# CHEM 1020: Chemistry II Equations

Gibbs Free Energy ‐ ΔG in kJ
ΔG = ΔH ‐ T ΔS

Where ΔH = Enthalpy (kJ)

ΔS = Entropy (Joules/Kelvin)

T = Temperature (Kelvin)

*Remember that ΔG = 0 during a phase transition (e.g. Fusion, Sublimation, etc).

ΔGo = ΔGoproducts – ΔGoreactants
ΔG = ΔGo + RT ln Q
ΔGo = ‐ RT ln K
ΔG = ‐nFE
ΔGo = ‐nFEo

Where ΔGo = Standard Gibbs Free Energy (at 25oC and 100 kPa for 1 mol)
R = Universal Gas Constant 8.314 J/ K.mol

Q = Reaction Quotient
K = Equilibrium Constant
n = number of electrons transferred

F = Faraday Constant (96500 C/mol.electron)

E = Cell/Electrode Potential (in Volts)
Eo = Standard Cell/Electrode Potential (in Volts)

Clausius – Clapeyron Equation

ln Pvap = ‐

+ C

Where Pvap = Vapour Pressure (Pa)

ΔHvap = Heat/Enthalphy of Vaporization (kJ)

C = Constant

Note that the Clausis – Clapeyron Equation can be used for the same gas at different
temperatures or pressures by the form:

ln P1 = ln P2 +

Entropy

ΔS = ΔS products – ΔS reactants
ΔS total = ΔS system + ΔS surrounding
S = k ln W

Where K = Boltzmann’s Constant (1.38 x 10‐23)

W = Number of ways a state is achievable

Rate Laws

Rate = k [A]m[B]n

Where A and B are reactant concentrations

m and n are orders for their respective reactant.

*m and n are not simply the coefficients of the reactants
*Rate = concentration change over time

Order of a reaction = m + n

First Order Integrated Rate Law

ln [A]t = ‐kt + ln [A]o

Where [A]t = Concentration of A at time t

[A]o = Initial Concentration of A

k = Rate Constant

t = Time

First Order Half Life
t½= ln 2/k

Each successive half life in a first order reaction occurs at an equal time.

Second Order Integrated Rate Law
Second Order Half Life

1/[A]t = kt + 1/[A]o
t½= 1/k[A]o

Each successive half life in a first order reaction occurs at an equal time.

Zeroth Order Integrated Rate Law

[A]t = ‐kt + ln [A]o

Reaction is independent of concentration.

Zeroth Order Half Life
t½= 0.693/k

Arhenius Equation

k = Ae‐Ea/RT

Where k = rate constant

A = Collision factor

Ea = Activation Energy (kJ or J)

R = Gas Constant (make sure the units correspond to the activation energy in kJ or J)

T = Temperature (K)

Hints for the exponential function:

e = Euler’s number 2.718

ln ex = x

eln x = x

The ln function and Euler’s number cancel out each other.

Gas Equilibrium Constant

Kp = Kc (RT)Δn

Where R = Gas Constant = 0.082058 L atm / K mol (note the units for R used for this equation)

Kp = Rate Equilibrium constant in terms of gases

Kc = Equilibrium Constant

Δn = mol ratio of products – mol ratio of reactants (gaseous elements only)

Henderson Hasselbalch Equation (Buffers)

pH = pKa + log ([A‐]/[HA])

Where [A‐] = concentration of conjugate base

[HA] = concentration of acid

pKa = log measure of the acid dissociation constant (Ka)

Note:

at maximum buffer capacity (when [A‐] = [HA]),

pH = pKa + log (1)
pH = pKa + 0
pH = pKa

Miscellaneous Equations Concerning pH

Kw = [H3O+][OH‐] = KaKb = 1.0 x 10‐14

Where Kw = Dissociation Constant for water

Ka = Acid Dissociation Constant, Measure of Acid Strength

Kb = Base Dissociation Constant, Measure of Base Strength

pH = ‐ log [H3O+] = ‐ log [H+]

Note: H+ and H3O+ are interchangeable.

pOH = ‐ log [OH‐]                                                    Ka = [H3O+][A‐] / [HA]

pH + pOH = 14                pKa + pKb = 14                pKa = ‐ log Ka

Nernst Equation

Where Eocell = Standard cell potential (in Volts)

K = Equilibrium constant

n = mols of transferred electrons

Where Q = Reaction Quotient at a certain temperature.

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