A MANUAL OF CATHOLIC THEOLOGY

A MANUAL OF

CATHOLIC THEOLOGY
BASED ON SCHEEBEN'S
"

DOGMATIK"

BY

JOSEPH WILHELM,
AND

D.D., PH.D.

THOMAS

B.

SCANNELL,

D.D.

WITH A PREFACE BY

CARDINAL MANNING
VOL.
1.

THE SOURCES OF THEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE GOD CREATION AND THE SUPERNATURAL ORDER

FOURTH EDITION, REVISED

LONDON
KEG AN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER &
CO., LT*

NEW

YORK, CINCINNATI, CHICAGO BENZIGER BROS.
1909

[7'Ae rights of translation

and uf reproduction are

reserved.]

555
vJ

PREFACE.
DR.

WlLHELM

faithful in
scientific

have conferred upon the England a signal boon in publishing Scheeben's
Fr. Scannell

and

Dogmatik in English, and condensing it for careful and conscientious study. St. Anselm, in his work, "Cur Deus Homo?" says, "As
the right order requires that we should first believe the deep things of the Christian faith before we presume to
discuss
if,

them by

reason, so

it

seems to
*

me

to be negligence

after

we

are confirmed in the faith,

we do

not study to

understand what

we

believe."

The Dogmatik

of Scheeben

the deep things of faith in by the illumination of the Church.
of

a profuse exposition of the light of intelligence guided
is

Valentia teaches, in
that
it

Although, as Gregory accordance with the Catholic
not a science proprie dicta, first principles that are
is

schools,

Theology

is

because

cannot be resolved into
it

self-evident, nevertheless

because

it

higher than all sciences, can be resolved into the science of God and of

the Blessed,

known

to us

by revelation and

faith.

cause be called wisdom, which Theology may is than all science, and also it may be called science higher for many reasons. First, because, if it be not a science as
for that

to

its

principles,

it

is

so as to
1

its

form, method, process,

Lib.

i.

c. 2.

vi

Preface.
;

development, and transmission and because, if its principles are not evident, they are in all the higher regions of it
infallibly certain
;

and because many of them are necessary
contemplated

and eternal

truths.

Revelation,

then,

and

transmitted

in

exactness and method, may be called a science and the queen of sciences, the chief of the hierarchy of truth and
;

it

enters

and takes the

first

place in the intellectual
It

system

and tradition of the world.

and conditions of science
admits
as
;

possesses all the qualities so far as its subject-matter
as

namely, certainty as against doubt, definiteness

against vagueness,

harmony

against

discordance,

unity as against incoherence, progress as against dissolution

and stagnation. A knowledge and

belief of the existence of

God

has

never been extinguished in the reason of mankind. The polytheisms and idolatries which surrounded it were corruptions of a central and dominant truth, which, although And the tradition of this truth obscured, was never lost.

was

identified with the higher

and purer operations of the

reason, which have been called the intellectual system of the world. The mass of mankind, howsoever debased, were always theists. Atheists were anomalies natural

and exceptions, as the blind among men. The theism of the primaeval revelation formed the intellectual system of
the heathen world.
tion

The theism

of the patriarchal revela-

formed the intellectual system of the Hebrew race. The theism revealed in the incarnation of God has formed
"

the intellectual system of the Christian world.
aedificavit
sibi

Sapientia

God

science or knowledge of has built for itself a tabernacle in the intellect of
it,

domum."

The

mankind, inhabits

and abides
its

in

it

The
in

intellectual

science of the world finds

perfection

the scientific

expression of the theology of faith. But from first to last the reason of man is the disciple, not the critic, of the

Preface.
revelation of
intellect is

vii

and the highest science of the human that which, taking its preamble from the light

God

:

of nature, begins in faith

and receiving its axioms from faith, expands by the procession of truth from truth. The great value of Scheeben's work is in its scientific
;

method,

its

It requires

terminology, definitions, procedure, and unity. not only reading but study and study with
;

patient

care

and

conscientious

desire

to

understand.

Readers overrun truths which they have not mastered. Students leave nothing behind them until it is understood.
This work needs such a conscientious treatment from
those

who

take

it

in

hand.
in all its parts, the

Valuable as

it is

most valuable may

be said to be the First Book, on the Sources of Theological Knowledge, and the Second Book, on God in Unity and Trinity. Any one who has mastered this second book has reached the Head of the River of the

Water

of Life.
all

the superstitious and senseless mockeries, and they were many, with which the world wagged its head at the Vatican Council, none was more profoundly foolish

Of

than the gibe that in the nineteenth century a Council has been solemnly called to declare the existence of God. In
fact, it is this truth

that the nineteenth century needs most
"

of

all.

For as

Dei, pecus."
is,

Homo sine cognitione Jerome says, But what the Council did eventually declare
St.

not the existence of God, but that the existence of God may be known with certitude by the reason of man through This is the infallible light the works that He has created.
of the Natural Order, and the need of this definition is perceived by all who know the later Philosophies of Germany

and France, and the rationalism, scepticism, and naturalism which pervades the literature, the public opinion, and This was the the political action of the modern world.
first

dominant error of these days, demanding the action
b

Scheeben has fully and luminously exhibited the mind of the Vatican Council in his First and Second Books. HENRY EDWARD. which for two hundred years had embarrassed the teaching of the Church. Cardinal EPIPHANY. culminated cially in defining the certitude of faith. A rc/ibis/iof>. guidance of some of its own members Infallible within the The definition of the Magisterium of the Roman Pontiff has closed this period of contention certitude of the Supernatural Order completes The Divine the twofold infallibility of the knowledge of God in the This was natural and supernatural revelation of Himself.viii Preface. The second was the insidious undermining of the doctrinal authority of the Holy See. not only in controversy with adversaries without. the work of the Vatican Council in its one memorable and espethe Councils of Florence and of Trent. but often in the fold. in which the Councils of the Church. . 1890. of the Council. Session.

.. PAGB PREFACE INTRODUCTION. . A Definition and Division of Theology .. II.. . . 5. . The Province of Revelation . . . .. of tliis The Special Task Manual Theology . I.. Further Explanation of the Catholic Theory . xvii xviii . THE TRANSMISSION OF REVELATION. III. . THE OBJECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF THEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE. CHAP. .. The Subject-matter of Supernatural Revelation . natural Character 4.. n 13 6.. . . 20 .. .. Mysteries .... . of at the Present Time The Plan 1 .. . . 2. . I. . . The Protestant Theory and the Catholic Theory concerning the . . . Super.CONTENTS OF VOL.. . . . . 3 4 Its .. .. Notion of Revelation Three Degrees of Revelation The Nature and Subject-matter of Natural Revelation The Object and Necessity of a Positive Revelation . . Short Sketch of the History of Theology .. I.. . CHAP. I. . I. Demonstration of the Catholic Theory . . 6 8 .... . v II. . PART I. . . . . . . . ode of transmitting and enforcing Revelation 8. ... BOOK THE SOURCES OF THEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE. .. 9. DIVINE REVELATION. . ... 3. . . Progress of Revelation . ft] 7. IO 18 . . . .

. 34. 27. 47 CHAP. in the : Apostolic . . . . . The Auxiliary . Dogmatic Censures 30. . . . . . . 71 73 76 77 given in the Church 24. . 94 97 lot . General Councils Local or Particular Councils 33. 103 105 108 35. Organization of of the Teaching the Apostolate (continued) . . . Tradition 26. . . . . V. in the Narrower Sense of the Word CHAP. . 40 43 Organization of the Apostolate (continued) Organic Union . Two Powers and the Organization of the Teaching Apostolate Its Relations with the Two Hierarchical Orders instituted by Christ . . . . . . . . 22. . Holy . . .. . Dogmas and Matters 85 88 . . its THE RULE OF . . . Organization of the Apostolate (concluded) Internal Indefectibility of Doctrine and Faith in the Church Recapitulation 15. . . . 36.. . 25. . .. IV. . 63 66 The Oral Apostolic Deposit Tradition. 32. . . Decisions of the Church on the Text and Interpretation of . Members 13.Contents.. . . Origin 23. . . . 79 81 CHAP. . .. . 28. FAITH. . .. . . Organization of the Apostolate (continued) . . . . . . and Judicial Decisions considered generally Papal Judgments and their Infallibility . . between the Teaching Body and the Body of the Faithful . . . 17.. .. . the Protestant System 19. . .. ... . . THE APOSTOLIC DEPOSIT OF REVELATION. III. . .. . . 18.. . Holy Scripture in the Catholic System 20. The Position and Functions of . . . . 50 56 58 61 in . . . . 45 Gradual Progress : Deposit Transmission of Revelation Ecclesiastical Tradition Rule of Faith . in which Traditional Testimony . The Writings The Writings of the Fathers of Theologians . . . Definitions 31. . . Organization of the . is The Various Modes and Growth of Ecclesiastical Tradition . . . Creeds and Decrees . . Scripture 21. . . . . and also specially in The Rule of Faith considered generally of Opinion Active Sense 29. . 32 35 II. .. . 16. The Roman Congregations . ... . 10. . . .. Development of Dogma The Chiei Dogmatic Documents . ECCLESIASTICAL TRADITION. . . . . Teaching Body 12. . Holy Scripture the Written Word of God Holy Scripture as a Source of Theological Knowledge The False and Self-contradictory Position of Holy Scripture . . . . . .. Body . Documentary Tradition. the Expression of the Living Tradition Rules for demonstrating Revealed Truth from Ecclesiastical . . External and 14. 91 . . .

. . II. 50. 57. Doctrine of the Vatican Council on the Understanding of Faith . 46... Faith . PART CHAP.. . . . Relation between Reason and Faith . Etymology of the various words used . OUR KNOWLEDGE OF GOD. ..112 115 40. ... THEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE CONSIDERED IN ITSELF. as -- defined by the . ... and Grace Man's Co-operation Necessity of Faith . . The Formal Object or Motive of Faith The Subject-matter of Faith The Motives of Credibility . The Demonstration of the Existence of (JoJ 56. . . II.150 .... FAITH AND UNDERSTANDING. Theology as a Sacred Science Theological Science . PAGE for . . Progress of . . . .. . . 55.. 118 . Contents and Limits of our Natural Knowledge of God 164 168 B.. 138 . . . . 41.. . . . ...... . 45. 44.. ... Natural Knowledge of God. . . ..- . . CHAP. .. 49. . .. . and Speculative 51. . . . ...132 135 CHAP.. Faith 43.. in the Act of Faith . . . true Notion of Faith . .. 37. Nature of Theological Faith 39. 1 19 . ... .. ... . . 52. FAITH. 122 128 131 42. xi PART II. . I.. . . . . . Natural Knowledge of God considered generally . 47. I.. 54. . Supernatural Knowledge of God.. . . . Church. . 58. . Faith a Free Act ' The Supreme Certitude of Faith . 169 Revealed Names of God 59.. The Doctrine concerning especially in the Vatican Council God . I7S . 151 BOOK GOD.146 .. 53. . .. 140 141 . Our Conception of the Divine Essence and the Divine Attributes . . A. OR SUBJECTIVELY. . . .. . 142 143 Positive. Scientific Character of Theology . ... GOD CONSIDERED AS ONE I. The . . . 38.Contents. 158 161 . : . . . Theological Knowledge 48.. . . . . . IN SUBSTANCE.. The Rank of Theology among the Sciences The three great branches of Theology Fundamental..

the Absolute Beauty B.. Efficacy of the Divine Will and Holiness God the 89. THE NEGATIVE ATTRIBUTES OF GOD. . 79. . 85. 66. 63.. . 61. LIFE. External Attributes. . 200 201 CHAP. . Fundamental Conception of God's Essence and Nature The Perfection of the Divine Being . 74. 76. 70. . . . . God.. the Objective Goodness God.. III. The Divine Life in general . .. The Unity of God 73. . . 208 . IV. V. . . Love . OF GOD 203 204 205 206 72. . 80. . 71. . The Beatitude and Glory of the Divine Life 254 . . The Moral Perfection of the Divine Will The Justice of God . The Divine Knowledge in general. .. . 246 248 2 53 Substantial Holiness 90... Our Conception of the Divine Attributes Classification . 81. THE DIVINE Its . God's Knowledge of the Free Actions of His Creatures The Divine Wisdom in relation to its External Activity . . the Objective Truth God. Absolute Perfection 214 215 219 The 22 5 Divine Ideas 82. ... 182 185 64. 78. 68. 177 179 CHAP. . 87. . God's Mercy and Veracity Its Dominion over Created Wills 88. 65. 84. . 75.. 62. CONSIDERED GENERALLY. . PAGE . .xii Contents. CHAP. .211 CHAP. The Omnipotence of God The Omnipresence of God . II. 60. The Simplicity of God The Infinity of God The Immutability of God The Inconfusibility of God The Immensity of God The Eternity of God The Invisibility of God The Incomprehensibility of God The Ineffability of God 188 191 193 195 197 . . frenerally . The Absolute Freedom of God's Will The Affections (Affectus} of the Divine Will. POSITIVE ATTRIBUTES Internal Attributes. 77. . . 69. 230 233 238 2 4i .. 175 . The Divine Will as Living Goodness . THE ESSENCE AND ATTRIBUTES OF GOD. . 67.. 83. THE A. 86. The Nature and ' Attributes of the Divine Will considered 22 7 especially ...

. 109.. . The Tradition of East . . . . . . Nicsea 98.. . 33^ 340 343 349 . . I. .. . 323 . . 1 10. and Co-inherence (irepix&>p7j<m) 107. . 95. Wisdom . .351 . gi. THE DOGMA.. .. 105. II.) Father. 290 294 308 312 and West on the Consubstantiality of the Holy Ghost with the Father and the Son 99. . . . Son. and The Origins 103. . . .. The .. . IV. .. . The Temporal Mission of the Divine Persons . Holy Ghost . . . . resulting from their Immanent Origin Similarity.. . .. . 92. . . .. . and their . The Divine Love through Aspiration. ... Revelation . 97. Identity. Operations to Particular Persons 108.. CHAP. . and Gift Perfect Immanence of the Divine Productions . .. . . . .316 The Productions in God are True Productions of an Inner Mani(i) of the Divine Knowledge through Word and Image. The Special Names of the Divine Productions as Communications of Life in analogy with Generation and Spiration in the Animal . . Inseparability. . 325 Kingdom Economy 106. . 96. The Trinity in the New Testament The Doctrine of the New Testament on God the Son . III. . . THE TRINITY IN SCRIPTURE. . .. festation (2) of the in God resulting from the Fecundity of the Divine . The Divine Productions as Communications of Essence and Nature . . lor. . .. . 320 the Sub- stantiality of their Products as Internal Expression of the Substantial Truth and Internal Effusion of the Substantial Sanctity 104. . . Equality. THE TRINITY IN TRADITION. PAGE The Dogma of the Trinity as formulated by the II. Life as Absolute 102. . . the Divine Products as Hypostases or Persons . . . . . . . . 287 of . . 93.. Divine Hypostases and Persons Definition of Hypostasis and Person as applied to God 100... 259 CHAP. . THE EVOLUTION OF THE TRINITY FROM THE FECUNDITY OF THE DIVINE LIFE. . The Personal Names (olxovo^la. . . . . The The . and : . . . . . The Father.. . Attributes. 94. Church . . The Distinction of the Divine Persons in particular. .. . . The Appropriation of the Common Names. . . . The Doctrine of the New Testament on the Holy Ghost The Doctrine of the Old Testament on the Trinity . .. Son. . . 331 Complete Unity of the Produced Persons with their Principle. ..Contents* xiii PART CHAP. . and Holy Ghost. . Position and Importance of the Mystery of the Trinity in . . THE DIVINE TRINITY. . Distinctive Marks ... . . Pledge. . Trinity a Mystery but not a Contradiction. . 265 269 277 283 CHAP. . The Ante-Nicene Tradition on the Divine Trinity and Unity The Consubstantiality of the Son defined by the Council . and of the Divine Persons .

. and Tendencies 116. 113. 376 378 379 382 ... . THE UNIVERSE CREATED of all BY GOD. .. 389 Man The the Image of God . I.. 134. . . . . Activity.. . . Theological Doctrines concerning the Material The Doctrinal Portions of the Mosaic CHAP. .. . Our . . . . . . . .. . . . .. World generally Hexahemeron .. 26: . . .. 383 384 122. . 117. Existence. 133. 132. ... . . .. ". Production of the First Woman Reproduction of Human Nature The Essence ..'. Descent of all Mankind from consequent Unity of the Human Race 131. . THE MATERIAL UNIVERSE. . image and likeness 125. Interpretation of Gen.. . the Divine Ideal. . . .. . 118. and Origin of the Angels 119. .. to .. THE ANGELS. . CREATION. 358 361 . . The Origin . of Marriage . . Things by Creation out of Nothing 112. and its Consequences . . . . PAGR . . 121.. . II. . .. 123. .. . Essential Relation of Creatures to their Being. . . . . . 129. .. . Natural Destiny of Rational Creatures Their Position in the Universe . IV. 120. BOOK PART CHAP. . One . . The Providence of God The World the Realization of . ii. . . . 369 372 374 CHAP.. i. The Nature. and the . III.. . God the Conservator of all Things 1 14. . . Attributes of the Angels Incorruptibility and Relation to Space . .. Pair of Progenitors.. 135. . Man. . THE UNIVERSE CREATED FOR GOD. . 126. . 128. . . .. . 363 365 CHAP. I. Simultaneous Beginning of the World and of Time . .. . 124. . Number and Hierarchy of the Angels .. . .. . or the Animal Character Life {ratio inferior} in Man. The Natural Life and Work of the Angels . ... Division and Order of the Vital Forces in .. .. "Let Us make man .xiv Contents. CHAP. God as the Final Object of . Spiritual The Spiritual -Side of Human Nature The Animal Side of Human Nature The Natural Imperfections. Likeness to God in Essential Constitution of Man and Woman Man . 392 395 397 400 404 130.. 410 412 413 418 421 42S of the . .. 115. V. . .. . God the Principle of all Created Action .. MAN. . . . i III. 127. . CREATION AND THE SUPERNATURAL ORDER... .

. . . 452 456 459 463 465 468 472 144. State of Grace the Nobility of the Children of God State of Grace (continued) The Holy Ghost the Sub- 147. The State of Grace (concluded) Grace and Free Will " . . . . . . . III. .. IV. . Notion of the Supernatural and of Supernature . 152.Contents. . . . . . 136. . Creation . .. . . . 154. .. Man's Nature .. . 137.. CONCRETE REALIZATION OF THE SUPERNATURAL ORDER. Elevating Grace considered as a Supernatural Habit of the . The Obediential 149. 140. Doctrine of Holy Scripture on the Supernatural Communion with God. . . .. . I. . The Chief Errors concerning the Supernatural . . . ... . . considered especially as Communion by Adoptive Sonship . Nature's Vocation to 151. . Grace by a Law of the Creator Function of the Supernatural Order in the Divine Plan of the . . .. . . 138. . . . .. II. . . . Mental Faculties 145. PAGE . . . . . . . especially on the . . . . II. The Teaching of Tradition on Supernatural Union with God : " Deification " of the Creature . . . . . 443 139. Complement of Accidental Grace . Eternal Life in the Beatific Vision . . .. . . Character . Relation of Nature and Natural Free Will to Grace . as distinct from . . . . . . . .. . . 142. of . 501 Mankind . .. THE SUPERNATURAL ORDER. ... 486 490 493 Universe . . General Notion of Divine Grace . The Supernatural The Supernatural World.. 505 . 143. GENERAL THEORY OF THE SUPERNATURAL AND OF GRACE... . THEORY OF THE ABSOLUTELY SUPERNATURAL. Faculty The Absolute Gratuity of Grace Relation of Nature to Grace (continued) The Process by . . .. the Angels . . . . . " 148. xv PART CHAP. . CHAP. .. THEORY OF THE RELATIVELY SUPERNATURAL. . . 430 434 437 CHAP. 141. which Nature is raised to the State of Grace . in the Angelic in 153. 479 483 .. Its . 146. . . stantial The The . . .. The Supernatural in our Life on Earth (in statu vice) The Elevating Grace necessary for Salutary Acts The Theological Virtues . .. of The Supernatural Endowment . 496 CHAP. New .. . . 150.. .

. S. xxxviil.UMBRA IN LEGE IMAGO IN EVANGELIO VERITAS IN CCELO. Ambr. in Ps.

and is practical. every knowledge of Divine doctrine.INTRODUCTION." 1 Theology may be taken objectively But it is not as doctrine. and conse- exposition Divine. especially not the : mere apprehension of term is it. 1 may also be divided according to its various When it demonstrates and defends the grounds Deum docet. but also for its hence the Divine character of its Theology cannot better be described than by the old formula " Theology teaches about God. Theology is rules of belief. et ad Deum ducit. Theology functions. or subjectively as knowledge. while the In conduct. DEFINITION AND DIVISION OF THEOLOGY. This Definition. is taught by God. The restricted to scientific knowledge . THE word Theology" means the Science of God. not only for object . of II. a " Theologia Deo docetur. is ' latter deals with rules of this of a speculative character. I. is the scientific of the doctrine concerning God and things can be obtained by Revealed Theology." . Moral Theology. in means contra-distinction to Natural Theology. the knowledge God obtainable by the study of Nature is a branch of this more extensive Natural Theology. in its technical sense. work we deal with Dogmatic Theology. The " Natural Theology of of The knowledge of God which called Revelation is Paley and other English writers that is. " I. and leads to God. and usually divided into Dogmatic and xhlob" The former treats of dogmas that is. that is called Theology. science has God its source and subject. quently Theology. which depends " on human reason alone.

