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Analysis and Mathematical Modelling of Matrix Converter for Adjustable Speed AC Drives

M. Imayavaramban, A.V. Krishna Chaithanya and B.G. Fernandes

Abstract— This paper presents the work carried out in devel- oping a mathematical model for a Matrix converter. The power circuit of the matrix converter is realized by using mathematical expressions. The mathematical expressions relating the input and output of the three-phase matrix converter are implemented by using Simulink block set. A unique feature of the mathematical model is that it requires very less computation time and less memory compared to the power circuit realized by using actual switches. The duty cycles of the switches are calculated using modiﬁed Venturini Algorithm for 0.5 and 0.866 voltage transfer ratios. Simulations of the Matrix converter loaded by passive RL load and active induction motor are performed. This is followed by speed control of Induction motor in open loop.

Index Terms— Matrix converter, ac-ac conversion, mathemat- ical model, Venturini Modiﬁed Algorithm, Induction motor.

I. INTRODUCTION

A Matrix converter is a device used for direct ac-ac power conversion device without the need for an intermediate dc- link circuit. It is also known as a forced commutated ac- ac converter, which uses an array of controlled bi-directional semiconductor switches as the main power circuit. It converts ac input voltage into variable ac voltage with unrestricted output frequency. The real development of Matrix converter started with the work of Venturini and Alesina, which was published in 1980 [1]. They presented the power circuit of the converter as a matrix of bi-directional power switches. In this paper, a complete mathematical analysis of the power circuit along with the duty cycle calculation (switching algorithm) is described for both low voltage transfer ratio (0.5) and maximum voltage transfer ratio (0.866). The whole matrix converter is modelled using Simulink, a dynamic and powerful tool box. Mathematical modelling is a unique and valuable resource. Its proper application can yield signiﬁcant results and deep perception. Modelling of a Matrix converter includes modelling of the power circuit, switching algorithm and load. The whole model is the realized by using simple Simulink blocks such as math operators, relational operators, delay circuits along with m-ﬁle S-functions. Advantages of mathematical model over conventional power circuit are:

Very less computation time. Low memory requirement. The proposed model is simple, ﬂexible and can be accom- modated with any type of load. The basic block diagram of

The authors are with Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076, India(email: imayam@ee.iitb.ac.in, avkrishna@iitb.ac.in, bgf@ee.iitb.ac.in)

3−φ

Mathematical

Input

Model of

Power Circuit

Mathematical

Model of Load

Switching

of MC

Algorithm

Fig. 1.

Basic block diagram of Mathematical model

mathematical model is shown in ﬁg. 1. The mathematical model is validated using a passive RL load and active induction motor load. The paper is organized as follows: section II presents the basics and mathematical model of matrix converter. Section III presents types of loads and their mathematical models. Section

IV presents results and discussions and section V presents the

conclusion.

II. MATRIX CONVERTER

A. Basic Theory The matrix converter is a single stage direct ac-ac converter, which has an array of m x n bi-directional power switches that can directly connect an m-phase voltage source to an n-

phase load [2], [3]. A three phase matrix converter consists of 3x3 switches arranged in matrix form. The arrangement of bi- directional switches is such that any of the input phases A,B,C

is connected to any of the output phases a,b,c. The switches

are controlled in such a way that the average output voltage is

a sinusoid of desired frequency with desired amplitude. The

3x3 switches give 512 combinations of switching states [2]. Compared with other ac-ac converters, the matrix converter has the following advantages:

Inherent four quadrant operation and regeneration capa- bility due to the use of bidirectional switch and hence it can be used as an alternative to PWM inverter drive for 3- frequency control. Pure sine-in and pure sine-out waveforms are the unique features of the matrix converter. Displacement factor is unity. High drive performance and long life due to the absence of intermediate dc link circuit.

The practical realization [9] of the Matrix converter requires Bi-Directional Switches (BDS) capable of blocking voltage and conducting current in both directions, but there is no such

a device available currently. BDS can be implemented by using

suitable combination of unidirectional switches and diodes [2].

As the matrix converter draws the input voltage directly from

142440178X/06/$20.00 ©2006 IEEE

1113

PSCE 2006

Matrix Converter

A

S

S

Aa

S Ab

Ac

B

S

S

Ba

S Bb

Bc

C

Input

S

S

S

filter

Ca

Cb

Cc

a

c

b

Clamp

circuit

3 Phase

Load

Fig. 2.

