gamma neutron gamma natural gamma ray neutron gamma natural gamma ray near/far counts 120 (248) 120 (248) 200 (392) 135 3. There are several different types of neutron tools. The log is presented in counts or re-calibrated units so that in principle all tools will give the same readings in calibrated units for the same formation. The number of gamma rays emitted depends both on the efficiency with which the neutrons are slowed down and the rate at which they are captured.823) PK4-841 2HHKT Detector type single single single single single double Output of tool Outside diameter inches (mm) 2. The highest log reading will occur in tight formations such as anhydrite and porosity and is usually taken to correspond to 1 or 2%. etc. In addition.54 (90) 3. Some Soviet neutron tools Tool Russian Cyrillic name APCf-2 APCf-3 APCf-3 PKC-2 (K4. and one that has been used since the start of neutron logging in the FSU.54 3. Fast neutrons are emitted from a chemical source and are slowed down by collisions with nuclei in the borehole and formation. Collisions with protons are by far the most efficient way of losing energy and on average about 20 such interactions are sufficient to thennalize a neutron. Some local procedures recommend that where shale is missing a washed out zone may be used where the neutron porosity in the washout is assumed as the 40% calibration point.55 3. However. The principle of measurement is very simple. because these work on familiar principles most discussion will concentrate on the simpler single detector devices. Some of the more common neutron tools are listed in Table 9.54 (65) (65) (90) (90) Pressure rat ings psi (Pa x 106) 11 000 10000 15000 12000 (76) (68) (103) (82) Temperature ratings degrees °C COF) 120 (248) 120 (248) 2 British Gas Exploration and Production Introduction The simple single-detector neutron gamma tool is a commonly encountered porosity tool. Because of its single detector design the tool produces a measurement which is not compensated for borehole size variations. The neutron count rate can be converted to porosity units through the use of a two-point calibration. Martin Kennedy2 & Nick Myler' 1 Nigel Davis Associates 3 55! Consulting Summary The most common neutron tool in use today. Alternatively. It is therefore highly susceptible to the adverse chemical environment of the borehole and any interpreted results must be used with caution. a simple neutron log to the logarithm of core porosity may be derived by regression. temperature and pressure ratings. These are distinguished by detector type. Table 9. It follows that logs recorded with these devices form the basis of much of the reserve figures in the FSU. In this condition the neutron is readily captured by certain nuclei and in the process emits a gamma ray. dual detector neutron tools that are essentially the same as western compensated neutron tools have been developed.55 2. [t is this 'capture gamma ray' that is detected by the tool.1. The minimum log reading corresponds to maximum porosity in the shale zone. If suitable reference formations are not present the analyst may prefer to use published charts. Two reference formations such as anhydrite and shale are selected that provide a minimum and a maximum neutron log reading. Some example log presentations are provided with a key to assist the analyst faced with log prints from the FSU.9. is the single-detector neutron gamma tool.54 (90) 15000 (103) 15000 (103) * high pressure t tool type K4-823 . overall diameter. Neutron Nigel Davis-.

the neutrons will not diffuse very far from the source before they are captured. The log is presented as either a count rate or in calibrated units that are based on the count rate. Physics of the measurement WI-HI-- Gamma neutron detector Lead shield >---i 10cm Fig. The detector to source spacing is usually recorded on the log header and can be 30.5 inches outside diameter and is approximately 6 feet long. borehole salinity. Thus. 9. 9. western tools detect neutrons directly and are thus less influenced by salinity and the presence of exotic elements (although of course even the compensated tool is affected by borehole size and salinity). The neutron spectrum is thus identical to the western tools. all tools will give the same readings in relative units. a large number of charts have been developed for each type of tool to account for these effects. As described above.1. In the PKC-2 the detector is shielded from the source by several inches of lead. Equivalently. two factors control the count rate. As will be seen below. which is slightly weaker than equivalent western sources. Given that neutrons are emitted at the rate of 107/s this represents an overall detection efficiency of about 1 in 105! As will be shown below. formation total porosity and formation water salinity. This is in contrast to the familiar western tools where the use of two detectors goes a long way to compensating for changes in borehole size. the count rate increases with decreasing total porosity. Count rates are typically of the order of lO<+/min. Diagram of a typical single detector neutron gamma tool PKC-2. In particular the count rate depends on borehole size. the absolute count rate depends on source strength and on the particular detector used in the tool. in principle. Photomultiplier tubes have been employed as detectors in FSU tools from an early stage. This can be confusing as in some geographical areas the neutron yield is given and in others the actual source strength in curies is used. The thermalization will be most rapid in high-porosity water bearing formations. including shales. 50 or 60 centimetres. The conversion factor is normally of the order of 1 calibration unit = 104 counts per second and should be given on the log header. Source strengths are of the order of one Curie (107 neutrons/s). The latter is assisted by high concentrations of nuclei with high neutron capture cross sections.1. Tool description A typical single detector tool is the PKC-2 which 1S shown in Fig. 40. This particular tool has a 3. The neutron source is screwed into the bottom of the tool and is generally a polonium or plutonium/beryllium capsule that produces neutrons by the same reaction as the familiar americium/beryllium source used in western tools. The heart of the detector is a thallium-doped sodium iodide crystal which is the same technology as is used in western gamma detectors. The gamma ray detector employs a photomultiplier tube.(or several hundred counts per second). The latter refers to the number of disintegrations of the actinide (plutonium or polonium). Of course. In practice this usually means chlorine and possibly some more exotic heavy elements such as boron. The tool includes a separate gamma ray detector near the top of the tool which is used to produce a standard gamma ray log. no .natural gamma ray detector at the top of this tool also uses the same photomultiplier technology. Furthermore. The . The strengths are supposed to be written on the log headers. The neutron logging section takes up the lower one foot or so of the tool and all the electronics occupies the space in between. At a specified distance above the source is a detector. There is therefore a procedure used to establish the conversion factor from counts to calibrated units so that. only a fraction of which lead to neutron production. The count rate at any depth thus depends in a complicated wayan the chemical environment of the tool.with mud. It is important to emphasise that the tool described above produces an uncompensated measurement. all other factors being equal. the rate the neutrons are slowed to thermal energies and the rate at which they are subsequently captured. As a very rough rule of thumb the count rate approximately doubles between a very uncompacted shale with a total porosity of about 50% and a tight carbonate.

Clearly the tool borehole/formation system is a highly complex one which is impossible to interpret analytically.~. In view of the tool principle it is hardly surprising that gas has a strong effect on the tool response. The neutron counts are subject to a lot of scatter and. More often than not the header information is missing altogether with just the well number presented. 140. in which the lithology is almost pure dolomite. Crossplot of neutron counts versus porosity.1) where M and C are constants that depend on the borehole size. fluid salinities etc.5 the count rates scale is written on line 5 (item 5 in the key). In other words. 180. porosities. Figure 9. the composition of which hardly varies vertically or areally. Example log presentations Figures 9. In this case the counts double between the water-bearing and gas-bearing sands. the gamma ray flux near the detector will be low. The data comes from a dolomite reservoir in which lithology hardly varies. 9.1).4 (Russian) is a re-typed log header for a neutron gamma log from a well in western Siberia.:J <Il For each tool a large number of charts have been published to allow the calibrated units to be converted to porosity. 9. These data come from a western Siberian oil well. in a low-porosity formation the neutrons will diffuse a long way before being thermalized (e. and NEUT is the neutron count rate.S are examples of neutron log presentations. This is shown very well in the short section of log from a gas well shown in Fig.:: . The count rate will thus be higher in a gas-bearing sand than in an equivalent water-bearing unit. 300.01 Porosity 0. Count rates are typically of the order of 104 counts/minute (or several hundred counts per second). and particularly at low.5 illustrates the scales of the same log and the log data itself. 9. 0 u ttl E E ttl C) c z :i OJ 2 220. An example of a crossplot of porosity against counts is given in Fig.g. 100. in halite around 300 collisions are needed to reduce the neutron to thermal energies) and providing the capture process is reasonably efficient the gamma ray flux will be relatively high. Conversely. It is perhaps surprising then.2 Fig. 340. that a reasonable approximation is found which relates porosity and the count rate through a formula of the form: logarithm of porosity = (M x NEUT) + C (9.1 0. 9. appears as an uncertainty in the porosity of between 1 and 2 porosity units regardless of its actual value.3 and further discussed in Appendix 1. Departures do occur at high. The original document was a very poor copy and hardly legible. the porosity is subject to the greatest percentage uncertainty at the lowest values. The presence of gas will reduce the amount of hydrogen in the formation and consequently more neutrons will arrive in the vicinity of the detector before being captured. Figure 9. 420. This example was chosen because the well penetrates the gas-water contact and because the sands all have very similar porosities so it is possible to see at a glance the qualitative effect of the gas.2. fresh and saline fluids etc. but all have approximately the form suggested by equation (9.matter how efficient the capture gamma production process is. because of the nature of the relationship between counts and porosity.2. The latter is to be expected as the borehole component of the count rate will become more significant as the formation porosity decreases. . Separate charts have been produced for cased and open holes. it does seem to be a feature of the measurement The scatter typically produces an uncertainty of ± 10% in the count rate which. Above that on line 4 are the calibrated units. Note the form of the relationship connecting porosity and gamma-neutron counts and the amount of scatter in the data. On this example the engineer has drawn on a logarithmically scaled porosity which allows porosities to be read directly from the log. In practice the tool is normally in a column of mud or water so a proportion of the neutrons will be slowed fairly rapidly. 460. Figure 9. 0. The master calibration performed at the well logging centre normalizes the count rates such that different tools are made to read the same units in the same formation. 500. Log scales and tool calibration The neutron log data are usually presented on different scales either as count rates or in some calibrated units that are based on the count-rate. .. The count rates vary from tool to tool.4 to 9. although some of this might be due to variable invasion and borehole effects.4 (English) is the translation. Even those neutrons that initially passed into the formation will be rapidly slowed once they cross back into the borehole. This constant is then used to derive the 380. In Fig. The master calibration is represented by a constant which is recorded by the engineer on the log header (sometimesl).

