
Abstract This paper presents an adaptive sliding mode In this paper an adaptive speed sensorless fieldoriented
observer for speed sensorless fieldoriented control of induction control of an induction motor is presented, based on a sliding
motors. The observer detects the rotor flux components in the mode observer. The observer detects the rotor flux
twophase stationary reference frame by the motor electrical components in the twophases stationary reference frame,
equations. The motor speed is identified by an additional
relation obtained by a Lyapunov function. The analytical
using the motor voltage. equations. The motor speed is
development of the sliding observer and the speed identification identified by a further relation obtained by a Lyapunov
algorithm is fully explained. Experimental results are presented, fbnction. The method has been implemented using the
based on a TMS320F240 DSP controller implementation, TMS320F240 fixed point DSP controller. The system
showing the system performance with different observer gains performance is experimentally analysed in order to evaluate
and the influence of the motor parameters deviations. the observation errors with different observer gains and the
influence of the motor parameters deviations.
I. INTRODUCTION The paper is organised as follows. After a brief
introduction of the system configuration (Section 11) the
The availability of lowcost and high performance Digital adaptive sliding mode observer for the induction motor is
Signal Processors (DSP) and dedicated chips makes field presented in Section 111. The conditions for a stable design of
oriented control a practical choice for a wide range of the system are discussed in Section IV. Details on the
applications. Field orientation on the rotor flux is generally implementation of the drive system are given in SectionV,
preferred, owing to the high dynamic and steadystate while the experimental tests and results are presented in
performance obtainable over all the torquespeed range. This Section VI. Finally, some concluding remarks end the paper.
solution needs the knowledge of both the motor speed and the
rotor flux (position and amplitude). Usually, a shaft encoder 11. SYSTEM
CONFIGURATION
or a tachogenerator is used to measure the motor speed, but
the presence of these sensors increases the drive cost and A block diagram of the considered system is shown in
encumbrance and reduces the robustness of the overall Fig. 1.
system. The fieldoriented controller is based on a current
Owing to this, in the last decades, many research efforts controlled Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) structure. The
have been carried out for the development of observers able control loops are arranged in the twophase synchronously
p;q
to estimate both the motor speed and the rotor flux from the
motor terminal quantities (currents and voltages). For a
certain period, the extended Kalman filter appeared to be the
unique solution for this problem, as reported in numerous
papers (e.g. [ 121). Unfortunately, this stochastic observer has
some inherent disadvantages, such as the influence of noise
characteristic, the computation burden and the absence of
design and tuning criteria. This has led to a renewed interest
in deterministic approaches, where the structure of the
7
A
or
"
w, 2,
AVSV
0 1999 IEEE
078035589X/99/$10.00 2277
rotating reference9ame dq aligned with the rotor flux, whilst
the adaptive sliding mode observer operates in the two px=Ax+Bv, (1)
phases stationary referenceframe ap .
The output of the speed regulator represents the qaxis IT
where x = [is yr is the state vector, i s , v, , yr , are the
reference current i:q while the flux loop generates the daxis stator current, voltage and rotor flux vectors respectively,
and the system matrices are as follows
reference current i; . An ap to dq transformation provides
the current components isq and id needed for the current
regulators.
The outputs of the current regulators give the reference
A , , = a l , A , , = ~ l  d l , A , ~= e l , A22=EqlZ, B , = b , I ,
voltages v$,viq in the dq frame. A dq to ap trans
formation then yields the reference voltages v f , ,v : ~in the
stator frame, which are the inputs of an Adjacent Vector
I=[; ' 3 J = [ l 0 O1 ] .
is . iS
IM
model
~
v
If the sliding mode is attained (i.e. the gain K is large
A
enough) one can assume the following simplifying
assumptions
4)
ei = pei = 0 (4)
' r V V
Identification algorithm from which equation (3) gives
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p e , = &e, + AA2,is+ AA2,yr + Lz (6) Am2
W = d P'O 9 (15)
2PE
where z =  K , sgn(is is).
From (5) and (6) the error equation for the rotor flux in By the comparison of (14) and (151, the equation for the
sliding mode condition in obtained as follows speed identification is obtained as follows
x2E+ Y g r
We choose the candidate Lyapunov function as follows E
YW,
V=e;e,+W (9) Y2
E
where the function W must be determined in order to assure nese
conditions can be expressed in terms of a design
the convergence of parameter identification according to the as follows
Lyapunov stability theory.
The time derivative of V can be expressed as
x = ( 4  1)E +Y c r
E
PV = PV, + PV2 (10) (20)
Ywr
Y'4
where E
pv, = z T l i T ~ ; ; z (1 1)
T T id@, B. Stabiliry of the Rotor FIUX Observer
P V ~ = ZA A , ,  J @ r + p W (12)
E
Assuming the speed as a known parameter, the error
and A = L  d . equation of the rotor flux in sliding mode conditions is given
Condition of (lo) be definite negative will be satisfied if by (8), with the system matrix equal to
'pVi < 0 and pV2 = 0 . The condition pV, < 0 is satisfied
choosing 4 = A,, + LA,, = a f j p
AT = yAI2 , y > 0 .
