CHEM
1020:
Chemistry
II
Equations


Gibbs
Free
Energy
‐
ΔG
in
kJ

ΔG
=
ΔH
‐
T
ΔS


Where
ΔH
=
Enthalpy
(kJ)


ΔS
=
Entropy
(Joules/Kelvin)


T
=
Temperature
(Kelvin)


*Remember
that
ΔG
=
0
during
a
phase
transition
(e.g.
Fusion,
Sublimation,
etc).


ΔGo
=
ΔGoproducts
–
ΔGoreactants

ΔG
=
ΔGo
+
RT
ln
Q

ΔGo
=
‐
RT
ln
K

ΔG
=
‐nFE

ΔGo
=
‐nFEo


Where
ΔGo
=
Standard
Gibbs
Free
Energy
(at
25oC
and
100
kPa
for
1
mol)


R
=
Universal
Gas
Constant
8.314
J/
K.mol


Q
=
Reaction
Quotient


K
=
Equilibrium
Constant

n
=
number
of
electrons
transferred



F
=
Faraday
Constant
(96500
C/mol.electron)


E
=
Cell/Electrode
Potential
(in
Volts)

Eo
=
Standard
Cell/Electrode
Potential
(in
Volts)


Clausius
–
Clapeyron
Equation


ln
Pvap
=
‐




+
C


Where
Pvap
=
Vapour
Pressure
(Pa)


ΔHvap
=
Heat/Enthalphy
of
Vaporization
(kJ)


C
=
Constant


Note
that
the
Clausis
–
Clapeyron
Equation
can
be
used
for
the
same
gas
at
different

temperatures
or
pressures
by
the
form:


ln
P1
=
ln
P2
+



Entropy


ΔS
=
ΔS
products
–
ΔS
reactants


ΔS
total
=
ΔS
system
+
ΔS
surrounding

S
=
k
ln
W


Where
K
=
Boltzmann’s
Constant
(1.38
x
10‐23)


W
=
Number
of
ways
a
state
is
achievable



Rate
Laws


Rate
=
k
[A]m[B]n


Where
A
and
B
are
reactant
concentrations


m
and
n
are
orders
for
their
respective
reactant.


*m
and
n
are
not
simply
the
coefficients
of
the
reactants

*Rate
=
concentration
change
over
time


Order
of
a
reaction
=
m
+
n


First
Order
Integrated
Rate
Law


ln
[A]t
=
‐kt
+
ln
[A]o


Where
[A]t
=
Concentration
of
A
at
time
t


[A]o
=
Initial
Concentration
of
A


k
=
Rate
Constant


t
=
Time


First
Order
Half
Life

t½=
ln
2/k


Each
successive
half
life
in
a
first
order
reaction
occurs
at
an
equal
time.



Second
Order
Integrated
Rate
Law

Second
Order
Half
Life


1/[A]t
=
kt
+
1/[A]o


t½=
1/k[A]o



Each
successive
half
life
in
a
first
order
reaction
occurs
at
an
equal
time.



Zeroth
Order
Integrated
Rate
Law


[A]t
=
‐kt
+
ln
[A]o


Reaction
is
independent
of
concentration.


Zeroth
Order
Half
Life

t½=
0.693/k


Arhenius
Equation


k
=
Ae‐Ea/RT


Where
k
=
rate
constant


A
=
Collision
factor


Ea
=
Activation
Energy
(kJ
or
J)


R
=
Gas
Constant
(make
sure
the
units
correspond
to
the
activation
energy
in
kJ
or
J)


T
=
Temperature
(K)


Hints
for
the
exponential
function:



e
=
Euler’s
number
2.718


ln
ex
=
x


eln
x
=
x


The
ln
function
and
Euler’s
number
cancel
out
each
other.


Gas
Equilibrium
Constant


Kp
=
Kc
(RT)Δn


Where
R
=
Gas
Constant
=
0.082058
L
atm
/
K
mol
(note
the
units
for
R
used
for
this
equation)


Kp
=
Rate
Equilibrium
constant
in
terms
of
gases


Kc
=
Equilibrium
Constant


Δn
=
mol
ratio
of
products
–
mol
ratio
of
reactants
(gaseous
elements
only)


Henderson
Hasselbalch
Equation
(Buffers)


pH
=
pKa
+
log
([A‐]/[HA])


Where
[A‐]
=
concentration
of
conjugate
base



[HA]
=
concentration
of
acid


pKa
=
log
measure
of
the
acid
dissociation
constant
(Ka)



Note:


at
maximum
buffer
capacity
(when
[A‐]
=
[HA]),


pH
=
pKa
+
log
(1)

pH
=
pKa
+
0

pH
=
pKa


Miscellaneous
Equations
Concerning
pH


Kw
=
[H3O+][OH‐]
=
KaKb
=
1.0
x
10‐14



Where
Kw
=
Dissociation
Constant
for
water


Ka
=
Acid
Dissociation
Constant,
Measure
of
Acid
Strength


Kb
=
Base
Dissociation
Constant,
Measure
of
Base
Strength


pH
=
‐
log
[H3O+]
=
‐
log
[H+]



Note:
H+
and
H3O+
are
interchangeable.






























pOH
=
‐
log
[OH‐]



















































Ka
=
[H3O+][A‐]
/
[HA]


pH
+
pOH
=
14















pKa
+
pKb
=
14















pKa
=
‐
log
Ka


Nernst
Equation



Where
Eocell
=
Standard
cell
potential
(in
Volts)


K
=
Equilibrium
constant



n
=
mols
of
transferred
electrons




Where
Q
=
Reaction
Quotient
at
a
certain
temperature.



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