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Adaptive Sliding Mode Observer for Speed Sensorless Control of Induction Motors

Francesco Parasiliti, Roberto Petrella, Marco Tursini

University of L'Aquila
Department of Electrical Engineering
67040 Monteluco di Roio, L'Aquila - Italy - -

Abstract This paper presents an adaptive sliding mode In this paper an adaptive speed sensorless field-oriented
observer for speed sensorless field-oriented control of induction control of an induction motor is presented, based on a sliding
motors. The observer detects the rotor flux components in the mode observer. The observer detects the rotor flux
two-phase stationary reference frame by the motor electrical components in the two-phases stationary reference frame,
equations. The motor speed is identified by an additional
relation obtained by a Lyapunov function. The analytical
using the motor voltage. equations. The motor speed is
development of the sliding observer and the speed identification identified by a further relation obtained by a Lyapunov
algorithm is fully explained. Experimental results are presented, fbnction. The method has been implemented using the
based on a TMS320F240 DSP controller implementation, TMS320F240 fixed point DSP controller. The system
showing the system performance with different observer gains performance is experimentally analysed in order to evaluate
and the influence of the motor parameters deviations. the observation errors with different observer gains and the
influence of the motor parameters deviations.
I. INTRODUCTION The paper is organised as follows. After a brief
introduction of the system configuration (Section 11) the
The availability of low-cost and high performance Digital adaptive sliding mode observer for the induction motor is
Signal Processors (DSP) and dedicated chips makes field presented in Section 111. The conditions for a stable design of
oriented control a practical choice for a wide range of the system are discussed in Section IV. Details on the
applications. Field orientation on the rotor flux is generally implementation of the drive system are given in SectionV,
preferred, owing to the high dynamic and steady-state while the experimental tests and results are presented in
performance obtainable over all the torque-speed range. This Section VI. Finally, some concluding remarks end the paper.
solution needs the knowledge of both the motor speed and the
rotor flux (position and amplitude). Usually, a shaft encoder 11. SYSTEM
or a tacho-generator is used to measure the motor speed, but
the presence of these sensors increases the drive cost and A block diagram of the considered system is shown in
encumbrance and reduces the robustness of the overall Fig. 1.
system. The field-oriented controller is based on a current-
Owing to this, in the last decades, many research efforts controlled Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) structure. The
have been carried out for the development of observers able control loops are arranged in the two-phase synchronously

to estimate both the motor speed and the rotor flux from the
motor terminal quantities (currents and voltages). For a
certain period, the extended Kalman filter appeared to be the
unique solution for this problem, as reported in numerous
papers (e.g. [ 1-21). Unfortunately, this stochastic observer has
some inherent disadvantages, such as the influence of noise
characteristic, the computation burden and the absence of
design and tuning criteria. This has led to a renewed interest
in deterministic approaches, where the structure of the


w, 2,

standard Luenberger observer for linear system is enhanced Adaptive Sliding

to permit the simultaneous estimation of the rotor flux and Mode
speed. Examples of this approach are given in [3-81. Observer
In the adaptive observers [4] the speed andor other 'SP
unknown parameters are identified by additional equations
based on the adaptive control theory. This allow to find out
the analytical conditions for stability. Among these proposals,
the sliding mode observer represents an attractive choice for
its being robust to disturbances, parameter deviations and Fig. 1. Speed sensorless induction motor drive with adaptive sliding mode
system noise ([7], [8] and [lo]). observer.

0 1999 IEEE
0-7803-5589-X/99/$10.00 2277
rotating reference9ame dq aligned with the rotor flux, whilst
the adaptive sliding mode observer operates in the two- px=Ax+Bv, (1)
phases stationary referenceframe ap .
The output of the speed regulator represents the q-axis IT
where x = [is yr is the state vector, i s , v, , yr , are the
reference current i:q while the flux loop generates the d-axis stator current, voltage and rotor flux vectors respectively,
and the system matrices are as follows
reference current i; . An ap to dq transformation provides
the current components isq and id needed for the current
The outputs of the current regulators give the reference
A , , = a l , A , , = ~ l - d l , A , ~= e l , A22=-EqlZ, B , = b , I ,
voltages v$,viq in the dq frame. A dq to ap trans-
formation then yields the reference voltages v f , ,v : ~in the
stator frame, which are the inputs of an Adjacent Vector
I=[; ' 3 J = [ l 0 -O1 ] .

