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**Mode acceleration approach for rotating wind turbine blades
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P J Murtagh, B Basu and B M Broderick Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part K: Journal of Multi-body Dynamics 2004 218: 159 DOI: 10.1243/1464419042035962 The online version of this article can be found at: http://pik.sagepub.com/content/218/3/159

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Multi-body Dynamics K03103 # IMechE 2004 Downloaded from pik. Keywords: wind loading. incorporating an FFT-based algorithm. A geometric stiffness matrix is included in the free vibration solution allowing for the centrifugal stiffening effects experienced by the blades to be included. while allowing for the inclusion of spatial correlation. and a signiﬁcant amount of literature now exists on the topic. [6] generated spatially correlated ground motions using coherency data obtained from the SMART-1 earthquake array in Taiwan. Instn Mech. Kumar and Stathopoulos [2] simulated wind pressure time-histories with both Gaussian and nonGaussian distributions. Hao et al. Engrs Vol. Li and Kareem [5] simulated a multivariate nonstationary random process by use of spectral decomposition. Ireland. This paper presents such an approach for the linear forced vibration analysis of rotating wind turbine blades in the ﬂapping direction subjected to wind loading time-histories generated from stationary stochastic wind processes. Trinity College Dublin. Proc. on low building roofs. Blade response is also obtained in the frequency domain and used to verify the time-domain results. in order to replicate realistic blade loading conditions. For example. Ã Corresponding author: Department of Civil. a time-domain approach may be favourable in some instances. the ﬁrst is based on the Fourier transform. Kitagawa and Nomura [3] recently used wavelet theory to generate wind velocity time-histories by assuming that eddies of varying scale and strength may be represented on the time axis by wavelets of corresponding scales. the The MS was received on 11 December 2003 and was accepted after revision for publication on 23 July 2004. the wind engineer is tasked with the generation of artiﬁcial time-histories. 218 Part K: J. Once the natural frequencies and mode shapes are obtained. allowing the free vibration characteristics of the rotating blades to be determined by analytical formulation. consisting of tapered beams of rectangular hollow crosssection built using the ﬁnite element software code ANSYS. Short of possessing actual ﬁeld measurements of ﬂuctuating wind velocities. wind turbine blades 1 INTRODUCTION To estimate the dynamic response of a structure. The generation of time-histories has long been of interest in wind and earthquake engineering. Time-histories were obtained by employing the inverse wavelet transform and the artiﬁcially created wind characteristics were compared to those of natural wind. analysis through the frequency-domain is traditionally employed. [4] investigated the time-domain buffeting of long-span bridges by using the digital ﬁltering ARMA method to numerically generate time-histories of wind turbulence. B BasuÃ and B M Broderick Department of Civil. Blade nodal displacements based on rotationally sampled and nonrotationally sampled spectra are obtained for varying rotational frequencies. 2011 . rotationally sampled spectra. which have elevated energy at frequencies corresponding to integer multiples of the blade rotational frequency. Nodal wind loading is obtained by generating artiﬁcial drag force time-histories. obtaining the structural response for use in lifetime prediction of the system. Dublin. by using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) based algorithm. mode acceleration method. Structural and Environmental Engineering.com at University of Liverpool on December 5. This approach includes the effects of rotational sampling of the wind spectra on the blades. Madsen and Frandsen [1] investigated the failure of wind turbines in the frequency-domain. Structural and Environmental Engineering.sagepub. Minh et al. which made use of a previously measured pressure spectrum. Three methods are generally employed. especially with regard to nonlinearity and coupling of the structural response. showing good agreement. Trinity College Dublin. The blades are modelled as discrete multi-degree-of-freedom systems. second on the wavelet transform. Ireland Abstract: This paper presents a time-domain analytical approach for evaluating the displacement response in the ﬂapping direction of rotating wind turbine blades subjected to stationary stochastic wind loading. ANSYS is used to obtain the stiffness matrices of the blades. the mode acceleration technique is employed to predict nodal responses to the prescribed wind loading. and the third on an autoregressive –moving average (ARMA) based timeseries approach. This method allowed for the simultaneous generation of two wind velocity component time-histories. However.159 Mode acceleration approach for rotating wind turbine blades P J Murtagh.