The operational limitations of the tools are similar to those of western tools and are listed in Table 9. but at lower porosities the count rate depends on the borehole size. The conversion between counts per minute and these calibrated units is recorded on the log header. All open-hole neutron gamma logs are presented using a standard scale.3. The magnitude of the borehole effect is illustrated in Fig. Crudely this can be thought of as a result of the lower contrast between the borehole (with an effective porosity of 100%) and the formation.5% at 130 millimetres.9. No further field calibrations are made. At higher porosities the borehole effect is reduced. 9.5 Neutron OQrQSC{'f (:QrrectfMl lor snale Master calibration The gamma-ray and the neutron gamma tools are calibrated every three months in the shop. The highest numbers correspond to the lowest porosities. 9. The device has a single detector and is therefore not compensated for borehole effects. however. snare o PHIS . . uses a weaker source which means that fewer gamma rays arrive at the detector and that it is more subject to statistical variations. The Russian device. Example of neutron and sonic logs recorded in a gas well. Note the strong gas effect on the neutron log in the gas-bearing sands. Details of the interpretation are given in Appendix 1.1. The calibrated units are then input into standard charts to convert them to limestone porosity units. Borehole size has the single biggest effect on the neutron tool because of its single detector design. At 4. Tool limitations The neutron gamma tool is similar to the old Schlumberger gamma neutron (GNT) tool. It is believed that the neutron gamma device is calibrated by immersion in a tank containing fresh water at a known temperature. Environmental Borehole size effects Fig. The calibrated units are displayed on the y-axis and the limestone porosity units are displayed on the x-axis. This is dependent on the borehole size.jty ootl:ectrld-'or Shale calibrated units described above. The calibrated units are typically scaled between 0 and 10. A different standard scale is used for cased-hole neutron gamma logs. The count rates and the calibrated units for the neutron and the gamma ray logs are both displayed on the log header. At the hypothetical limit of a 100% porosity all the curves for the different borehole sizes converge to the same point.Sand o tI Sonic poro!. The shop calibrations use a known source which is equivalent to some number of calibrated units. The borehole effect is also increased.6 calibrated units the porosity varies from 1% at 243 miIlimetres borehole size up to 9.

.. " ~ " '" :c " . B >.. B ~ :.. a c. '" '" E e ~ I C E ... I:: Fig..3.. :. z: "C '! "Ii .. " o z. Example header page of a neutron gamma log and a natural gamma log from a well in western Siberia (Russian and English).. ... a ....... = e . a I ... .. .. 9... .r EE S . e . .. .: . 011 C. .4. . . .:. "- cz: I ..... :: .

8 48000 56y. Log data presentation of a neutron gamma log and natural gamma log from western Siberia.. 3 4 "I'-----S-----------l . It is possible to correct for both borehole and formation water salinities using charts.1H 3. The mud cake correction is significant at lower porosities.5. For example. This illustrates the magnitude of the effect for a borehole size of 190 mm.. However...2 4.eA 56000 IrlMP/MIt1H- . Mud cake behaves as a high-porosity layer at the borehole wall and therefore tends to increase the apparent porosity.4 8 MKPfLlaC . Figure 9.cn.--. Borehole water salinity Like all neutron logs the Russian devices are affected by the presence of chlorine and other high capture cross section elements. two calibrated units (which corresponds to about 20% porosity) with the same mud cake thickness of 2 cm a porosity change of only 1% is produced. .. Three curves are displayed that correspond to salinities of 50..11 (note: this chart is applicable in a fresh water environment and a borehole size of 190 mm)." Q .. Increasing salinity tends to decrease the measured porosity. 9. say. 100 and 170 gil. This is because increasing salinity in either the borehole or formation will increase the capture gamma count rate and hence reduce the apparent porosity. the porosity would be reduced by approximately 2%.. for an arbitrary value of say four units (which corresponds to about 5% porosity) and a mud cake of 2 em. Mud cake corrections Mud cake corrections can be made by the use of standard charts..6 6 4080 2. The magnitude of the mud cake effect can be seen on the chart illustrated in Fig. On the x-axis is displayed the apparent limestone porosity.8 8000 4 2720 1. 9.. The y-axis shows the corrections to be added dependent on the salinity.10 corrects the neutron for borehole salinity..f. at normal reservoir porosities between 15 and 25% the effect of mud cake is much reduced. 1 Microroentgen/hour for GR 2 lmpulses/mmute for GR 3 Neutron gamma relative uruts 4 Impulses/minute for neutron gamma 5 Neutron gamma 6 Limestone porosity on a logarithmic scale 7 Limestone porosity units 8 Natural gamma ray Fig.o o o o 2 1360 0.1 16000 24000 5440 V1MP/MI.0 32000 40000 2 4. At.

. .. cz:: " e-.. ! 1 C ~ ~ ..~ ~ ~~ -e -e 1§ ~! ...& :i:. f .. ~ I .. ~ ~ .. = .z.:.. . . 8 1 al . f: '1 ~ ] .. "8..... ~ i I Ol! s "" ~c .. ' 8! 'I . ::.. .. . ~ ~c fl~ ~ ~ i J ~ I i ~ .z... '" 0 ~~ '" 0 0 !:.f ~ § I ~§ ~ 8 1J i co: :... .t:::: ". e~ a.. ~~~ @j ~ 4I ..~ J.. . I i .. ~ . i [ ... R !!: I l '" 0 I a :0<: " ~ ~ e . -s c f! 0 'fl ] t ] ~ . Co 1 1 "'..JI ti 0 ~ i ~ t. .. ..ll I ::.. . I ~ .. I ~ I ~ 2: u i cz:: . I ~~ ~ !i. j i ! '" :2 .: i fe ~ r -. J a "'~ ..... S e 8 .. . . ~ i j I "C ~~ ~~ i~ II L. l ! ! J . ~~ ~~ '" .S . . ~ ~ ! ~ ~ " 'g '" ..!! ":I Ii !~ iii ~ if • il~ :... cz:: " . ~ ~~ ~ "'il . ~ . '" ~t ~ " E ! c ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Q . !..:..6.ell e !it " '" ~~ ~ s ~ ~o u ..: '" 'O~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ :r '" ! {& i J ~ I ..g = ~~ ... ~ I J .g . ~ j .. :ii i 2~ " :r i .. ..3 ~ :E 's 1 I i .. " ll'! " B e a ~ ~ a r £. " 0 ~ !:: &1 'I .. ~ '" ~ ~~ :! ~ e.. ... c . a: I f It a c ... i § " ~ ~ li OJ it ~ ~ ~ ~~ .. ~ g 0 r l. "li. 8 .. cz:: ~: ~ -!! . !.. t: "'''' Fig. oS 0 .. 0 :i !....... z. -s I i= <> . . !. :::I ...:t ...~ tl'i ~ a :~ if a'"' .:. . 1 "'~iS ~ j 8 e -.§ :....:!! ...... ..s: ~ ~ fr ~ ~ ~ " ~ 0 . ~~ 0> .. ~ ~ fi ~ 0 a c :0 ~ E ~ ~ '" ~ ~ c " ~ " I:! f- c .... ~ :E" ] z. 2 g J 8 . i I I I I J ~ ~ ~ .. I ~ .. .s E! ~ I !i ~ ~ B . ... ~ ~ ! " . '" ~ !: Q XI ! I I t ~g 1li ~ ~ .." ~~ ~ :..: a z.. I Ii i I n ~~ :i~ 1 ·lio J a 8 -e ~ ro: "'il . • i g ~ !. ~ .... ~ ..J ~ ::!! 11 I ~I I~ .lI ~ .:.:: ..: a c ~ . 9. l l 1 Ii I f::l ~ I~ i I ~ .. .s . ." 0.. ~ ~ ~.. .. g .. ~! . .. " :i: ::: ...'" . . 0::{ I:! . :..g C 8 "" .. " '" ~ . a .It '" OJ i s ~~s ~ '" ] "0 ~ 'tr E . s 0 .. I J f[ ~ ~ e n 1 e Q. i= .....jj'..... ~ ~ ~~ ::.~ . • .... .. 00 { ~ ~ 1 jg 8. :.:::: II... ~ .' "3 OJ .. 1 .s ~ "c. 0 .lo §' '" ] .. " a " ! I :s: ~~ "'~ -.:. s . 'I:l ~ ! :oJ ~ " = ." ~~ "'''' ::f "'... a .. I ~ ~ . Example header page of a neutron gamma log and a natural gamma log from a well in Timan-Pechora (Russian and English)..... ... ~ ~ -!! ~ '3 e.: 5..:i "~:l ~ i IS ~ . 1 iJ I . . . .... ! J.r 8... '" j ~ ~ i -e ~ 'il § li ~ '" "'. ~ "'~ ..£1 l'l I ~ '" "'~ .. .. ] ~ 111 ~ ~ .. I i ! ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ .

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:7. .:::. ..5:J. Neutron correction factors for given temperature and pressure (after Dobrynin 1988) Tern perature ("C) 20 100 200 300 0...9 W.129. As an alternative the corrections can be made using a look-up table approach (Table 9.m .J. Key 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Well name Region Ground level elevation Rig level above ground level DriliersTD Loggers TD Bltsize Casing shoe depth (driller) Casing shoe depth (logger) Casing size outside diameter in inches and inside diameter In mm Mud type Mud fluid density Viscosity Fluid loss Sand % 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Date logged Well log base Logging truck number Type and number of tool Type of detector Number of gamma ray detectors Date of calibration for GR (tools not calibrated before 1992 in Poland) 25A Calibration constant impulses I min roentgen I hour 25 Log interval 26 Name of logger 27 Name of operator 28 Date of calibration of neutron 29 Logging speed 30 Time constant in seconds 31 Source detector spacing 32 Source strength (Curies) 33 Number of detectors in neutron 34 Date of calibration for neutron (tools not calibrated before 1992 in Poland) 16 ? 17 ? Fig..77 80 1. rn/godz sek 9...6.tl? S..V.AT .R~.23G ..RP.. .tm..•.... . Temperature Temperature is normally considered to have one of the biggest effects on neutron devices but the Russians do not apparently provide a chart for this correction.S ..SLW.87 0. 3/500 crrr' 'C L-I Filtracja 310. m m mm L1 12 13 15 I6 17 KA.2)..L :::-.82l.ojDle.}z.m .. Example header page of a neutron gamma log and a natural gamma log from a well in Poland. Ifill ~6 "27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Kierownik Grupy Operator Data cechowania Predkosc porniaru Stala czasowa Rozstaw sondy Aktywnosc zrcdla Am Be Llosc licznikow .l .88 0..mm .Ei .90 0.. Table 9.sr. mg/crrr' ...~ 2.P. n !lose J.::::..82 ..Wiertnia 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rejon Wysokosc npm Wysokosc podbudowy E.OJW. . PROFILOWANIE GAMMA·PG i PROFILOWANIE N·GAMMA·PNG+P.. :).73 Pressure (l06Pa) 50 0.1..2 Jll Rodzaj pluczki ....00 0.loo ?JOIL ....EQ0.YllC.::.98 0..m .8. S. .c:!gl~!. 9.. 23.1.. .O' ern ~ Ci :U1. Ciezar wlasciwy Wiskoza Zapiaszczenie Wytrzyrnalosc Pluczke obrabiano Glebokosc otworu wg wierc Glebokosc otworu wg porniaru Srednica orworu Glebokosc zarurowania wg wierc Glebokosc zarurowania wa ponuaru Sr~dnica rur jj:tC~ wew Data zarurowania 1'291.. inz .96 0.S.m 18 19 20 21 Data porniaru Grupa pomiarowa Typ i or aparatury Typ i nr sond v Typ Iicznikow 23 licznikow 24 Data cechowania sondy 25A K=imp I min 25 Odcinek pomiarowy pjr '191-1232 rn .6..5.AfK .2 ..l1Q. . j9..2. odS. 6 . .IJ.~. 3-1 Ccchowuno dara ..illJ9. 5 G/cm3 crrr' .8Z..:12..