Space Vector Pulse Width Modulator (AV-SVPWM).

Standard PI controllers (with limitation) are used for all the w
, d = l , e=orM,
regulators. E
The adaptive sliding mode observer provides the rotorflux
position p (needed for the field orientation), the flux
amplitude yr (used to close the flux control loop) and the
rotor speed feedback w, (used for the speed control loop).
With reference to the induction motor model (1) and
The rotor flux position and amplitude are calculated by the
considering the stator currents as the system outputs, the
respective ap components as follows
sliding mode observer for rotor flux estimation can be
+r = -/, = arc tan( g] .
constructed as follows
. .
p i = ~ + ~+Ksgn(is
v , -is) (3
SLIDING MODEOBSERVER FOR where K is a gain matrix which can be arranged in the
MOTOR general form

The adaptive sliding mode observer for induction motor

can be seen as composed by two parts (Fig.2): a sliding mode
observer for rotor flux estimation and a sliding mode speed
identification algorithm working in parallel. The error equation from (1) and (2) which takes into
account the parameter variation AA can be expressed as
A. Rotor Flux Sliding Mode Observer follows

By considering the rotor speed as a system parameter, an p e = Ae+A&+Ksgn(is -is) (3)

induction motor can be described by the following state where
equation in the stationary reference frame a/? (the meaning
of the used symbols is clarified in the nomenclature) e = x - x = [ei e,lT, ei=is-ts, e y
. . = i.v - i.y ,

is -.- iS


If the sliding mode is attained (i.e. the gain K is large
enough) one can assume the following simplifying
ei = pei = 0 (4)
' r V V
Identification algorithm from which equation (3) gives

0 = A12ew+ AAlljs + AA12yr- z (5)

Fig. 2. The adaptive sliding mode observer for induction motor.

p e , = &e, + AA2,is+ AA2,yr + Lz (6) Am2
W = d P'O 9 (15)
where z = - K , sgn(is -is).
From (5) and (6) the error equation for the rotor flux in By the comparison of (14) and (151, the equation for the
sliding mode condition in obtained as follows speed identification is obtained as follows

Pe, = ( 4 2 + LA,, k, +( 4 1 +4 1 Ys+ (7)

pcj, = p y [ ~sgn(jsa
, - isa)- G, sgn(jsp- isp)]. (16)
+ (AA,,+ kr
If the speed is a known-(measured) parameter and no other Iv. DESIGNOF THE ADAPTIVE OBSERVER
parameter variations are considered, one obtains from (7)
A . Convergence of the Speed Identification
Pew = (A22 + LA12 kw (8)
This relation represents the error equation of h e rotor flw Condition (13) can be used to set the observer gains in the
observer in sliding mode condition. matrix L so that the rotor speed convergence is assured.
Developing the more relaxed condition
B. Rotor Speed Identification Algorithm
A' 2 -TA,, , y > o (17)
If we consider the rotor speed as a variable parameter, the one obtains
matrix AA is specialised as follows
L = -XI - y J
AA,, = o , AAl2 =-- Am' J , AAl2 = O , AA,, = AmrJ
E where
Aw, = C3, -U,.