A unit horizontal load is placed at a node i. developed a simple model to predict the power spectrum associated with a rotating blade. and this was signiﬁcantly different to a spectrum where the rotation is not considered. 2011 . The time-varying nodal force vector fP(t)g of dimension n Â 1 can be converted to modal force vector {F} by using the transformation {F} ¼ ½FT {P(t)}. ½C may be evaluated by using the modal transformation with diagonal elements 2jj vj Mj .sagepub. following on from earlier work carried out by Rosenbrock [9]. The stiffness matrix [K]. Williams [13] is credited with the ﬁrst use of the mode acceleration method and Craig [14] concedes that it has superior convergence characteristics compared to the mode-displacement method. and this phenomenon has also been validated experimentally by Verholek [10]. ¨ Akgun [15] presented an augmented algorithm based on the mode acceleration method. ½K is then ½K ¼ ½FT ½K½F. This standard deviation is related to the energy content within a discretized power spectral density (PSD) function. and by Hardesty et al. is calculated. assuming the system to be classically damped. subjected to rotationally sampled and nonrotationally sampled time-histories are compared. Thus. The equation of motion characterizing the dynamic behaviour of a discretized system is represented by ½M{€ (t)} þ ½C{_ (t)} þ ½K{u(t)} ¼ {P(t)} u u (1) where [M] is the mass matrix. The mass matrix at the discrete nodes of interest may be formulated as a diagonal matrix with the ith nodal mass mi. A wind turbine rotor system consists of a number ﬂexible rotating blades connected to a central hub. This paper presents a method to determine the forced vibration response of rotating wind turbine blades in the time-domain subjected to randomly generated aerodynamic Proc. where jj is the modal damping of mode j and vj is the modal frequency. consisting of tapered beams of rectangular hollow cross-section built using the ﬁnite element (FE) method. The modal mass matrix ½M ¼ ½FT ½M½F. 2 2. Instn Mech. is calculated using the transformation ½M where ½F is the modal matrix consisting of n modes. The blades capture the kinetic energy contained in the wind and ultimately transmute this energy into an electrical form. The blades are modelled as discrete multi-degree-of-freedom systems. [11]. which has improved convergence for computation of stresses in large models. the free vibration characteristics for blade motion in the ﬂapping direction must ﬁrst be obtained. This technique allows the formulation of the stiffness matrix corresponding to certain nodes of interest in the full model and thus can be used to develop a reduced order model. Madsen and Frandsen [1] used a rotationally sampled spectrum to obtain the structural response of rotating blades. in order to randomly generate a time-history. as the pseudostatic component of the response adequately accounts for them. is [Q]21. A frequency-domain analysis is also carried out to verify the results obtained using the time-domain based mode acceleration method. and fP(t)g is some time-varying load vector. including the effects of centrifugal stiffening on the blades and rotationally sampled turbulence. B BASU AND B M BRODERICK The technique of time-history simulation proposed by the authors stems from the fact that any random signal with a varying frequency content may be represented by a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) encompassing that frequency content. [K] is the stiffness matrix and fu(t)g. The modal stiffness matrix. the mode shape equation was solved using a power series. and the displacement at node j. [C] is the damping matrix. Multi-body Dynamics force time-histories. The mode acceleration approach requires only the ﬁrst few modes to be obtained while yielding response parameters for arbitrary nodal complexity.14 rads21 (30 rev/min).com at University of Liverpool on December 5. The wellknown mode acceleration method is utilized in the forced vibration analysis. In reference [12]. Engrs Vol. in which the displacement response of blades rotating with frequencies of 1. The stiffness matrices of the blades are obtained by ﬁrst evaluating the ﬂexibility matrix [Q] using the unit load method from the FE model. due to the intensity of turbulence prevailing. Connell [7] reported that a rotating blade is subjected to an atypical ﬂuctuating wind velocity spectrum.1 THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS Formulation of mode acceleration method The mode acceleration method is used to obtain the response of a MDOF system to arbitrary loading. velocity and acceleration vectors respectively. The blades are modelled as multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) entities and forces are assumed not to be correlated at each node. 218 Part K: J. the spectral energy distribution is altered. K03103 # IMechE 2004 Downloaded from pik. {_ (t)} and {€ (t)} are u u the displacement. with variance shifting from the lower frequencies to peaks located at integer multiples of the rotational frequency. However. Research into the forced vibration of wind turbine blades and the effects of rotational sampling has not been widely reported in the literature. Two illustrative examples are thus provided. In order to predict the displacement response of a rotating wind turbine blade. known as a rotationally sampled spectrum.160 P J MURTAGH.57 rads21 (15 rev/min) and 3. The Fourier coefﬁcients associated with this DFT are obtained as randomly generated numbers with zero mean and a speciﬁc standard deviation. which is the fij element of the matrix [Q]. the blades used in this paper are modelled as discrete systems allowing the free vibration properties to be obtained by traditional analytical means. Owing to the rotation of the blades. The advantage of this method over the mode displacement technique stems from the fact that the inclusion of the higher modes are not necessary in response estimation. a spectrum must ﬁrst be available. Naguleswaran [12] presented an approach to determine the free vibration characteristics of a continuous spanwise rotating beam subjected to centrifugal stiffening. Kristensen and Frandsen [8]. The modal damping matrix.