Analysis of neutron logs There are three ways to analyse neutron togs to provide a neutron porosity. This can be assumed to be equivalent to 40% for example.0 :5 <J} 4. • two-point calibration (1 %-40% lines) • use published charts • develop own calibration using core or sonic or resistivity logs The two-point calibration to derive neutron porosity is commonly used to interpret the Schlumberger GNT log.c a 1ii~ <ll =~ C 00 ° m# E~ . The highest log reading in the anhydrite is taken to correspond to 1 or 2%. 9.CPMLO)] INTERCEPT = PHIHI/1 O(CPMHI x SLOPE) NPHI = INTERCEPT x lO(SLOPE x NEUT) Limestone porosities (%) Fig. SLOPE == [log (PHIHI/PHlLO)l(CPMHI.9. The value used for the low point is critical due to the non-linear response of the Mudcake thickness (rnrn) Fig. Porosity units can then be computed in the following manner as described by Crain: logarithm of porosity = SLOPE x NEUT + INTERCEPT where NEUT is the input neutron Jog in counts. 8 5 ~ o l'tI cO" ~ c <)} 6. Two reference formations such as anhydrite and shale are selected which provide a minimum and a maximum neutron log reading. (after Russian Ministry of Geology 1979). Re-calibration of neutron units to limestone porosities for different open hole diameters (rom). Borehole salinity correction chart for the neutron gamma DRST-3 tool (60 ern source detector spacing) from 50 gil to 170 gil in a borehole size of 190mm (after Russian Ministry of Geology 1979). Some local procedures recommend that where shale is missing the neutron porosity in a washout may be taken as the 40% calibration point.11.0 o 5 1 ° 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 ::> Limestone porosities Fig. Mud cake thickness corrections for the neutron gamma DRST-3 tool (60 em source detector spacing) for a borehole size of 190 mm and varying borehole salinities from 0 to 170 gil for different neutron porosities (after Russian Ministry of Geology 1979).10. 9.0 e neutron tool._ a @l. Fresh water chart for the neutron gamma DRST·3 tool (60 ern source detector spacing). ~ f c: Z 5. 9. The minimum log reading corresponds to maximum porosity in the shale zone. .

Provided the analyst has details on the tool type. ~ 'iii 0. 1992 'Russian Ventures -1.0.01 ------~-------------I CPMLO '" 4500 = References Connelly. 0. Schlumberger 1990. by entering neutron value and caliper size. Nedra. Use of the charts produces a neutron porosity scaled in limestone units.74 NPHI . Evaluating oil. it may be necessary to develop a transform..03 < NPHI ::. the borehole size and the borehole salinities then the charts can be used. M. dual detector neutron logs may be encountered. A graphical representation of the two-point calibration method is illustrated in Fig. Volume 1. The method does not account for changes in lithology and more accurate results may be obtained using published charts. Two-point calibration of the neutron log (Crain 1986). Dual detector neutron tools Rarely. 9. In principle the charts enable the analyst to convert calibrated units to limestone porosity units. In circumstances where no tight zone exists in the logged interval or the logs have been provided without any information on the borehole environment..94 NPHI 1$ e z :.1 0.222 NPHP PHIHI = 0.l 0. Oil and Gas Journal. Figure 9. Tulsa.12.61 NPHI . In the absence of core data one must rely on the sonic log or knowledge gained from near-by wells. lithology sensitive and if the reservoir lithology is other than limestone then appropriate corrections must be made to account for this. E.72 NPHI Low-porosity pomt Z.03 R 0. Satisfactory results have been obtained using the ratio of the near and far detector count rates (R) and converting to porosity using the following algorithms: NPHI::.. R. The two-point calibration method has the advantage of taking into account any environmental corrections providing the environment is constant over the interval of interest.where CPMHI is the neutron log reading at the high porosity point (PHIHI) and CPMLO is the neutron log reading at the low porosity point (PHILO). l. tool stand-off. 97-101.45 R = 0.30 1500 CPMHI::: = I 0. gas opportunities in western Siberia -Iog and core data'.A. & Krug. gypsum content.) 1988. the source detector spacing. Pennwell.7605 + 19. Neutron Log Interpretation. Moscow.0. The neutron log is. of course. Historical Charts. Interpretation of Results of Geophysical Studies of Oil and Gas Wells. temperature. The two count rates are presented on the log but no porosity curve is computed.95 NPHI2 NPHI> 0..01 0. 1986. Neutron reading· counts per minute (NEUT) Fig.12. (ed.95 + 6.28 < NPHI::. Russian Ministry of Geology. The Log Analysis Handbook. W. 9.9 is an example of a calibration chart for fresh water. 1979. The tool type and the source detector spacing can be obtained from the log header.45 R 2_3 + 2.6473 + 9.28 R = 0. Alternatively the limestone porosity can be used as input to a standard two-log cross plot porosity modeL It is worth noting that the lithology response of the neutron gamma seems to be closer to that of a western sidewall neutron log (SNP) rather than the compensated neutron (CNL). limestone porosities can be derived. In practice this assumes that the borehole size does not vary too much. .Quantitative Log Analysis Methods. c PHILO = 0. Also the method is less reliable for porosities over 25% because above this value only a very small change in the input neutron gives rise to a large change in porosity. 0 (5 a. W. pressure or the chloride content High-porosity pomt of the formation water. For each tool the Russians make two calibration charts: one for fresh water and the other for saline water. The re-calibrated neutron limestone porosity must be used with caution as it does not account for the effects of mud cake thickness. Crain.6. Dobrynin. if core data exists then a regression method can be used to establish a relationship between the log and the logarithm of core porosity. For example.

6. four. The three-element sonde configuration will compensate for effects of tool eccentering and modest variations in borehole size. ltenberg (1971) also describes acoustic attenuation logging as being 'quite a promising technique'. at that time. The technology IS directly comparable with western tools. S. There is reference also (Itenberg 1971) to a three-element sonde that incorporates two transmitters (oscillators) and one receiver. An acoustic transit time is an absolute measurement and standard units relating time and distance are universally understood. four-.and six-element with various spacings. 10.1): • A two-element sonde consists of a single transmitter (oscillator) and single receiver.l. A sound pulse is generated with a reported frequency of 20-30 kHz. • The three-element sonde design is based on a single transmitter and dual receiver configuration where the resultant transit time (. The six-element sonde is comparable to the standard BHe (borehole compensated) acoustic/sonic log and should be producing formation transit times that are compensated for tool tilt as well as eccentricity and modest borehole rugosity. In Itenberg (1987) the use of three-.and multi-element sondes is described reflecting the progression towards array tools: (a) (b) Fig.t) is computed as the difference in times between the first arrivals to the two receivers. Russian' acoustic logging tools is comparable with that of the western logging contractors. The tool. O. which expands under rnagnetisation when an electric current is passed through the coil. The transmitters used are described (Itenberg 1971) as elastic wave generators consisting of a magnetostrictive oscillator. IO. The receivers are reported as 'ceramic of barium titanate'. • Multi-element sondes may contain one or two transmitters and a set of receivers positioned at different distances from the transmitters allowing the con- The transit times produced by the two-element and four-element sondes are not borehole compensated and should not be treated as indicative of formation responses. • A six-element sonde is a svmrnetrical combination of the three-element configuration. has the conventional transmitter-receivers layout interchanged. Soviet LAK-I Laboratory. Apparatus for acoustic logging: (a) three-element sonde: (b) two-element sonde.10. Acoustic logging equipment The historical development and design of . and indicates the same basic tool types are used for sonic and attenuation measurements. Itenberg (1971) mentions two main types of sonde then in use for measuring transit time. Two (upper and lewer) transmitters are each linked to separate pairs of receivers and record the transit time of the formation between the receivers.. produced by the Kiev Geophysical Instrument Works. . six. sondes • A/our-element sonde is a symmetrical combination of the two-element configuration comprising two transmitter-receiver pairs recording transit-times in opposing directions. R. spacing (base length) (after Itenberg L(71). figuration of three-. All measurements are likely to be affected across zones of extreme washout or erratic and frequent hole size variations. Sonic Andrew Stocks Petra Physics Ltd Acoustic measurements are one of the less problematic responses to the 'westerner' analysing a 'Russian' data set. This is a core of nickel or alloy. described as 'two-element' and 'three-element' sondes (Fig. oscillator: R. R" receivers. but yields the same transit time measurement. wound in a coil.