(13) with
With this assumption the condition pV2 = 0 gives a = a4  O r
(22)
Am A
p = ak  cy + mr
p w = p TL . r + v r (14)
E and the eigenvalues of the closed loop error system are
A,2 = a k j p
By the analysis of (1 3) the function W is selected as
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V. DRIVESYSTEM
500
The drive system used to test the proposed adaptive sliding
mode observer for induction motors is shown in Fig. 4.
It consists of a single board drive unit, an induction motor
and the necessary development and testing tools. The single
Im 0 board drive unit includes the control hardware and an
integrated IGBT based Intelligent Power Module.
The phase currents have been measured using a low cost
technique instead of conventional Hall effect probes. The
solution, integrated in the Intelligent Power Module, consists
500 in a shunt put in series to the emitter of the lower IGBT for
600 400 200 0 each leg of the inverter as shown in Fig. 5 [ 1 11.
Re The control hardware makes use of the recent Texas
Instruments TMS320F240 pC, a fixed point Digital Signal
Processor (DSP) specifically developed for drive applications
5000 I 1 whose main characteristics include:
> a high performance CPU core (5011s instruction cycle at
20 MHz CPU clock);
> 544 words (16bit) of data Dual Access RAM;
> 16Kwords of program FlashEEPROM;
> a complete set of dedicated I/O peripherals (ADC unit,
PWM unit, quadrature encoder interface).
Scope
4 3 2 1 0
Re
Fig. 3. Eigenvalues of the rotor flux closed loop error system
2280
Set points and main parameters of the control scheme can
be changed in real time by means of a host PC linked to the
DSP through a standard RS232 interface. The host PC is also
used to run the DSP development and debugger tools. A
scope is used to display in real time the variables calculated
inside the control algorithm by means of a 2 channels digital
to analog interface mapped on the I/O addressing space of the
pC DSP. During the development of the control program, an
incremental encoder has also been used to measure the actual
speed and compare with the estimated one.
The execution of the control algorithm has been
synchronized to the PWM carrier whose period has been
fixed to loops, resulting in 1OkHz switching frequency.
However, the time needed to execute the whole control
algorithm is less than 60ps, including the adaptive sliding
mode observer which takes about 15ps.
VI. EXPERIMENTAL
RESULTS
Chl
....
5.oov %=
......5 . o O v.... ,* r P 2 0 . o m r
, I
A
,
Chl I
.......
,
0.OOV
not well damped and in some cases unacceptable. Moreover, Fig. 7. Speed reversion from 0.6 to 0 . 6(parameters
~ CASE 1).
228 1
The performance of the sensorless scheme as regard to the
speed estimation error and the robustness to motor parameter
variation are also tested. Fig. 13 shows the speed estimation
error at noload conditions over the whole speed range, with
different choices of the observer gains.
Finally, Fig. 14 shows an analysis of the system sensitivity
to rotor resistance variations. Plots of the qaxis current vs.
the load torque at steadystate are presented ( 0 . 5 ~speed),
~
for three different operating conditions obtained with as
many (constant) values of the rotor resistance parameter used
in the adaptive sliding mode observer (see Appendix). The
Fig. 8. Speed reversion from 1 to lpu (parameters CASE 2).
linear behaviour demonstrates that a correct field orientation
T e7
kAmSIa , , , f .,;o, ,
0 1
, , , , , , , ,I. , , , , , , _ is achieved for all the cases. Moreover, the operating points
I
are practically unaffected by the rotor resistance variations,
confirming the robustness of the system.
VII. CONCLUSIONS
hl  zlOO v  4&, 2
Fig. 10 Speed transient from 0.1 to 0 7pu (rated load, parameters CASE 2).
10 
2 4
6
+ py= 0.14, y=O . 0 0 0 2 ~
The behaviour of the phase current and estimated speed at 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400 2700 3000
steady state operation is shown in Fig. 12. Distortion of the Speed [ W ~ I
current due to the inverter operation is clearly evident, which
causes a correspondent ripple on the speed. Fig. 13. Speed error vs. operating speed at noload
2282
[9] M. Tsuji, E. Yamada F. Parasiliti, M. Tursini, “A
Digital Parameter Identification for a Vector Controlled
Induction Motor,” 7th European Conference on Power
Electronics and Applications (EPE ’97), Vo1.4, p.603
608, Trondheim (Norway) 810 September 1997.
[ 101 F. Parasiliti, R. Petrella, M. Tursini, “Sensorless Speed
Control of a PM Synchronous Motor by Sliding Mode
Observer,” IEEE International Symposium on
Industrial Electronics (ISIE’97), Vo1.3, p.11061’111,
Guimaraes, Portugal, July 71 1 1997.
[l 11 F. Parasiliti, R. Petrella, M. Tursini, “ Low Cost Phase
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Current Sensing in DSP Based AC Drives,” IEEE
Load toque [pu]
International Symposium on . Industrial Electronics
Fig. 14. qaxis current vs. load torque with different (ISIE ’99), Bled, Slovenia, July 1216 1997.
rotor resistance parameter.
NOMENCLATURE
REFERENCES * A
3 reference values, observed values
A, a matrices, vectors
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isd,isq dq stator voltagelcurrent
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