Figure 1 illustrates the model as created in ANSYS. are frequency and damping dependant constants. {h(t)} is the generalized coordinate. Engrs Vol. The FE code used for this purpose was ANSYS. b21. was used to develop the model. A beam element. 2011 . b12. along with its ﬁrst and second temporal derivates may then be used to evaluate {u(t)}. b11.sagepub. The ﬁrst term of equation (2) represents the pseudostatic response. c12. allowing the total response of the MDOF entity to be obtained as the linear combination of the response of these SDOF entities. It is assumed that the individual blades are geometrically and physically similar. ai is the acceleration value at time i and c11. b22. its free vibration characteristics must ﬁrst be obtained. 1 Tapered blade as created in ANSYS Proc. The fundamental equation based on this algorithm is expressed as ' !& ! & ' {hiþ1 } c b12 b { hi } c þ 11 ¼ 11 12 {hiþ1 } _ { hi } _ c21 c22 b21 b22 & ' {ai } (3) Â {aiþ1 } where the subscript i denotes the ith time instant. c22. designated ‘Beam44’. an FE software code was used to create a realistic blade geometry. The inclusion of these effects is not permitted with ANSYS. and allows for a different cross-sectional area and second moment of area at each node. which includes the effects of centrifugal stiffening.2 Response of rotating blades in the time domain In order to predict the response of a rotating blade. Multi-body Dynamics Downloaded from pik. facilitating a tapering of the model. which is thus made up of individual acceleration values of ai . This element contains six degrees-of-freedom at each node.com at University of Liverpool on December 5. Nigam and Jennings [16] presented an algorithm to obtain the modal coordinate and its ﬁrst derivative.MODE ACCELERATION APPROACH FOR ROTATING WIND TURBINE BLADES 161 The equation that describes the response of the structure using the mode acceleration method is M X2zj À1 {u(t)} ¼ ½K {P(t)} À _ ½Fj {hj (t)} vj j¼1 ! M X 1 € (2) ½Fj {hj (t)} À v2 j j¼1 where {u(t)} denotes the nodal displacement vector. in which mass and stiffness varied along the length of the blade. The inverse of this yielded the model’s stiffness matrix. A linear MDOF system ultimately comprises n single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems. Hence. This stiffness matrix has been further modiﬁed in this paper in order to ﬁnd the free vibration properties of the model. the response expressed by equation (2) may be obtained by considering a series of SDOF systems of natural frequency vj and damping zj . c21. and obtaining solutions for {hj (t)} and {hj (t)}. The generalized (modal) coordinate _ € {hj (t)}. Fj is the jth mode shape and {hj (t)} and {hj (t)} are the ﬁrst _ € and second temporal derivatives of the modal coordinate. The ﬂexibility matrix pertaining to the model was obtained using the static analysis capability of ANSYS. Hence. They assumed that the input acceleration time-history could be approximated by a piecewise linear function. thus yielding a semi-analytical process allowing the displacement and velocity response time-histories to be computed. 218 Part K: J. while the second and third terms represent the dynamic response. The equation of motion that describes the free vibration motion of a discrete system is ½M{€ (t)} þ ½K{u(t)} ¼ 0 u (6) Wind turbine blades usually have very complex geometries with mass and stiffness distributions varying along the length of the blade and about the ﬂapping and lead/lag axes. expressions for which may be found in the Appendix. may easily be obtained for each SDOF entity as {aj (t)} ¼ {F j (t)} Mj (4) 2. The free vibration properties of the model undergoing rotation may be obtained from DET½K0 À v2 ½M ¼ 0 j (7) where ½K0 ¼ ½K þ KG represents the modiﬁed stiffness matrix due to the geometric stiffness matrix accounting where {F j (t)} is the modal force time history and M j is the modal mass of mode j. Instn Mech. The modal acceleration timehistory {aj (t)}. for a viscously damped SDOF oscillator subjected to a base acceleration. hence only one blade needs to be dynamically analysed. clearly showing the number of elements present after discretization. The second derivative of the generalized coordinate is given by {F j (t)} {hj (t)} ¼ € À 2jj vj {hj (t)} À v2 {hj (t)} _ (5) j Mj K03103 # IMechE 2004 Fig.