Some 40-50m of overlap with previous logging surveys plus a 40-50 m repeat section in the new logged interval is recommended to check consistency of responses. the following display formats are reported as standard: . Before and after survey calibrations should be recorded on hardcopy logs. Note. Distances. Transit time curves are generally displayed in microseconds/meter (us/m).lls/m). However. Measurement error is assessed by checking responses in type formations and casing.25 m between the transmitter and receiver No 1 and 0. indicating: - Units and log presentation It should be noted that in the FSU it is standard practice to plot curves with scales increasing in magnitude from left to right. The distance 'r' must take into account bit size and expected final hole size (Itenberg used 0. Derivation of the input parameters is less clearly defined. Acoustically slower or more porous formations are implied by deflections of the curve to the right.4R. Acquisition guidelines require at least 30 m of log to be recorded across uncemented steel casing.75 m. A configuration of 'Vl.ressed in the form' V1. Itenberg (1971) indicates that sonde spacing is selected to minimize the effects of damaged formation (drilling induced) around the borehole. vr is the elastic wave velocity in the formation (expected formation velocity) and vLi is the elastic wave velocity in the damaged zone.5 m 0. in metres. that with the two-element sonde (one transmitter.75 m between receiver No 1 and receiver No 2. As the damaged zone includes the mud column the value 'vd' should reflect a drilling fluid velocity (approximately 1600. This indicates a distance of 1. Scales are usually readily definable on conventional graphical plots of the data.1-0. The spacing reflects the interval across which the acoustic measurement is representative and consequently defines the vertical resolution of the tool. Under the guidelines for logging equipment operation the sonic tool is run centralized with a centralizer placed between the transmitter and receivers.0 m 0.Sonde spacing and resolution The term 'sonde length' refers to the distance between the transmitter and receiver. whilst sonde 'spacing' (or base) is the distance between the receivers. This is the optimum configuration quoted for the LAK-l acoustic log laboratories threeelement sonde and represents a sonde length of 2. between the transmitter and receivers should be identifiable on the log headers and ~yp~cally exp. This is commonly the case with transit times and contrary to the standard format adopted in the West.5 m. however. A typical log from a three-element sonde will include the transit times to each receiver (t1 and t2) plus the transit time between the receivers. The tool is run at speeds up to 1000 m/h with reduced logging speeds and time thresholds recommended for repeated intervals where formation properties can create acoustic noise and erratic recorded transit times. Readings from the calibrator signals before and after survey are not expected to differ by more than 3%. whilst faster or tighter formations are indicated by deflections to the left.2-2. to check casing signals (183 ± 5 Ils/m). and by comparing repeat sections with the main survey. and therefore may not be standard between or within regions.2). Units per em of paper t1t (us/m) I" t. Vr vd 1/2 where Smin is the minimum sonde spacing. r is the distance from sonde surface to outer edge of damaged zone. 10. Srrun = 2r (v r + v d ) .25R 75R:'. 50 50 Tool calibration and acquisition Calibration of the acoustic sonde is supposed to be done using a calibrated steel band (3 inches wide) Borehole effects Borehole effects on measured transit times can be caused by both variations in the borehole size and shape plus variations in the general position of the tool . The follo'winl! conditions are required to be satisfied in the selection of the optimum sonde spacing: clamped along the sonde and with the sonde immersed in water.0 m and spacing of 0. The following range in sonde lengths and spacings are reported as generally in use in oil and gas wells: sonde length spacing 1. At (see Fig.IR l0.' has been observed in Kazakhstan.0. In practice it is likely to be done in a piece of water-filled steel pipe. one receiver) there is no concept of 'spacing' and the vertical resolution will be less than the 'sonde length' (see section on borehole corrections below).4 m. (us/m) Carbonates Sandstones La 20 sonde length spacing 1.5 m in an example).

T2 ""--------------Dt------ 50 150 100 225 250 200 325 350 300 425 450 -400 525 550 500 625 650 -~ 750 MKceK 600 725 700MKceK 725 MKceKiMICM o 125 . V1.--.2.~" -------1 Fig. -----.r..~ . Typical acoustic log display: three-element sonde.-. 10.--~~"'.~~.lTI0AT~_ .

Both the two. However. In a back-to-beck comparison of sonic logs from Soviet three-element sondes and western BHe tools in six wells (Chapter l3). and most commonly the latter. these will be most evident in the two-.5 + (ulmudutr- A A) 1 ) 1) such that: = It. given that reasonable borehole conditions prevail and the tool is positioned parallel to the borehole wall.tfm is the transit time of formation (us/m). The actual length of the transit path in the formation (L) can be estimated from the following: L = S .3. b. Litad· is the transit time of adjacent or surrounding beds euJ/m). Failure to compensate transit times from two-element sondes for the mud path component win result in a significant overestimation of porosity.tbed is the transit time of thin bed (usfm).in the hole. In both tool types. hypotenuse route' to the borehole wall. The first arrival time' t.lmud X (dhole . Excessive borehole sizes will degrade the quality of the data in all tools.tmud is the transit time of mud (600-660 ps/m).and three-element sondes. In terms of porosity.t). In the FSU. Tilting of the tool positions the transrnitter/s relatively closer to or more distant from the borehole wall than the receiver/s and results in transit times respectively higher or lower than the actual formation response.b.t is the transit time. There are no easily quantifiable corrections for borehole effects on transit times. The following expressions clarify the measurements produced from the two tool types: Three-element :':!. this is equivalent to approximately 0. maximum error in the same hole size of 10 ush« (equivalent to approximately 2.~tadj S S . Increases in tool tilt would inevitably lead to higher errors.6.6. The design of the standard BHe acoustic/sonic log. S is the spacing in metres. resulting in the six-element sonde that is comparable to the western BHC tool. In his back-toback comparison. spacing dictates the vertical resolution and consequently the vertical extent across which any borehole abnormalities may influence the measurements. Kennedy indicates that in a 210 mm hole a tilt of only 0.t fm mud 2 x Lit ::::t - mud x (d hole -d sonde (0.t (b. h is the thickness of thin bed (m) and S is the sonde . Average differences ranged 1-6. the bulk of data that is likely to be available will be from the two.r:::: sonde Two-element sonde =s: i r. Itenberg (1971. L is the length of transit path in formation in metres and t is the time of first arrival at receiver. run in the West. three. tool designs have adapted to minimize these influences.5 porosity units. However. Similar considerations wiII be relevant to data from the four-element sonde. - r. incorporates the mud path components and as such will be greater than the actual formation response. from caliper or bit size. In addition.o. tool eccentricity and formation damage.st » L S where b. of the acoustic sonde. Kennedy indicates an extreme.:2 X . (1 ': are the times of first arrival at receivers 1 and 2: S is the sonde spacing. in metres.5 porosity units). 1987).l1dC) b. in metres.tmudi. b.d. in the two-element sonde. { is the time of first arrival at receiver.and four-element sondes recorded in the FSU will be directly affected by variations in borehole size.. 6. comparable design developments have taken place. is specifically intended to minimize such effects and yield formation transit times that are compensated for hole rugosity and tool aspect. Where bed thicknesses are less than the sonde spacing. but unlikely. To compute transit times in the formation from a two-element sonde then an estimate of the mud path contribution to total transit time is required as is an estimate of the actual distance travelled by the signal in the formation. Kennedy reports that the Soviet tools produced transit times that were generally higher than the BHC tools. if used for such a calculation. dsonde is the diameter of sonde.1 fm tmud where L dhole is the where b.and four-element sondes.tbed + (S-Iz). includes the following relationship for determining transit time of the thin bed: b. the distance travelled by the signal in the formation is less than the spacing of the sonde as there will be a critical 'fast" path for the first arrival that follows a . Transit times produced from the three-element sonde are expected to be representative of formation transit times.as/m and could have been attributable to a combination of causes including plotting or digitizing inaccuracies and tool tilt.lfm is the transit time of formation. and identified by high transit times and a greater frequency of cycle skips. . or resolution. However. Thin bed resolution Reliable estimates of formation transit time will only be measured where the thickness of the beds exceeds the spacing.1 and the mud path contribution ( = can be estimated )x as: diameter of hole.4 degrees would be required to produce an observed discrepancy of 2 ps/m between the two tools in one borehole.

85 235 . Similar tables incorporating acoustic properties are published in the logging contractor's chart books. For some evaporite minerals the acoustic responses are often diagnostic enough to enable the mineral to be identified.1-1.6000 330 200 5000 -7500 -1. Expected ranges Type of rock or substance Shale Marl Sand Non-cemented sandstone Compact sandstone Limestone.500. is represented in Table 10. An estimate of the thin bed thickness may be evident from the microresistivity logs. The matrix and fluid transit times are generally constants reflecting the acoustic properties of the reservoir rock matrix and pore fluid properties respectively (see Table 10. drilling mud Ice Oil Air Methane Steel 0/ (lCOIiSUC properties Transit times (as/ft) 244 .1.5500 220 -1.55 67 .0-1.3600 1300 . minerals and fluids.00 770 300 .350 3300 430 2100 5400 L85 Accredited to Kornarov ( 1963) . The compaction factor is a means of compensating for the increased transit times observed in poorly cemented or unconsolidated formations.40 67 .a range of lithologies.L700 660 320 3100 .300 1250 . L200 . salt (after Itenberg 1971). gypsum Rock salt Crystalline rock Water.2500 2000 .. Delineation of sand-shale and hydrochemical sequences from acoustic logging data: ~.400 500 . spacing (m).216 1006 -853 640 56 Velocity (rn/s) Castm) Fig.6500 1500 . !1tma is the transit time of matrix. In certain lithological sequences acoustic transit times can be used to delineate between lithologies and L500 .52 61. such as a density.550 400 170 130 150 180 L50 600 280 710 2800 Interpretation of acoustic transit times The acoustic transit times are used as both a lithology and porosity indicator. dolomite Anhydrite. shale: 4.91 381.£ll rna x Cp £lt f ma where: rp is the porosity (fractional).1). porosity indicator may be used. In the absence of any porosity control then a 'rule of ~1 ~2 1113 CJ4 Table lO.2500 600 3000 ..122 152 .46 201-183 98 .6500 220 220 4500 .46 67 . anhydrite: 3. sandstone: 2. !1tf is the transit time of pore fluid and Cp is the compaction factor.I. but reasonably accurate. attributed to Komarov (1963).500. This linearly relates porosity to transit time in the following form: ip !1t = ~tlog -.consequently become important correlation logs.1800 800 . In the absence of core control then an alternative.3500 800 .6 and can be determined by calibration of the acousic porosities to core porosities where available. neutron or resistivity based porosity. !1t1og is the transit time of formation (from log).3.3 illustrates the potential of the acoustic log to distinguish lithological boundaries and units in a mixed clastic and evaporite sequence. Compaction factors are typically in the range 1. 10. Velocities and transit times for . Figure 10. Porositv Porosities have traditionally been calculated from acoustic transit times using the Wyllie time average relationship.168 183 -122 100 .