x2--E+- Y g r
We choose the candidate Lyapunov function as follows E

V=e;e,+W (9) Y2-
where the function W must be determined in order to assure nese
conditions can be expressed in terms of a design
the convergence of parameter identification according to the as follows
Lyapunov stability theory.
The time derivative of V can be expressed as
x = ( 4 - 1)E +-Y c r
PV = PV, + PV2 (10) (20)
where E

pv, = z T l i T ~ ; ; z (1 1)
T T -id@, B. Stabiliry of the Rotor FIUX Observer
P V ~ = ZA A , , - J @ r + p W (12)
Assuming the speed as a known parameter, the error
and A = L - d . equation of the rotor flux in sliding mode conditions is given
Condition of (lo) be definite negative will be satisfied if by (8), with the system matrix equal to
'pVi < 0 and pV2 = 0 . The condition pV, < 0 is satisfied
choosing 4 = A,, + LA,, = -a f j p
AT = -yAI2 , y > 0 .
(13) with
With this assumption the condition pV2 = 0 gives -a = -a-4 - O r
Am A
p = ak - cy + mr
p w = p TL . r + v r (14)
E and the eigenvalues of the closed loop error system are
A,2 = -a k j p
By the analysis of (1 3) the function W is selected as

The drive system used to test the proposed adaptive sliding
mode observer for induction motors is shown in Fig. 4.
It consists of a single board drive unit, an induction motor
and the necessary development and testing tools. The single
Im 0 board drive unit includes the control hardware and an
integrated IGBT based Intelligent Power Module.
The phase currents have been measured using a low cost
technique instead of conventional Hall effect probes. The
solution, integrated in the Intelligent Power Module, consists
-500 in a shunt put in series to the emitter of the lower IGBT for
-600 -400 -200 0 each leg of the inverter as shown in Fig. 5 [ 1 11.
Re The control hardware makes use of the recent Texas
Instruments TMS320F240 pC, a fixed point Digital Signal
Processor (DSP) specifically developed for drive applications
5000 I 1 whose main characteristics include:
> a high performance CPU core (5011s instruction cycle at
20 MHz CPU clock);
> 544 words (16-bit) of data Dual Access RAM;
> 16Kwords of program Flash-EEPROM;
> a complete set of dedicated I/O peripherals (ADC unit,
PWM unit, quadrature encoder interface).


-4 -3 -2 -1 0
Fig. 3. Eigenvalues of the rotor flux closed loop error system

C. Stabiliry of the Global System

Introducing the convergence conditions for the speed development and
adaptation (20) in (22) and then in (23) one obtains debugger tools

A,2= -q( (0, +---+ ")

O,' y 7 Tj [
w, +%E 2 (;
-- I]]) (24)
Fig. 4. Drive system

This relation demonstrates that the eigenvalues of the rotor

flux error system (in sliding mode conditions) are strictly
stable. Thus, the adaptive system based on the sliding mode
observer plus the adaptation equation (1 6) is strictly stable.
Design parameters of the adaptive system are q and y in
(20) and p in (16). The first two parameters can be chosen to
improve the performance of the rotor flux estimation, the
third affects the dynamic response of the speed adaptation.
The influence of the design parameters q and y on the
placement of the eigenvalues on the complex plane is shown
in Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Inverter with shunt resistors for current measurement

Set points and main parameters of the control scheme can
be changed in real time by means of a host PC linked to the
DSP through a standard RS-232 interface. The host PC is also
used to run the DSP development and debugger tools. A
scope is used to display in real time the variables calculated
inside the control algorithm by means of a 2 channels digital
to analog interface mapped on the I/O addressing space of the
pC DSP. During the development of the control program, an
incremental encoder has also been used to measure the actual
speed and compare with the estimated one.
The execution of the control algorithm has been
synchronized to the PWM carrier whose period has been
fixed to loops, resulting in 1OkHz switching frequency.
However, the time needed to execute the whole control
algorithm is less than 60ps, including the adaptive sliding
mode observer which takes about 15ps.