Gi. such as turbine blades. with zero mean.. generated with zero mean and standard deviation si . may be obtained from the expression CTi ¼ 0:5V2 (MB LB À mi xi ) (9) In equation (12). at the discrete i frequency fi. for each successive blade node radiating out from the hub. It is therefore assumed that the variance values increase by an arbitrary value of p per cent. must be used instead. The magnitude of the tensile centrifugal axial force at node i. B BASU AND B M BRODERICK for the effect of centrifugal stiffening. It is also assumed that 30 per cent of total variance values at each node are localized into peaks at 1V. and m is the total number of nodes. a value of variance was allocated to each node along the length of the blade. and n is known as the Monin coordinate. away from the hub. This 30 per cent energy is subsequently divided into K03103 # IMechE 2004 Downloaded from pik. known as a rotationally sampled spectrum. 2011 . Multi-body Dynamics with v(H) being the mean wind velocity at hub height. mi is the cumulative mass at node i. MB is the total mass of the blade. First. This velocity signal is generated in conjunction with a wind velocity PSD. To perform a forced vibration analysis.sagepub.4). 3V. The area under the PSD function between the limits of fi and fi þ df is equal to the variance of the signal s2 . which may be both tensile and compressive. Rotationally sampled spectra are used to quantify kinetic energy as a function of frequency for rotor blades within a turbulent wind ﬂow. depending on blade position. [17] expressed as fSvv (H. 6 . Svv(H. . 2V. This spectrum quantiﬁes the energy contained within a turbulent ﬂow of air as a function of frequency. Engrs Vol. which are always tensile. and z0 is the roughness length. {P(t)} must ﬁrst be obtained. and vj is the desired natural frequency. Instn Mech. f is frequency in Hz) and t is the time instant. In order to represent this redistribution of spectral energy. 6 . LB is the total length of the blade. The PSD function is conceptually divided into m frequency bands of size df. This may be facilitated by virtue of the fact that any arbitrary ﬂuctuating velocity signal v(t). 218 Part K: J. and 4V. may be represented by a DFT with a discretized version of a continuous frequency content. H is the hub elevation.com at University of Liverpool on December 5. The ﬂuctuating velocity signal is hence composed of a number of contributions from a discretized form of a continuous frequency band. the following procedure was adopted. The Fourier coefﬁcients in equation (11) are Proc. li is the length of beam segment between the nodes i and i þ 1. may be obtained from geometry and depends on the angle of the blade to the horizontal. does not accurately reﬂect the energy within a turbulent ﬂow around rotating bodies. the nodal forces. the variance of wind velocity spectral energy at height H was calculated numerically using equation (12). Madsen and Frandsen [1] observed that the peaks of redistributed spectral energy in a rotationally sampled spectrum tend to become more pronounced as distance increases along the beam. 2V. and based on this value. in equation (11). and then deriving their Fourier coefﬁcients ak and bk according to speciﬁc standard deviation values. and x is the distance of node i from the centre of rotation. 6 6 4 0 2 ÀN1 l1 N1 N2 þ l1 l2 . CTi. . The latter two terms may be obtained from the expressions 1 H v(H) ¼ vÃ ln k z0 fH n¼ v(H) (13) (14) where V is the blade rotational frequency.f ) 200n ¼ 2 vÃ (1 þ 50n)5=3 (12) (8) ÀNmÀ1 lmÀ1 where Ni is the axial force at node i. f ) is the power spectral density function of the ﬂuctuating wind velocity as a function of hub elevation and frequency. Values of Ni are obtained from the expression Ni ¼ CTi + Gi (10) with the sign convention that tensile forces are positive and compressive forces are negative. vÃ is the friction velocity (m/s). f is frequency (Hz). and 4V. The geometric stiffness matrix contains force contributions due to blade rotation. Time-histories were simulated using equation (11) and a modiﬁed version of the ﬂuctuating wind velocity spectrum offered by Kaimal et al. . as v(t) ¼ 1 X k¼1 ak cos (vk t) þ 1 X k¼1 bk sin (vk t) (11) where ak and bk are the Fourier coefﬁcients. The geometric stiffness matrix is obtainable as N1 6 l1 6 6 ÀN 6 1 6 6 l1 ½KG ¼ 6 6 . 7 7 7 7 0 7 7 7 ÀNmÀ1 7 7 7 lmÀ1 7 7 NmÀ1 Nm 5 þ lmÀ1 lm 0 obtained as normally distributed random numbers.162 P J MURTAGH. 3V. 0 3 ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ . vk is the kth discretized circular frequency (v ¼ 2pf . A modiﬁed spectrum. This spectrum. equalling 1V. and contributions from the self weight of the blade. while applicable to stationary bodies. These values are obtained by virtue of a number of assumptions. The required redistribution of spectral energy was facilitated by identifying the speciﬁc frequencies vk . The nodal axial force due to gravity (self weight). k is von Karman’s constant (typically around 0.