170 . prior to the preparation of this manuaL the use of non-linear porosity-transit time functions is now apparently widespread in the FSU. In more porous sandstones and limestones and soft rocks. 10. Although not documented in the texts reviewed.Zj:". Acoustic derived porosrties are considered (Itenberg) to be most accurate in limestones and hard sandstones.=-=.us/m) in an adjacent shale bed. Graphical representations of the transform are included as Fig. This can be best achieved where zones of low or zero porosity and homogeneous lithology are present in the zone of interest and ideally where core porosity data is available. vuggy or cavernous porosity as it is primarily an indicator of matrix porosity. and particularly mixed carbonate sequences._=.=_.g/l) _.:::. - Fig. salinity and pressure (after Itenberg 1987)..~ 40 9- 20 200 /li.ls/m) o 150 200 250 300 400 500 M (Ils/m) --WyJlie time average Raymer-Hunt non-linear transforms Fig.5. A log In certain complex lithologies.5 represents a graph used to determine the acoustic properties of water. 155 /-is/m (limestone): 4. formation water and cementation. Transit times for water from temperature. The technique does require good calibration of both the neutron porosities and also validation of the transit times. the acoustic transit times can be used in conjunction with neutron porosities to determine both general lithological composition and porosity through a conventional crossplot evaluation.-:t:: =.. then corrections are recommended for shaliness.tshale is the transit time (. = 0. 145/Js/m (dolomite): 3. The timeaverage relationship is not recommended for use as a total porosity indicator in formations with fracture. log (after Schlumberger . The following simplification of the Raymer-Hunt transform can be used for porosity estimates in the range 0-37%: r. Carbonate reservoirs often meet these requirements and considerable success has been reported by analysts applying this technique. 10. .Altma). 182/Js/m (sandstone) (after Itenberg 1987). The Wyllie relationship is represented in the references from the FSU and Fig. 130/Js/m: 2. 10.thumb' approximation can be made in a shale/clay bed whereby: (Salinity.tJ 40 80 120 Temperature (Oel Pressure (kPa) Fig. Consideration is evidently given to the effects of salinity._--. interval transit time (J. published their non-linear transform for determining porosity from acoustic transit times.tshale p- 328 where: 6.---TIme average Field observation =.4 shows a graphical representation of the porosity-transit time transform (from ltenberg 1987).6. Figure 10. temperature and pressure on transit times in water. 50~======~==~===+==~~~~ --. Porosity from acoustic log for formations with approximate matrix transit times Atma of: 1. lOA. where porosities are less than 15%. 10.~~:::.625 x (1 .us/m: 5._ c _ 6.6. In 1981 Raymer et al.NaCI. Porosity from sonic/acoustic 1991 ). This was based on comparisons of logged transit times and measured core porosities and has become widely adopted as a more realistic porosity indicator.

Ravrner.L. Moscow. Hunt. ltenberg.5.S.G. Kornorov. Encyclopedia of Well Logging. Moscow. All Improved Sonic Transit Time. Studv of Oil and Gas Series from Well Logs. London.5. 1985. Schlumberger 1991. 1984. L. 1980. Itenberg. Transactions 5PWLA Symposium. 1963. Geophysical Well Logging. Nedra. 5. R.References Desbrandes. Interpretation of Logging Data Obtained from Complicated Reservoirs. Log Interpretation Charts. Geophysical Methods of Investigating Wells.R. 5. Irenberg. S. 5. E. Moscow. Nedra.To-Porosity Transform. 1980. J. & Gardner. 1987. 1971.5. . Graham & Trotman. Moscow. Mir Publishers.

similar to the old LL3).S) Single-electrode sonde (A) S Two-sleofroda sonde (A. the number of these run per well. far and away.:-:-~reference + point '. The non-focused and asymmetrical nature of laterals. Perhaps SOq of all resistivity logs are the non-focused type. ----+----. permit a greater degree of interpretation. it is unusual to find more than one or two focused logs per well (typically an induction log. the most common resistivity logs run in the FSU. The western versions of these tools were very difficult to interpret.11.~. Williams1 BP Exploration 2 Consultant Overview Focused induction and laterolog resistivity logging tools are available in the FSU. (b) Alternative potential resistivity electrode configurations. tends to direct western log users towards the single. However. are non-focused tools similar to these. similar to the Schlumberger 6FF40.1. Unfocused resistivity Mike Vincent! & Fred G.:f.. because they have not been employed in the West for 20 to 30 years.N) o Introduction A typical resistivity logging suite run in the West in the 1950s comprised two normal devices plus a single. focused tool. e.. but the most com manly run resistivity devices are the non-focused equivalents of the Normal and Lateral tools commonly used in the West.g. common resistivity logs run in the FSU. Although they share the same basic electrical theory as their western counterparts. non-focused logs are. deep reading. (a) S N AM--t-tool A SP~c~!! __ _ Mi~~~ o . even today. being very sensitive to bed thickness. particularly digitally. They are classified as potential (normal) and BKZ gradient (lateral) tools according to the spacing arrangement of the electrodes.. The most • Depth reference recording point (0) SP recording point b. . or a laterolog. 16-inch and 64~inch (short and long) normals plus 18' 18" lateral. They were generally considered poor for deriving R. The sheer number of these logs makes understanding them a necessity for any geologist or engineer intending to work with FSU logs. The multiple laterals contain useful invasion information and it is worth trying to synthesize all resistivity tools. Fig. Despite these apparent limitations. coupled with the associated interpretation difficulties. the limited focused log suite is usualIy accompanied by a family of laterals with different spacing. but they are run in combinations with different spacings. shoulder bed resistivity and borehole conditions.. The possible effects of very deep invasion and/or poor calibration render this a dangerous strategy. (a) Potential (normal) resistivity logging tool electrode configuration. __ ~ Depth (b) Inverted Direct N S A M N M A Single·electrode sonde (A) X Two-electrode sonde (A. 11. even today. Although combinations of focused logs with different depths of investigation are occasionally run in the FSU.S) Potential electrodes (M. using different electrode permutations. And yet. prior to 1960. they are the logs least understood by today's generation of non-specialist log users. •• ~ L-'r.S) Current electrodes (A. lateral device.

Ijb) illustrate the four basic electrode configurations used for this tool.4 0.5 0.25 15.l(a). 11.2 18'8" lateral N M B A M A A M 3 0. The first two sections describe the basic electrode arrangements of the potential and BK. However. • Critical bed: apparent resistivity (Ra) reduces with bed thickness (/z) until equal to the AM spacing. several examples are shown in Table 11. This is Table 11. . Potential difference is measured between electrodes M and N. 11. The shoulders are situated at 0. being a function of lithology and resistivity for a particular area. An equivalent for FSU tools has not been identified to date. An often quoted simple rule of thumb is to assume that the depth of investigation is equal to twice tbe spacing. A current is passed between electrodes A and B.2.5 AM above and below the bed.4 Middle electrode Electrode spacing (m) 0.0 ~ .Z tools and aspects unique to each of them. M and N. i.3). but in practice it is much less and probably closer to one electrode spacing. The final section demonstrates practical interpretation principles and shows some worked examples. However. lLl(a). discussed later under 'Standard Sondes'. Theoretical geometric factors for western normal and lateral resistivity logging tools. the potential tool is a shallow reading tool. their distinctive response curves.s Q) ~ ~ OJ 0. Resistive beds: • Thick beds: response curve is narrower than bed by AM. is the depth reference point for the measurement. (See Fig.e. Upper electrode Electrode spacing (rn) II 0. In principle. The mid-point. to demonstrate the variety of electrode spacings. Typicalpotentiai tool electrode spacings. Ra becomes less and shoulders higher. Depth of investigation The depth of investigation of western 'normal' tools has been described by theoretical geometric factors (see Fig. • Thin bed: shape similar to that of critical bed. 11. spacings used in the FSU vary considerably. in contrast to the western practice of standardising electrode spacing (for any given contractor). Basic response curves (and corresponding rules) are recognised according to bed resistivity and bed thickness.e.This chapter.1(b). However. is divided into four sections. A and B.6 0 01 '0 . Electrode spacing The distance AM is called the spacing of the tool.g Q) Q) U <5 0. An electrical field is established around electrode A in the form of spherical equipotential surfaces. which describes these non-focused tools. Response curves A fundamental and important characteristic of the potential log curve that distinguishes it from the gradient curve. and two potential electrodes. Four basic permutations are seen in the FSU. Figures 1l.5 2.1.5 Lower electrode 1. Shoulders are' AM + h' apart.8 E 0.8 A B M N 10 15 25 30 Distance 1rom power electrode (feet) Fig. i. Potential (normal) tools Electrode configuration The potential device comprises two current electrodes. 11. The third section deals with working with these logs and brings together aspects of the logs which are essentially common to both tools. e. ll.5 metres. is that it is symmetrical and therefore useful for initial bed boundary definition. Theory Consider the basic electrode arrangement shown in Fig. N is considered to be an infinite distance away from M and the resistivity of the adjacent formation to be proportional to the measured potential difference.1(a) and Ll. at which point the resistive peak reverses and shoulders develop above and below the bed boundaries. One of these is equivalent to the arrangement used in western normal tools as shown in Fig. The other three tool configurations are variations on the same theme and are shown in Fig. Thus.25 to 0.2). approximately 0.1. 0.g. care is needed in picking the exact boundary point.

Note that in thick conductive beds. • Thin beds: shape remains as for thick beds.N) Single--electrode sonde B Two-electrode sonde Current electrodes Potential electrodes o • Depth reference recording point (0) SP recording point . the downhole tool is shorted out of the circuit and (a) .. Fig.AM + II'. Bed thickness becomes equal to . ~O _ --------+h -.Conductive permeable beds Resistivity Resistive permeable beds Resistivity • R/Rm is high (as R. a:i:g .. 11. Inverted top sondes Direct bottom sondes Conductive beds: • Thick beds: response curve is wider than bed by AM. a greater part of the current is conducted in the borehole and the resistivity resolution of the tool deteriorates).B) (M.'i :':. Response narrower than bed byAM Response wider than bed by AM / ~~o~i:. . tAM Depth of investigation AO (b) Fig. BKZ gradient (lateral) resistivity logging tool electrode configuration.. To achieve this. BKZ gradient (lateral) tools. Response wider than bed by AM Tool calibration Calibration of non-focused resistivity logs essentially involves scaling of the chart recorder. but Ra diminishes. Ra is much closer to true resistivity (Rt) than in thick resistive beds. in thin conductive beds there is no reversal of the curve.<. 1l. deeper investigation being achieved with multiple. N B A M M A Limitations As the AM spacing is increased to achieve deeper investigation. vertical resolution deteriorates. increases. Summary of response curves for potential (normal) resistivity logging tool.·(~·.:'j).~~)]i. Potential log resistivity cannot be used when: • Bed thickness < AM • Borehole fluid is non-conductive A Single--electrode sonde X Two-electrode sonde (A. This is perhaps why only a 'short' potential device is used in the FSU.4. '_.:i:~~:. Also.3.6..<"c l .l}.