Practical Scheme of Matrix Converter

3-phase lines (grid), a small ﬁlter is necessary at the input side to reduce the switching harmonics in the input current as shown in ﬁg. 2. A clamp circuit is connected between the input and out- put to avoid overcurrents from the input side due to short circuit and to avoid overvoltages from the output side due to open circuit. This circuit provides ride-through capability of matrix converter under short-term power interruptions. The main constraints in the practical implementation of the matrix converter are the non-availability of BDS, more sensitivity for power disturbances and commutation problems [4]. For the time being the above problems have been partially solved by the researchers and a prototype of the matrix converter has been developed [2].

B. Principle and switching algorithm Three phase matrix converter connects load directly to the source by using 9 bi-directional switches. When operating with bi-directional switches, two basic rules have to be followed [5]:

No two input lines should be connected to the same output line - to avoid short circuit. Atleast one of the switches in each phase should be connected to the output - to avoid open circuit. The three phase input voltages of the converter are given by

(1)

The output voltage vector of the matrix converter can be given by

(2)

where and are the frequencies of input and output voltages of the matrix converter respectively. The relationship between the output and the input voltages is given as follows:

(3)

where is the transfer matrix and is given by

(4)

where

is the

sampling period. The input current is given by

(5)

Duty cycles must satisfy the following conditions in order to avoid short circuit on the input side.

, duty cycle of switch

,

This can be achieved by proper calculation of duty cycle using Venturini Modulation Algorithm. 1) Venturini Switching Algorithm: The Venturini algo- rithm [1] controls the switches according to the desired output voltage and output frequency. The switches on each output phase are closed sequentially and repetitively. The sequence time

(6)

where is the switching frequency which should be 20 times higher than the output frequency so as to have low harmonic content in the output voltage. Switches are operated such that the average value of the output voltage is equal to desired voltage during each sampling period . The maximum peak-peak output voltage should be contained within the continuous envelope of input voltages in order to have complete control of output voltage. This restricts the maximum voltage transfer ratio to 0.5. This limitation can be overcome by using modiﬁed Venturini algorithm [6]. 2) Maximum voltage Transfer Ratio - Modiﬁed Venturini Control Algorithm: The maximum possible output voltage can be achieved by injecting third harmonics of the input and output frequencies into the output waveform [1]. The injection of third harmonic does not affect the operation of load since there is no neutral connection between the supply and load. The injection of third harmonic at the input frequency into all output voltages increases the available output voltage range to 0.75 of the input when the third harmonic has a peak value of . Further improvement of the transfer ratio can be achieved by subtracting a third harmonic at the output frequency from all target output voltages. This minimizes the range of the output voltage envelope to 0.866 of the peak phase voltage. This implies an absolute maximum transfer ratio of

0.75/0.866 = 0.866 of when this third harmonic has a peak

value of . Consequently the output voltage becomes

(7)

where : 0,2 /3,4 /3 corresponding to the output phases a,b,c respectively [1], [6] and [7].

1114

Duty

Cycle

Calculation

Switching Algorithm

Phase a

V

Cos ω i t

M Aa

*

im

2π

M

* Cos

V

ω

t+

−

Adder

Ba

i m

i

3

4π

M

* Cos

V

ω

t +

Ca

im

i

3

Phase b

Phase c

Matrix Converter Model

3φ

Load

Load

Block diagram of Mathematical Model of Matrix Converter

III. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING

The complete mathematical modelling of Matrix converter is shown in ﬁg. III for both 0.5 and 0.866 voltage transfer ratios. It comprises of mainly three sections.

A. Control Algorithm

The required voltage transfer ratio( ), output frequency( ) and switching frequency( ) are the inputs required for calcu-

lation of the duty cycle matrix

for voltage transfer ratios of 0.5 and 0.866 are realized in the

. The duty cycle calculations

form of m-ﬁle in Matlab. Duty cycles for the transfer ratio of 0.5 are;

where , is the modulation frequency, is the relative phase of the output and is the voltage transfer ratio. The switching times for voltage transfer ratio of 0.866 are;

(8)

where : 0,2 /3,4 /3 corresponding to the input phases A,B,C respectively, is the maximum voltage ratio (0.866),

M Aa

Comparator

X

Sawtooth

Carrier Wave

V

Cos ω

t

im

i

Delay

M

Ba

Circuit

Comparator

V oa

X

Adder

Sawtooth

Carrier Wave

2π

V

Cos (

ω

t +

)

im

i

3

Delay

M

Ca

Circuit

Comparator

X

Sawtooth

Carrier Wave

4π

V

im Cos

(

+

)

ω i t

3

Fig. 4.