B. which has been followed by a period of prosperity. Theo- . .x vi i I Introduction. which coincide with the great epochs of the history of the Church : A. and demonstrates them from Scripture and Tradition. . because it is chiefly the work of the Schoolmen. and Modern Theology round In each epoch also the growth of the Council^oT Trent. ordinates the When Theology expounds and codogmas themselves. of these has as its centre one of the great Counof the Church. it is called General or Fundamental Theology. and sometimes Scholastic Theology. and Speculative Theology cannot be completely separated. Positive Theology The logia Positivo-Sckolastica. C Each cils The Ancient or Patristic Epoch The Mediaeval or Scholastic Epoch The Modern Epoch. and also because. A will be II. and may be considered as Applied Philosophy. because of its defensive character. It is also called the Treatise on the True Religion (Tractatus de Vera Religions). on account it can only be acquired by scholars. and this in turn has given place to a period of decay. fuller account of these various distinctions found in the concluding sections of Book I. has followed a similar course. and penetrates into their nature and discovers their principles and consequences. Mediaeval Theology round the Fourth Lateran Council. When it takes the dogmas for granted. and sometimes Apologetics. Patristic Theology being/ grouped round the Council of Nicaea. or Dogmatico-Scholastica. Hence the theological works of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were entitled Theo- of its abstruseness. During the Patristic Epoch. A SHORT The SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF THEOLOGY. period of preTheology A paration has led up to the Council. This is more properly a vestibule or outwork of Theology. of belief. history of Theology may be divided into three epochs. it takes the name of Positive Theology. present work likewise possesses this two-fold character. it is designated Speculative Theology.

A. Grace and Free Will. while the Western Church directed its attention more to the practical questions of Sin and Re- xh^ofo^y compa " demption. in approach to systematic treatment may. / Eastern and In the East the Fathers were occupied chiefly in discussing speculative questions. the to develop and systematize what had been handed down them and this work was carried on almost entirely in . particular dogmas were preted Scripture. without directly constructing a system. the work of the Mediaeval theologians was to dition. Paganism man. Church. . consists of treatises written against the different heresies of the day. of the Donatists brought out the doctrine concerning the Constitution of the Church. xix logy was engaged in studying Holy Scripture. The Easterns.Introduction. and the Constitution of the Church. Theology was not treated by the Fathers as one organic They first enunciated Tradition and then interIn this way. . Some whole. securely laid. besides the commentaries on Holy . The IheVuL'J*. in consolidating Tradition. Modern Theology has taken up the work of both of the foregoing epochs by defending the fundamental dogmas of Religion against modern agnostics and heretics. and thus. be found their catechetical works but the greater part of the Patristic writings. and Manichaeism gave rise to treatises on God. and creation the doctrine of the Blessed Trinity was proved against the Arians and Macedonians the Incarnation against the Nestorians and Eutychians Grace and Sin were discussed with the Pelagians the schism every . often explained and proved at considerable length. . and at the same time carefully attending to the development of doctrine within the The Patristic Epoch. excelled both in . the cloisters and universities. indeed. Scripture. the Fathers provided ample materials in almost The struggle against department of theology. Finally. and in defending the chief doctrines of Christianity against paganism and heresy. moreover. and was cultivated principally by the official representatives of Tra- The foundation having thus been Bishops. such as the Blessed Trinity and Incarnation.

and Didymus. and the great St. After a time the influence of the Greek Fathers began to be felt. Historical and The Arians of the Fourth Century. the Persons. and the Roman notion of the continuance of individual existence by universal succession. Clement. In the West may Areopagite. Ambrose. but the French edition is better. Basil. Victor. from whom the subsequent writers drew their inspiration Athanasius the three great Cappadocians. Hilary of Poictiers. Origen. The Greek Fathers most The dogmatic writings are : highly esteemed for their chiefs of the Catechetical Latin School at Alexandria. and the modes of incurring. especially in the doctrine of Grace. long afterwards. Athanasius. see Bardenhewer. nature of Sin and its transmission by inheritance. Greek metaphysics supplied ideas and expressions capable of conveying some notion of the Divine Substance. Augustine. the Jansenists accused both the Schoolmen and the Greek Fathers of having fallen . and Gregory of Nyssa Cyril of Leontius of Byzantium. 2 Maine. and hence. 355. extinguishing. Ancient Law.xx Introduction. exactness of method and sublimity of expression. the Divine On the other hand. Cardinal Sketches. such as Hugh of St. Les Peres de The original is in German. 1 Greek Fathers. whereas in the West it was by men trained in Roman Law. And FEglise. and transmitting them. The works of the Fulgentius. Gregory of Nazianzum. the debt owed by man and satisfied by Jesus Christ. A complete account of the writings of the Fathers does not fall within our present scope. Leo. into Pelagianism. This difference in method and choice of subjects was due chiefly to the fact that Theology was treated in the East by men trained in treated Greek metaphysics. and lastly. the Roman view of Debts. . 2 1 Newman's Church of the Fathers. were worked out on the lines of the Roman theory of obligations arising out of Contract or Delict. p. For further information. and the Divine Nature. John Damascene. . . did little more than develop and systematize the material supplied by him. St. The early Schoolmen. last-named form a sort of encyclopaedia of theological literature. Pseudo-Dionysius the Alexandria. be mentioned Tertullian.

and three in Persons the Proslogium further develops the treatment of the unity of God. strictly logical method which set the fashion to those who came after him. Theology was cultivated chiefly in the cathedral and monastic schools. a complete treatment of theology. The most valuable writings of these ages are Venerable Bede's commentaries on Holy Scripture Paschasius Radbert's treatises on the Holy Eucharist. Victor (Summa Sententiarum and De Sacramentis Fidei). the Schoolmen completely ignore Scholasticism rightly belongs The PreHe did not indeed Period? (d. . Scotus Erigena created : . Sententiarum libri qiiattiwr. Nature. . and those directed against Berengarius by Lanfranc and Guitmundus. 1109). in which the materials supplied by the Fathers are worked up into a complete system of Theology. Faith to St. while the treatise De Processione Spirittis Sancti adversus Grcecos develops his teaching on the Trinity De Casu Diaboli and De Conceptu Virginali et Originali Peccato deal with sin Cttr Deus Homo contains his celebrated theory of Redemption. but he dealt with supply the most important and difficult dogmas in such a way " that it became easy to reduce them to a system. The Dark ges" During the so-called Dark Ages. 1080-1230. and Robert Pulleyn. a sort of theological system in his celebrated work De Divisione Natiirce. 1 104) was the author of the great mediaeval text-book. xxi B. His Monologium treats of God as one . He also wrote on Grace and Free Will De Libero . Hugh of St. Bernard (1153).\i'x. but he can in no way be looked upon as the Father of Scholasticism. : and De Concordia Prczscientice et Prcedestinationis nee non Gratia Dei cum Libero Arbitrio.Introduction. The rationalistic tendencies of Abelard were successfully combated by St. I. as he is sometimes styled in modern times him. William of A.QnQ(Altissiodorensis^ Richard t A rbitrio Peter Lc . The Mediczval or Scholastic Epoch. i The title of Father of Anselm of Canterbury /-lit 111-1 and in It was his severe seeking understanding" was his motto. in fact. It was for the most part merely a reproduction of what had been handed down by the Fathers. Peter Lombard (Archbishop of Paris.

II. remain in a more or less unfinished state. continual adoption of the syllogistic form of argumentation. The Period. and the parallel is indeed most striking. and at the same time became more systematic. the great doctors of this period are pected characterized by clear statement of the question at issue. Dominic. without a charm of its own. Orders were the chief promoters of both. and the struggles with the Arathe west by the Spanish Moors. These Summce have often been likened to the great Gothic cathedrals of this same n -TM 1 he opening age. Victor. During the early years of the thirteenth century the foundation of the two great Mendicant Orders by St. Alanus of Lille. called Quodlibeta or became the Qucestiones Disputatce. as we call it. They also wrote monographs on various questions. The period of perfection in both Scholasticism and Gothic architecture also extends from 1230 to the 1 The Mendicant beginning of the fourteenth century. . most of which. systematic works on the whole domain of theology. however. and also from the Patristic to the Scholastic method. Some doctors composed original schoiasti- cism and Gothic architecture. Francis and St. frequent and subtle use of distinctions. The style of the Schoolmen is totally wanting in the brilliant eloquence so often found in the Fathers. 1 They split up their subject These dates apply to continental architecture . bico-aristotelian philosophy introduced into studies. however. form the transition from the preparatory period to the period of prosperity. gave astonishing impetus to theological Theology embraced a larger field. the flourishing period of Scholasticism and architecture ia linyland was the fourteenth century. Aristotle's logic had already found its way into the schools now his metaphysics. Greek philosophy drew at- to exercise greater influence. called Summcs TJieologicce. but their usual textbook was the Sentences of the Lombard. who began basis of Christian teaching. and ethics . of St.xxii Introdiiclion. psychology. Norman) style to the Gothic or pointed style. i i years of the thirteenth century mark the transition from the Roman (or. As might be exfrom such studies. and William of Paris. and plain unvarnished style of language which is not. tention to the Greek Fathers. They sometimes treated of theology in commentaries on Holy Scripture.

Thomas himself. but his powers are seen at their best in his Breviloquiumt c . but in received. The former was an Englishman. As the German poet Geibel says all the use of into countless pinnacles . His mystical spirit unfitted him for subtle analysis. discarding the gorgeous colouring. still St. If it yields the palm to the Summa of St. and sublimity. originality. St. And just as in after ages a Fene'lon could call Gothic architecture a barbarous invention of the Arabs so there have been learned men who have looked upon Scholasticism as subtle trifling. but taught theology in the University of Paris. which was partly drawn from his earlier commentary on the Lombard. all of them composing together one great building. and directing them all to the final end of man. but is nevertheless his true heir and follower." This flourishing period of Scholasticism opens with the great names of Alexander of Hales (Doctor irrefragabilis) and Blessed Albert the Great. Alexander of He composed the first. no Summa. : " Great works they wrought. Bona- ve originality he surpassed St. fair fanes they raised. a Commentary on the Sentences. Bonaventure. and all of them pointing to Heaven. wrote. school. into xxiii numberless questions and subdivide these again." (1221-1274) did not actually sit under Alexander. " St. at same time binding them all together to form one wellordered whole. and after his death. about their tombs now creep. wherein the mighty sleep. He wrote only one great work. His works deserve greater attention than they have He died about 1245. St.Introduction. Thomas. while the Scotist school was critical rather than constructive. probably made additions from the same remarkable for breadth. the largest Summa Theologica. for his disciple. But it is noteworthy that in our own day Scholasticism and Gothic architecture have again come into honour. a race of pigmies. It is to which his disciples. the Seraphic Doctor. But Alexander's chief influence was exercised on the Franciscan Order which he joined in To this day he is the type of the genuine Franciscan 1225. While we. Bonaventure. In like manner the mediaeval architects. elaborate the bare stone and mullions and clusters. source. Thomas doubtless had it before him in composing his own work. and at the same time. depth.

after St. spond with the four books of the Lombard. partly answering to contra Gentiles of St. on the Areopagite and the Lombard in monographs. and that he was the master of St . His chief glory is that he introduced the study of Aristotle into the Christian schools. and.Thomas Aquinas. They consist of commentaries on the Gospels and the Prophets. and goes no further than the end of the second part. was written in his advanced old age. bringing all things back In another work. in perfection of method and expression. He wrote on every subject treated by the Schoolmen. containing a rich collection of passages from the Fathers. the Fathers. on Aristotle. His numerous works fill twenty-one folio volumes (Lyons. the Sentences written in his early lately 1 An works has been published at Quaracchi (ad Aquas 3 See Dr. metaphysics. Thomas St. Sighart's Life of Albert the Great. and Aristotle. ascetical writings. to their Supreme End. on Aristotle. and in the variety and extent of his labours. a condensed Summa containing the quintessence Whilst the Breviloquium derives all things from God. : I. He also composed a so-called the 1 Summa Summa de Creaturis. The Dominican school was founded by Albert the Great (1193-1280). dogmatic. the "Angelical Doctor" (1225Aquinas. and in every form on physics. like it. psychology on apologetic. Thomas's Summa. in the depth and clearness of his ideas. and in two Summce.xxiv which is Introduction. 1651). Albert the though ingenious order. Thomas Aquinas. more 2 philosophical than theological. of translation published by Washbourne. which there is an English . compendia. The Commentary on excellent edition of his Claras). of which the four intended parts were to correTheologica. but in a strange of the theology of his age. towers over all the theologians of his own or of any niii-ri* unsurpassed in other age. the Centiloquium. he sketched out a new book of Sentences. and on the Sentences. his Itinerarium Mentis ad Deum proceeds in the opposite direction. . He is knowledge of Holy Scripture. homilies. and commentaries on the His Summa Areopagite. His chief dogmatic writings are the following : . St. 1274). Thomas. moral and ascetical theology in commentaries on Holy Scripture. ethics. .

2.J. i. . It is divided into three great parts. S. 360-386 (in German).. by Joseph Rickaby. been published (1905). end in God. vince of theology. mentary on this work appeared towards the end of the fifteenth century. The so-called Questiones Disputatce. 2-13). 4. It contains his mature opinions on almost the entire pro. written Fr. De Bono et Appetitu Boni. Written as occasion required. and of supernatural Providence the fourth book deals with the various mysteries which bear on the union of creatures with God. A better arrangement would be under the three headings: DeEnteet Potentia. Thomas of Aquin. It is divided into four books Essence and Nature of God and : of creatures to their the third treats of the movement of creatures . years.. 3. We should then possess a fairly complete system of theologico1 philosophical Ontology.1 IT composed towards the end or his lite and never completed. Of (a) God Himself: His Being (qq. the second of which is subdivided into two parts. a rich collection of monographs. termed respectively. into Secundce and Secunda Secundce. pp. An English translation. Psychology and Ethics. Prima part " is divided I. has just i <~ i 11 Tksoiefic*. but it contains only such philosophical subjects as bear on theology. Thomas here treats than in his other writings. But the Saint's masterpiece is his Summa 1. DeMalo." Part treats of God : as He is in Himself and as the Principle of all things A. De Spiritiialibus fully more Creaturis De Virtutibns and De Veritate. The Summa contra Gentiles is for the most part philosophical. See Werner. De Veritate et Cognitione. treat of the the first two . xxv rejected and expressing many opinions subsequently by him. The method of exAn excellent composition is not dialectical but positive.Introduction. which St. by Francis of Ferrara. on the most important subjects of the whole province of theology. they have been grouped in a somewhat confusing way under the titles De Potentia. Each " " and these again into questions articles.

Q3) Those who have devoted themselves to the active or contemplative 182). The material world (65-74) . By means of Christ's Sacraments (60-90). Part II. (y) life (179- Those found (183-189). in different occupations Part III. Virtue and Vice (48-89) (d} The influence of God on their motion by of Law and Grace (90-114). treats : of the motion of rational creatures towards God A. Angels (50-64) . (1-47) and Moral Virtues (48: (b} Various classes of persons (a) Those gifted with extraordinary Graces (171-178). The first regular commentary on the Summa was com- . : . His internal activity (14-26) His internal fruitfulness in the Trinity (27-43). Of God as Cause of all things (a) His causal relation to them : (c) : (a) (/3) Generally (44-49) Specially (1) (2) (3) : . () Human (c) Habits. Through Christ (a) His Person (1-26) His life and works (27-59). Generally (Prima Secundce] (a) : The end or object of their motion (1-6) acts (7-48).xxvi (ft) Introduction. treats of God's action in drawing man to Himself: A. . (fr) B. (#) The (75-102). . . B. B. Specially (Secunda Secundce) (a) : means The Theological 170). government of creatures and their share in Man the course of the universe (103-119).

sometimes called Opus- culum ad Reginaldttm. the first an edition by Rutland (Paderborn. the writings of the English Franciscan. 1 To this flourishing period belong the great apologetic works of the two Dominicans. Hope. the Summa of Henry of Ghent. Raymund Martini (died 1286). displaced the Sentences as the textThe editions are too numerous to mention. that published 5. The Compendium Theologies. and consequently some matters are here better treated than in the larger : works. surnamed Speculator on account of his Speculum Juris . connected with the Our Father. containing commentaries on Aristotle and the Summa. by William Durandus (d. As we write (1898) nine volumes of the edition published by order of his Holiness Leo XIII. 1296). Waldenses . corrected and completed by Paul of Burgos (d. the three great encyclopaedic Specula. pleted. 1340). goes down to the second petition. Faith. 1433) the Rationale Divinoram Officiorum. 1300). about 1230). and Moneta (d. Richard Middleton. by Vincent of Beauvais and . Lyra (Franciscan.Introduction. just like our English Catechism. who taught at Oxford (d. John Duns Scotus (1266-1308). d. 1. the second part. Summa contra Catharos et (d. treats of theology in its relation to the three theological virtues. . . have already appeared." was a disciple of William Ware (Varro) at Oxford. 1867). and but tury that the Summa . Perhaps the most beautiful modern edition is by Fiaccadori (Verona) in quarto. et Christi Reparantis . xxvii posed in the beginning of the sixteenth century by Cardinal is still it Cajetan. see Werner. The treatment is not uniform the work seems to grow in the Saint's hands. On the various works of St. 1293) . by Nicholas of . Thomas of Aquin^ in two volumes 1 There is editions of the entire (1871-1872). Only the first part was comDe Fide Trinitatis Creatricis. the "Subtle Doctor. Pugio Fidei. of Saxony the magnificent Life of Jesus Christ. who was himself the successor of William de la Marre. Commentary on the Sentences and various Quodlibeta. by Ludolph the Postilla on Holy Scripture. was not printed in the large editions of the until the end of the sixteenth cen- Summa book in theological schools. Thomas. The great English work on the Angelic Doctor is Archbishop Roger Bede Vaughan's Life and Labours of St. and Charity. 884.

His stock of theological learnHe composed no commentary ing was by no means large. by the dis. However. is secting process of his distinctions. and consequently he is seldom studied in the original text. but rather as the founder of a new school which rightly bears his name.xxviii Introduction. even by his own school. with does not tear asunder the different tissues. III. History of Mctlutval Philosophy (in on Scotus's doctrine see Werner. . and his abstruse style make him far more difficult reading than the earlier Schoolmen. living connection Scotus. without. and afterwards Archbishop of Armagh. mind led him rather to criticize than to develop the work of the thirteenth century. that of The handiest edition of the Opus Oxoniense is Hugh Cavellus. Thomas. however. 1 His extraordinary acuteness of opponent of St. which to his predecessors was always the preparation for and foundation of their speculative efforts. Thomas of Aquin. to St. In other words. that the character of his mind stands out most clearly. strictly organic . Opus Oxoniense. who enriched the text with good explanatory scholia. On . p. sqq. indeed. loosens the organic connections of the tissues. Thomas's Questiones Disputatce). p. on Holy Scripture. Scotus cannot be considered as the continuer of the old Franciscan school. German). tendency quite opposed to the Platonism of the early mem- bers of his Order. but keeps them in their natural. Thomas St. 783. and various smaller opuscula on metaphysics and the theory of knowledge. His excessive realism has a Scotusand St. the Questiones Quodlibetales (corresponding with St. Scotus see the excellent article by Dollinger in the Freiburg Kirchen Lexicon also Stockl. agrees with Nominalism on many points. Scotus all his fineness of distinction. an Irish Franciscan in Louvain. Scotus is the direct antagonist of St. His principal work is the great Oxford Commentary on the Sentences. Thomas compared. nor did he complete any systematic work. Thomas. destroying the bond of union. 1 as the Nominalists did. His stiff and dry style is very different from the ease and grace which charm us in St. Thomas. His subtlety.. his desultory criticisms. and thereby the life of the loosened parts. Besides this. and. Reportata Parisiensia. and it is in relation to him St. 3. Bonaventure. he wrote a later and much shorter commentary. is less so.

the true of science. especially the attained a high reputation throughout ChrisFranciscans. d. Archbishop of Armagh. partly as a reaction against its realism). In the two following centuries no real Decay progress was made. 1292). Novum Friars. d. but branch is out in different directions to the Nominalist. Fitzralph. whereas to Scotus it is only all Thomas a vegetable organism. 1425). in almost all the particular differences of docfourteenth III. Oxford now almost disputed Oxford the pre-eminence with Paris. or at least occasioned by Scotism (partly as an exaggeration of its critical tendencies. William Ware. 1321) led the way and was followed by the rebellious William of Occam (d. a Frenchman. and his great follower was Roger Bacon. Nominalism springing from. Grosteste. however. Duns Scotus. xxix the universe is a perfect animal organism. . Many of the theologians present at the councils of Constance and Basle. William de la Marre. . Burley. The acquisitions gained in the period of prosperity were reproduced and elaborated to meet the hypercritical and destructive attacks made at this time both on the teaching and the public action of the Church. Both of these were disciples of Scotus. St. wherein the parts are held together in a most intimate union and relation by the soul . Besides St. (Aureolus.Introduction. Occam. These general differences of mode of conception manifest themselves trine. Edmund of Canterbury (d. About the beginning of the century The of Period the classical and creative period of mediaeval scholasticism came to a close. it merely a mass of atoms arbitrarily heaped together. destroyed the organic character of the revealed doctrines and wasted its Pierre Aureole energies in hair-splitting subtlety. whose different members spring from a common root. the author of the Opus Majus. Thomas Netter ( Waldensis). who was educated at Oxford and at Paris. Edmund and Roger Bacon. as he himself expresses it. 1242) had introduced there the study of Aristotle. the unitendom. notably Pierre d'Ailly (Alliacensis. Bungay. 1347). a Franciscan (d. Archbishop Peckham. Organum The Oxford versity claimed as her children Richard Middleton. Adam Marsh. Bradwardine. and the notorious Wyclif.