Engrs Vol. which is not investigated in this paper. The transfer function in equation (17) relating the modal force to the modal displacement of the blade is further expressed as ) F unit.0 m at its widest intermediate point. Instn Mech.5. 3. This method allows for the inclusion of centrifugal stiffening due to blade rotation and the effects of this phenomenon are explored. 2011 .14 rads21 (30 rev/min). so called because it transforms the energy input into a system into the energy output from the system. However.225 kg/m3. 2. can be obtained by use of a Fourier transform of that time-history. 7. The blade has a width of 1. v(H) ¼ 20 m=s. that is 15.57 rads21 (15 rev/min) and 3. Multi-body Dynamics K03103 # IMechE 2004 Downloaded from pik. Owing to the uncertainty surrounding levels of damping in the system. 1. The total nodal drag force time history Pi (t) is expressed as v Pi (t) ¼ 0:5CD Ai r½ i þ vi (t)2 (15) Hj (v). it may be noted that the inclusion of aerodynamic damping will alter the magnitude of the response of the blade. descending to a minimum value at a frequency of 4V.1 m at both ends and a width of 3.sagepub. and z0 ¼ 0.01 m. An inverse Fourier transform of this frequency-domain output will give the blade response in the time-domain.3 Response of rotating blades in the frequency-domain The response of a rotating blade may also be obtained through the frequency-domain and this response may subsequently be compared to that obtained in the timedomain. and the presence of aerodynamic damping was not considered. with speciﬁc energy –frequency relationships were obtained using equation (11).com at University of Liverpool on December 5. It is of rectangular hollow cross-section.j is the jth modal force at the tip of the blade. will follow a sinusoidal variation with time due to change in blade position as vi ¼ V cos (Vt) (16) where V is the required amplitude necessary to represent the mean wind velocity as a function of nodal position or height above the ground. The total nodal drag force time-histories may then be incorporated into the mode acceleration method through equation (2). This procedure is illustrated in Fig. nodal ﬂuctuating velocity time-histories vi(t). 1.08 m. The rotational blade velocities considered are 0 rads21 (stationary).57 rads21 and 3. where F unit.MODE ACCELERATION APPROACH FOR ROTATING WIND TURBINE BLADES 163 four peaks. in this case a modal force time-history. and r was 1. j Hj (v) ¼ ½Fj M j ( À v2 þ 2{jj vvj þ v2 ) j ( (18) where CD is the drag coefﬁcient.5 and 3 per cent per peak. H ¼ 60 m.2 is primarily used to obtain these properties for a series of different blade rotational frequencies. Three rotational frequencies were considered with the reduced order model. A frequencydomain representation of the input. 2 Rotationally sampled spectrum showing distribution of energy The reduced order model outlined in section 2. The transfer function. Thus. 4.1 Free vibration analysis of the rotating blade Fig.0. vi .4 m. modal structural damping ratios of 1 per cent were assumed. 0 rads21 (stationary). The frequency-domain approach is based on the well-own systems methodology.14 rads21. Ai is the model blade area and r is the air density. The mean wind velocity at node i. with a depth or 0. associated with each individual mode of vibration j at a frequency v is obtainable as Hj (v) ¼ ½Fj {hj (v)} (17) where hj (n) is the jth modal coordinates. The output (response) is generally related to the input (loading) by a transfer function. and has an elastic modulus of 65 Â 109 N/m2 and density of 2100 kg/m3. a wall thickness of 0. The blades are modelled as eight degree-of-freedom systems and the ﬁrst three modes are included in the response. Table 1 presents the values of natural frequency obtained from ANSYS and from the reduced Proc. involving an input – output relationship. although this method does not include the effects due to rotation.4. The output may be obtained as the product of the frequencydomain representation of the modal force with the corresponding modal transfer function. The rotating blade considered has a length (LB) of 30 m and is tapered. 218 Part K: J. The modal analysis capability of the FE code ANSYS was also employed to obtain the free vibration properties. with the maximum energy being localized at a frequency of 1V. The coefﬁcient of drag used was 2. 3 NUMERICAL EXAMPLES 2. The parameters associated with the Kaimal spectrum are k ¼ 0.