Mathematical modelling of power circuit of ‘a’ phase

is the required voltage ratio,

magnitude, is the sampling period and

is the input voltage vector

is given by [6]

(9)

where : 0,2 /3,4 /3 corresponds to the output phases a,b,c respectively. Duty cycle waveforms for both voltage transfer ratios are shown in simulation results.

B. Power circuit

The modelling of power circuit is done using the basic equations for output voltage [7], [8].

Realization of phase ’a’ output voltage is shown in ﬁg. 4. The other two phases also can be realized in a similar way. The switching pulses for the bi-directional switches are realized by comparing the duty cycles with a sawtooth waveform having very high switching frequency. The pulses generated using this PWM technique are shown in ﬁg. 5. The input current waveform is obtained by using control waveforms and the output current waveform.

1

0

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

−0.2

0 0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.04

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

−0.2

0 0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.04

Fig. 5.

Pulse generation the switch

with =30Hz, =0.4 and =2KHz

1115

C.

Types of Load

Output voltages in volts

The mathematical model is veriﬁed for both passive and active loads. The passive RL load is modeled using the transfer function

1) Mathematical model of Induction Motor: The dynamic modelling of three phase Induction machine is developed in stationary d-q reference frame, whose voltage equations are [10]

where stator and rotor ﬂux linkages are given by

where

stator ’a’ phase and rotor ’a’ phase, when the angle between

the axes of the two phases is zero. Equation governing the motion of any machine is

is the mutual inductance between the

,

where electromagnetic torque developed by the induction machine is given by

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The simulations of Matrix converter are carried out using Power System blockset (Actual switches) as well as Simulink blockset (Mathematical model) to compare the computation times. The former took a few hours while the latter took less than 10 minutes for an induction machine load. This is the unparalleled feature of the mathematical model of Matrix converter. Fig. 6- 7 shows the simulation results of matrix converter realized by bi-directional switches for q=0.5 and q=0.85 respectively. For these two cases, a switching frequency of 2kHz is chosen. The output voltage transfer ratio( ) is veriﬁed by Fourier analysis as shown in ﬁg. 7.

A. Simulation results using Mathematical Model

The mathematical model realized by MATLAB Simulink is shown in ﬁg. 8. The Matrix converter was simulated for two different cases:

Loaded by 3-phase passive R-L load, R=10 , L=20mH for both 0.5 and 0.866 transfer ratios. Loaded by 3-phase induction motor (5hp, 200V, 60Hz, star-connected) for both 0.5 and 0.866 transfer ratios.

500

0

0.005 0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

−500

10

5

0

−5

−10

0.005 0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

Output currents in amps

Time in milliseconds

Fig. 6.

Simulation results using Power system block set for =0.4,

=230,

=100Hz, =2000Hz with R-L load, =10 , =20mH

50

40

30

20

10

0

0 0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

200

100

0

−100

−200

0 0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

4

2

0

−2

−4

0 0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

Time in milliseconds

Fig. 7.

=50V,

Simulation results using Power system block set for =0.85,

=30Hz, =2000Hz with R-L load, =10 , =40mH

Phase of Va in degrees

Va in volts

Output currents in amps

Fig. 8.

The schematic of Mathematical model realized using Simulink

1116

Va in volts

Ia in amps

Vb in volts

Vc in volts

output current in amps

Fig. 9.

400

0

0 0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

0.012

0.014

0.016

0.018

0.02

200

−200

−400

400

0

0 0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

0.012

0.014

0.016

0.018

0.02

200

−200

−400

400

0

0 0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

0.012

0.014

0.016

0.018

0.02

200

−200

−400

Time in milliseconds

Output phase voltages for =0.4,

=230V, =100Hz, =5000

with R-L load

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

0 0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

Va in volts

100

50

0

−50

−100

0 0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

Time in milliseconds

Fig. 10.

Fourier analysis of phase ’a’ output voltage for =0.4,

=230V,

Phase of Va in degrees

=100Hz, =5000 with R-L load

Fig. 9-11 shows the simulation results for =0.4, =230V, =100Hz, =5000Hz with R-L load. The output phase volt- ages and currents are shown in ﬁg. 9 and ﬁg. 11 respectively. Fig. 10 gives the amplitude and phase angle of the ‘a’ phase output voltage. Simulation results for =0.85, =110V, =30Hz, =5000Hz with R-L load are shown in ﬁg. 12-14. Fig. 12 shows the control waveforms computed using MATLAB pro- gram and ﬁg. 13 shows the three phase output voltages and currents. As expected, the third harmonics of input and output voltages appear in the output phase voltages which is clearly visible from the output currents shown in ﬁg. 13. Output voltage is veriﬁed by Fourier analysis of ‘a’ phase output as shown in ﬁg. 14. Simulations are performed for =0.35, =327V, =42Hz, =5000Hz with induction motor load. Transfer ratio is chosen such that ratio is maintained constant below rated speed. Induction motor parameters are given in the appendix. Duty cycles, acceleration torque, speed, input and output currents are shown in ﬁgs. 15- 18. Rated load torque of 20Nm is applied at time sec. and the response of the machine is studied.