1 The orthodoxy of both is defended by Fr. The Franciscans were split up into several schools. controversial. as also do Dionysius Ryckel. arranged mathematically. the renowned commentator on Scotus. Torquemada. belonged to the Nominalist school. Antoninus of Florence. wardine. as a rule. shows signs of great skilfulness of form. 1 I360)- Thomas Netter (d. the first commentator on the Summa. provincial of the Carmelites and secretary to Henry V. 41. Portiano Holkot (d. of Canterbury (Doctor Profundus. Its best representaThe tives were Gregory of Rimini and Gabriel Biel. Doctrinale Antiquitatum Fidei Catholica adversus Wicliffitas et Hussitas and Fasciculus Zizaniorum Magistri Nicholas Cusa surpasses Johannis Wyclif cum Tritico. 1349). Bishop of Avila. adhering to Nominalism. and Thomist traditions of the thirteenth century. belongs to this period. even Bradwardine in the application of mathematics to theology. but gives a painful Some look upon him impression by its rigid doctrines. the Carthusian. sqq. Stevenson : The Truth about John Wyclif. composed two works against Wyclif. some Thomism Lychetus. remained faithful to the (d. and Francis of Ferrara. Among their later writers may be mentioned St.xxx Introduction. great depth and erudition.. as one of the forerunners of Wyclif. The latter were. the commentator on the Summa contra Gentes. De Causa Dei contra Pelagianos^ day. p. Cardinal Cajetan. 1431). Archbishop 1290-1349) was the most famous mathematician of his His principal work. an accusation which might with more justice be made against Fitzralph (d. Dominicans. John Capreolus. others to Scotism. 1332). treating the subjects from a Nominalist or Scotist point of view. while some few were valuable expositions and defences of the earlier The partial degeneracy of Scholasticism on the teaching. . with the exception of Durandus of St. the powerful apologist of (Clypeus Thomistarum}. and Thomas BradAlphonsus Tostatus. During this period of decay the ordinary treatment of theology consisted of commentaries on the Sentences and o/ monographs on particular questions (Quodlibeta).

the cultivators of the New Learning con- tented themselves with a vague Platonic mysticism or a sort of Nominalism disguised under a new and classical phraseology. As Nominalism by its superficiality and arbitrariness had stripped the doctrines of grace and morals of their inward and living character. xxxi one hand." There was. led to a divorce between the two. This new and splendid development had its seat in Spain. three events produced a new epoch in the history of theology. and of Mysticism on the other. and had made grace so did false merely an external ornament of the soul : mysticism by its sentimentality destroy the supernatural character of grace and the organic connection and development of sound doctrine concerning morals and as both Nominalism and pseudo-mysticism endangered the right notion of the constitution of the Church. and thus prepared the way for a more comprehensive treatment of speculative theology. some reason for a reaction against the degenerate philosophy and theology of the day. . more careful study of the biblical and his: study of torical side of theology. and determined its characteristic tendencies the invention of printing. But instead of returning to the genuine teaching of the earlier period. as far as Scholasticism had degenerated. and at the same time necessitated. but to their loss so far as it had remained sound. It does not fall within our . so that mystical writers broke off from Scholasticism. Spain.Introduction. the revival of the the ancient classics. province to speak of the anti-scholastic tendencies of the Renaissance which were found partly among the Platonists as opponents of Aristotle. to their gain. C. no doubt. fifteenth century About the end of the and the opening of the sixteenth. These circumstances facilitated. and partly among the Humanists as " opposed to what was considered Scholastic barbarism. they may with reason be looked upon as the forerunners of the Reformation of the sixteenth century. and the attacks of the Reformers on the whole historical position of the Church. The Modern Epoch. as we have seen.

xxxii

Introduction.

the land least affected

by the

heretical

movement.

The

Universities of Salamanca, Alcala (Complutum), and Coim-

now became famous for theological learning. Spanish theologians, partly by their labours at the Council of Trent
bra,

(Dominic Soto, Peter Soto, and Vega), partly by their teaching in other countries (Maldonatus in Paris, Toletus in Italy, Gregory of Valentia in Germany), were its chief Next to Spain, the chief glory promoters and revivers.
belongs to the University of Louvain, in the Netherlands, On the other hand, the at that time under Spanish rule. of Paris, which had lost much of its ancient University renown, did not regain its position until towards the end of
sixteenth century. Among the religious bodies the ancient Orders, the heirs of the theology of the thirteenth but all century, were indeed animated with a new spirit
the
;

ihe society
of Jesus.

were surpassed by the newly founded Society of Jesus, whose members laboured most assiduously and successfully in every branch of theology, especially in exegesis and history, and strove to develop the mediaeval theology in an independent, eclectic spirit and in a form adapted to the
age.

The

continuity with the theological teaching of the

Middle Ages was preserved by the Jesuits and by most of the other schools, by their taking as a text-book the noblest
product of the thirteenth century the Summa of St. Thomas, which was placed on the table of the Council of Trent next to the Holy Scriptures and the Corpus Juris
Canonici as the most authentic expression of the mind of the Church. This modern epoch may be divided into four periods
:

The Preparatory Period, up to the end of the Council of Trent II. The Flourishing Period, from the Council of Trent
I.
;

to 1660
III.

;

The Period of Decay to 1 760. Besides these three periods, which correspond with those of the Patristic and Mediaeval Epochs, there is
another,

IV. The Period of Degradation, lasting from 1760
ThePre-

till

aboutl83O
I-

^eri^

T ne

Preparatory

Period

produced

comparatively

Introduction.

xxxiii

few works embracing the whole domain of theology, but
its

activity

was proved
its

in

treatises
in

and controversial
the

writings,

and

influence

shown

the decrees of

Council of Trent and the

The

Catechism. numerous controversialists of this period are well
their writings

Roman

Controversy,

known, and an account of
:

the Freiburg Kirchen-Lexicon. may mention the following in Germany, John Eck of Eichstatt, Frederick Nausea and James Noguera of Vienna, Berthold of Chiemsee, John

We

may be

found

in

Cochlceus in Nuremberg, Fred. Staphylus in Ingolstadt, James Hogstraeten, John Gropper and Albert Pighius in Cologne, Cardinal Stanislaus Hosius and Martin Cromer in in Ermland, and, lastly, Blessed Peter Canisius
;

Belgium, Ruard Tapper, John Driedo, James Latomus, in James Ravestein (Tiletanus\ and others England, the martyrs Blessed John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester and Blessed Thomas More, Card. Pole, (Roffensis), and later Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester Cardinal Allen, Blessed Edmund Campion, S.J., and Nicholas Sanders in France, Claude d'Espence, Claude de Sainctes, John Arboree, Jodocus Clichtovee, James Merlin
;

;

;

;

in

Italy,

the

Catharinus, (Naclantus), and Cardinal Seripandus, an Augustinian in Spain, the Minorites Alphonsus de Castro, Andrew Vega and Michael de Medina, the Dominicans Peter and Dominic Soto, and
;

Dominicans Sylvester and James Nacchiante

Prierias,

Ambrose

Melchior Canus in Portugal, Payva de Andrada, Perez de Ayala and Osorius. These writers treat of the Church, the sources and the rule of Faith, Grace, Justification, and the Sacraments, especially the Blessed Eucharist, and are to some extent positive as well as controversial. The treatises had great and permanent influence on following the subsequent theological development M. Canus, De Locis Theologicis; Sander, De Monarchia Visibili Ecclesice ; Dom. Soto, De Natura et Gratia, and Andr. Vega, De
; :

Justificatione, written to explain the Sixth Session of the Council of Trent, in which both authors took a prominent

part

;

B. Canisius,
its

Mariology
tiana, with

his great

Beata Maria Virgine, a complete Catechism, or Summa Doctrince Chriscopious extracts from Holy Scripture and

De

xxxiv
the Fathers
Sentences."
*

Introduction.

may be

considered as a modern

"

Book

of

appeared.

Apart from controversy, few works of any importance Among systematic works we may mention the Institutiones ad Naturalem et Christianam Philosophiam of the Dominican John Viguerius, and the Compendium Instit. Cathol. of the Minorite Cardinal Clement Dolera, of which the first named, often reprinted and much sought after,
aims at giving a rapid sketch of speculative theology. On the other hand, important beginnings were made in the

Holy Scripture, espeby Genebrard, Arboreus, Naclantus, D. Soto and Catharinus, the last three of whom distinguished themcially

theologico-philological exegesis of

selves

by their commentaries on the Epistle to the Romans Sixtus of which was so much discussed at this time. Siena furnished in his Bibliotheca Sancta (first published in 1566) abundant materials for the regular study of Holy
Scripture.
II. The Flourishing Period began immediately after the Council of Trent, and was brought about as much by the discussions of the Council as by its decrees. This

The

Flour-

Verfixi.

period has no equal for richness and variety. The strictly theological works (not including works on Moral Theology, History, and Canon Law) may be divided into
i. Exegesis 2. Controversy classes 3. Scholastic Mystic 5. Historico-patristic Theology. These classes, however, often overlap, for all branches of theology were now cultivated in the closest connection with each other. Exegesis was not restricted to philology and criticism, but made use of scholastic and patristic theology for a deeper knowledge and firmer consolidation of Catholic

five

:

;

;

;

4.

;

doctrine.

great controversialists gained their power a thorough knowledge qf exegesis and history by uniting to their scholastic training. Moreover, the better class of
scholastic theologians
to speculation, but

The

and the Fathers.
1

by no means confined their attention drew much from the Holy Scriptures On the other hand, the most eminent

patristic theologians

made
sqq.

use of Scholasticism as a clue

On

the works of these controversialists see Werner, History of Apologetic
iv. p. i,

Literaturt (in German),

Introduction.
to a better

xxxv

knowledge of the Fathers. Finally, many theologians laboured in all or in several of these departments. I. At the very opening of this period Exegesis was carried to such perfection, principally by the Spanish
Jesuits, that little was left to be done in the next period, and for long afterwards the fruits gathered at this time

Exegesis.

were found sufficient. The labours of the Protestants are not worthy to be compared with what was done in the Catholic Church.
of great exegetists begins with Alphonsus Salmeron, S.J. (1586). His gigantic labours on the New Testament (15 vols. folio) are not a running commentary
list

The

Saimeron.

but an elaboration of the books of the New Testament arranged according to matter, and contain very nearly what we should now call Biblical Theology, although as such they are little used and known. Salmeron is the only one of the first companions of St. Ignatius whose

He composed this work at writings have been published. Naples in the last sixteen years of his life, after a career of
His brother Jesuits and fellowpublic activity. countrymen, Maldonatus (in Paris), and Francis Toletus (in Rome), and Nicholas Serarius (a Lorrainer), should be named with him as the founders of the classical interpretation of Holy Scripture. We may also mention the following Francis Ribera, John Pineda, Benedict Pereyra, Jesuits Caspar Sanctius, Jerome Prado, Ferdinand de Salazar, John Villalpandus, Louis of Alcazar, Emmanuel Sa (all Spaniards) John Lorin (a Frenchman), Bened. Justinianus (an Italian), James Bonfrere, Adam Contzen and Cornelius a Lapide (in the Netherlands), the last of whom
great
: ;

is

Besides the Jesuits, the Dominicans the best known. Malvenda and Francis Forerius, and Anthony Agelli (Clerk and in the Regular) distinguished themselves in Italy
;

Netherlands,

Luke

of

Bruges,

Cornelius

Jansenius

of

Ghent, and William Estius. For dogmatic interpretation, the most important, besides Salmeron, are Pereyra and Bonfrere on Genesis ; Louis da Ponte on the Canticle of Canticles ; Lorin on the Book of Wisdom ; Maldonatus, Contzen, and Bonfrere on the Gospels; Ribera and Toletus on St. John; Sanctius,

xxx vi

Introduction.

Bonfrere, and Lorin on the Acts ; Vasquez, Justinianus, Serarius and Estius on the Epistles of St. Paul ; Toletus on the Romans, and Justinianus, Serarius, and Lorin on the
Catholic Epistles.
.

During this period, in contrast to the preceding, controversy was carried on systematically and in an elevated style, so that, as in the case of Exegesis, there remained little to be done in after ages except labours of detail. Its chief representatives, who also distinguished themselves by their great speculative learning, were Robert Bellarmine,
2.

Gregory of Valentia,

Thomas

Stapleton,

Du

Perron,

Tanner, Gretser, Serarius, and the brothers Walemburch. Cardinal Bellarmine, SJ. (d. 1621), collected together, in his great work, Disputationes de Rebus Fidei hoc tempore controversis, the principal questions of the day under three groups (a) on the Word of God (Scripture and Tradition), on Christ (the Personal and Incarnate Word of God), and on the Church (the temple and organ of the Word of God) (c] on (b) on Grace and Free Will, Sin and Justification
:
;

;

He treats of of grace (the Sacraments). almost the whole of theology in an order suitable to his
the channels

The extensive learning, clearness, solidity, and sterling value of his work are acknowledged even by his adversaries. It continued for a long time to be the hinge
purpose.

of the controversy between Catholics and Protestants. Gregory of Valentia, SJ. (a Spaniard who taught in Dillingen and Ingolstadt, d. 1603), wrote against the Re-

formers a series of classical treatises, which were afterwards The most collected together in a large folio volume. important of these are Analysis Fidei and De Trinitate.

He condensed the substance of these writings in his Commentary on the Sujtima. Thomas Stapleton was born at Henfield, in Sussex, in the year 1535, and was educated at Winchester and New When ElizaCollege, Oxford, of which he became fellow. beth came to the throne he was a prebendary of Chichester. He soon retired to Louvain, and was afterwards for some time catechist at Douai, but was recalled to Louvain, where he was appointed regius professor of theology. He died in 1598. Stapletou is unquestionably the most important of

Introduction.

xxxvii

the controversialists on the treatment of the Catholic and

He concentrated his efforts on Protestant Rules of Faith. two principal works, each in twelve books. The first of these refutes, in a manner hitherto unsurpassed, the Protesthe Bible the only Source and Rule tant Formal Principle
of Faith:

De

Principiis Fidei Doctrinalibus (Paris, 1579), to

which are added a more scholastic treatise, Relcctio Principiorum Fidei Doctrinalium, and a long defence against Whitaker. The other deals with the Material Principle of Universa Protestantism Justification by Faith only Justificationis Doctrina hodie controversa (Paris, 1582), corresponding with the second part of Bellarmine's work, but inferior to it. The two works together contain a com:

exposition and defence of the Catholic doctrine concerning Faith and Justification. Nicolas Sander, or Sanders (b. 1527), was also, like sand.
plete

On Stapleton, scholar of Winchester and fellow of New. the accession of Elizabeth he went to Rome, and was afterwards present at the Council of Trent. His great work, Visibili Monarchia Ecclesice, was finished at Louvain in Another work, De Origine ac Progressu Schismatis 1571. Anglicani, was published after his death, and has lately been translated and edited by Mr. Lewis (Burns & Gates, Sander was sent to Ireland as Nuncio by Gregory 1877). where he is said to have died of want, hunted to XIII., death by the agents of Elizabeth, about the year 1580. Cardinal Allen was born in Lancashire in the year 1532 Alien. and was educated at Oriel College, Oxford. He became in due course Principal of St. Mary Hall. On the death of he left England, and resided for some time at LouMary vain. He was the founder of the famous English seminary at Douai, and was raised to the cardinalate by Sixtus V His work entitled Souls Departed: being a Defence and

De

Declaration

of the Catholic Church's Doctrine touching Purgatory and Prayers for the Dead, has lately been edited by Father Bridgett (Burns & Gates, 1886). He died in

Rome,
1

1594.'

The activity of the English Catholic controversialists at this time may ne seen from the articles issued by Grindal previous to his proposed visitation

xxxviii

Introduction.

Cardinal James Davydu Perron (a Frenchman, d. 1618), wrote in his own mother tongue. His chief works are the Trait^ du Sacrement de I' Euckaristie, his controversies with James I. of England (that is, really with Casaubon), and the celebrated acts of the discussion with Philip Mornay, the
so-called Calvinist pope.

In

Germany Valentia found worthy

disciples in the

keen

and learned
prolific

Adam Tanner

(d. 1635),

and the erudite and

James Gretser (d. 1625), both Jesuits of Ingolstadt, who worked together and supplemented each other's labours. Tanner, who was also a scholastic of note, followed the
example of
his

master by condensing his controversial
Gretser,

labours in his

commentary on the Snmma.

on

the other hand, spread out his efforts in countless skirHis works fill mishes, especially on historical subjects. sixteen volumes folio. was also the scene of the Germany
labours of the brothers Adrian and Peter Walemburch, who were natives of Holland, and were both coadjutor-bishops,

the one of Cologne, the other of Mayence. They jointly composed numerous successful controversial works, though only in part original, which were afterwards collected under the
title

of Controversies Generates et Particulares, in two
folio.

volumes
treatises

About

this

time and soon afterwards
questions

many

classical

appeared in France. Nicolas Coeffeteau, a Dominican, wrote against M. A. de Dominis, Pro Sacra Monarchia Ecclesice Catholica ; Michael Maucer, a doctor of Sorbonne, on Church and State, De Sacra Monarchia Ecclesiastica et Scsculari, against Richer and the Jansenists Nicole and Arnaud composed their celebrated work De la Perpctuite" de la Foi on the Eucharist,
particular
;

on

"Whether there be r.ny person or of the province of Canterbury in 1576. within persons, ecclesiastical or temporal, within your parish, or elsewhere this diocese, that of late have retained or kept in their custody, or that read, books set forth of sell, utter, disperse, carry, or deliver to others, any English
late at

Louvain, or in any other place beyond the seas, by Harding, Dorman, Allen, Saunders, Stapleton, Marshall, Bristow, or any other English Papist, either against the Queen's Majesty's supremacy in matters ecclesiastical, or against true religion and Catholic doctrine now received and established by

common
are "

authority within this realm

;

and what

their

names and surnames

(Art. 41, quoted

by Mr. Lewis).

Introduction.

xxxix

Of the Controversies of St. Francis of Sales we have etc. 1 only short but very beautiful sketches. and the beginning of the next, At the end of this period
Bossuet's Histoire des Variations, his celebrated Exposition de la Fot, and among his smaller

may be mentioned

works the pastoral letter, Les Prowesses deTEglise. Natalis Alexander has inserted many learned dogmatic polemical
dissertations in his great History of the Church. that is, Speculative and Systematic, Theo-Sciiotast!s 3. Scholastic,
logy, like Exegesis

and Controversy, and

th

in close

union

with them, was so highly cultivated that the labours of this period, although (at least in the early decades) inferior to those of the thirteenth century in freshness and originin moderation and calmness, neverality, and especially them in variety and in the use of the theless surpassed When Pius V. treasures of Scripture and early Tradition. raised St. Thomas, and Sixtus V. (1587) raised (1567)

St Bonaventure to the dignity of Doctors of the Church on the ground that they were the Princes of Scholastic Theology, and, also at the same time, caused their entire works to be published, it was the Church herself who gave the impulse and direction to the new movement. The great number of works and the variety of treatment make it difficult to give even a sketch of what was done
in this department. Generally speaking, the theologians both of the old and of the newly-founded Religious Orders,

and also most of the universities, kept more or less closely to St. Thomas. Scotism, on the contrary, remained confined to the Franciscans, and even among them many
especially the

Capuchins, turned to

St.

Thomas

or

St

Bonaventure.