Figure 3 illustrates the randomly generated total nodal drag force at the blade tip.578 3.656 0. Figure 4 presents a rotationally sampled spectrum obtained from a Fourier transform of the generated velocity time-history and clearly indicates the positions of the redistributed energy peaks.57 rads21 obtained considering nonrotationally sampling K03103 # IMechE 2004 Downloaded from pik. 218 Part K: J.880 order model (ROM). ensuring a greater level of accuracy.983 — — ROM 9.696 — — ROM 0.164 P J MURTAGH.998 — — ROM 3. obtained using the mode acceleration method and the frequency-domain method.605 3.682 Mode 3 ANSYS 10. Engrs Vol. Multi-body Dynamics Fig. their natural frequencies increase. or the blade gets stiffer.57 rads21 subjected to artiﬁcially generated force time-histories.14 rads21 3.14 ANSYS 0.762 Mode 2 ANSYS 3. with the reduced order model showing about a 10 per cent difference from the ANSYS results. Figures 5 to 8 illustrate the response time-histories of a blade with rotational frequency of 1.com at University of Liverpool on December 5. B BASU AND B M BRODERICK Table 1 Natural frequencies of rotating blade Rotating blade natural frequencies (Hz) Mode 1 V (rads21) 0 1.615 0. It is worth noting that the ANSYS results contain about three times the degrees-of-freedom than the reduced order model.57 rads21 obtained by considering rotationally sampling Fig. From Table 1. The excellent matching of the responses obtained by the two different methods is clearly illustrated in Figs 6 and 8 where a stretch Fig. 2011 . The two approaches may be compared at 0 rads21. Both methods yield almost identical response time-histories. 4 Fourier transform of artiﬁcially generated velocity time-history for beam rotating with V ¼ 3.sagepub. which soon decays to zero.804 9. 5 Tip displacement for blade with V ¼ 1. apart from the initial portions.2 Forced vibration analysis of rotating blade The mode acceleration method as previously outlined along with the frequency domain approach were used to estimate the forced vibration response of the rotating blade. 3 Total nodal drag force acting at the blade tip Proc. This is due to the presence of an initial transient component in the timedomain approach.57 3. Instn Mech. it is evident that as the rotational speed of the blades increases. Fig. 6 Comparison of methods over 90–110 s for V ¼ 1.774 9.