and two potential electrodes.3. Tools with the paired electrodes at the top are called top sondes (or inverted gradient tools) since the upper boundary of a thick. 11. including the basic western arrangement.5A0.45 1. both are run in a suite of BKZ logs and thus both upper and lower bed boundaries can be defined by the combination.5A4M (BKZ) B2.5 0.1 0. A :.5A2M (BKZ) M2AO. In contrast to the Potential devices. the reference point 0. such that the distance MN is less than AM (or AB < AM).4 Middle electrode Electrode spacing (m) 2 0.0M (BKZ) NO.1 0.4(a) shows the basic electrode configuration as used in western lateral tools.5B (BKZ) B7. In contrast. Table 11.5A2.25A (8KZ) M2. four electrode permutations are seen in FSU BKZ logs. relatively close to the coupled M electrode. 11.5A3M (BKZ) MO. which is taken as the depth of investigation.45 l. see Fig.5AO.25A2. hence the FSU name. the N electrode is positioned on the sonde. Typically: Theory and depth of investigation A current is passed between electrodes A and B and an electrical field is established around electrode A in the form of spherical equipotential surfaces. If the paired electrodes are situated at the bottom of the sonde. Typically.05 2.258 (BKZ) B2.5A38 (Potential) BO. Most cammal! BKZ gradient electrode spacings. Standard potential and BKZ gradient sondes.05 2. Figure 11.4.25 0.5 I Lower electrode AD spacing em) 2.25B (BKZ) BO. the maximum is observed at the lower boundary of a thick. The equivalent formation resistivity is calculated after allowing for the tool K factor.0 M M M M M M A N N N N N Table 11. Table 11.5AO.25 0. the BKZ gradient device comprises two current electrodes. Oil-bearing region South Caspian Depression Western North Caucasus Caspian Depression Formation Sandy shales Sandy shales Sandy shales Sonde BO. The potential difference between electodes M and N is measured and is proportional to the gradient between M and N.repiaceu by Shunt resistances of known magnitudes.25 ·U5 8.25M (Potential) BO.5 N A A A A.25 8.94 27.39 13. As demonstrated for the Potential logs.25A2M(BKZ) M4AO. high resistivity formation is marked by a maximum with them.2. K= AN X AM MN (spacings in metres).4(b). ~ 8 1. A and B. The paired potential electrodes can be positioned at the top or the base of the sonde. resistive bed and the tool is called a bottom sonde. is midway between the potential electrodes M and N. M and N.9 Equivalent imperial mnemonic IEL7 ~ EL02 EL03 EL07 EL14 EL28 [EL2 EL04 ELl 0 EL22 EL42 EL85 • Top sonde (inverted gradient tool).75M (Potential) BO.45 7.47 3. Upper electrode Electrode spacing (m) 0.4(a).5M (BKZ) Western Siberia Eastern & Central N Caucasus Volga .5A2M (8KZ) B0.5AO. see Fig.5 Typical mnemonic AO spacing (feet) 7. The tool is characterized by the AO spacing. BKZ gradient log mnemonics AO spacing (m) 2.25 4. gradient sonde.5B (BKZ) BO. BKZ gradient (lateral) tools Electrode configuration Like the Potential tool.Urals region Sandy shales Sandy shales & Carbonates Ukraine Ferghana Valley .25M2. which is a function of the tool geometry.39 1.5 0.25M (Potential) M2AO.

U. .S.o I Resistivity (n m) -- Theoretical curve Theoretical curve modified by borehole effect Fig. BKZ response curve in a thick resistive bed.

Thus. The AO spacing is often used by western companies in a four-character mnemonic. Thin beds: Upper bed boundary again well defined and lower boundary seen early by an amount equal to the AO spacing. An example of the application of these rules is shown later.5 X AO • Bed = AO • Bed < AO Similar rules are described for BKZ logs by Itenberg (1) but in terms of 'Mean. Conductive beds: • Thick beds: Upper bed boundary is well defined.9). 11. the current is emitted radially from the current electrode and the equipetential surfaces. = Rmax x R/Rmin· Note. . Figures 11. an additional interpretation step of choosing an appropriate Ra is necessary. It also leads to the shadow zones and decay zones which limit the overall effectiveness of the tool for measuring R. Response curves The asymmetric arrangement of the electrodes results in an asymmetric response curve. EL22 for 2. they are summarized below (see Fig. . but easier to explain.g. = Limitations The fundamental limitation of the BKZ log is its asymmetrical response curve. maximum and optimum apparent resistivity'. Lower bed boundary is marked early by an amount AO spacing. n.Electrode spacing and mnemonics For each well. • Bed 1. according to the following bed-AO spacingrelationships: • Bed> 2 X AO • Bed = 1. isotropic earth. • Thin beds (whose thickness is less than AO spacing): The bed is noted by a thin resistivity spike of low Ra' Resistivity dips above and below the bed.5 X AO: Moving to a distance AD below the top of the bed. a suite of BKZ gradient tools with different depths of investigation are typically run. The determining factor is the position of each of the electrodes with respect to the bed being measured. an Ra is read directly from the log and entered into charts to correct for borehole and environmental effects. The shadow zone corresponds to when the bed is between the current and measuring electrodes. using the EL (Electric Log) prefix and the first two numbers of the spacing e.7 show the positions of the electrodes when recording any point on the log for a range of bed resistivities and bed thickness profiles. it is important to recognise that the maximum resistivity (Rmax) for a given bed (as measured by a BKZ log) is not necessarily the actual value of Ra' Four rules were devised to derive Ra from western lateral response curves. As the western rules are equivalent. Rmax' • Bed < AO: Ra is approximated from the equation: = = s. • Bed AO: is the peak log reading.. these rules assume bottom reading sondes.25 m AO spacing.S which can be described-as follows (for bottom sondes). in the actual case. The current lines become curved in travelling the path of least resistance and the equipotential surfaces become distorted from the spherical shape. Bottom boundary marked by resistivity spike> Rr Bed appears thinner by an amount = AO spacing. In a homogeneous. although FSU log spacings are normally quoted in metres. However. However. The shape of the electrode A symbol reflects the current distortion described above.2 shows the suite of six most frequently seen. • Bed> 2 X AO: Ra is the log reading AO below the mid point of the bed . bed appears too thick. the earth contains layers of different resistivities.5 to 11. The shape varies primarily as a function of bed thickness and whether the permeable beds are more or less resistive than the surrounding shales. Although many permutations have been witnessed. This precludes bed boundary definition. i.3. Ra is the log reading 2/3 of the way between this point and the peak reading at the base of the bed. at a distance Resistive beds: • Thick beds: Upper bed boundary poorly defined. The various examples of this practise are shown in Table 11.4. some western companies have converted these to imperial units and used the rounded number in the mnemonic. The low zone below is called the shadow (dead or blind) zone. For the asymmetric BKZ log. Table 11. The latter are at right angles to the current lines and are spherical. Determining apparent resistivity (R) For most resistivity tools. The basic response curves are summarized in Fig.e. The tool also requires a conductive fluid in the borehole. Other permutations are presented in Table 11. is equal to AO spacing in length and is followed by a 'reflection' peak. ll.

NO.0. and 0-200 Dm.0.m I RSh::: 1 fl m At ~ N Fig. mud details etc. i. The generic Russian tool name normally appears at the top of the header.Resistivity (. 11.m) ____. Calibration As for Potential tools.m) LEGEND RI = 10..0.11. the value is frequently not recorded.g.. but generally include space for some of the expected pieces of information.5M2. see Fig. The only indication of tool type is the electrode spacing..6.10. = RI for bed In which "Moo and "N" lie VERY THIN RESISTIVE BED Resistivity (. e. However. o LEGEND RI =10. typical scales in Caspian Sea logs are. 0-8. For example. Working with non-focused FSU resistivity logs Log presentation Log headers are not standard. 0-40.g.o. Space is not provided for Rmf (mud filtrate resistivity) or Rme (mud cake resistivity) and whilst a line is allocated for Rm (mud resistivity). m Rsh = 1 . it is not uncommon for information to be missing.0. BKZ -------------- log response curve in thin resistive beds. Log character should help to distinguish the tool type. Distinguishing potential and BKZ gradient logs Log names such as Potential or BKZ are rarely shown on the log header. The exact tool type is derived from the recorded spacing which appears in English e. five separate BKZ gradient logs each with a separate SP.e. 11.0A. m ____. sometimes with a less than obvious step increase in wrapround scales. tool name. see Fig. They are presented separately on linear scales. symmetrical response . well name. Non-focused logs are run individually but in combination with an SP log for depth control/matching. I ~ ---~::---I At Ra 1-t= 1----- ---------_ When "A" is at centre of bed. 11.

4 demonstrates. the permutations of electrode spacings are far greater. The basic rules are: • Potential (normal) sondes: Spacing between the paired electrodes MN or AB is greater than that between the closely spaced electrodes..I Resistivity (!1 m) . a sonde with an arrangement of electrodes best' suited to the prevalent lithology and resistivity is established early in the exploration program and run on all subsequently wells without exception. For any geological province or for any field or groups of fields. However. BKZ log response curve in a thick conductive bed. the many possible variations of spacing make it difficult to distinguish tool type at a quick glance. Its length increases with thinning of salt sand Fig. However. Whilst the extra combinations offer additional interpretation options. 11.7. asymmetrical for BKZ gradient tools. whilst the basic concepts of potential and BKZ gradient logging are the same as those of the normal and lateral logging. there is the possibility of inconsistency. for potential device. as Table 11. using so called 'standard sondes'. These factors are harmonized by the philosophy of 'standard logging'. in particular. Correct identification of tool type is possible from the electrode spacing. . a changing lithology (fining I coarsening up sequence) may distort this simple expectation.. AM or MA. Ro = 1 Qm Rsh = 5 Q m -Theoretical curve Theoretical curve modified by borehole effect LEGEND A M N o ----------- SALT WATER TRAILER This feature is consrstsntly associated with an approach to a salt water sand. the application of the technology is very different and. e BKZ gradient (lateral) sondes: Spacing between the paired electrodes M and N or A and B is smaller than between the remotely spaced electrodes AM or MA Standard sondes It has been stressed in previous sections that.

whilst equivalents for some.11. Summary of BKZ response curves.Conductive Beds Resistivity Resistive Beds Resistivity Response wider than bed by AO Sand Fig.4. For thick beds. have been identified. Environmental corrections Environmental correction of a typical western non focused resistivity log would involve a three-stage process: Normal (Potential) Logs • Borehole and bed thickness correction. A standard sonde must meet the following requirements: • the log must clearly indicate the boundaries of lay· ers of different resistivity • apparent resistivity of the beds should not differ too markedly from the true resistivity Itenberg (1) includes a discussion of how standard sondes are selected. using a . Some FSU charts. have not. only borehole correction is required. such as borehole correction. • Borehole correction • Bed thickness correction • Departure curve correction with slight variations between the processes for Normal and Lateral logs. The correction procedures for equivalent western tools are described below and comment made regarding their applicability to FSU logs. such as departure curves. which lists example standard sondes used in some key hydrocarbon provinces of the FSU. His notes are summarized in Table 11. 11.