The independent

eclectic line taken

Jesuits, in spite of their reverence for St. provoked in the traditional Thomist school a strong reaction

by the Thomas, soon

which gave birth to protracted discussions. 2 Although the peace was thereby disturbed, and much time, energy, and acuteness were spent with little apparent profit, nevertheless the disputes gave proof of the enormous intellectual
An excellent English edition of these Controversies has lately been published by Rev. Benedict Mackey, O.S.B. Burns & Gates. 1 See Werner, Thomas of Aquin t vol. iii., p. 378, sqq.
1

d

xl

Introduction.
activity

which distinguished the first half of the Religious Orders were still the chief teachers of Theology, we may group the theologians of the period under the schools belonging to the three great
this period.

power and

As

Orders.
Thomht

Thomist school was naturally represented At their head stand the two Spaniards, Dominic Banuez (d. 1604) and Bartholomew Medina (d. 1581), both worthy disciples of Dominic Soto and Melchior Canus, and remarkable for their happy combination of Bannez wrote only positive and speculative elements. on the Prima and Secunda Secundce, whereas Medina wrote only on the Prima Secunda and Pars tertia. Their works consequently complete each other, and together form a single work which may be considered as the classical model of Thomist theology. Bannez's doctrine of grace was defended by Didacus Alvarez, Thomas Lemos (Panoplia Divines Gratia*}, and Peter Ledesma Gonet (Clypeus Theologies Thomisticce}, Goudin, (d. 1616). and the Venetian Xantes Marialles ably expounded and defended the teaching of St. Thomas. The Carmelites
(a)
strict

The

by the Dominicans.

reformed by St. Theresa proved powerful allies of the Dominicans. Their celebrated Cursus Salmanticensis in

Summam S. Thomce (15 vols. folio), is the vastest and most complete work of the Thomist school. Among other theologians whose opinions were more or less Thomist may be mentioned the Benedictine Alphonsus Curiel (d. 1609), the Cistercian Peter de Lorca (d. 1606), the Augustinians Basil Pontius and Augustine Gibbon, an Irishman who taught in Spain and in Germany (Speculum Theologicuni) and Louis de Montesinos, professor at Alcala (d. 1623). Among the universities, Louvain was especially The Commentary on distinguished for its strict Thomism. the Sentences, by William Estius, is remarkable for clearness, The Commentaries on the solidity, and patristic learning. Malderus (d. 1645), John Wiggers (d. Summa, by John 1639), and Francis Sylvius (dean of Douai, d. 1649), are The three most imwritten with moderation and taste. scholastic theologians of the Sorbonne were less portant Thomistic, and approached more to the Jesuit school
;

:

Introduction.
Philip

xli

1625), who was unfortunately the (d. Andrew Duval (d. 1637), an opponent of Richer patron of Richer; and Nicholas Ysambert (d. 1642). The last two are very clear and valuable. In Germany, Cologne

Gamache

;

was the chief

seat of

Thomism, and a

little later

the Bene-

dictine university of Salzburg strenuously supported the same opinions. One of the largest and best Thomistic

works, although not the clearest, was composed towards the end of this period by the Benedictine Augustine

Reding
(b}

(d. 1692),

Theologia Scholastica.

Scotism was revived and developed in Commen- Scotist on the Sentences by the older branches of the taries Franciscan Order, especially by the Irish members, the fellow-countrymen of Scotus, who had been driven from their own land by persecution, and were now dispersed and next to them by the over the whole of Europe The most important were Maurice Italians and Belgians. Hibernicus (d. 1603), Antony Hickey (Hiquaeus, d. 1641), Hugh Cavellus, and John Pontius (d. 1660). Towards the middle of the seventeenth century the Belgian, William Herincx, composed, by order of his superiors, a solid
;

manual

for beginners, free

from Scotist
it

subtleties,

Smnma

Theologies Scholastica, but

was afterwards superseded by

Frassen's work.

The Capuchins, however, and the other reformed branches of the Order, turned away from Scotus to the
classical

Thomas, but
,

theology of the thirteenth century, partly to St. Peter Trigos, a chiefly to St. Bonaventure.

Spaniard (d. 1593), began a large Summa Theol. ad mentem S. Bcnav. \y\\\. completed only the treatise De Deo; Jos. Zamora (d. 1649) i s especially good on Mariology Theo;

dore

Forestus,

De

Trin.

Mysterio

in

D. Bonav. Cometc.,

mentarii', Gaudentius Brixiensis, the largest work of this school.

Summa,

7 vols., folio,
Jesuit

(c) The Jesuit School, renowned for their exegetical and historical labours, applied these to the study of scholastic

theology. As we have already observed, they were eclectics in spite of their reverence for St. Thomas, and they availed

themselves of later investigations and methods. Their system may be described as a moderate and broad Thomism

xl

i i

Introduction.

qualified

by an

infusion of Scotism, and, in

some

instances,

even of Nominalism. 1

The chief representatives of this School, next to Toletus, a~e Gregory of Valentia, Francis Suarez, Gabriel Vasquez, and Didacus Ruiz, all four Spaniards, and all eminently
acute and profound, thoroughly versed in Exegesis and the Fathers, and in this respect far superior to the theologians of the other Schools. Valentia, the restorer of theology in Germany (d. 1603),
the

Vakntia.

happiest manner in his Commentaries on (4 vols., folio, often reprinted), both positive and speculative theology, and expounds them with elegance

combines

in the

Stimma

Suarez.

like Bannez and Medina. Suarez (d. 1617, aged 7o), 2 styled by many Popes " Doctor Eximius," and described by Bossuet as the writer " dans lequel on entend toute 1'ecole moderne," is the most prolific of all the later Schoolmen, and at the same time renowned for clearness, depth, and prudence. His works cover the whole ground of the Summa of St. Thomas but the most extensive and classical among them are
;

and compactness

De Legtbus, De Gratia, De Virtutibus Theologicis, De natwne, and De Sacramentis, as far as Penance.
Vasqucz.

Incar-

tendency was what Scotus was to St. Thomas. Unlike Scotus, however, he was as much at home in the exegetical and historical branches of theology as in

Vasquez

(d.

1604),

whose

intellectual

eminently

critical,

was

to Suarez

speculation.
RU!

Ruiz surpasses even Suarez himself in depth and learnHe wrote only De Deo (6 vols., folio). His best ing. work, and indeed the best ever written on the subject, is
his treatise

De

Trinitate.

Besides these four chiefs of the Jesuit school, a whole In Spain Louis host of writers might be mentioned.
:

(d. 1600), whose celebrated doctrine of Scientia Media was the occasion of so much controversy, was not

Molina
1

On

the Jesuit teaching in

its

relation to
p.

Thomism and
sqq.
;

Scotism, see
theological

Werner,

Thomas of Aquin,

vol.

iii.,

256,

on

their

opinions generally and the controversies arising therefrom, see Werner, Suarez,
vol. i., p. 172, sqq.
2

See

the

beautiful

work of Werner, Francis Suarez and

the Laitr

Schoolmen.

De Summo Bono. In Belgium thoughtful. In Italy : Albertini. or who introduce dogmatic truths To this period belong the into their asoctical writings. author of a number of treatises (De Hypostdsi. a pious. De Creaturis Spiritiialibus} in which the nicest points of theology are investigated. Efficaci. 1714). points the labours of his master. Sporer (d. Martinez de Ripalda famous for his work against Baius (Michael Bay). the spiritual life. and for his twelve books De Ente . and Cardinal Pallavicini Maratius. and Martin Becanus. 1660). Adam Tanner (d. xliii but really the leader of the Jesuit school. John of the Cross. Supernatural^ in which first the whole doctrine of the supernatural was for the Cardinal John De Lugo time systematically handled better known as a moral theologian. De Ordine. We omit writers who treat of the higher stages of Mystical theology. and far into the eighteenth century. Martinon. .Introduction. John Praepositus. It is sufficient to Laymann (d. 1632). for critical keenness rather than for positive knowledge his most important dogmatic work is the often-quoted The Opus Theologicum of Syltreatise De Fide Divina. the well-known is commentator on Aristotle. ^Egidius Coninck. and mention only those who deal with dogmas as mention subjects of meditation. however. (d. Theresa and St. 4. 1648). such as St. is remarkable (d. In France : Moribusque Divinis. and in these acquired an acknowledged superiority. who wrote De Perfec: (d 1667). Germany at this time had only one great native scholastic His Theologia Schotheologian. was more dis- tinguished as a moral theologian Jos. Lacroix (d. and by the absence of the subtleties so common in his day. and the keen and refined Claude Tiphanus (d. Fasoli. 1714). and Schmalzgrueber (d. and comtionibus pletes in many of Valentia. folio) is a work of the first rank. moral theology. German theologians directed their attention chiefly to the practical branches of theology. vester Maurus. Gregory During this period. 1641). De Gratia and a commentary on the third part of the Summa . 1623). distinguished by simplicity. 1735). Leonard Lessius (d. and clearness. and elegant theologian. such as controversy. calmness. and canon law. lastica (in 4 vols. 1625). .

Louis Bail. De Perfectionibns Divinis and De Summo Bono. and chiefly by the Jesuits. Louis of Granada. especially on account of sermons the Jesuits. as might be expected. This branch of theology was cultivated especially in France and Belgium. and also by the Universities of Paris and Louvain. Their writings are mainly. Defense des Saints Peres. while Morinus composed treatises De Pcenitentia and De Sacris Ordinibus .xliv Introduction. deserted not merely the traditional teaching of the Schoolmen. Oratorians. Dominican. On the Love of God . the Dominican Contenson. example of Baius many of the historical theologians such as Launoi. and to some extent the Benedictines of St. author of many works. Doctrina Patrum Gr&corum de Gratia. and Rogacci. the Franciscan John of Carthagena. Dominicans. the founder of the French oratory. Francis of Sales. Dechamps. Maur. Hauteville. 5. and later. and the Capuchin Charles Joseph Tricassinus on the Augustinian doctrine of grace against the Jansenists. dogmatico-historical or controversial treatises on one or other of the Fathers. also Cardinal BeVulle. De Hceresi Janseniana . which they considered to be pagan and Pelagian. Francis of Sales. Dupin. and the Capuchin D'Argentan. etc. On the One Thing Necessary . Cellot. The Augustinus of Jansenius of Ypres . (that is. Arnauld) on the Blessed Eucharist De Sacris Ordinationibus . De Concordia Sacerdotii et Imperii. . especially on the Incarnation St. The Sorbonne doctors. Eusebius Nieremberg. but even the doctrine the of the Church. the Oratorians. Louis da Ponte (commentary on the Canticle of Canticles). a disciple of St. The works of Lessius may also be named under this heading. worked up the Summa in a way that speaks at once to the mind and to the heart. for instance. Nicole Hallier. or on particular heresies or dogmas. Phil. Much good work was done in this department. Isaac Habert. Gamier wrote on the Pelagians. bis excellent Patnstico. Nouet (numerous meditations). Francis Arias. Bos. and the new Congregation of Benedictines. Thus. and became partisans of Jansenism and Gallicanism. De Hierarchia et de Hierarchis . . Peter de Marca. . and Combesis on the Monothelites. Theology. but it is to be regretted that after suet.

Decay may be considered as a sort * of echo and continuation of the foregoing. et Trino. produce a pleasing impression on the mind. the Sacraments. systematic and speculative Fraticelli century. De and short treatises. to which are subjoined a series of opuscula on Grace. and De Conciliis. The Period of Pw Deca and the Nominalists at the end of the thirteenth Whilst the study of history and tne Fathers was continued and even extended. but was also a time of gradual decomposition. The Jansenists and Cartesians now played a part similar to that of the pseudo-mystic III. but both accomplished only a portion of their design. and the Church. 1695) has left only De Deo Uno and Zte Dionysius Petavius (Petau. . in the substitution of The change manifested folios. but unfortunately they are often too mechanical in conThe Germans especially took to writing handstruction. and form. than the treatises De Deo Uno d. The Jesuit Petavius and the Oratorian Thomassin attempted in their 1648) was the epoch-making works to treat the whole of dogmatic theology from a patristic and historical point of view. In the former period Positive Theology was cultivated chiefly in France. theologians. Louis Thomassin (d. but both are wanting in that precision and clearness which we find in the best of the scholastic Incarnatione. Many of these works* compactness and clearness. The best dogmatic works of the period strove to combine in compact form the speculative and controversial elements. . temperate. (d. Trinitate. and correct in thought and expression whereas Thomassin is richer in ideas. Theology became neglected. Petavius is on the whole the more positive. xlv intellectual unhappy result of the misuse of splendid powers and immense erudition. but at the same time fanciful and exaggerated in doctrine and The two supplement each other both in matter style. 1647) finished no more De Creatione and De Incarnatione. Polemica and often too Theologia Dogmatica Scholastica et et Moralis. books on every department of Theology.Introduction. and were therefore commonly by their entitled. and are of great practical value. itself quartos for and afterwards of octavos and duodecimos for quartos. De Prolegomenis Theologies.

the celebrated Theologia Wircebnrgensis. The two Benedictine Cardinals. time. e. Italy gradually came to the front. host of however. Charmes are still widely used. or 12 vols. learned theologians gathered around the Holy See to fight A and Regalism. and a larger one by Sardagna. The well-known works of the Capuchin Thomas ex Jesuits. about 1730). have a marked Scodsts. for controversy. clearness than for its rigid opinions on morals. indeed. leaning to the Jesuit school. reference to St. which flourished among It took a middle the Augustinians and also at Louvain. Antoine's Theologia Speculativa is to be commended more for its . question. The Franciscan school produced the most important work of the period. course between the older schools and the Jansenists in against Jansenism rhomisu. Augustine's teaching. Gotti (d. and perhaps the most useful of all the Scotist writings Scotus Academicus sen Universa Doctoris Sublilis Theologica Dogmata hodiernis academicorum mori: bus accomodata.. Most of the older schools still remained. Now. Krisper. Drouin (De re Sacramentaria) and De Rossi (De Rubeis). beyond Jesuits. Boyvin. and Kick also wrote at this quarto). Germany But produced short many useful manuals. Among the Thomists we may mention Billuart (d. the work by Pichler. It was from the Jesuit school. is the most important. folio.g. about the middle of the eighteenth century. and. however. oSt! The Augustinian school approached closely to Jansenism . and is a worthy termination of the ancient Theology in Germany.xlvi Introduction. 1757). that most of the manuals and compendiums proceeded. Sfondrati and Aguirre (Theologia S. It includes both the positive and speculative elements. composed by the Wurzburg Kilber and his colleagues. but they had lost their former solidity. belong to the less rigorous school of Thomists. by Claude Frassen (4 vols. Another school was now added the so-called Augustinian school. Noel composed a compendium of Suarez and James Platel an exceedingly compact and concise Synopsis Cursus Theolog. Anselmi). Card. which had spread over France and were finding their way gradually into Germany. while Spain gave itself up to more subtle questions.

and his Preelections Theologiccs had great influence in the better-minded circles until they were sup(d. the other hand. and was consequently nicknamed by them Dttirant. is one of the ablest and most determined opponents of the Jansenists. On rather Jansenistic. may mention Louis Abelly (d. 1619). notably at St. 1718. a senistic. Du Hamel . dogm. Louis Habert (a thorough GalL'Herminier (Gallican). Theol. and Reding. Institutiones hist. from were well versed is in history and the Fathers.. and a worthy rival of his religious brethren Sfrondrati. was rigidly orthodox. fell afterwards completely into Jansenism e. Sulpice. the Belgian Augustinian Desirant was sm. 1704). The Congregaon the other hand. Charles Witasse (1716. Gallican indeed. of Saint-Maur inclined very and Gallicanism. have left no systematic work. The discalced Carmelite Henry of St. QuesIts best dogmatic works are the nell. Both Lupus of Louvain and Cardinal Noris (d. and his Comment. Medulla Theologies. tendency. which had begun with so much promise. Nevertheless. De Theologicis Disciplinis (6 vols. and Part of the Congregation after licanism 1682 almost completely adhered to the violent Galof the French Government. and in Petit-Didier one of the most strenuous adversaries of Gallicanism. The French Benedictines. The Sorbonne was much infected with Jansenism. Janlican). senist). Opera theol. and produced in Calmet the greatest exegetist of the age. but the devotion of its leading representatives to the Church and to genuine scholasticism saved it These leaders were Christian falling into heresy. Tournely was the most learned and orthodox of this group. slightly Jansenistic). Aguirre. de Sacramentis.g. Ignatius folio). (5 vols. Duguet. xlvii on many points. We Martin Grandin. The great dogmatic work of this school by Laurence Berti.Vannes. in Marshal and Ceillier excellent patrologists. but they wrote only monographs. and Lebrun himself. but at the same time anti-Janwas maintained. while Opstraet is altogether so. and had been so rich in learned historians.Introduction. in spite of all their by Gasper Juenin. Oratory.. strongly to Jansenism tion of Saint.) . learning. The French Franc* .

Eusebius Amort (Canon Regular) was the most universal theologian of his time his principal . In Germany. work. Orsi. possessed abundant positive matter. Faure. although more celebrated as a Canonist. the Bene- dictines Cartier.J. Gallicanism. The Collectio fndiciorum de Norn's Erroribus. Dogm. combination with the superficial philosophy of the day. The ism : chief theological works were polemico-historical treatises against Jansenism. Mamachi. Jesuits Zaccharia. which had been Jansenism. while at the same time meeting the claims of the present. lastly.. and aimed at preserving the results of the past. Becchetti. We may also mention the Theatine. Bolgeni and Muzzarelli . the also Soardi. Theology became a sort of systematic collection of positive notions drawn from the writers of a better age. published about 1728. Benaglio. Joseph Widmann. and. specul. for rationalistic science and Protestant learning. who was raised to the dignity of Doctor of the Church by Pius IX.J. in to the downfall of Catholic theology. is an important contribution to the history of Theology. Theologia Eclectica. Roncaglia. Commentary on Viva.. stands St. Scipio Mafifei. the Dominicans De Rubeis. Scholliner and Oberndoffer. Germany. planted by the vile work of Bailly. Mansi. Any attempt at speculative treatment only meant the introduction of nondid . (1766 . and FebronianDamnatce Quesnelli Theses .J. by Duplessis D'Argentre". the Enchiridion of St. Bulla Unigenitus propugnata . Fontana. than for his knowledge of dogma. Augustine..xlviii Introduction. especially in Germany. 6 vols. IV. S. or more commonly from Protestant and Jansenistic sources. Veranus. Gallicanism. and the Barnabite Cardinal Gerdil.. more on account of the sanctity of his life and the correctness of his opinions. The learned Pope Benedict XIV. especially in Moral Theology. Alphonsus Liguori (d.. destructive The much mischief. the Abbd Gerbert de Saint-Blaise. however. led These principles. wrote on many questions of dogma. Above all these. The Period egrada tf and anti-Christian principles of and Regalism. 1787). disguised under the name of tolerance. and with the deplorable reverence. S. 8vo). S. Instit. gradually gaining ground during the preceding period. polem.

Hergenrother. Pious an excellent edition Christian. and a treatise on miracles of these has been published by Blackwood. Lacordaire. Scholastic philosophy and theology. and by ignorance. whose End of Controversy is . Devout Christian. by Kleutgen. Janssen. and Montalembert. The toleration granted to Catholics in England and English W1 Scotland during the second half of the eighteenth century. and the Augsburg ling. Liebermann's /#. The Catholic Christian Instructed. Symbolism. order was restored to Europe after the wars of TheRev the Revolution.$///. or at least neglect. were brilliant exceptions . Edinburgh and Bishop Milner (1752-1826). Scheeben. Bishop Hay (1729-1811). Baader. at the same time.///<?#$. and Schwane. Their efforts were signalized by great intellectual power. Goldhagen. was taken up even more vigorously in Germany. of the traditions of the schools. but. The study of Church history was revived by Dollinger. Hermes. signs were not wanting of dawn of a new epoch of theological learning which seems destined to be in no way inferior to those which have gone before. the In spite of these disadvantages. The labours of the German school are summed up in the great Kirchenlexicon. xlix Catholic philosophy. by Scripture. gave them the opportunity of publishing works on Catholic We may mention Bishop Challoner (1691-1/81). the Church found herself stripped of her possessions and excluded from the ancient seats of learning. . Kuhn. published by Herder. Sincere Christian. Hefele. doctrine.Introduction. many of the writers named in the period of decay continued their labours far into the present period. Canon law. particularly that of Kant and SchelLawrence Veith. In Italy Libcratore and Sanseverino brought back the . still When the best work against Low Churchmen and Dissenters. of Freiburg. by Walter and Philips. by Windischmann and Kaulen Mohler Dogma. Grounds of the CatJiolic Doctrine. Italy alone preserved the ortho- dox tradition . by Klee. The movement begun in France by Lamennais. and Pastor. Knoll. but the best work of Jesuits. . and Gunther attempted a more profound philosophical the period is treatment of dogma in opposition to the Protestant philosophy. by dissociation from genuine theology. The Grounds of the Old Religion .