Figures 9 and 10 illustrate the response time-histories for a blade rotating with a frequency of 3. The maximum blade tip displacement due to nonrotationally sampled loading is approximately 1. For the case of a zero rotational frequency. The blade natural frequencies and mode shapes are obtained using this reduced order model. Multi-body Dynamics K03103 # IMechE 2004 Downloaded from pik. subjected to random wind loading. Traditional FE software codes do not account for this phenomenon. 10 Tip displacement of blade with V ¼ 3. the nodal loading time-histories used to generate Figs 9 and 10 have the same total energy characteristics. 10 was obtained without rotational sampling.7 m.0 m.1 m.com at University of Liverpool on December 5. it may be observed that the minimum blade tip displacement occurs due to the nonrotationally sampled loading.14 rads21 obtained by considering rotationally sampling between 90 and 110 s is shown in a magniﬁed manner. From these ﬁgures.MODE ACCELERATION APPROACH FOR ROTATING WIND TURBINE BLADES 165 Fig. 8 Comparison of methods over 90 –110 s for V ¼ 1. and subsequently transformed to a reduced order model.sagepub. Again. The nodal loading time-histories used to generate Figs 5 and 6 have the same total energy. 218 Part K: J.14 rads21. Instn Mech. as observed from Proc. 7 Tip displacement for blade with V ¼ 1. Again. and is approximately 1.5 m. modelled using the FE technique.14 rads21 obtained by considering nonrotationally sampling the rotationally sampled loading. 2011 . 4 CONCLUSIONS Fig. and is approximately 1. The blades are modelled as MDOF systems. but that in Figs 7 and 8 does not. From these two ﬁgures. The maximum blade tip displacement due to rotationally sample loading is approximately 2. both methods correlate closely after the decay of the initial transient component in the time-domain. subjected to artiﬁcially generated force time-histories. also obtained using the mode acceleration method and the frequencydomain method.57 rads21 obtained considering rotationally sampling This work presents a time-domain forced vibration analysis of rotating wind turbine blades. The response in Figs 5 and 6 includes the effects of rotational sampling. blade free vibration properties obtained using the reduced order model can be compared to those obtained using the FE model. which allows for the inclusion of the effects of centrifugal stiffening due to rotation. Nodal loading time-histories for the rotating blades were artiﬁcially generated and included speciﬁc energy–frequency relationships.57 rads21 obtained considering nonrotationally sampling Fig. Engrs Vol. Figure 9 includes the effects of rotational sampling and Fig. 9 Tip displacement of blade with V ¼ 3. it is evident that the maximum blade tip displacement again occurs due to Fig.

Computer simulation of ﬂuctuating wind pressures on low building roofs. and Frandsen. 1998 (Battelle Paciﬁc Northwest Laboratory.D Â cos (vj. P. The blade responses obtained in this paper will primarily indicate behavioural trends. H. C/T 113. Nuclear Engrg. A wavelet-based method to generate artiﬁcial wind ﬂuctuation data. H. R. 485– 495. A frequency-domain based response solution was also presented and yielded almost identical displacement timehistories when compared to the time-domain results. R. 1981.D tinc v2 j ) ! 2vj. and Jennings. 6(4).. C. 1991. Engrs Vol. 2003. O. T. Turbulence spectrum observed by a fastrotating wind turbine blade. and Sanada. M. 3 Kitagawa. 1981 (John Wiley and Sons. F.D exp (Àvj jj tinc ) c12 ¼ { sin (vj. The mode acceleration method was then used to predict nodal blade displacements. The time-domain forced vibration analysis approach presented in this paper requires only the ﬁrst few modes and produces nodal responses to any desired complexity of discretization. B BASU AND B M BRODERICK rotationally sampled wind velocity spectra.. R. California Institute of Technology). 1999. T.D tinc ) v j jj À sin (vj. The uncertainty contained within levels of structural damping and in particular aerodynamic damping available to rotating wind turbine blades indicates that further research needs to be carried out in this regard. Preliminary results of a ﬁeld experiment to characterise wind ﬂow through a vertical plane. A. Instn Mech. Rep. H. Izumi.com at University of Liverpool on December 5. F. K.D (19) (20) (21) (22) b11 " ( ! v2 À v2 j2 1 j. PNL-3426.D tinc ) v2 j # 2jj vj vj. 69 – 71. 