normals and laterals.16 for comparison.5). departure curves can be employed together with a number of Normal resistivity values from tools of different spacing in order to derive a value for true resistivity (Rt). from asymmetric ~KZ logs. differing only in having slightly different R/Rm ratios. Departure curves have been compiled by computation and by using resistivity networks (e.17) is used for lateral borehole correction. Equivalent FSU borehole and bed thickness charts have not been identified. 11.9. only shallow Potential logs are seen.12) to correct the reading to an equivalent 8-inch hole reading. Both of these are achieved using charts such as Schlumberger's Rcor-12 and Rcor-ll (Figs 11. Guyod). • Departure curves. FSU Potential departure curves have been identified and so examples of both western and FSU charts are The 1955 Schlumberger Chart book combined the curves for different depths of invasion for any given R/Rm ratio (using colour coding). • Departure Curves. However. R/R~ No Invasion. Rules for deriving apparent resistivity R. • Bed thickness correction.13 and 11.15 & 11.g. Schlumberger R/Rm chart ratios FSU R/Rm chart ratios 6 5 11 21 51 10 20 40 21 100 200 Bed =AO Bad<AO Ra = RmflJ<XRsIRmm Fig. they are not unique to a contractor. In principle. including a chart for no invasion. (Fig.:d D. These curves provide a means of solving for R[ using a number of apparent resistivities from a suite of tools with different spacings. This was more appropriate to western practise in which a short and long normal were measured. Very similar FSU departure curve charts have been identified for equivalent D/d ratios. Lateral (EKZ gradient) Logs. 11. chart such as Schlumbergers Rcor-9 (Fig. the asymmetrical character of the response curves necessitates a procedure for deriving Ra from the raw log reading. This renders departure curve correction superfluous. As already explained.=LOd 6) 11) 16) 21) . thereby reducing the total number of curves from 21 to 6 for each of the tool types. 1+(4X5) = 21 charts) (see Table 11. The Schlurnberger charts are thus considered applicable Table 11. 11. FSU logging practice is geared more to deriving R.14) according to invasion. Chart l 6 11 21 51 (Chart 2) (Chart 3) (Chart 4) (Chart 6 11 21 51 (Chart 7) (Chart 8) (Chart 9) (Chart 6 11 21 51 (Chart 12) (Chart 13) (Chart 14) (Chart 6 11 21 51 (Chart l7) (Chart 18) (Chart 19 (Chart 21 5) (Chart 21 10) (Chart 21 15) (Chan 21 20) (Chart D. The four rules described amount to a bed thickness correction and must be applied to derive a value for borehole correction input. A full discussion of the use of departure curves is included in later sections.e.5. As the charts allow for different electrode spacings (AM and AO) and are theoretical. For thin beds. Applicability to FSU logs is as described above for Normal tools. from BKZ gradient logs and so generally. correction for both borehole and bed thickness is necessary. Nonetheless. it is necessary to use the earlier mentioned Rcor-9 (Fig. but it is worth applying the western equivalents and making a judgement as to the possible effect of such a correction and reporting it in the range of uncertainties . prior to using these latter charts.12). 11. The original western departure curves were prepared as sets. • Borehole correction Schlurnberger chart Rcor-lO.=2d Di:5d D.shown in Figs 11. and charts for four different ratios of diameter of invasion (D) to hole diameter (d) and for five different ratios of invaded zone to mud resistivity for each diameter of invasion (i.

scale .0 Fig.X:z ~ . Log response is symmetrical.. cannot be digitally interpreted by conventional means.t.f M.:G:d:. 11..:.19 exemplify Schlumberger and FSU chart presentations: Use of the departure curves is described. auixca« cJd99 _"..0 .. Practical interpretation of Potential and BKZ gradient resistivity logs (with examples) Potential logs are primarily used for defining bed boundaries and deriving an approximate flushed zone resistivity (Rxo) to use in residual (flushed zone) saturation (5xo) calculations. and in particular the asvrnmetrical BKZ gradient logs...?::. a number of Single point handlchart interpretation Potencial logs L Make an initial assessment of apparent bed boundaries and compare consequent bed thickness with electrode spacing in the context of the theoretical response curves. C!O:3rB:3reO<l>L'I:3L'1Ka" ._ Casing id clam/depth PaC1"DOp (nKn) YpOBeUb .A~H::=:a:::M:::-_T.vp."'-LW~ __ HIilK napmuu H~pmu DPoepun ~(:-f!'~ AO .. so read apparent resistivity. The BKZ logs are used for determining true resistivity (R)t and thus virgin zone • ~ saturation (Sw)' These non-focused logs. YAent>Hoe conpOT". 3aooK Aono1"O Drill bit diam/depth __ ::rn::-:y::. HP.1df . T"'rICKB.0{6""".:"o:-7V1HC":"a--":=-:=-:::::---"'.0 ... Typical non-focused resistivity log.r AHaM Bottom depth ---~-_l_ -------.c2't44'// Linear (potentiaI/BK_7)f--____.Log name BrO TpeCT MItIHr'A3npOM .c. ::.J.::::':::::.<V 27~.sneH". .~ M...:J?./h/ MM. in the next section.. with examples.-.._ L'" rtovroopa (Y...t.QY ~ M.i..10. Figures 11.::. . ?d.Q J.#..R 1241 ".'""':A. and more practical (than FSU charts) for use with FSU logs. 2... KOCTb ..:.I o4do~ Aara c::....e np t _ _ Specfic gravity Jlaoopa.:pL'l3V1Ka" __ Well name 3HCnEAItIWItl~ 3neKTPItl~ECKItIItI KAPOTA~ Date Flnourauo 3BKB:34K d..z" Mud resistivity? 3amep or __ -...18 to 11. (T".a6 ~t:?. approaches have evolved for interpreting them: • Single-point hand/chart interpretation • Pseudo-compensation digital interpretation • Simultaneous inversion computer modelling These are outlined in detail with examples in the following three sections.{d'4.""' a~..<2 sec Drilling mud YAenb''''H S .-d7:0r-dZ<l ij?uY'v«4.~:'___. header. Y.r'Az ---Z:= _ OMM..f' &2 ='/A' D~6 c.v~o.z."':'::': 6/Y.n ) __ . KorOHHa r'9d' __ MM. Revise bed boundary definition accordingly. Ra."""""""". Thus. . TOpH..._.. Hacn MOpra:3reo.

= 1 .4 '" 168 Q m. O. i.23 U. = 70 x 2. inverted BKZ curves are frequently run in conjunction with a regular lateral of the same spacing. Pseudo-compensation digital interpretation Throughout the FSU.7 1. if the bed is invaded.2 7.3.5 and D/d > 10.85 70 2. Calculate R[ = (R/Rm chart reading) x Rm.47 9. 6. This reading gives a guide to which R/Rm chart to use.17 29.27 Q m at formation temperature d=O.45 2. BKZ gradient logs will be available and should be used for R[ determination. In most situations. Rj". No Invasion 1. Mark bed boundaries. Hence.2 4. 7.3m Example Given: Water bearing interval Rm ~ 0. 5. the traced curve will not overlay the no-invasion curves. R.97 Qm D.2 26.5 93.4 Q m at formation temperature d".0A0.9 2. 4.5 2. i.2 125 43.83 1.59 12. 3.19m h=14m Log readings: AD Spacing (m) Corrected R" reading (Q. R. for bed thickness effects (see 'Environmental Corrections'.67 Qm. Invasion If invasion has occurred. In this case. spacing for each tool (AO).21 gives: RlRm = 70. Calculate Rt. Sketch a curve through the points on the tracing paper.33 2. and Di• 8.67 Plotting ADId and R/R". Make a table of AO/d and R/Rm for each tool. 2.5B a 'Pseudo-compensated BKZ' gradient log can be prepared by averaging the conductivity of each of the curves: Rc Planing AO/d and R. preferably using accompanying symmetrical SP/Potential logs.22. From this. following the trends of the visible chart curves. continue as follows: Using the curves on the left hand side of the Noinvasion chart (before the hump).9 6. Fig. When suites of resistivity logs do include identically spaced BKZ and inverted BKZ curves. but instead cross them.5N and BO. n. Using the information from step 1. Use the nearest R/Rm chart to the value derived in step 8 and find the curve that best fits the traced curve. R/Rm := 2. The sketched curve should correspond to some value of R/Rm• which can be determined by interpolation. interpolating if necessary.2 7.8 22.8 3.25 225 4.9 m. Figures lL20(aHe) exemplify the asymmetry of these logs and the application of three of these rules to logs of different spacing run in the same sand. a less satisfactory R[ can be derived using a combination of Potential logs with different spacings and the appropriate departure curves. Figure 0. Determine Ra using the four rules described in the section 'Determining apparent resistivity'. determine Rxo by correcting Ra for borehole and if appropriate.0MO.m) Calculations: 0. The chosen curve provides D/d and R/Rm.e. 2. BKZ gradient logs To determine whether a bed is invaded or not.5A2. on the 'no-invasion' chart indicates use of the R/Rm "" II Invasion chart.3 41. 9.4 3. it will be apparent from the result of this first step as explained below.37 4.8 chart. determine which R/Rm curve approximately matches the traced curve.25 300 7.8 0.8 0.5 2.8 t4. Plot values of AO/d and R)Rm for each tool on a piece of tracing paper overlying the no-invasion departure curve. '" 0. approximately 1.0M or M2.8 0. Where they are not. Collect from the log header the basic parameter n. A2.e. Example Given: Log readings: AO Spacing (rn) Corrected RJ reading (Q rn) Calculations: 1.87 105 Rm = 2. information necessary for the eval uation: mud resistivity (Rm) at formation temperature. 10. by noting at what value it becomes asymptotic as AO/d becomes large.IRm on the 'no-invasion' 11. earlier). it is necessary to first follow the no-invasion procedure. hole diameter (d).