In the . e. though perhaps too conservative in its tendencies. The same may be said of the Scriptures Sacrce Cursus of Comely. published lique of Paris . by Dom . greatest service to the study of theology. however. Palmieri. have been of the . especially his Development of Christian Doctrine. III. Thomistic philosophy Passaglia. refer especially to the Diet. . Perrone. The Etudes Bibliques edited by Lagrange. Murray's De Ecclesia and Kenrick's Theologia But a whole host of writers have dealt with the Anglican controversy in its various aspects. We have. and the texts and studies of La Pensee Chretienne are more advanced. Knabenbaur. to take their theology from abroad. some few theological works of our . These four collections mark a new departure in theological literature. Vigouroux's Diet. by the Abb6 Vacant Cabrol and the Bibliotheque de I Enseignement de I'Histoire Eccltsiastique. Diet. de la Bible is valuable. d' Archtologie et de Liturgie. ' own. Moralis. Among the French writers of the earlier years of the revival. and Craisson deserve special mention while the gigantic labours of the Abbe Migne. and Hummelauer. are more than ever valuable. begun the Bibliotheque de Thtologie Hisunder the direction of the Institut Cathotorique. The special task of Theology in the present day has been pointed out by the Vatican Council. France is now producing theological work We would admirably suited to the needs of the day. and Vercellone are well known for their Biblical labours. England and the English-speaking countries have been content. In spite of persecution. Gousset. PRESENT TIME The task ot ' THE SPECIAL TASK OF THEOLOGY AT THE THE PLAN OF THIS MANUAL. as a rule. Gury.g. de Thtologie Catholique. and Franzelin (an Austrian) composed dogmatic treatises which have become text-books in almost every Catholic country Patrizi . noting in particular the development and growth of doctrines and institutions. They are composed on strictly historical lines. in reproducing the works of former ages.1 Introduction. J0gy I. while Cardinal Newman's works.

in his allocutions and also encyclical Quanta Ciira a few vivid strokes After noting that these errors have sprung from age. striveth with all its might to thrust out Christ from the thoughts and the life of men. and that in them. it points out how opposed they are to sketches in the errors " 1864). materialism. Etudes (that on the Church) was published. Thtologiques The leading errors which Theology has to combat are. . and atheism. it hath unhappily come to pass that many even society. but for the same reason only one of them See Vacant. many have at last fallen into the pit of pantheism. with social aspect of Rationalism and Naturalism Liberalism. they are working together for the overthrow of the foundations of human While this wickedness hath been gaining strength on all sides. they have distorted the meanings of dogmas as held and taught by Holy Mother Church.Introduction. confounding nature and grace. on the suspension of the council. and to set up opposed as it is the reign of mere reason or nature. denying rational nature itself and every criterion of what is right and just. of the Church's children have strayed from the path of godliness. Having put aside the Christian religion and denied God and His Christ. the rejection of the Church's teaching authority in the sixteenth century. and have imperilled the integrity and Another constitution against Naturalpurity of the Faith. totally to the Christian religion as a supernatural institution. If Procemium his to the First Constitution issued in (as had already in been indicated by Pius IX. and Grace were to be treated. Incarnation. human knowledge true and Divine Faith. so that now. sur le Concile du Vatican. by the gradual minimizing of truths. Catholic feeling hath been weakened. Misled by strange doctrines. first Protestants held to Grace alone their modern successors " believe in nothing but Reason and Nature. were to deal with the that is. the Church and on Matrimony." ism was projected in which the Trinity. the council the chief errors of the of that " time : the . Then there and too widely spread itself abroad through the sprang up world that doctrine of rationalism or naturalism which Faith alone and " " . but it was not issued owing to Two more constitutions.

the Unity of the Divine Nature. Creante et Elevante) Book III. theology treats. of the influence of the supernatural order upon the private and public life of men. Special Book I. we the rule and motive of Faith. however. and to intelligent creatures. in the third place. and in opposition to Liberalism it proves the claim. Sources of Theological Knowledge. what we are to believe. Inasmuch as and of the world this original relation of God to the world was destroyed by the revolt ot to Him the angels and of men. that is. in other words. and Nature and Grace. the by treating of General Theology. Hence it is more than ever important that Catholic doctrines should be set forth in such a way as to bring out their organic union and connection. the contents of Revelation. Next it considers God in His fundamental and original relations to the Universe generally. brings out the meaning and connection of the supernatural truths in all their sublimity and beauty . and Liberalism. We Theology naturally begins with God God considered in Himself. Rationalism. carefully distinguishing between Reason and Faith. In the fourth place it deals with the restoration of the supernatural order and the establishment of a higher order . Theology at the same time insists upon the organic connection and mutual relation between the natural and the supernatural order. In therefore. opposition to Rationalism it establishes the supernatural character of theological knowledge in opposition to Natu. angels and men. Naturalism. and the Trinity of the Divine Persons {De Deo Uno et Trino~} Book II. \y e shall begin or. While. and at the same time in so far as they have been called to a supernatural union God as the Origin with Him by Grace in other words and End of the natural and the supernatural order {De Deo . how we are to are to believe and why we should believe know what it (De Locis Theologicis) shall then deal with Special Theology. in so far as they receive from Him their nature by creation. particularly. and defines ralism it the extent. pun of this II. of Sin and its consequences {De Casu Diaboli et Ho minis] Book IV.lii Introduction.

and enabled to attain his Book VI. and the other Sacraments (De Ecclesia Christi. Jn such cases the reader must not assume that the NOTE.Introduction. liii and closer union with God by means of the Incarnation God (De Verbo Incarnate] Book V. the merits of Christ. whereby. man is inwardly cleansed from through sin and restored to God's favour. the Blessed EuHis real Body. the doctrines stated are incapable of proof* . it considers the means appointed by the Incarnate Word for the continuance of His work among the Church His mystical Body." Our limited space has often compelled us to confine ourselves to mere statement without any explanation or proof. its End and Final Object (De Novissimis) Book VIII. Theology deals with the completion of the course of the Universe. whereby the universe returns to God. : men charist Lastly. The quotations of Scripture are taken from the modern editions of Douai-Rheims Version. The translations of the passages ot the Fathers are mostly taken from Waterworth's "Faith of Catholics. the Fcur Last Things. of it expounds the doctrine of Grace. Fifthly. De Sacramentis] Book VII. supernatural end (De Gratia Christi} Sixthly.

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B .BOOK I. THE SOURCES OF THEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE.

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I. The Three study of the universe. Notion of Revelation Revelation. and especially of man. and because our own nature has a claim to it. Notion of Revelation. Who is Himself hidden from our eyes. PART I. this II. i. SECT. Three Degrees of CHAP. Apostles. It is with I. because it is brought about by means of nature. the noblest Reflation.A MANUAL OF CATHOLIC THEOLOGY. as will be hereafter explained. yet makes Himself known to us. manifestation is called Natural Revelation. ^T word Revelation originally means an unveiling' a manifestation of some object by drawing back the coverHence we commonly use the ing by which it was hidden. But God has also spoken to man by His own voice. DIVINE REVELATION SECT. THE i. both directly and through Prophets. word in the sense of a bringing to light some fact or truth But it is especially applied hitherto not generally known.and Sacred Writers. object in the universe. THE OBJECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF THEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE. Divine Revelation that we are here concerned. to manifestations made by God. CHAPTER I. God discloses Himself to us in three ways. . clearly proves to us the existence This mode of of One Who is the Creator and Lord of all.

the existence and perfections of its Author and. in matter and mind. 2). The third and highest degree of Revelation is in the Beatific Vision in Heaven where God withdraws the veil entirely. and in keeping alive in man the power of knowing the image and. their proper significance. Him " the Beatific Vision] face to face " as He is (2 Cor. and tends to a gratuitous union with Him. i. Here on earth. giving and preserving nothing else but the action of God as Creator. [BOOK I. to nature its existence. The nature I. the image of Himself. The human intellect.4 CHAP. we walk by faith and " " we see now through a glass in a dark not by sight it is . I Cor. SKCT ' A Manual of Catholic Theology. xiii. This Revelation. consists in exhibiting. "' This positive (as opposed to natural) Revelation proceeds from the gratuitous condescension of God. John SECT. v. : and this for two reasons to maintain the of these truths upon God. form. from its own spiritual nature. is the principle of ordinary knowand therefore belongs to the domain of philosophy. of some however. then. because more properly a disclosure of something hidden. the spiritual nature of the Author of all things. . ReVeTa^on. is an image of the Divine Intellect the Creator endows it with the power to infer. Created things embody Divine Ideas. and the better to dependence inculcate the duty of obeying them. from visible nature. but then [in "we I shall see iii. " even in Supernatural Revelation. of the Creator. 12 . through the . The revealing action is : . and sometimes Revelation pure and simple. both of which are far beyond Hence it is called Supernatural the demands of our nature. in particular. 7 . manner. Revelation. and must be connected with a Divine Revelation kind. and life. We touch upon it here because it is the basis of Supernatural Revelation. and are thus imitations of their antitypes. The Nature and Subject-matter of Natural Revelation. religious. 2. and also because at the present day all forms of Revelation have been confused and have lost Natural Revelation ledge. the Divine Perfections. ethical truths All natural knowledge of intellectual. and manifests Himself in all His glory.

Natural Revelation with Positive Revelation. 14.] Divine Revelation. 4. De Veritate. ii. like Ontologism completely misapprehend the bearing and energy of God's creative operations and of created nature itself. This. De Magistro.FART I. August. however. St. like Traditionalism. Ex plT ?on* ex and even in Holy Scripture. does not mean a through the light of reason God supernatural intervention makes known to us His Will in a more vivid manner than . q. 5 Him who is represented. but in the sense that." and also the Moral Law." i. however. " 2. could do. OECT. by means of the light received from God. be thought that all that can be or to acknowledge. The following propositions. must be understood to refer When rightly explained they to a Natural Revelation. " God is the truth in which in in a book or as expressed by saying that God impresses His truth upon our mind and writes it in our souls. 15) and that He speaks to us in our conscience. Natural Revelation embraces all the truths which we can apprehend by the light of our reason. even human language Subjectf Na"ura? Revela on - they are the only truths in which He reveals Himself to us Thus St. Paul 18-20 and ii. 2. even of natural not by formal speech nor by an inner supernatural enlightenment. II." that we see. 3. and St. or with the Revelation of Glory. . met with in the Fathers. "God is the Teacher of all truth. 1. Nevertheless only those which concern God and our relations with Him are said to belong to Natural Revelation. 14-15) points out as naturally revealed "the invisible things of God. Theories which confound this CHAP. we read in creatures the The same idea is sometimes truths impressed upon them. Thomas. serve to confirm the doctrine stated above." especially "His eternal power and Divinity. not the light which and preserves in us the faculty of knowing things as they are." not as a mirror. but the Light which creates is. i.i. It is particularly said that God has written His law upon our hearts (Rom.e. because III. It must not. XL). and which He commands us (Rom. God is the light in which we know all truth. truth. we read all truth. but by sustaining the mind and faculties with which He has endowed our nature (cf.

and II. it. Thus the necessity of a Positive Revelation varies according to the end to be attained and man's capacity to attain its necessity. are finite. but at the same time the enable us to attain our last end. [COOK I. and must conseBoth the subjective medium (the quently be imperfect. Moreover. ought to be known about God. A Manual of Catholic Theology. SECT.6 CHAP. is Object of a I. and His works. measure of the knowledge required depends uponjhe end ordained to man by his Creator its necessity is determined by the capability or incapability of man to acquire this knowledge. as we shall now proceed tion to prove. there would still be room for another and a supernatural revelation. even if the knowledge of God through the medium of natur^ without any special help were sufficient for our natural vocation. is within the sphere of Natural Revelation. object is to The remote. is destined to a supernatural Man. shall see. His designs. The direct object or purpose of Positive Revelation Retention. by reason of it its dependencg^on the senses. is so imperfect that knows the essences of things" only from their phenomena. chief. 3. and therefore only obscurely and imperfectly. And lastly. Revelation is to enable him to reach it. SECT. Thus. and can tell us nothing about any free acts which God may have performed above and beyond nature. The . the knowledge of which He may nevertheless require of us. i. human mind) and the objective medium (creation). 3. whereas God is infinite. insufficient even for our natural vocation. as we even for the fulfilment of these a Positive Revelation is in . But Natural Revelation is. to impart to us the knowledge of the truths which it contains or to develop and perfect such knowledge of them as we already possess. The Object and Necessity of a Positive RevelaIts Supernatural Character. in a certain sense. the study of nature can result only in the knowledge of such truths as are necessarily connected with it. and consequently the principal object of a Positive end. the human intellect. The unaided of reasonjcan attain only a mediate knowledge of God light by means of the study of His creatures. But this supernatural vocation does not relieve him from his natural duties.

a certain sense necessary. in the present state of the human race. Relative knowledge of truths of the natural order bearing upon religion and morals. Hi. error. . the difficulties. impede the Very few men have the acquisition talent and opportunity to study such a subject. Positive Revelation is needed to remedy these defects. The Catholic doctrine on this CHAP. and physically necessary for the attainment of On . " To this point has been defined by the Vatican Council. for eye hath not seen. that is to say. 2). Him two " (sess. but it is If relatively. and religious truths. the other hand Positive Revelation is absolutely. Positive Revelation were absolutely necessary for the acquisition of natural. We must there- different kinds of necessity. be known by all with expedition and firm certainty. because there is no physical impossibility but only great difficulty and hypothetical.. moral. and without any mixture of error.I Divine Revelation. 3. categorically. But this is plainly opposed to the doctrine that God and the moral law may be known by man's unaided reason. of this knowledge. but because God of His infinite goodness hath ordained man to a supernatural end. hypothetically. and in different degrees under different circumstances the necessity is moral. and morally necessary. Nevertheless not on this account must Revelation be deemed absolutely necessary. Many difficulties. a part of the moral law.PAHT T. because it exists merely in relation to a portion of mankind. 7 i. but the necessity is only relative. and even under the most favourable circumstances there will be doubt and to owing to man's moral degradation and the influences which he is exposed. is Positive Revelation and physically necessary for the not absolutely. because it exists only in the hypothesis that God has provided no other means of surmounting . to be a sharerJu the good things-of God which altogether surpass the understanding of the human mind . Divine revelation it belongeth that those Divine things which are not impervious to human reason may. chap. ' SECT. Absolute necessity. then none of these truths could be known by any man in any other way. nor hath it entered into the heart of man what things God hath prepared for them that love fore distinguish I. nor ear heard. however. 2. categorically.

. Mystery. as in the . in making it. As both are supernatural.8 CHAP. and not. 4. * * to close the eyes . this Revelation is and proper contents of Supernatural Revelation. St i. a truth hidden in God. and categorical. The Subject-matter of Supernatural Revelation Mysteries. juC. and only reproducing their essence in analogical concepts taken from the sphere of our natural knowledge. howby word of mouth. because. and out of purely far as its This supernatural character begratuitous benevolence. acting beyond Conservator. III. a slight sound with closed lips. and this . substitute Supernatural any other means form is for is it. God is and above His ordinary activity as Creator. entirely . [BOOK I. These truths constitute the specific I. We ever. but made known to man by a free communication. both must be made known by means of a direct communication from the Author of the supernatural order. And the necessity is absolute. As. To reach this end we must tend towards it supernaturally while we are here on earth (in supposes the knowledge of the end and of the means thereto. because God cannot statu via). especially by one mind from another. because it extends to every truth of this order and arises from the very nature of man physical. because of man's physical incapacity of knowing God as He is in Himself. and SECT. II. longs to it even when it merely supplements Natural Revelation. all is But it is purely and simply supernatural in respects only when it manifests supernatural truths the means to a supernatural end. Mystery Mi/'tiv. by the vision of its object as it does not entirely lift the veil from revealed things it leaves them withholding their reality from the mind's eye. fL 4 our supernatural end. and Prime Mover of nature. This peculiar character of the contents of Supernatural Revelation is called Mystery. : Revelation of Glory. in common parlance means something hidden or veiled. Positive Revelation always a supernatural act as concerned. or mystery of God that is. in obscurity. ' A Manual of Catholic Theology. learn The Subject- Supematurai from the preceding section that Supernatural Revelation gives us knowledge of truths unrevealed by Natural Revelation.

to the symbolical or sacred words and acts which they kept secret from the multitude. SECT 4 which gives the initiated a position superior " The heathens gave the name of " mysteries to outsiders. they nevertheless remain hidden and enveloped. by their very nature. proper object. for we walk by faith and not by " And the Council speaks of the sight (sess. the a sort of mist. but only an analogical. there are proposed for our belief the the Vatican mysteries hidden in God. and understood only by the perfect. p. reason cannot prove ditions. Hi. and that we should consequently be unable to obtain a direct and proper. Newman. as long as in this mortal life we are absent from the Lord. 27). Card. 9 i." Although by means of analogy we nevertheless in may obtain some knowledge of these mysteries. chap. especially the mysteries knowable only by Faith which are veiled under the sacramental appearances (cf. Development. are fulfilled not usually styled mysteries. 1. or to the hidden meaning of their liturgy. understood only by the initiated.. the Vatican Council. 4). in . The Fathers applied the term to the sacred words and acts of the true religion. 2. which. as it were. kept secret from the heathen and catechumens. and that. That there are such mysteries has been defined by That there " Besides those things which natural mysteries.PART ij It Divine Revelation. reason can attain. so far surpass the created intellect that. however. Definition. further condition that the truth should be naturally unknowable on account of its absolute and objective supe- These conits existence. ' some advantage attaches to the CHAP. The notion of theological mystery properly so called implies that the mysterious truth is incapable of being discovered by human reason. representation of its contents. by many truths which are Hence we must add the our sphere of knowledge. mystery is therefore subjectively above reason and riority to A objectively above nature. even when they have been imparted by Revelation and received by Faith. even after it is revealed. could not be known. human reason is never able to perceive them same way as it perceives the truths which are its " The Divine mysteries. implies the notion that it knowledge of '. unless they were divinely revealed.

. Mysteries e*sential to Christian 4." Again. but the spirit of a man that is in him ? that are of God no man knoweth. I. on the Lord's Prayer. and Col. many of which are quoted inter. The doctrine of the Council is based on many passages of Holy Scripture. [BOOK T. telling us the secret . some of which are quoted or alluded perfect. . . Jerome on Eph. nor ear heard. Chrysologus. SECT. and to announce Ghost from both. . 26. text is i Cor. : . . but the Spirit that is of God the things that are given us from God" (6-12). the Holy Ghost into this world " what the Son received from the Father. two elements. A : Afanual of Catholic Theology. horn. The writings of the Fathers are very rich in : . essential to lation of mysteries in Christian Revelation is sublime character. Scripture and Tradiiion The fullest we speak wisdom among the to in the decrees.. neither of the princes of this world that come to nought but we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery [a wisdom] which is hidden. The presence its is Revelation. iii. 3. through Him. the motive of Revelathe Holy tion is God Himself the immense us love of the Son of God for us : He speaks to a friend to friends. commentaries on these texts. tured. sqq. : Howbeit not seen. yea. 25-27. 4. sending His Son and. but that all the dogmas of the Faith may be understood and demonstrated from natural principles by reason duly cul" (cf. that we may know world. xi. let him be anathema Gravissimas inter}. Compare Matt. For the Spirit searcheth all things. Peter Chrysostom and St. The principle of Revein His character of Father. which God ordained before which none of the princes of the world unto our glory as it is written that eye hath this world knew. the Brief of Pius IX. iii. i. subjective and objective. yet not the wisdom of this world. the deep of God.TO CHAP. . . but the Spirit things Now we have received not the spirit of this of God. what things God hath prepared for them But to us God hath revealed them by His that love Him. Spirit. also St. 4-9 John i. 1 8. in the correspond"If any one shall say that in Divine Reveing canon i lation no mysteries properly so called are contained. " ii. 27 also Eph. 67. But. neither hath it entered into the heart of man. For what man knoweth the things of things So the a man. in the Brief Gravissimas See especially St.

but form a super. and accomplished by means of grace and glory. ! reason the more precious it ledge of things supernatural perfect is is to us. Faith would not be "the evidence of things that appear not" (Heb. their mysterious nature. the instance. The mysteries which 6. 5. I. but to acknowledge the true extent of its powers.] Divine Revelation. 14). so that things i ' Revelation to lead us who deny the existence of mysteries deny also the may add that supernatural character of Christianity. the study of the revealed truths themselves will plainly all We show 5. the know- a pledge and foretaste of the knowledge which SECT. xi. And what an honour it is to man to be made in some way a confidant of God Moreover. Moreover. iv. 10). Finally. all I. of His is \ \ And the end of CHAP. the very essence of Revelation is to be supernatural and therefore mysterious. rendered possible through the God-Man. . the Incarnation. i). it is at once an of^o^ " degrades our reason honour and a benefit. for known only by means the Blessed Trinity. x. To say that there are truths beyond the reach of our reason is surely not to degrade it. In fact. The Province of Revelation. It is folly to maintain that the revelation of mysteries Mystery no on the contrary. In their of the origin they represent Ul'idtU various forms the communication are not tion of the Divine Nature by the Trinity. Revelation embraces those truths which have been Revealed revealed in any way whatever.). and Grace in their final object they represent an order in which the Triunity appears as the ideal and end of a communion between God and His creatures. Some revealed truths can be of Revelation . iii. are the subject-matter of Revela.PART I. the outcome those of the natural world " " manifold wisdom of God (Eph. the direct vision of God face to face. is to come. without mysteries. Heb. the more a truth is above . .."The a few isolated truths. Father (John xv. on to a truly supernatural state. as.rosmos/* merely natural world whose parts are as organically connected as a mystical cosmos. nor would it be meritorious (Rom.