10

5

0

−5

−10

0 0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

10

5

0

−5

−10

0 0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

Ib in amps

10

5

0

−5

−10

0 0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

Ic in amps

Fig. 11.

R-L load

Time in milliseconds

Output Currents for =0.4,

=230V, =100Hz, =5000Hz with

MAa

1

0.5

0

0

0.05

0.1

MBa

1

0.5

0

0

0.05

0.1

MCa

1

0.5

0

0

0.05

0.1

1

0.5

0

MAb

1

0.5

0

0

0.05

0.1

MBb

MCb

0.5

1

0

0

0.05

0.1

0

0.05

0.1

MAc

MBc

MCc

1

1

1

0.5

0.5

0.5

0

0

0

0 0.05

0.1

0 0.05

0.1

0 0.05

0.1

Time in milliseconds

Fig.

12.

Duty cycles for =0.85, =5000Hz, =30Hz

150

100

50

0

−50

−100

−150

0

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

0.012

0.014

10

5

0

−5

−10

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

Time in milliseconds

Fig. 13. Output voltages and currents for =0.85, =5000Hz, =30Hz, =110V with R-L load

1117

Ampltude in volts

Phase angle in degrees

100

80

60

40

20

Fundamental ouput voltage by Fourier analysis

0

0 0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2

100

80

60

40

20

0

0 0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

Time in milliseconds

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

Fig. 14.

Fourier analysis of ’a’ phase output voltage for =0.85, =30Hz,

=110V with R-L load

0.8

MAa

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

MAb

0

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

MAc

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

MBa

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

MCa

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.8

MCb

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

MBb

0.6

0.2

0

0

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.8

MBc

MCc

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0

0

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

Time in milliseconds

Fig. 15.

Duty cycles for =0.5, =42Hz

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

a phase output voltage in volts

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

100

50

0

−50

−100

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Time in milliseconds

a phase angle in degrees

Fig. 16.

Fourier analysis of ’a’ phase output voltage for =0.35, =42Hz,

=327V, =5000Hz

150

100

50

0

−50

−100

−150

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Output current in amps

60

40

20

0

−20

−40

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Input current in amps

Time in milliseconds

Fig. 17.

Output and input current of Induction motor =0.35, =42Hz,

=327V

1500

1000

500

0

−500

Speed in rpm

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

40

30

20

10

0

−10

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Torque in N−m

Time in milliseconds

Fig. 18. Speed and Torque response of Induction motor for =0.35, =42Hz,

=327V, =20Nm at 0.8sec

Simulation is repeated for =0.5, =327V, =60Hz, =5000Hz with induction motor load and the results are shown in ﬁg. 19- 21. In order to verify the speed control of induction motor by open loop control, simulation is repeated again for =0.8, =204V, =70Hz, =5000Hz as shown in ﬁg. 22-23.

_{V}_{.} _{C} ONCLUSION

The main constraint in the theoritical study of matrix con- verter is the computation time it takes for the simulation. This constraint has been overcome by the mathematical model that resembles the operation of power conversion stage of Matrix converter. This makes the future research on Matrix converter easy and prosperous. The operation of Matrix converter was analysed using mathematical model for different loads with both 0.5 and 0.866 voltage transfer ratios.

APPENDIX I _{I}_{N}_{D}_{U}_{C}_{T}_{I}_{O}_{N} MACHINE PARAMETERS

200V, 60Hz, “Y” connected, 5HP machine No of poles of pairs = 2.

1118

Va in volts

a Phase output voltage in volts

Line to Line voltage in volts

Ouput current in amps

400

0

0.556 0.558

0.56

0.562

0.564

0.566

0.568

0.57

0.572

0.574

200

−200

−400

.

600

0

0.556 0.558

0.56

0.562

0.564

0.566

0.568

0.57

0.572

0.574

400

200

−200

−400

−600

Time in milliseconds

Fig. 19. Phase and Line to Line output voltage of Matrix converter fed

Induction motor for =0.5, =60Hz, =327V, =5000Hz

150

100

50

0

−50

−100

−150

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

100

50

0

−50

−100

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Input current in amps

Output currents in amps

Fig. 20.