A good example of the asymetrical response of a BKZ gradient log in a thick resistive bed is also seen in the comparison with A8. Comparisons with induction logs.l1. a number of companies have been working on software to mathematically model the current flow of the BKZ gradient tool in the borehole and in the formation.0. 11.. At least one of the software packages permits three types of processing: • Forward modelling • Single curve inversion modelling • Simultaneous inversion modelling Forward modelling permits the construction of a synthetic Logfrom a simple earth model or 'squared' log showing bed boundaries and resistivity.24 demonstrates the symmetrical response of the combined BKZ gradient response compared to the gamma ray and a deep potential log in a thin 1. The resultant log requires bed thickness correction.5M2. the shape of the induction is useful for comparison with the combined BKZ gradient. Typical scales for potential and BKZ (gradient) logs (example is of NO. X340 Simultaneous inversion computer modelling As already explained.~ X380 .lI.ON in the uppermost 12 m bed. deep reading and usable in digital processing.11. The BKZ gradient curves in the middle track.nm BKZ 0·200 . The resultant curve is symmetrical. focused laterologs and potential logs justify the use of this pseudo compensated BKZ gradient as R[ or as a deep potential curve for correction. X390 X400 Fig. Rl is the BKZ gradient curve (for instance A2. Figure 11. 5 m and 4 m. the asymmetrical response curves of the BKZ gradient logs precludes conventional digital computer processing.nm i X29 X330 Where R. by comparison. cannot be used digitally for Rt computation and can only be used with corrections manually.26 shows another example of the combined BKZ gradient curve in comparison with an induction curve.m SP BKZ 0-40 . Figure 11.5M2A. is the resultant combined BKZ gradient curves or 'pseudo-compensated BKZ. BKZ log with SP). However. Figure 11.5N) and R" is the inverted BKZ gradient curve (for instance NO. At the time of publishing this software is on the verge of being marketed.23 compares the combined BKZ gradient response with a shallow reading focused log and a deep potential log in three resistive beds of varying thickness 12 m. Figure 11.0MO.25 compares the combined BKZ gradient to an 8 m potential. Although there is some question about the validity of the readings of the induction due to borehole effects.5 m bed. A 4 m BKZ gradient is also displayed.5 o o 10 50 4 20 100 6 30 150 8 40 !1m !1m o o o o X210 200 . as well as a long BKZ gradient in the first track. as discussed earlier in this section.0A).m X220 X230 -_'_ --- BKZ 0-8. X350 _-. .0Ml.

. U./Rm. --.---~-----~__"1 I I -~ . and Rw » 9" corr..5. '--'... Proceed vertically to 8u-hole-size diameter line. Figure 11....----~ R16• R m : . seeking to solve for a resistivity earth model which satisfies ali logs and thereby delivering RI. • Electrode per mutations/spacings are far more varied than western counterparts. - -·~·l -_-. Summary • The most common resistivity logs seen in the FSU are non-focused logs similar to the normals and laterals used in the West in the 1950s. 195XO...' _ .... However..--· --"--------·1 I ~---I "~. Read R1S. This actual interpretation of R.27 shows a preliminary attempt at running a test version of this software. 10 500 1.r-----.. --. Rm (at formation temperature) ::.5..12. Oortection to 8-inch hole-size Before using the log readings in charts Reor-11 and Rcon-1:? correct to 8"-hole-size reading. • Normal equivalents are caned potential logs.5 = 97.../Rm == 50 in 10" hole. Simultaneous inversion is an iterative process.--~.. It is presented to illustrate the type of 'squared' R. Proceed horizontally to solid curve for actual hole size. if the finished versions of this inversion software are as good as is claimed... .-~ . -"..·· .. Fig. Single curve inversion modelling backs out a 'possible' earth model showing bed boundaries and bed resistivity... is considered to be poor. • Lateral equivalents are called BKZ or gradient logs. plot that can be achieved. which interrogates all available BKZ gradient logs.- _ .- .---'-·---~---·~----l--:·--··- . Enter with R16..-..::: 195. Find R16"IRm = 60 In 8" hole. the long. Thick Beds E~ample: RiB" = 60 ohmm. . r ~~. Example: R16. . hole size 0 Solution: R16" cor!Rm.../Rm == for 8" hole on scale at left. Rxo and diameter of invasion. I .-_ .. based on a single BKZ gradient log.--. painful process of interpreting these difficult logs may be over.-_. . Borehole correction for Tti-inch normal recorded with electrical log. . . I·._..---~--_r_--~ 1 20 50 100 200 195 I ~_ !. -~----2 5 '------ . 2.----'.. slow.

(AM). .g. .. • Each potential and BKZ log is run with an SP log. • BKZ logs generally come as a suite of logs (often six) with varying electrode spacings. 11. In combination. • Both tools are recognizable (in English) on the log heading by the electrode details: three letters (from A. M and N) separated by two numbers (electrode spacings.c: u c: 0:: 20 .! iii =====================~ --. ~. i R 16·/ R m Corrected ----Fig.c: . They have symmetrical response curves.5M2. B. Hole size 8 inches. 16-inch normal correction charts: thin beds .. .. • BKZ: paired electrodes (MN or AB) spacing is smaller than between remotely spaced electrodes.--~ •. but on a separate logging run to other potential BKZ logs..no invasion (or Rxo :. NO.. Rt). in metres) (e. Useful for defining bed boundaries and Rxo approximation.-. Some BKZ tools have a deep radius of investigation.. often at least one being an inverted sonde. they can be used to estimate Rt• • Potential logs are relatively simple to use compared . • Potential and BKZ tools are distinguishable according to: • Potential: paired electrodes (MN or AB) spacing > closely spaced electrodes (AM).1) 1 E o . • Potential tools are generally short spaced and shallow reading.0A)...13.

Rcor-8 or Rcor-9 EXAMPLE: dh. Thus.... use chart on this page (for h .100 80 ~~'-~-~---'e 100 1968 Schlumoerger------- 60 50 40 80 60 50 40 30 20 ~. 30 20 tI 100 80 h = 20'-=----=-:::. C 60 50 40 30 ro « <D Q_ Q_ 20 R1s'! Rm Corrected --. 16-inch normal correction charts: invaded thin beds.... 8.::6').. h. 53. Use when A164AIL is greater than 3. R16" (on an ES sonde) .. Since R16"IRIL> 3.5. For logs recorded in other hole sizes refer to thin-bed correctio on appropriate chart. .. find (R16. 0.: 10".. SOLUTION: Use chart Rcor-9 (for ES sonde) to correct to 8" hole.. 6 ft. (R16")corr:::: 53 XO..-:-==~-.5..5.-~-~~:-~-:--: 1968sct..IRm)corr:.\~. Enter charts with R16"IRm for 8-inch hole.. Hole size 8 inches. R16"/Rm . Rs.:: (10" hole) yields 50 R16"IRm =60 (8" hole). Rs/Rm --~----. Fig. RIL.:: 26.. 11. These charts apply to moderately invaded formations and Axo/Rt values greater than 5..---~----....erge.:: 25 Rm.:: Rs/Rm '" 50...14.. With R16"jRm .. .:: 25. 60.

_:i:-oift.-.. no invasion.03 Fig. --. Resistivity departure curves for beds of infinite thickness: normal device../---:----:-::---:-+~..-=""---=-"'-"'----2 J1-- :::::::"__----7 ~ 3 --- -- i~S---'0<0- ----14 ---~~--______l3 ----..15...... 1955 Schlumberger Well Surveying Corporation 0.J---:--"'--:-:--=--""-"""..2000 1500 Apparent resistivity Mud resistivity Resistivity of formation Drill hole diameter 100 80 70 60 50 40 -----------430 =::==== .::---=--::.S. --·20 ~...1 ----------- cr-----AM ci Ratio of spacing AM to hole diameter d Copyright U...-----0..-..:--:-~-.__ . --:--I~-=-=-==::::---==-=--=-""-~·-~__.A.. .---.---------------------1 - 0..5 --------- ---- __ -..-----...- J -0.__ ._ --+ - --- 20 15 10 8 7 15 ~----------.1r-..--~~_:.----=:::::===""""'---10 --"----.. J .. -.7 --: __ .2 ------...0..::i ----------42 -""-'--. 11..----.-.:__ -..

4(j:Jp kpuBblX Ud 2. 1. ------------1 . WI.- ----- ... ·--··········-··-··~·~·---·-I I --~._----------. Potential departure curve..---- .103 " ~1~ Pc ~~--~.... 11.103 ---_--_. naneTKaN6 Fig....nOTeHuuan-30Hg XAPAKTEPI1CTI1K nAflETKA 104~~~-----------------~--~============~====~~---------------~~~~~----~: 5. - Dld .16. -_. .

summarized in the sketches below. Anon. Anon. .1 . Study of Oil and Gas Series from Well Logs. ----~ •• ~' . the lateral spacing. mud cake) Symbols English FSU Pc Pd Pk Pn d References Description Mud resistivity Invaded zone resistivity Apparent resistivity True formation resistivity Shoulder bed resistivity Hole diameter Anon. Log Interpretation Volume 1 Principles. 1979._- . apply for picking the value of R18'18'" AD. UZ9R'TJA( i I I. 1972. ~~R1B'B'--------------------------------'----------~~~ -""~- .---._... __ .. whose asymmetrical response curve renders it difficult and time consuming to use.lhod "._-. Moscow..-. •.•• ~~=~ s- AD JI-~ ._ . S.__ R's'a· Fig. . __ . _ ~- ---------------------------~~r----------------------~ --_.special rules. U. 1984. Russian Log Interpretacion (BP in-house document). 2 I Procedure is similar to that described for ts-mch normal. 1992.. Log interpretation chartbook.2000 .• ~ . Mir Publishers.. ! '-1 . Itenberg.poiot AD ~0 i :::: Use rnm-polnt m..24' (" 1... Schlumberger. / h. 1986._----------.3AO) Mid.17. Moscow.. 1971.SAO) Use 213".Aol AO!!\'~. Rm Ri Ra Rt d Rs ._ .S./' ~. SPWLA. h > 40' (>20 AD) h-28'(: l.. Borehole correction for 18 feet 8 inches lateral recorded with electrical log. Anon. Since the Lateral is an unsymmetrical curve. .'- --rc\ _·_··_--_·_-_·_-------1 -.1.__ . Procedure Guidelines for interpretation for electrical logging tools designed by CKIb Nr... with BKZ logs. . equals 18'8". The Art of Ancient Log Analysis. D Diameter of invasion Thickness (bed.~. Anon. Houston.+-~--+~ . Ministry of Oil Industry.-.

.~ BHI'MrED¢It1JVlKA nASQPATQPVlA VlVlTEPnPETAWVlVl ( t:agueHT-30Hg nAflETKA Old = 2.~~ ~-----" -~---".-~~~... ~-.-- __ ~_ -. _ . _- -~ __.. Resistivity departure curves for Did « 2. 1000 ._. RJRrn . ll..18.25000 kPUBblX 2500 __ . nanerxaN 18 Fig. 11..---- -----10· ---.--'~_~--. .:: 6...---..---.~-~ -./urjJp 8K3 pJ/PC=5 P 2. 250 ___ 0 -d- -- . npc .

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