or theological to pass that these may be proposed as matter of Faith sary for the by the Church. . their own sake and truths revealed for the sake of those. Another important distinction which they prescribe practical rules. and simply matters of Faith. Matters the natural of Faith. some truths stand out clearly in Revelation. but at the same time so connected and interwoven with Revelation that II. of Faith and matters of morals. The latter are It called truths. Matters of morals refer to man and his conduct. the Unity of God. and The former. [BOOK I. "^II i. The determination of the meaning of words used for the . may also be reckoned as matter of Faith. whereas the latter are mentioned in Reve- lation tojaexve as a^basis. This distinction is of great importance with regard to the for A contents of 4. A . is that between matters Matters_pf Faith__refer to God and His works.12 CHAP. as it were. Lastly. because they are necessupport of the Faith and also for the attain- ment of its object. which are purely the Spirituality of the Soul. . These truths are. they cannot be separated from it. revealed are strictly speaking. which serve as a basis are the roots truths incidentally revealed are the bark which envelops and protruths inferred by ratiocination are the tects the trunk branches which spring from the trunk while the practical truths are the buds and flowers. reason also for instance. and are revealed in their completeness. These four groups of revealed truths may not inaptly be compared to the different parts of a tree. things alone the subject-matter of Faith. nevertheless many truths belonging to the domain of natural reason. fruit other truth? ' of Christian life. Although. may come corollaries of the Faith. Creation. are revealed in order to be made known 2. third distinction is between truths revealed for 3. the atmosphere in which the tree of Revelation lives and thrives. 5' Others can be known by natural Incarnation. while others can only be inferred by means of reflection and study. and are primarily of a speculative character. Holy Writ. and Grace. are like the trunk . frith. from which proceeds the truths . pure and simple. . Manual of Catholic Theology.

not necessarily meant for all mankind. beginning. and the Revelation made to fallen man that is. Progress of Revelation. the Revelation of Redemption. discipline. Natural and Supernatural Revelation run in parallel lines. New. Yet. but it connects this law with the supernatural order because the possession of immortality was to be the reward of obedience. expression of like and of passages in CHAP. e. Public Revelation the Revelation T-. It may be inferred. We are not. form. The Revelation of Redemption. (e.] Divine Revelation. Religious Orders.g. .e. however. Revelation Supernatural Revelation was not given at once in all not completo c> From the day of Creation to the day ot in the completeness. but only with those which are public. The Revelation in Paradise was public because it was * to be handed down to all men as an inseparable complement of Natural Revelation.g.g. destined for all men. and the corresponding moral law.PART I. concerned here with private revelations. i. o/uoouo-toc). dogmas 13 i. Holy Scripture mentions as 1. and will speak. Judgment God has spoken. that all other necessary elements of the order of grace were clearly revealed. and pointed out the family from which He was to spring it also enacted some few positive commandinents. SECT. the temporal power of the Pope. was The Revepreparatory in the Old Testament and complete in the Redemption. however. tions : made may be divided into two to man in his original por-Twoportions of state Revelation of integrity in Paradise. i. to mankind at sundry times and in divers manners (Heb. etc. . g Revelation in Paradise its subject-matter only the law of probation given to Adam. or of the Gospel. But as it did not form a complete system of . ceremonies. and other documents. are instances. whilst the former is addressed to all men at all times in the same its and is made immediately only to individuals. i). The Patriarchal Revelation contained the promise of the coming of the Redeemer. the Divine adoption of man. 2. the latter is II. although the Old Testament mentions only the gift of integrity. e. I. The preparatory stacje was begun with the Patriarchs and continued with Moses and the Prophets. In Holy Scripture manner many truths are inseparably connected with matters of morals. 6.

come." iraaav . Who told what He Himself 1 of God. . but the very image of the things to come (Heb. positive ordinances for safeguarding the Law of Nature. Nevertheless even this Revelation contains little more than Natural Revelation. in speaks (John viii. 25). . In the days of the Prophets the Revelation of the Gospel already began to dawn the super- the : and the Divine began to appear in purer and clearer outline. The next stage. 13). Finally.) not the shadow. not as His child (Gal. the Spirit of truth. iii.__ The Old Testament dispensation pointed to one that was to follow. cf. is come. The dignity and perfection of Christian Revelation * require that no further public Revelation is to be made. it may be called the Law of Nature. [BOOK i. but the Christian dispensation is that "which " remaineth (2 Cor. " an " immovable kingdom (Heb. i.- ^ . i). Who natural i. and is Himself the Word (John 8). . x. He will teach you (John xvi. vii. xii. 3. 28) per23. 1 1 Gal. sqq. 1' *6 and morals. The descent of the Ghost upon the Apostles supplemented and comHoly " When He. 13). and for the atonement for sin. 15). iii. The Apostles also exhort their disciples to stand by the doctrine which when He. iv. Man is considered as a guilty servant of God. and -^ . TYIV a\i'iOtiav all truth.) fect and absolutely sufficient (Heb. the Spirit pleted what Christ had revealed. And Christ distinctly says that His doctrine shall be preached until the consummation of the world. . Its object was to secure the worship of the one God and to keep alive the expectation of the Redeemer. A . i). and laid the foundation of an organized kingdom of God upon earth. " in. had heard i). sqq. xvi. nay. He will teach you all truth " (John NO further Revelation to be expected. Rom. and " declares All things whatsoever I have heard from My Father I have made known unto you " (John xv. for the institution of puBTic worship. the Revelation completed through Christ and the Holy Ghost surpasses all the others in dignity because its Mediator was the Only Begotten Son of God (Heb. and added little to what might be known by the unaided light of reason. except lation. sqq. II. the Mosaic Revere ligi us truths was a closer preparation for the Revelation of the Gospel. is Whom God of truth.14 C SECT > A Manual of Catholic Theology. x.

: keep what thou hast received without adding or taking away. The extensive progress does not start from Adam or Noah. The intensive progress consists in a higher degree of illumination and a wider range of the revealed truths. and Irvingites. e.I. Prophetical Revelation to several peoples. 71. Patriarchal Revelation was made to a family. Mosaic Revelation to a people. And the epistle ascribed to St. Manichaeans. revelations. Quakers. to it.] Divine Revelation. Fraticelli." Moreover. pp. 15 they received. the Anabaptists.g. the Feast of Corpus Christi and the devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. in Revelation. and to listen only to the Church (2 Tim. exclude the possibility of minor and subsidiary revelations discipline. Who leads us to the bright day of eternity (infra. both extensive and intensive. made in order to throw light upon doctrine or The Church is the judge of the value of these We may mention as instances of those which have been approved. The finality of the present Revelation does not. The intensive progress likewise begins with Abraham and ascends through Moses and the Prophets to Christ. however. the Church has always rejected the pretension of those who claimed to have received new revelations of a higher order from the Holy Ghost. Barnabas 2. 105). the patriarch selected among fallen mankind. From the above we deduce the existence of a gradual progress. the Montanists. but from Abraham. 14). . and iii. Christian Revelation to the whole world. contains the well-known formula "The rule of light is.

All other institutions means of communicating Revelation are the work of man. Modern Protestants. The Protestant theory. n. According to * i the older Protestants. although destined for all men in all times and places. has not been communicated to each inCertain means have dividual directly and immediately. We shall first state both theories. CHAPTER II. hold diametrically opposite views as to what these means are. however. Revealed truth is handed down by human witnesses. but on their natural abilities . but they deny that such means are ordained by God and or external participate in the Divine character of Revelation . ^- 7' DIVINE Revelation. 111-1 both alike I. together with an interior illumination of the Holy Ghost. whose authority depends. The Protestant theory takes two different forms.1 6 A Manual of Catholic Theology. THE TRANSMISSION OF REVELATION. is the sole means whereby Revelation asserts itself to the individual. Catholics and Protestants. concerning The Protestant Theory and the Catholic Theory the Mode of transmitting and enforcing Revelation. while some even go so far as to deny the supernatural character of Holy Scripture. been appointed by God for this purpose. the divinely written document of Revelation. Holy Scripture. CHAP. and destroying the supernatural character of the latter. admit the existence of other means of transmission besides Holy Writ itself. SECT. [BOOK I. 7. t /t A opposed to the Catholic theory. and then develop and prove the Catholic theory. however. not on the purely assistance of the Holy Ghost. coming violently between Revelation and Faith.

and conduct for all man- kind as a whole. Both forms protest the one in the 1 7 ' and industry. and a sovereign rule of Faith. II. The only efficient mode of transmitting Revelation with authority is that the Word of God.Had He done so. by submitting to which all of their intellect. Catholic theory is a logical consequence of the The nature of Revelation. Revelation is especially intended to be a principle of Faith. The for the comfort and edification of isolated individuals. efficient men may offer to God the most perfect homage Hence it follows that God should provide to enable means mankind to acquire a complete. certain. in His name and power as the principle and rule of Faith. and should obtain. Faith. God could not cast upon the world the written document of His revealed Word. should be continuaHy^proposed to mankind by His autho- on Faith.. and to secure to Himself a uniform and universal worship founded This exercise of God's Jus Majestatis over the is rightly insisted upon by the Vatican Council against the rationalistic tendencies of the day. God wills men should be gathered into His which is His due. mind of man rized envoys. freedom against the notion of a Revelation imposing itself authoritatively living on mankind and they also protest against any and visible authority claiming to be established by God and to have the right to impose the obedience of . These envoys are called the Teaching Body their functions are called the Apostolate. Thus. thought. the other in the name of natural. after having once been spoken. and for each that holiness and truth. name C u |J|/ of Christian. at the same time rendering to Him the tribute of glory by kingdom of its means all man in particular. the happiness which He destines for formity them. but as a fruitful source of supernatural knowledge and life. and also to be a law of Faith. by conto His Will. leading to an infallible knowledge of revealed truth. the purposes of Revelation would have been completely frustrated. there is a means C . and uniform knowledge of revealed truth. Moreover. Revelation is not simply intended theory. and leave it to an uncertain fate.L] The Transmission of Revelation. according to the Catholic theory. and promulgated .

rity to efficient God's cooperation. invested with autho. because the holder of the comregistrars mission is the representative of God. the promulgation may be technically described as official. [BOOK i. being an act of The promulgation as Sovereign Lord of all creatures. attainment of the end of Revelation the promulgation must be made under Divine guarantee. detracts in no way from the dignity of Other means of Revelation. supernatural. : A gating body claims a full and unconditional submission of But this certhe mind to the truths which it teaches. 8. and makes them as in the case of public witnesses. exact Faith from his subordinates. tainty could not be produced. I. must be made in & name o f j^j s sovereign authority and by ambassadors invested with a share of that authority. threefold Divine co-operation is required for the II. Their commission God ^ must consist of an appointment emanating from God. Divine legitimaThe object of the Apostotion. subordinate to the one essential and fundamental means. such as Scripture and history. . but rather safeguards it. having been instituted by God. and authoritative official. . ' transm itting Revelation distinct from Revelation itself its written document and this means. Divine of uT/p'romuigation. because with the commission to promulgate there is connected a public dignity and authority. authentic. and they must be armed with the necessary credentials and the power of exacting Faith from those to whom they are sent. . because made by persons whose proper office it is to pub: lish like heralds in human affairs authentic. transmission. and Divine Moreover. and . not enough to convey the authenticity and authority of the Aposto- . SECT. such as legally credible authoritative. guarantees the truth of his utterances. intrinsic and this submission could is not be demanded. the promulcertainty of the Word of God. are by no means excluded they are. in virtue of which the holder . of revealed truth. Further Explanation of the Catholic Theory.1 8 ^ A Manual of Catholic Theology. except by an infallible and invisible quality of infallibility The body. late is to generate an absolute. and to keep watch over its maintenance. Thus qualified. and Divine sanction. however.

' sive with the subject-matter of Revelation. The Church exercises this power when authoritatively passing judgment on dogmatic facts (facta dogmatica]. be empowered to impress the seal of authenticity on subordinate truths also. III. or applying minor censures to unsound propositions. tolate consists in the rewards and punishments reserved tolate. or the general moral miracle of the continuity and efficiency of the AposThis subject will be treated at greater length The sanction of the Aposin the treatise on Faith. and hereafter for those is consequently submission to the Apostolate. and this may be either some special miracle necessary . words and works were sufficient evidence for those who For us some other proof is actually witnessed them. in the case of truths not directly revealed by God. The subject-matter of the Apostolate is co-exten. who accept or reject its teaching. must. because otherwise the unity and universality of i.PAP. the living witness and ambassador plenipotentiary of the Word of God. must always show that what is taught is identical " it must be a teaching with authority" that is. nevertheless the Teaching Body. those also which are of the intimately connected and inseparably interwoven therewith Divine Faith cannot indeed be commanded (cf. it with what was revealed . late to the is some external mark proved the authority of His misrequired. knowledge of mankind Christ \ 9 CHAP. and then instituted the Apostolate. The act of promulgation must be a teaching Natureofthe this teaching (magisterium) and not a mere statement ^uigltk^ must witness to its identity with the original Revelation. for without this power the object of the Apostolate would in many cases be thwarted. and the complement of its authority. n. t .] The Transmission of Revelation. dire* an?' besides the truths directly revealed. accompanying the preaching of the Gospel. His sion by miracles.e. . must be enforced by the same sanctions as submission to Revelation itself. it must command the submission of the mind. the Faith could not be attained. which is the means of transmitting Revelation.The sub- embraces. It when occasion requires.T I. IV. 5). Submission to Revelation is the fundamental condition of salvation.

lect.e. (Sec Bossuet. other proofs also.2O CHAP. viz. even to the consummation of the world. I. and of the Son. Revelation of is The Catholic theory that transmitted and communicated accredited by means is envoys and teachers i. Manual of Catholic Theology. Manhew (ci) The first Evangelist. and of the Holy Ghost teaching them (StSao-Kovrtg) to observe all things whatso: make Mark to yourselves disciples. () The second Evangelist. The documentary proof of the institution of a teaching Apostolate is found in Holy Scripture exactly where we should expect and st at the to find it. and Practices of the Church. 21] teach ye [//a^rjrtu- 22] all nations.erAof/nv) and behold I with you all days. at the end of the Gospels beginning of the Acts of the Apostles. As the Father hath sent " also send you John xx. that the Apostles' mission is based upon the sovereign power of Christ. gives the narrative around which all the others group themselves. first. 9. that the Apostolate must infallible. baptizing them in the name of the Father. Instructions sur les Promesses a I* Eglise . which are set forth under the that no other theory following headings I. o-arf cf. consequently. by God. [Boo* i. 18. iv. Going therefore [in virtue of. II. and Wiseman. all mankind are bound is to become the disciples of the Apostolate. Mark. however. : The words don?"' Prooffrom our Lord's words. St. evident a priori. baptism is stated to be the act Christ . 9- Demonstration of'the Catholic Theory. ever am I have commanded you (ii. earth. and endowed " sovereign power. 19). describes the . teach as having power . Matthew (xxviii. and he then characterizes this mission as the visible continuation of the mission of the working of the Apostolate is described as an authorized teaching of the whole doctrine of Christ to all men of all times lastly. practically possible. and. He shows.) St." It is evident from the text that the promised of Christ is intended to secure the object of the presence : Apostolate. "All power given to Me in Heaven with this I My i. by which and on Me. SECT - A SECT. The Principal Doctrines faites be Su Mark. the consideraobject tion of the nature of Revelation is and its shows There are.

] The Transmission of Revelation. And these them that believe in My name they But they [the eleven] going forth. : St. 15-20). St. the Lord working withal. The abiding and invisible assistance of Christ announced in St. " You shall receive the power of the Holy Ghost coming upon you. the fourth Evangelist. draws attention to (^r) signs shall follow : shall cast out devils. as the last act of our Lord. the appointment of a permanent visible Head of the Church. and it suffer. conservation. and to lead them in the light of truth. . 15-17). points out especially the unity. firming the word with signs that followed The third Evangelist. C ^P. . The apostolic organism thus receives a firm centre and a permanent consistency. salem. 2 1 " " n. and even to the uttermost part " of the earth (Acts i. Matthew as a preaching. Luke. and application of the doctrine. beginning at Jeruand I send " the promise of My Father upon you (xxiv. of the human witnesses are the the mission to " Whom mouthpiece. and conpreached everywhere " (xvi.PART " I. believeth [your preaching] and is baptized shall be saved . . and to rise again from the dead and that penance and the remission preached in His name unto all nations. He narrates. "Thus it is written. with power to feed mankind with the bread of doctrine (xxi." but afterwards lays special stress on its principal act the authentic witnessing and points to the Holy Ghost. And you are witnesses of these things. the extrinsic " Go ye into the whole signs of authority and sanction. preach. 46-49). and you shall be witnesses unto Me in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria. (d] Whilst the synoptic Gospels chiefly describe the universal propagation and first diffusion of the doctrine of Christ. St. but he that believeth not shall be condemned. infallibility of the behoved Christ to on the third day of sins should be . 8). instead of the intrinsic guarantee of infallibility." and mentions. world and preach (Kripv^art) the Gospel to every creature [as an authorized message from the Creator and Sove- He that reign Lord to all mankind as His creatures]. St. as the guarantee of the testimony. Luke. Peter is St chosen to take the place of Christ. teaching of St. John. Matthew to the members of the Apostolate is here visibly embodied in His supreme representative to whom .

and Master. xvii. 23). [BOOK I. xvi. . and efficacy of the Holy Ghost's assistance are declared. 20 Matt. narrative. The beautiful the previous teaching of our Lord.22 CHAP. sent the world. was to support and strengthen the testimony of the Apostles. teaching as one having power a Preacher of the Gospel sent by God to as the Our Lords L7ri^?ng. 22) (Mark man (Luke iv. 9 Moreover. xxxiv. I also mentioned by St. The mission described in Matt. A Manual of Catholic Theology. is represented in John 17. 1 1 Word (cf. . 16 (cf. of as a Doctor i. importance. 18. "And I will ask the Father. xxviii. As Thou them into hast sent Me St. into the world. Luke x. Shepherd of the sheep (John x. 16-21) a Witness. n). which in is Thus the last Evangelist comes back to the point from " All power is given to Me St. ." authority spoken of by have Moreover the coercive Matthew and St. IT. John sqq. 40) on the occasion of the first preparatory mission of the " He that heareth you heareth Me seventy-two disciples." And the despiseth promise of the Holy Ghost. in which the duration. x. and. . Ezech. the very figure of a shepherd feeding 3 r 3 2 )lambs and sheep contains an allusion to the authority his and sanction of the promulgation of the x. John's account of our Lord's discourse at the Last Supper. Ps. picture of the institution of the Apostolate given at the end of the Gospel narratives is brought out more clearly when viewed side by side with 2. and consequently the functions of both are Our Lord Himself is spoken described in similar terms. giving testimony to what He saw with the Father (John viii. Who. according to St. Matthew started Heaven and on earth. that He may the world cannot receive abide with you for ever. lastly . it was especially promised (Matt. John xiii." The mission of the A postdate : an emanation from and a continuation of the mission of Christ. 14-18). . is made at great length in St. and he that and he that despiseth you despiseth Me Me despiseth Him that sent Me. . Luke xxii. Luke's . xxii. Whom but you shall know Him : 4 . and He shall give you another Paraclete. Mark is . 17-19 . as a continuation of the mission of Himself: "Sanctify them in truth: Thy word is Christ truth. the Spirit of truth.

n. and especially infallibility. the Pastor appointed by Christ (John xxi. 25. He gave their doctrine an effective sanction by holding out an eternal reward to those who should faithfully adhere to it. Jesus follows. is come. is intended to show that the transmission of Revelation was to be endowed with all the qualifications required for its object. 23 in because He shall abide with you. 26. He shall give and you shall give testimony. and had for their mission to publish to the world all revealed Their mission was not extruth until the end of time. 16. xvi. presided over by one Head. the Holy Ghost. finally. "These things have I spoken to you. because testimony of Me " " When you are with Me from the beginning (xv. After accomplishing His own mission. as Teacher and Witness. 15-17) had been previously designated as being strengthened in Faith in order to confirm his brethren. whatsoever I shall " " But when the Paraclete have said to you (ibid. Mankind were bound to receive them as Christ Himself.PART I. and bring all things into your mind. These passages taken together may be summarized as Summary. : He. clusively personal it was to extend to their successors. 31. Lastly. cometh. the Spirit of truth. 17). doctrine . 26). and by threatening with eternal punishment those who should reject it. as Keeper of and Guide to the truth. Whom I will send you from the Father. and shall be you " CHAP.. with you. 18). Christ. (xiv. It is plain that these promises were made to the Apostles as future propagators of the Faith. He promised them His presence and the aid of the Holy Ghost to guarantee the infallibility of their promised external and supernatural signs as authenticity. and the stress laid upon the functions of the Holy Ghost as the Spirit of truth. in virtue of His absolute power and authority. abiding But the Paraclete. 32 Matt. the Spirit of truth. 27). and might be recognized as such. Whom the Father will send in My name. They were His representatives. Who proceedeth from the Father. He will teach you all things. sent into the world a body of teachers and preachers. .] The Transmission of Revelation. He will teach [6So7/jo-et] you all truth" (xvi. That their word might be His word. He vouchers for its . and with as the rock which was to be the indestructible foundation of the Church (Luke xxii. 13).

is There "He shall lead you the future of the Christian dispensation. are at least implicitly and virtually contained in the texts even reason to maintain that the words. and the commencement. .e. In the former passage. if thou confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus. however. imply the promise of the infallible guidance of the Holy Ghost It should also be in all truths necessary to the Church. the writings of the Apostles. of the Apostles represent the Apostolate writings accomplished fact. and they be sent ? the word of Christ [as preached by those who hearing by . and fills likewise up the gaps we have drawn corresponds in isolated passages. even in minute details. x. with the theory of the Catholic Church on the Apostolate. Faith then cometh by hearing. . end of time Paul. the signs some of them and ocular evidence of the Apostles. the infallibility of the Apostolate in matters indirectly connected with Revelation. 13). and are therefore no argument against the perpetuity of the essential elements required for the permanent object of Revelation the salvation of all mankind. 9' culties This summary is a complete answer to certain diffidrawn from detached texts of Holy Scripture. although these passages. and believe in thy heart that God hath raised Him up from the dead. [BOOK I. . Rom. for instance. The picture exactly. The transitory elements can. iv. e. II.24 CHAP. as a whole. and in . apply to quoted. Jews and Gentiles]. its apply chiefly to wonders. How then shall they call on Him in Whom they have not believed ? Or how shall they believe Him of Whom they have not heard ? And how shall they hear without a preacher ? And how shall they preach unless is The word in even thy mouth. 8-19 and Eph. A Manual of Catholic Theology. thou shalt be saved. . For. thy heart. be easily distinguished. Certain points. This is the word of faith which we preach. *fll ii. Paul insists on the necessity and importance of the apostolic preaching is The theory set forth especially in as the ordinary " means of transmitting the doctrine of Christ. . Prooffrom The as an i. noted that. nigh thee [i. St. " into all truth (John xvi. all men. destined to endure in all its essential elements until the St. as.g. 7-14. For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.

ii. 16 iii. Lord. 12 i Thess. xii. as Christ promised 4 2 Cor. when the Apostles were still still and the extraordinary graces (charismata) were His description is not that of the ordinary organization. 5. Peter. n. 5 xv. He speaks more particularly about the organization of the Apostolate. The Apostles were the foundation of the whole organization after their death their place was taken by the successor of St. lie in wait to deceive" (Eph. In practice. in full operation. 9. . .] The Transmission of Revelation.) they . importance of the earlier form.). . who hath believed our report ? In sent]. may also be applied to that which was to come. . unto a perfect man. and The practice carried on the work of their ministry they represented Apostles. the bishops appointed by the Apostles] for the perfecting of the saints. as witnesses sent to the people by God they proved the Divinity of first 2. them (i Cor. and " their words unto the ends of the whole world. . for " Isaias saith. themselves as the ambassadors of Christ (Rom. in spite of this. verily. . . for the work of the ministry. E ^. it is plain that what he says of the living. . . and security of the universal Faith. the Apostles announced the Gospel. and carried about with every wind of doctrine by the wicked: ness of men. but. . to whom the other pastors stand in the same relation as the bishops stood to the Apostles. 25 But I say. and other some evangelists [both graces peculiar to the first epoch]. signs and wonders. i. 11-15). and other some pastors and doctors [this alludes to the ordinary teachers. firmness. their mission by ii. and of the knowledge of the Son of God. Have they not heard? Yes CHAP. g hath gone forth into all the earth. unto the measure of the age of the fulness of Christ that henceforth we be no more children. which was to endure for all ages." But all do not obey the Gospel [preached by the Apostles]. above all. " And He gave some apostles. 1 8 i Cor. until we all meet together into the unity of faith.PART I. as it existed in his own day. and some prophets. etc. iv. etc. for the edifying of the body of Christ. tossed to and fro. . i. and. by cunning craftiness by which they . their sound have been - writing to the Ephesians the Apostle describes how the organic body of living teachers is by its manifold functions the means designed by God to produce the unity.