Time in milliseconds

Output current and Input current of Induction motor for =0.5,

=60Hz,

=327V, =5000Hz

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

Speed in rpm

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

40

30

20

10

0

−10

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Torque in N−m

Time in milliseconds

Fig. 21.

Speed and Torque response of Induction motor for =0.5, =60Hz,

=327V, =20Nm applied at 0.8sec

400

0

200

−200

−400

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.04

.

200

150

100

50

0

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Fourier spectrum of Va

200

0

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

100

−100

−200

Time in milliseconds

Fig. 22. Phase ‘a’ output voltage and current for =0.8, =70Hz,

=204V, =20Nm applied at 0.8sec

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

40

30

20

10

0

−10

0 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Speed in rpm

Torque in N−m

Time in milliseconds

Fig. 23. Speed and Torque response of Induction motor for =0.8, =70Hz, =204V, =20Nm applied at 0.8sec

Stator resistance, =0.277 Rotor resistance, =0.183 Inductances: =0.0538 H =0.05606 H =0.0553 H

Rotor inertia, =0.01667 kg/

Rated speed, =1766.9 rpm

.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We would like to thank Prof. Sedat Sunter, Firat Univer- sity, Turkey, for his invaluable contribution and support via Electronic mail.

REFERENCES

[1] A. Alesina and M.G.B. Venturini, “Analysis and design of optimum amplitude nine-switch direct AC-AC converters”, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol.4, pp.101-112, Jan. 1989. [2] P.W. Wheeler, J. Clare and A. Weinstein,“Matrix Converters: A Tech- nology Review”, IEEE Industrial Electronics, Vol. 49, No. 2, April 2002, pp. 276-287.

[3]

Zuckerberger, A., Weingstock, D. and Alexandrovitz, A., “ Single-phase matrix converter ”, IEE proc.-Electric Power Applications, Vol. 144(4), July 1997, pp. 235-240.

1119

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P.W. Wheeler, Jon C. Clare and M. Bland, “ Gate drive level intelligence |

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and current sensing for matrix converter current commutation”, IEEE Industrial Electronics, Vol. 49, No. 2, April 2002, pp. 383-389. M. Imayavaramban, K. Latha and G. Uma,“Analysis of different schemes |

of matrix converter with maximum voltage conversion ratio”, IEEE MELECON 2004, MAY 12-15, 2004, pp. 1137-1140. [6] Sedat Sunter and Tatar Y, “Pspice modelling and design of a snubber circuit for the matrix converter”, Int.J.Eng Model 13, 2000, pp.41-46. [7] Zuckerberger, A., Weinstock, D. and Alexandrovitz, A.,“Simulation of three-phase loaded matrix converter”, Electric Power Applications, IEE Proceedings, Vol.143, Issue: 4, July 1996, pp. 294 - 300. [8] “Modelling and simulation of single-phase AC-AC matrix converter using SPWM”, Student conference on Research and Development pro- ceedings, Malaysia, 2002, pp. 286-289. [9] M. Imayavaramban, K. Latha, G. Uma and S. Sunter, “ Matlab/Simulink Implementation for reducing the motor derating and torque pulsation of Induction motor using Matrix Converter”, IEEE Power Engineering Society, PSCE 2004, No. 0-7803-8178-X/04. [10] R Krishnan, “Electric Motor Drives: Modeling, Analysis and Control”, Prentice Hall, 2001.

B.G. Fernandes received the B.Tech. degree from Mysore University, India, in 1984, the M.Tech degree from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur in 1989, and the PhD. degree form the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, in 1993. He then joined the Department of Electrical En- gineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, as an Assistant Professor. In 1997, he joined De- partment of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, where he is currently an Associate Professor. His current research interests are in permanent magnet machines, high performance ac drives, quasi resonant link converter topologies and power electronic interfaces for non-conventional energy sources.

M. Imayavaramban was born in Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, India on April 05, 1977. He received the B.E. degree in electrical and electronics engineering from University of Madras, in 1999 and the M.E. from Anna University, Chennai, India in 2004. He is currently working as a Research Assistant in Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. His ﬁeld of interest are direct ac-ac power con- version and power electronics converters for reactive power compensation.

A.V. Krishna Chaithanya was born in Chi- lakaluripet, Andhra pradesh, India on September 22, 1982. He received the B.Tech. degree in electrical and electronics engineering from Nagarjuna Univer- sity, Guntur, in 2003 and is currently pursuing the M.Tech. degree at Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. His ﬁeld of interest are machine design, power electronics and electric drives.

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