1955 (ERA Technology Ltd. D. 1997 (Chapman & Hall. Sound Vibration. S. 943– 964. 10. S. Y. C.D tinc )} vj. Richland. K. 18 Paz. J. A. 1984. Wyngaard. 91.D È ¼ exp (Àvj jj tinc ) cos (vj. J. 1997. Surrey. L.166 P J MURTAGH. Lidar measurement of wind velocity spectra encountered by a rotating turbine blade. Structural Dynamics.D tinc v2 j ) # 2jj vj vj.. Sound Vibration. using loading time-histories that contained rotational sampling effects and these were compared with displacements found due to loading that did not consider rotational sampling. J. Proc. G. 117(5). Digital calculation of response spectra from strong motion earthquake records. N. Engng Structures. Dynamics loads in aeroplanes under given impulsive loads with particular reference to landing and gust loads on a ﬂying boat. after the initial transient component of the latter had decayed. 301–315. R. Aerodyn. 4th edn. 1994. Rep. 16 Nigam. and Nomura.D tinc ) þ cos (vj.. Richland. C.D c21 ¼ c22 Àv2 exp (Àvj jj tinc ) j { sin (vj. J. Yamada. Memo. H. J. N. 218 Part K: J. Korrel. Blade nodal displacement time-histories were obtained for similar blades with different rotational frequencies. S. and Cote. Wind-induced failure of wind turbines.D tinc )g vj. 15 Akgun. Engrg. Aerodyn. Roy Meteorol.D tinc ) ' vj jj þ sin (vj. R. and Frandsen. Ind.D tinc ) vj. C. 2 Kumar. J. Y. Oliveira.D tinc ) À þ vj. M. A new family of mode-superposition methods for response calculations. RAE Reports SMU 3309 and 3316. 1993. 4 Minh. Vibration and stability problems in large turbines having hinged blades. a detailed FE analysis based on solid modelling could create a blade model based on more realistic blade geometry that could be used with the mode acceleration approach.D j j ¼ 2 exp (Àvj jj tinc ) vj vj. 2011 . J. REFERENCES 1 Madsen.D tinc vj À jj vj tinc ! 2vj. A. 249– 262. J. Simulation of multivariate nonstationary random processes by FFT. 7 Connell. Ind. S. J.. Multi-body Dynamics 11 Hardesty. Also. M. 10 Verholek. 613– 624. C. This approach will also allow response coupling due to different types of modes to be incorporated.D tinc ) þ (23) w2 j " ( ! Àv2 þ v2 j2 1 j. and Stathopoulos.D tinc )} vj. S. 111. New York). 1972. N. For similar energy levels. Wind Eng. 1980 (Battelle Paciﬁc Northwest Laboratory. 83. J. and Penzien.D j j ¼ 2 exp (Àvj jj tinc ) À 2 vj vj.. T. Wind Eng. 176(5). UK). Rep. Ind. Y..D jj vj Â sin (vj. WA). 289– 302. ASCE. 1989.D þ (vj. APPENDIX Constants associated with section 2. P. 1982. 5 Li. and Kareem. Miyata. Model for power spectra of the blade of a wind turbine measured from the moving frame of reference. 12 Naguleswaran. 167(2). Wind Eng. 1945.. Ind. 293– 310. J. 563– 589. 8 Kristensen. Multiple-station ground motion processing and simulation based on smart-1 array data. M. 1037– 1058. J. Spectral characteristics of surface-layer turbulence. 13 Williams. 98. 9 Rosenbrock. blade displacement found considering rotational sampling was observed to be higher.sagepub. WA). Wind Eng. London). Soc. Aerodyn. Aerodyn..D tinc ) À (24) v2 j K03103 # IMechE 2004 b12 Downloaded from pik. NOAA Tech. PNL-2518.D jj vj Â sin (vj. and Hall. Design.. J. Mech. 1968 (Earthquake Engineering Research Laboratory Report. Lateral vibration of a centrifugally tensioned uniform Euler –Bernoulli beam. 6 Hao. Structural Dynamics—Theory and Computation. 17 Kaimal. 281– 287. Numerical simulation of wind turbulence and buffeting analysis of long-span bridges. H. 14 Craig.1 È c11 ¼ exp (Àvj jj tinc cos (vj. T..

2011 . Instn Mech.D tinc ) vj vj. vj.com at University of Liverpool on December 5.D tinc )} À vj. 218 Part K: J. K03103 # IMechE 2004 Proc.D ¼ vj 1 À j2 j (27) b22 1 ¼ 2 ½exp ( À vj jj tinc ){jj vj sin (vj. ti.D (25) in which vj is the jth natural frequency.D tinc ) þ (vj.D is the jth damped natural frequency given by qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ v j.D cos (vj.D tinc þ vj. Multi-body Dynamics Downloaded from pik.D tinc j Â sin (vj.sagepub. Engrs Vol.D cos (vj.D tinc )} þ vj. and tinc is a uniform time increment at the ith time instant.MODE ACCELERATION APPROACH FOR ROTATING WIND TURBINE BLADES 167 b21 ¼ 1 ½exp ( À vj jj tinc ){(vj jj þ v2 tinc ) j v2 vj.D (26) where jj is the jth modal damping ratio.

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