13. demanded for authentic and authoritative witness. .. let him be anathema" (Gal. to be the bishops and deacons of them that God. as may permanent. 42. ii. which they bore For the weapons of our right to enforce respect for it warfare are not carnal. . Therefore they went forth with the full persuading power of the Holy Ghost. or themselves pronounce the sentence. of God. and then gave them command that when they came to die other approved men should succeed to their ministry" ad Cor. . 9. when your obedience shall be fulfilled They apply the sanction established by (2 Cor.26 CHAP. and claimed the power and the r) TT/OTEWC. the same commend to faithful men who The pracshall be fit to teach others also" (2 Tim. ." and Christ. and the Apostles by Christ. the obedience of Faith Rom. They add the commandment to appoint further successors with the same " The things which thou hast heard of me by charge. " Christ Clement of Rome. " " But though we. A Manual of the word Catholic Theology. many witnesses. announcing the coming of the kingdom of Through provinces and in towns they preached the and appointed the first fruits thereof. and bringing into captivity every understanding unto the obedience of Christ. should believe. ii. . " He that believeth not shall be condemned. 2). The mode i. words which thou hast heard of me Keep the good committed to thy trust by the Holy Ghost Who thing dwelleth in us" (2 Tim. and having in readiness to revenge all disobedience. x. 8).) and from the fact that the Apostles appointed successors to themselves to watch over and keep the " Hold the form of sound doctrine entrusted to them. nn. tical application of this system is thus described by St. They appointed the above-named. was to be and not to cease with the Apostles. i. to [BOOK I. destroying counsels (Aoyto-^ioi/e). . preach a gospel to you besides that which we have preached to you. Paul (Rom. an angel from heaven. 14). the Spirit. the disciple of the Apostles : was sent by God. 44^ (E-p. x. but mighty to God unto the pulling : " down of fortifications. 4-6).. i. .. and every height that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God. SECT. . be gathered from the principles laid down by St. i. in its essentials. duly tried by word. 5). of promulgation.

We thus do not fall into the vicious circle of proving the Apostolate from the inspired books. who appealed insists to Scripture or to private historical documents.PABT I. Irenaeus insists upon these points against the irenzus Gnostics. upon the existence and importance of the mission of the Apostles. Historical proofs. notwithstanding any private appeal to Scripture or to any other historical documents. 27 IL This proof from Scripture by no means presupposes CHAP. at hand to look all in : He unto. and the successors of those Bishops down to ourselves. in the first centuries. and also upon the succession (a) " Therefore in every church there is. Irenaeus. that they them they left as successors. St. manifest without any such help. For if the Apostles had known any hidden mysteries." their whom own . Ecclesiastical Tradition was . for the Apostolate those who would fain see the truth. delivering unto post of government. the inspiration of the books of the New Testament it is enough for our present purpose to assume that they are authentic narratives. . the tradition of the Apostles made manifest through- out the whole world and we have it in our power to enumerate those who were by the Apostles instituted Bishops in the churches. they would have delivered them before all others to those to whom For they sought they entrusted even the very churches. their successors preached the word that the preaching of with authenticity and authority these successors infallibly reproduced the preaching of the Apostles that. . i. But we have historical given to the Apostles. Holy St. and the Inspiration of the books from the Apostolate. consequently. Nor do we make use of the authority of the Church in Their meaning is sufficiently interpreting the texts. . St.] The Transmission of Revelation. Origen. proofs of unimpeachable character that already. which they apart and privately taught the perfect only. and Tertullian taught that. none of whom either taught or knew anything like unto the wild opinions of these men. the Catholic Rule was held by the Fathers. in consequence of the mission III. to be followed. should be especially He then demonperfect and blameless in all things.

all whatever is of truth. such a volume as this. has been preserved that tradition which is from the Apostles. has been preserved in the Church and . A : Mamial of Catholic Theology. by those who are on every side. it is necessary that every church. 1. [BOOK i. the successions of all the ." After mentioning other : disciples and successors of the Apostles. we confound all those who in any way. strates Rome in the continuity of succession in the church of " But as it would be a very long task to enumerate.28 CHAP. pointing out that tradition which the greatest and most ancient and universally known church of Rome founded and constituted by the two most glorious Apostles Peter and Paul derives from the Apostles.. those who are on every side faithful. . 4). and that faith announced to all men. in their hearts. And this is a most complete demonstration that the vivifying faith is one and the same. and sedulously guarding the old tradition?" {Adv. ii. which from the Apostles even until now. For to this church. Hceres. (b} Irenaeus then shows that the preaching of the Apostles. resort.. But what if the had not left us writings would it not have been Apostles needful to follow the order of that tradition which they delivered to those to whom they committed the churches an ordinance to which many of the barbarian nations who . : believe in Christ assent. transmitted in truthfulness. since there are such proofs to show. which through the succession of (her) Bishops has come down to us. . he continues " Wherefore. . whether through self-complacency or vain-glory. having salvation written. contains a supernatural guarantee of infallibility through the indwelling of . we ought not still to seek amongst others for truth which it is easy to receive from the Church. that is. . assemble otherwise than as behoveth them. By this order and by this succession both that tradition which is in the Church from the Apostles. without paper and ink. 3. have come down to us. seeing that the Apostles have brought together most fully into it. and the preaching of the truth. that every one that willeth may draw out of it the drink of life. on churches account of more potent principality. by the Spirit. as into a rich repository. in which (church) ever. continued by their successors. iii. or blindness and perverse opinion.

. saith he. like something excellent deposited in a beautiful vase. as ever in though for the breathing of life into His handiwork. Irenaeus links together the Apostolic Succesof the filth Church lest . there is the ChurcJi and every grace : but the Spirit is truth. For this office of God has been entrusted to the Church. Hi. which received from the Church. salvation . of which all they are not partakers who do not hasten to the Church. uniform and equally enduring. and through the whole economy the Holy Ghost. c. and testified everywhere unto by Prophets and by Apostles. doctors. accustomed operation relative to the is in our faith. nor see the most clear . there is the Spirit of God. and out drink foul water. . as we have shown of the episcopate. fleeing from the faith of the they be brought back but rejecting the Spirit " that they may not be instructed (lib. but by their evil selves of sentiment and most flagrant conduct defraud themlife. (c] Lastly. unto the end that all the members that partake may be vivified in this [office]. Wherefore we ought to obey those presbyters who are in the Church. and assemble in any depart sion " . ladder whereby to ascend unto God.] The Transmission of Revelation. too. as we have demonstrated. and by all the disciples. . 29 n. youthful freshness. with the succession Apostles.PART l. having we guard (quam pcrceptam ab and which by the Spirit of God is ccdesia custodimus] of God and that of man. which. seem newly formed (fresh with youth). those who have a succession from the who. ' "The public teaching of the Church is CHAP. and where the Spirit of God is.. and the supernatural guarantee of the Holy Ghost. is disposed the communication of Christ. spring which proceeds from Christ's body but dig unto themselves broken cisterns out of earthy trenches. and every other work of the Spirit. wherein it is. the Holy Spirit. God hath placed Apostles. 24). Wherefore they who do not partake of that [Spirit] are neither nourished unto life from a mother's breasts. making even the very vase. through the first and intermediate and final period. the For in the Church. prophets. that is. the pledge of incorruption. For where the Church is. have received according to the good will of the Father the sure gift of truth but the rest who from the principal succession.

as the . Origen.. and their words unto the ends of the world. Where." on Matt. states the principle of the Apostolate in the Church in the following " There being many who fancy that they pregnant terms : think the things of Christ. they seem to say. there we that ought to learn the that which is truth. " As forward canonical And commentoften as in they which bring Scriptures Christian agrees and believes. work De Scriptures " Prtescriptionibus. and as men pleasing themselves . as proud. Tertuiiian. TertulHan treats of this subject in his well-known ecclesiastical tradition . [from those] with is whom is . . we ought to hold suspected either as and of an evil opinion. again. Origen. 26). and sound and irreprovable in conversation and unadulterated and incorruptible in discourse. . For they both guard that faith of ours in one God. hypocrites doing this for gain's sake and vain-glory. transmitted by the order of succession from the Apostles. iv. nor to believe otherwise than churches of God have by succession according transmitted to us. xxiv. and they succession of the Church which from the Apostles expound to us the Scriptures without danger. therefore. remains even to that alone is to be present day in the churches believed to be truth which in nothing differs from the the : ecclesiastical ing and apostolical tradition. every Behold in the houses is the word of truth.. [Heretics] their and by this boldness put forward the they forthwith . abides. the gifts of God are placed. 23. . . nor dishonouring the " patriarchs nor contemning the prophets (lib." 3. P' ace heretics whatever. and some of them think differently from those who have gone before. The truth is like the lightning which goeth out from the east and appeareth even into the west such is the truth of the Church of God for from it alone the sound hath gone forth into all the earth. let there be pre- served the ecclesiastical teaching which. Who made such dispositions on our account. and increase our love towards the Son of God. neither uttering blasphemy against God. . or as schismatics and or. [BOOK I.30 H "SECT" ' A Manual of Catholic Theology. he says.' But we are not to credit them nor to go out from the first and the [heretics] ' . Who made all things. in the preface to his work De Principiis. 2.

in which the victory is either none or doubtful. IV. strong argument in favour of the Divine origin of the A Apostolate. If the not allow it to prevail so long. it would be impossible for the Church to do all the good which she does. n SKCT. send anxious. 19). whom the pos- session of the Scriptures belongs. so universally. But if this were the case. it ought to be seen to . nor must the contest be constituted in these. and the hierarchy would be the work of the devil. there will be the true Scriptures and the true expositions and ail the true Christian traditions" (nn. 1 31 ' move some persons but in the actual encounter they CHAP. with such renown and success among the very best of mankind. which is now the only one to be discussed. If these be those weapons of strength of theirs. and to be so constantly and so energetically attacked by the enemies of Christ. . God would be bound to oppose and extirpate this monster of deception.P\RT I. may be drawn from its actual existence and working in the Catholic Church. therefore interpose this away first the wavering We and foremost that they are not to be admitted to any disposition cussion whatever touching the Scriptures. which pretends to be the work He could of His hands and to be guided by His Spirit. . and when and to whom was that rule delivered whereby men ^became Christians?' for wherever both the true Christian rule and faith shall be shown to be. catch the weak. . 'JTo^whom belongs the faitft itg e ^4 whose are the Scriptures. power over the human mind and the infallible possession of Divine truth claimed by the Catholic hierarchy did not really come from God. or too little doubtful. But.] The Transmission of Revelation. The Divine legitimation of the Apostolate. and through whom. 15. in order that they : may possess them. weary the strong. may be admitted Therefore there must be no appeal to the Scriptures. 9. the claim would be a horrible blasphemy. to contribute so wonderfully to the sanctification of mankind. . For even though the debate on the Scriptures should not so turn out as to confirm each party. the order of things required that this question should be first proposed. by whom. lest he to it to whom it in no wise belongs. stronger even than the proof from the Holy Scriptures and early Fathers.

For our present purpose. an independent hierarchical function. which is to show to whom and in what manner belongs the right to expound and propose Revelation. II. The usual place to treat of the Organization of the Teaching Apostolate is in the treatise on the Constitution of the Church. Relations witJi the two Organization of the Teaching Apostolate Its Powers and the two Hierarchical Orders instituted by Christ. its value and importance depend on the rank held by the members of the Hierarchy by right either of ordination or of jurisdiction. inasmuch as in this way the gifts of the vivifying Spirit are dispensed. But the Apostolate itself is not only intimately connected with the : two above-named functions of the Hierarchy it is also an hierarchical function. in those same dignitaries who are appointed to be the instruments of the Holy Ghost for the The power tion. [BOOK I.32 CHAP. And the same may be said of the Power of Jurisdiction. as well as by the institution of Christ. strate the Divine origin of the Church as a whole. It springs from and forms an essential part of the other two. er JfOrde ^ The power to teach is vested by right. but far from doing God its tolate and confirms they also demonstrate the Divine origin of the Apostolate which is the means of communicating the Faith which the Church professes. it will be sufficient to give a clear notion of the two hierarchical powers. for the noblest part of this power to guide func'bnspf each1 "* it is to feed the flock of Christ on Faith. demonsupernatural manifestations. Catholic Theology. To enlighten the mind with heavenly truth and to generate Faith are acts belonging to the very nature of the Power of Orders. communication of His grace to mankind (potestas ordinis] and who are the representatives of Christ for the government of His kingdom upon earth (jpotestas jurisdictionis) in a word. of course. the Apostolate belongs to the Hierarchy. and so to salvation. The Apostolate is not. however. however. As such. 10. marvellously supports the Aposauthority from time to time by These. ii A Manual of this. We have already distinguished two functions of the : Biy Apostolate d) the authentic witnessing to the doctrine . SECT.

a public dignity. the " Fathers of the a perfect sense. n i<x element belongs to the Power of Orders. and the Priests of the second order. SECT. so that they are. The High Priests (the Pontiffs or Priests of the first order. individually claim infallibility. while the Apostolate transmits the truth of Christ and provides the The Jurisdiction. Hence. They cannot. are invested with a supernatural character. and are by themselves independent of any other order in the performance in virtue of their Orders. i. stitute the Hierarchy of Orders. act of witnessing to the doctrine of Christ The members of subject-matter of the act of Faith. of Christ. but rather. and a power based upon an intimate union with the Holy Ghost. The grace which they receive in their ordination consecrates them for and entitles them to both functions. archy of Orders receive their orders from the Bishops.e. however.The two Hierarchical ITTr ^ T> t lo each of these degrees order*. the Hierarchy invested with the power of communicating the gifts of Grace in general and the gift of Faith in particular. i. the dispensers of the mysteries of God.PART I. because they are the instruments of the Holy Ghost. Faithful. especially the grace of Faith. They represent to the testimony of the Holy Ghost promised by Christ. the Bishops) alone possess the fulness of the Power of Orders. The Power of Orders has different degrees which con. of their functions.the Power oi munication of grace and of supernatural life. and (2) the authoritative 33 it. which was instituted produce supernatural Faith.e. first enforcement of The CHAP. in the D . 1 i < i i belongs a corresponding share in the right and power to expound revealed doctrine. in Bishops alone are. the second to the I. The function of this power is to transmit the Grace of Christ." independent teachers and authentic witnesses in The subordinate members of the Hiertheir own right. belongs to the Power of Orders.] The Transmission of Revelation." Hence the witnesses of the Apostolate. in a " twofold sense. as being a com. simple Priests. are therefore also the instruments of the Holy Ghost in communicating the doctrine of Faith. Thus the Deacons are exclusively called to assist in the functions of the higher orders. and are mere auxiliaries. Power of in itself is not witnessing an act of jurisdiction. as will presently be shown.

and often with his positive co-operation. In general. with their actual co-extensive with doctrinal utterances. This last is the highest exercise of authoritative teaching. (3) judicial and legislative powers. especially is called the Power of Teaching. [BOOK I. . it implies that the holder represents Christ in a very special manner. ordinary sense of the word. n. in virtue of their consecration. that is. and therefore includes (i) the right of administration. entitling . but having for their principal function the juridical and legal definition and prescription of the Faith. the power of authoritative teaching implies complete jurisdiction over the domain of doctrine. Power of Jurisdiction. The act of imposing the commanding adhesion to it. too. is independent of their governing any flock. like the exercise of jurisdiction in the Sacrament of Penance. because it affects the innermost convictions of the mind it is eminently Divine . Enforcing juriXtfon*! Bishops. doctrine of Christ. not imposing submission to their doctrine. and may extend beyond the particular flock actually committed to their charge. and like this. i. The right of authoritative teaching has various degrees. but this does not of itself constitute them rulers of any particular portion of the Christian flock. are called to the government of the Church . which entitles the holder of it to use the external means neces- sary for the propagation of the doctrine. including the right of prescribing external acts relating to the Faith. and may be expressed in the same terms.34 -A Manual of Catholic Theology. other hand. or punish all external acts opposed to the propagation of the true doctrine . and is their jurisdiction. prevent. CHAP.e. the holder to forbid. of clearly appertains to the to that branch of it which This right is the result of. like their participation in the Power of Orders. especially to send out authorized missionaries (2) the right of superintendence. Their participation in the Apostolate is limited. act as the Bishop's assistants. and therefore does not give them the right to command submission to their 2. and supernatural. the right to act as authentic witnesses and as simple doctors. together with the right of punishing. On the participation in the government of the Church.

The Chief of the Episcopate. binding the parties in the suit. because a law requiring assent to a truth cannot be more restricted than truth itself. Power of Teaching. although the Bishops are pre-eminently witnesses and doctors and. 35 Simple Bishops. not the legislative power. In matters of Faith Bishops can. not make any laws for their respective dioceses. Power of Teaching. alone have the force of laws. a law of this kind must proceed from an infallible lawgiver. but as individuals they cannot make a dogma or law of Faith. The Pope's decisions. the Pope. arbiter in controversies of Faith. Organization of the Teaching Body. as Pastor of the entire flock. also judges of the Faith. It is not their business to give final decisions in controversies concerning the Faith. The difference between his power and theirs appears most strikingly in the legal force of their respective doctrinal decisions. " all Christians (Council of Florence). and. and hence complete and independent. alone possesses the universal and sovereign. judges empowered to decide whether a doctrine is in conformity with generally received dogma. has the distinctive attributes of supreme promulgator of doctrine. to which the Bishops themselves must submit. In short. universal judge in and " Father and Teacher of matters of Faith. On the basis of what has been laid down in the foregoing section. They are. we now proceed to treat of the organization . yet their Head. infallibility but of the Pope alone . or to solve the doubts still tolerated in the Church their ministry is not even indispensable for these purposes. moreover. and hence an imperfect and dependent. subject to the approbation of the Sovereign Pontiff. binding generally whereas those given by the Bishops have only the force of a judicial sentence. indeed.PART I. They wield the executive. and therefore Bishops can make merely provisional laws for their own dioceses.] The 7*ransmission of Revelation. Universality and are not the attributes of individual Bishops. placed over only a portion of the Christian flock. as Christ's chief judge upon earth. SECT. Organization of the Apostolate (continued]. ii. within certain limits. possess only a partial and subordinate.