The proposed system has been tested in order to verify the

global behaviour and particularly the robustness of the
adaptive sliding mode observer to parameters variations. A
braking system has been used, allowing to impose the load
torque in the whole range from zero to rated speed. Results
are presented in per unit form. The base values assumed for
scaling and the parameters of the test motor are resumed in
Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 show the transient behaviour of the
system with the sliding gains kl = k2= -0.04 and the speed
adaptation parameter p y = 0.086. The observer gains in
matrix L are set to zero as a first test condition (parameters
CASE 1). One can notice the fast convergence of the speed
estimate during the transients and the capability to maintain
the estimation at standstill.
The set of parameters assumed in the previous tests doesn't
match the design conditions (20) for the gain matrix L. In
fact, we could verify that the operation over 0.7pu speed
generates instability. Thus, a second set of parameters has
been considered with k, = k2= -0.04, py= 0.086 and the
observer gains of matrix L matching the design conditions
with q = 0.1, y= 0 . 0 0 0 2 ~
(parameters CASE 2).
In this case the whole speed range operation can be
. achieved, as demonstrated by the rated speed reversion in
Fig. 8. The speed response becomes faster respect to the
parameters CASE 1, as shown by the motor start-up transient
in Fig. 9 (compare with Fig. 6a). The dynamic performance
are satisfactory also when the rated load torque is applied, as
presented in Fig. 10.
The influence of the adaptation parameter ,uy is presented
in Fig. 11, in the case of a speed transient from 0 to 0.7pu
(the other parameters are set as in the CASE 2). According to
(16) this parameter affects the rapidity of the speed
adaptation. Small values reduce the adaptation rapidity. On
the other hand, too large values generate responses which are -..~

5.oov %=
......5 . o O v.... ,* r P 2 0 . o m r
, I

Chl I

not well damped and in some cases unacceptable. Moreover, Fig. 7. Speed reversion from -0.6 to 0 . 6(parameters
~ CASE 1).

228 1
The performance of the sensorless scheme as regard to the
speed estimation error and the robustness to motor parameter
variation are also tested. Fig. 13 shows the speed estimation
error at no-load conditions over the whole speed range, with
different choices of the observer gains.
Finally, Fig. 14 shows an analysis of the system sensitivity
to rotor resistance variations. Plots of the q-axis current vs.
the load torque at steady-state are presented ( 0 . 5 ~speed),
for three different operating conditions obtained with as
many (constant) values of the rotor resistance parameter used
in the adaptive sliding mode observer (see Appendix). The
Fig. 8. Speed reversion from -1 to lpu (parameters CASE 2).
linear behaviour demonstrates that a correct field orientation
T e7
kAmSIa- , , , f .,;-o, ,
0 1
, , , , , , , ,I--. , , , , , , -_ is achieved for all the cases. Moreover, the operating points
are practically unaffected by the rotor resistance variations,
confirming the robustness of the system.


In this paper an adaptive sliding mode observer for speed

sensorless field-oriented control of induction motors is
presented. A criteria for choosing the gains of the adaptive
observer is proposed. The scheme has been implemented
using one of the last generation fixed point DSP controllers,
Fig. 9. Speed transient from 0 to 0 . 7 (parameters
~ ~ CASE 2). the TMS320F240. Experimental results confirm the
effectiveness of the solution, whose robustness with respect
to the variation of the motor parameters appears as the main

hl - zlOO v - 4-&, 2

Fig. 10 Speed transient from 0.1 to 0 7pu (rated load, parameters CASE 2).

Fig. 12. Phase current and estimated speed at steady state

(rated load, 300rpm speed).

10 -

2 4

Fig. 1 1. Speed transient from 0 to 0.7pu with different E 2

values of parameter py. 1
v) 0
the estimated speed is more affected by the ripple due to the -2
sliding mode error. Thus, this parameter must be chosen 0 py= 0.086, y= 0 . 0 0 0 2 ~
from a compromise between these requirements.

+ py= 0.14, y=O . 0 0 0 2 ~
The behaviour of the phase current and estimated speed at 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400 2700 3000
steady state operation is shown in Fig. 12. Distortion of the Speed [ W ~ I
current due to the inverter operation is clearly evident, which
causes a correspondent ripple on the speed. Fig. 13. Speed error vs. operating speed at no-load

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