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| University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |

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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Introduction Outline
Definition

Introduction to
Telecommunication Networks

Needs and Applications


Network Structure

Introduction

Players and Factors Driving Telecommunications


Types of Networks

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| TE 413 Introduction to Telecommunication Networks | Christine Mwase | 10/10/2011 | Slide 1 / 28 |

University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Definition

University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Needs and Applications

Telecommunication

Network

Why build a network?

electronic communication
at a distance

system of interconnected
electronic components/circuits

Networks enable services

Telecommunication Network
Infrastructure consisting of equipment & facilities to transfer
information between users in different locations.

Communications networks typically provide a basic information


transfer service
Telephony: basic service is two-way exchange of voice signals
Other services enabled by this: voice messaging, fax, modem, ...

Telephone, TV broadcast, Internet, cellular, etc


Internet: basic service is transfer of information packets

The exchange of information over a telecommunication network


enables interaction at a distance nearly instantaneously.
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Other services enabled by this: e-mail, web browsing, ecommerce, video


conferencing, ...
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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Needs and Applications

Needs and Applications


Gathering/Concentration Distribution

Telecommunications involves

newspaper delivery
television & radio
broadcasting
mass e-mail, including
spam

bill payments / registration


polling, voting, auctions

Transporting information
Relaying information

Request/Reply

Managing the transportation service

catalogue ordering
Web browsing

Adding communications value


Adding information value

telephone (& conferencing)


video-on-demand

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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Needs and Applications


Users View
Network provides a service to users via an interface that hides
details of network anatomy and functions from user.
Interface provides friendly interrogation of user for control
information required by network.
Interface presents message to user in a meaningful way.
Interface provides network connection appropriate to service
requested.
E.g. voice, video, data

Two & Multi-way


Interactive

Needs and Applications


Users View

User 3

Network

User 1

User 2

Interface provides address information which defines called-party.


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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Needs and Applications

Network Structure

Providers View

Network topology

Mesh

Concerned with equipment and function that service the


users requirements.

Bus / Ring

Star

Multiple Star

Involves the details of the networks anatomy.

Physical network
Directory mechanism
Protocol
Logical connection

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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Network Structure

National network consists of

Internal links

Local networks

Junction networks

Trunk network

Global hierarchy: network of international circuits

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Network Structure

National Network

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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Network Subsystems

Network Elements

A telecommunication network may be considered as a system


consisting of the following interacting subsystems:

Transmission links
Wire, cable, radio, satellite, fibre optics,

Nodes

Switches, routers, bridges,

Interfaces

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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Network Issues
User

Subscriber loop
Trunk

Switching systems

NIC,

Transmission systems

Local exchange
Tandem exchange

Signalling systems

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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Controlling Complexity

Network interface

Provides source information


User specifies service(s)
required

Offers service
Network interface
implements service using
transmission media

Information sources

Enterprise architecture

Functional architecture

Modulation and coding

Transmission
Media, multiplexing, switching and signalling

Management

Technical architecture

Quality of service
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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Players and Factors Driving Telecommunications

University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Players and Factors Driving Telecommunications

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Market pull

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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Technology push

Competition

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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Technology Can it be built?

Economics for Success of a Network Service

Sustained improvements in technology allow complex networks and


therefore new services
Examples

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microprocessor MIPs
RAM memory
storage: hard disk, CD-ROM, DVD, ...
operating systems
image & video compression
digital signal processing
wireless transmission
transmission data rates
network protocols

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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Long-Term Trends

University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Regulation Is it allowed?
Telephone originally monopoly
Arose due to extremely high cost of infrastructure
Profitable, predictable, slow to innovate

Deregulation and break-up of monopolies


competition in long distance telephone
opening up of local telephone services

Spectrum allocations
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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Market Will it sell?


New applications & services must have a market

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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Standards Will it inter-operate?


New technologies very costly and risky

cellular telephony, fax transmission, Web browsing, e-commerce

The network effect: usefulness of a service increases


with size of community
Metcalfe's Law: usefulness is proportional to the square of the
number of users

Economies of scale: per-user cost drops with increased


volume
Cell phones, PDAs, PCs
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Standards allow players to share risk and benefits of a


new market
Reduced cost of entry
Interoperability and network effect
Compete on innovation

Example
802.11 wireless LAN products
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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Quality of Service

Network Standards
Required due to:

QoS: how happy the customers are:

Grade of Service

Loudness rating

Dial tone delay

Post dial delay

Availability of service tone

Correctness of billing

Reasonable cost of service to customers

Responsiveness to service request

Responsiveness and courtesy of operators

Time to install and add services

Disparate applications using networks.


Disparate user data rates / bandwidths.

Key Organisations:
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
Major international study and recommending body for telecommunications.
Has several major committees. See the ITU-T (previously CCITT).

International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)


Voluntary organisation whose members are standards bodies of participating
nations.

Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority (TCRA)


Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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University of Dar es Salaam | Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering |


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Different Types of Networks

Different Types of Networks


Internet Service Providers (ISPs).

Provide network service to customers (corporate or individual)


ISPs can be international, national, regional, or local
Organized as hierarchy: Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 3
Tier 1 networks form the backbone

Corporate networks connect end-points in an organization.


Provide local connectivity and provide a path to an ISP
Local-area network, dial-up through modem, ..

Small networks supporting few users.


Home networks, hot spots,
Often use wireless for ease of deployment

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Telephone network
Data communication networks
Integrated services digital networks
Radio based networks
Satellite networks
Mobile communication networks
Cable TV
...

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