The second object of the Apostolate is to produce To accomplish this. A Manual of Catholic Theology. and more espe. the Teaching Body is understood to consist only of at the highest members of the Hierarchy of Orders. who are the same time by Divine institution the ordinary of the Hierarchy of Jurisdiction. and lastly of its connection raiding pnnapes. in 3. to be authentic witnesses and teachers. the several members of which share. in the various It is powers and privileges of the Apostolate. the members Pope and the Bishops._th. viz. ii. with the body of the Faithful. this sovereign power is threematerial unity of the Teaching Body. As representatives of Christ. We shall treat first of the organization of the itself. whereas the lower members are only their auxiliaries. according to their rank. to preside over the whole organization. In them the fulness of the Apostolate resides. ever. this body embraces all the members of the Church Teaching who in any way co-operate in the attainment In a narrower sense. of the SECT. Holy Ghost are required. howof the ends of the Apostolate. Teaching Body then of its auxiliaries. they must be endowed with a doctrinal authority corresponding to their rank. consisting in the juridical union of the members with their Head. For this purpose a number 1.. I. 2. them of apostolic powers and privileges. supreme representative of Christ is required. Taken in a wide sense. paving the way for supernatural Faith. The first of consecrated jOj^an5__af. and to possess a universal and sovereign doctrinal power. one unity of Faith and doctrine.. The unity resulting from fold : virtue of which they have and hold their functions a . members of the Apostolate.36 CHAP. n.. The principles which determine the composition of ^j^ Teaching Body are the following : object to be attained by means of the Apostolate is the universal diffusion of Revelation. the allotment among . cially of the gift of infallibility. manifest that there exists for the purposes of the Apostolate a number of different organs adjusted together so as to form one well-ordered whole. [BOOK 1. and must have power to appoint auxiliaries and to superintend and direct the Faith of their subjects.

received the . and of their being so filled with the Holy Ghost that each of them possessed a complete and infallible knowledge of revealed doctrine while the external perfection was the gift of miracles. produced by authoritative definition. and therefore it was necessary that their testimony should be endowed with a special internal and external perfection. purely and simply a sovereign authority. and particularly in the original pro. Their superiority over their successors appears in the authenticity of the each of them taken individually. members. This was necessary in view of the objects they had to attain. unity of the Teaching Body is not that of a lifeless machine but of a living organism.PART I. The internal perfection arose from the fact of their being eye-witnesses and ear-witnesses of the whole Revelation. by which they were enabled to confirm the authenticity of their testimony. Each member is formed The to the likeness of the life to Head by God Himself. Who gives Head and members alike through the action of ^j_ the Holy Ghost. mulgation of Christian truth. the administrative power of their harmonic and external unity in the activity of the . in the power to teach conferred uponjdl of them and not restricted to the chief Apostle. the first witnesses of the doctrine of Christ they were not testimpny of authoritative only the channels but also the sources of the Faith of every age.] The Transmission of Revelation. II.JI. the Apostles were to give an efficient support to their Chief who was to be the permanent foundation of. Again. and lastly in the As they were personal infallibility of every one of them. Each of them therefore same authority to teach as their Chief. unity resulting from Head . 37 CJIAP. Christ Himself for the fundamental promulgation and propagation of the Gospel possessed the attributes of the Apostolate in an eminent degree. 4. their infallibility was a necessary consequence of the authenticity of their testimony and the assistance of the Holy Ghost. arising from the power of superintendence and formal and intrinsic unity of doctrine and Faith. although it was not And. lastly. the Church in the original establishment of the kingdom of God upon earth. The original members of the Apostolate chosen by The original organization.

: Church. nay. The Apostolate has still. The doctrinal and other Apostles .. . A Manual of Catholic Theology. it is and always has been the view held by the whole . TheEpis5 IV. its place. is invested the power of completing and perpetuating the Teaching Body by admitting into it new and duly authorized members. doctrinal matters. result. in other words. then. in whom these powers were these. It ought. Besides. This view of the eminent character of the Apostolatc as possessed by its original members is proved more by their conduct than by positive texts of Scripture. Episcopal Apostolate is a continuation of the primitive Apostolate. because otherwise universal Faith would testimony . wherefore their see is called emphatically the Apostolic See.. the same objects as it originally had. and yet at the same time must in some respects be different. The Popes thus represent the original apostolic power in an eminent degree. nature and organization be homogeneous with the original. . SECT. and consequently must still be ^primitive so constituted that it can give authentic and authoritative thes^r it must possess infallibility in Although ihis infallibility is no longer found in the individual members. nevertheless it can and ought to result from the unanimous testimony of the whole body. Another the conservation and object had now to be obtained consolidation of the apostolic doctrine in the Church. . the body of the ordinary members of the hierarchy established for the transmission of the grace and This truth of Christ and the government of the Church. it and must must also therefore in its be derived from the at their death.. on the whole.. n. universal heresy might take fact does.. i. TheEpiscopate" soon as the original and fundamental proof the Gospel was complete there was no longer mulgation any necessity for the extraordinary Apostolate.e. . personal and extraordinary powers of the Apostles ceased Their Head. ii. be impossible It can. The Sovereign_Ppntiffs are the bond that unites the Bishops among themselves and^connects them uninterruptedly with the primitive Apostolate. assis- and as a matter of because the .38 CHAP. [BOOK I. alone transmitted them to his successors. HI- As The place of the extraordinary Apostolate was taken by the Episcopate. In ordinary.

is Holy Ghost cannot be wanting to the Teaching & and the unanimous consent of all its a sure token that they reproduce the testimony Personal infallibility as a witness of the Spirit of truth. because the Holy Ghost. However. as the Apostles were. wise the unity of Faith might turn into a unity of heresy. immediately chosen by Christ. their testimony is infallible. the powers inherent in his office the other Bishops are appointed to a particular see by the Chief Bishop. not indeed from them but directly and immediately from Christ. but are selected by members of the Church. consider the authenticity of the testimony of the Bishops we must hold that the office of witness is conferred upon them directly by Christ in the sacrament of Orders their .PART I. The Bishops are not. he alone inherits the fulness of the Apostolate. a fortiori. V. teachers as well as taught. Nevertheless when he pronounces a sovereign judgment in matters of Revelation. but simply a strong preThe Sovereign Pontiff alone can pronounce sumption. and receive their jurisdiction from him. Besides. and which in case of error would lead the whole Church astray. binding upon all.] The Transmission of Revelation. taken apart from the testimony of their Head. Moreover. he He ought. xi. and in fact is infallible. cannot be claimed even by the Chief of the Episcopate any more than by the subordinate members. or rather the two forms of the Howthctwo Apostolate. . And. the Guide of all Christ's representatives. IL SECT. as indeed may be gathered from what has just been said. when the Head and the members of the Teaching Body are unanimous. He can be. 39 CHAP. must however have certain points of difference. if we . admission to the office by the Sovereign Pontiff is merely . The two Apostolates. because othercan and ought to be infallible. and then only in that exercise of it which enforces the unity of Faith in the whole Church. cannot abandon is the highest representative precisely in that very act which the most essential expression of His assistance. In the case of the Chief Bishop the person is designated by the members and then receives. the testimony of even all the Bishops would not constitute an obligatory doctrinal definition. tance of the Body members as a whole. such a definition by reason of his universal jurisdiction.

and of conferring upon them the credentials required for their different functions. The infallibility of the Church assumes a twofold form. though far below that of the Bishops. and (2) auxiliaries of the Chief The Teaching Body quently has the Bishop. [BOOK l. support and strengthen each other mutually. entire He The bestows it on the of the . He gives infallibility to the governing Chief: as Life-giver. Head and members. by means of the sacraledge ment of Holy Orders. corresponding with the twofold action of the Holy Ghost as Lord and Life-giver. ii. viii. priests auxiliaries of the Episcopate are the They receive their orders arid their jurisdiction from the Bishops. These auxiliary members may be divided into two classes: (i) auxiliaries of the Bishops. The auxine I. Body. 12. to deliver the being led astray no decision has SECT. and also required to universal Head mass of the Faithful from the danger of by their ordinary teachers in cases where been given by the Holy See.4O CHAP. a share in the teaching office of . The is a living organism. and consepower of producing auxiliary members to assist in its work. The two forms. of doctrine. They gather their knowledge from intermediate witnesses or from the written documents. They are the official executive organs of the Bishops. and prove the Apostolate to be a masterpiece of that Divine Wisdom "which reacheth from end to end mightily and disposeth all things sweetly" (Wisd. As Lord. and they receive. and hold an inferior rank in Hierarchy. SECT. Their position as regards the office of teaching. Nevertheless they are not eye and ear witnesses of what they teach. i). . Organization of the Apostolate (continued) Auxiliary Members of the Teaching Body. and do not possess indi- vidually the gift of infallibility. is infallibility produce unity of Faith the infallibility of the Body is required to prevent a disastrous conflict between the Body and its Head. 12. The ordinary and deacons. moreover. A Manual of Catholic Theology. is neverthe theless important. their missionaries and heralds for the They have a special knowpromulgation of doctrine. a condition required for its lawful exercise.

II. were not private. gous to that of the Episcopate. under sonal qualifications. The Chief of the Episcopate. inasmuch as by their ordination they obtain a share in the assistance of the Spirit of Truth promised to consent of the heralds . has the power of sending Missionaries into regions beyond the bounds of the existing dioceses. influence exercised When we remember the immense by the uniform teaching of the clergy over the unity of Faith. When and where necessary. not. or state. because their authors had no jurisdiction . which may. and invest them with a teaching authority analoself. we may fairly say that they participate in the infallibility of the Episcopate both extrinsically and intrinsically all : extrinsically. the Bishops have the power of erecting Schools or Seminaries for the religious or higher The theological education of a portion of their flocks. the Church. 41 the Bishops. These decisions. - and dignity. indeed. for example.I. together with the power of perpetuating themselves by the creation of doctors and professors. if possible. He can make all these persons and corporations comparatively independent of the Bishops. They derived their mission from the Popes. to receive direction from them. The Universities of the Middle Ages. even within the dioceses. Rdfgious and can also establish. and in the doctrinal influence of the Holy CHAP. in virtue of his universal teaching authority. vary with their perMoreover the Bishops should. professors in these institutions are auxiliaries of the Bishops. consult them in matters of doctrine. subject immediately to himHe can also found Universities for the more profound and scientific study of Revelation. and the power of passing judgment on matters of doctrine. but they possessed a value superior to that of many epis- . in still closer union with the Teaching The pope's Mission""' Apostolate than the clergy engaged in the ministry. Religious uLiverMtiei Orders as his own auxiliaries. or even episcopal institutions. however. n E 12 fl_ Hence their teaching possesses a peculiar value Ghost.] The Transmission of Revelation. but in order to obtain information. and are. because the universal is an external sign that they and reproduce the exact message of the Holy Ghost intrinsically. however. did not carry with them any binding force. certain circumstances.

n) were given to the Apostles as Evangelists" (Eph. even in this case. the Pope. Extraordinary Auxiliaries. however. All these auxiliaries. But. in. . auxiliaries of the Episcopate.. exempt from the universal law that within the Church no teaching is of value unless approved by the lawful authority. in Apostolic times.. but their decisions acquire force of law only when confirmed by the Head of the Apostolate. [BOOK I. diffusion and acceptance of their doctrine. e.42 A Manual of Catholic Theology. ' clergy. nor do they possess independent authority they are merely the extraordinary supports of the ordinary Teaching Body. with authoritative teaching power. whose auxiliaries they are. however. for instance. . The func- tion of these auxiliaries must. The former are not the organs of new revelations. They rity as guides for all the members of the Church. as. like those above mentioned. It is evident that the importance of the Universities as representatives of the teaching of the Church depends upon their submission to the Apostolate.g. In succeeding the Fathers and great Doctors have been of much use ages to the ordinary members of the Apostolate by helping to a better them knowledge of revealed truth. then. extraordinary auxiliaries. as it is evident that Pope and the Bishops approve of the doctrine of these burning and shining lights. In so far. Prophets and iv. are assisted by the Holy Ghost. tive Further. not indeed for the purpose of enlightening the Apostles themselves. the Cardinals and the Roman Congregations. and influence of their members.1 c power. they are only by side with it Abbots exempt from episcopal jurisdiction (Abbates nullius) and the generals of Religious Orders. in the exercise of his administra. r . such doctrine is to be considered as an infallible testimony coming from the " Thus. can invest individual members of the inferior . either for a time or permanently. or acting as delegates of the sovereign teaching power of the Popes. are not.. and also upon the number. the personal qualifications. CHAP. individual Auxiliaries. existing side . copal decisions. be carefully dis- tinguished from those of the Prophets of the Old Testament.. From time to time the Holy Ghost raises certain J persons to an extraordinary degree of supernatural knowTheir peculiar position gives them a special autholedge. n.. but to facilitate the Holy Ghost. .

: in authoritative pro- being only an echo of the former. The Teaching Apostolate. The union between them is not but is like the mutual union of the members mechanical. indeed a great matter and ever to be borne in mind CHAP. what ail believe must infallibly be true. . From this we infer that the teachers and their hearers com- complete organism. . and. both teachers and taught. that all Catholics should know that they should receive the doctors with the Church. being the result of the action of the Holy Ghost. SECT." Vine. therefore. in which the teachers figure as the principal members. and must represent the and The latter form. Union Teachers an I. The private form reacts upon the public proposition and confirms it. . The doctrine of Christ position is manifested in two ways in private belief. we must bear in mind that infallibility and the other attributes granted to the Teaching Apostolate are intended only as means to secure an unerring Faith in the entire community. the head and the heart that they constitute a homogeneous organism. and that the supernatural Faith of is all the result of the influence of the the members. and pose one indivisible. They are an organism living supernaturally. 17. and. To obtain a correct idea of the relations between the two parts. The Faith of the whole Church cannot be wrong.] The Transmission of Revelation. because the belief of the Faithful is a testimony to and confirmation of the doctrines taught. 13. becomes in its turn a kind of testimony of doctrine. not that they should quit the faith of the Church with the doctors (' se cum Ecclesia doctores recipere. Holy Ghost. 43 n. Common. with its auxiliaries on the one hand and the body of believers on the other. together constitute the Church. because the Holy Ghost infuses into all the members the life of Faith by external teaching and internal grace. Organization of the Apostolate (continued*} Organic Union between the Teaching Body and the Body of the Faithful. non cum doctoribus Ecclesia^ fidem deserere debere '). of a living organism. moreover.TAUT " . It is . I. n. This union between teachers and taught likewise leads us to further consequences. of Lerins. because the teachers are at the same time believers.

be seen especially in the Body of the Faithful. and have made the universality and uniformity of the belief of the Faithful the chief motive of This theory. Moreover. [BOOK L tolate. its Chief. A Manual of Catholic Theology. and guidance. order to give to the infallibility of the Church as broad a basis as possible. in connection with the universal belief. or from the materialistic conception of alive. is naturalistic. or at least could not last for any length of time.e. " Life belongs only to the body. uniformity and universality could never be brought about. in its Martyrs and Confessors. and is to the teaching of Scripture. or i. and therefore the Hierarchy is not infallible. authority in by God the materialistic view." authority result according to the formula: "Authority is the and sum-total of the power of the members taken individually. but the head and heart are not the body. SECT. H. but the Faith of the Apostolate or of its pression of the Faith of the whole Church." not in the same his way as a member in of parlia- ment represents constituents. therefore the head and heart are not This false notion originated either from a combetween the Hierarchy and the parliaments of conparison stitutional States." i.44 CHAP. however.e. and these manifestations constitute." We might just as well say. . life. the external manifestations of the Holy Ghost Explanation Theo'io^cai expressions. This notion of the organic character of the Church will enable us to understand many expressions met with may the church Teaching and the " Church ogy) " " " or the " Mission and Authority Hearing Learning of the Church. the " Teaching Apostolate. " Infallibility belongs only to the Church. 13. the sense that Chief is a true ex- It has lately been said. of the Teaching Apostolate and the assistance of the Holy Ghost. doctrine of Christ as well as do the teachings of the ADOSNay. some well-meaning persons have adopted But. it is inopposed for without the independent authority trinsically weak. ii. a powerful motive of credibility. credibility." is a principle implanted in society In order to give it unity. but the Hierarchy is not the Church. of the members of the Hierarchy in Theo i ^ " . just as the total force of a material body is the result and sum-total of the energies of its parts. represents the Church. . in truth.

expressed in the doctrine of the Church.PART I. Organization of the Apostolate (concluded] External and Internal Indefectibility of Doctrine and Faith in the Church I. on the part of the public teaching authority. II. habitually . Infallibility means merely that what the Church teaches cannot be false. On the other hand. and that the The whereas the perfection of the former requires that all the parts of revealed doctrine should be actually. inability to lead astray . whereas a single failure. 14. Again. but the authority of the Head does not die with him it is transmitted to his successor. be drawn bility of the Church. indefectiinfallibility Intimately connected with the infallibility of the Church is her Indefectibility. The Indefectibility of the Teaching Body is at the same time a condition and a consequence of the IndefectiA distinction must. whereas the notion of Indefectibility implies that the essentials of Revelation are at all times " actually preached in the essentials are proposed. . Recapitulation. In the Teaching Body it is Active in the Body Infallibility. when not exercising it (extra judicium). however. between the Indefectibility of the Head and the IndefectiThe individual who bility of the subordinate members. 45 CHAP. on a single point of doctrine. the Teaching Body as a whole could not die or fail without irreparably destroying the continuity of authentic testimony. however. Church that nonand are held . incapability of being led astray. admits of degrees. living Faith never fails. The attribute of infallibility belonging to the entire community of the Faithful manifests itself differently in its different parts. that is. SECT. a differ- ence between the two. The perfection of the latter requires merely that no doctrine proposed for belief should be false. bility.] The Transmission of Revelation. for a bility single day. at least implicitly. There is. n Taught it is Passive Infallibility that is. the Pope's authority would not be injured if. is Indef< cti . he professed a false doctrine. whereas the authenticity of . inner. and at all Indefectitimes. would utterly destroy Infalli- th * TiacWn the Head may die. of truth in the Church is less limited Indefectibility than the Infallibility.

teaching function bound up with the two fundamental powers of the Hierarchy. universally wrong. supposes that its internal Faith. ^e indefecti- e pi sc P a l testimony would be destroyed if under any circumstances the whole body fell into heresy. may fail but it is impossible for the Faith to fail in the whole mass. a-s. i nc] e fect ibility of the Church. of course. it Faithful. even of the Pope and the Bishops. "at sundry times and in divers manners" (Heb. is it does not err universally in on the part of the Body of the Lastly. and " the fulness of Him Who is filled all in all (Eph. the part of the Teaching Body as a whole. Just as God spoke to our fathers through the Prophets before the coming of Christ. that by means of his legislative and judicial power the law of Faith should be always infallibly proposed . at the same time upholding and strengthening the action of individuals by means of the reciprocal action and reaction of the different organs. 23). and act interior Faith of individual . and react on each other. [BOOK I. and brings about unity and universality of Faith. in divers now does manners . The members. It transmits and enforces Revelation. fulfils the requirements and attains all the purposes for which was instituted. with the members acting in perfect harmony. It is all it a highly developed organism. The two stand to each as cause and effect. i). HI. The whole doctrine of the Organization of the TeachThe ing Apostolate may be summarized as follows. Orders and Jurisdiction. his own On which. and whereby He gives manifold testimony to revealed truth. and also that the external profession should never be Summary. but this does not require the infallibility and indefectibility of interior Faith and of his extrajudicial utterances. i. directly and absolutely required that their inner Faith (sensus et virtus fidei] should never fail entirely. i. The Indefectibility of the Faith in individual F^'th m members is closely connected with the external and social individ. wherein the Holy Ghost operates.46 1" A Manual of Catholic Theology. The Infallibility and Indefectibility of the Church and of the Faith require on the part of the Head. there is directly required merely that it should not fail collectively. so Jesus Christ speak to us at sundry times and " in the Church which is His body.

which. down from transmission and the teaching of Revelation are one and the same act under two different aspects. author(sess. and it cannot be transmitted without being announced in some form or other. Gradual Progress Apostolic 47 CHAP. and it authoritatively imit act contains a twofold Faith in that dogma. some dogma : for instance. and consequently do* the doctrine announced by them at any given time is a continuation and a development of the doctrine originally revealed. as they would be if Revelation was handed down only by means of a written document. Thus transmission and publication are not two acts of a distinct nature. Apostles. however. in their turn taught and still teach the doctrine received from the o Apostles. The office-holders in the Teaching Apostolate form continuity evela one unbroken chain. announced what He had heard from the Father the Apostles. and thus Revelation has been handed generation to generation without a single break. have reached us from the Apostles. lation in the Transmission of ReveDeposit : Ecclesiastical Tradition : SE f|: 15- Rule of Faith. The Council of Trent tells us that Traditions. who hand down Revelation to the lawful We must. the immediate envoys of Christ. the inheritors of the apostolic mission. handed down as it were by hand. either in teaching or in professing belief. in When. 15. bears authentic witness to the existence of the in the Apostolic Deposit. it is also transmitted. derived from God.PART Lj The Transmission of Revelation. II. . witnesses to the existence of certain ." and it speaks of " Traditions The preserved by continual succession in the Catholic Church" The transmission is the work of living. really Whenever the Word of God is announced. mission. distinguish between and the authority of the act of transthe authenticity heirs of their office. or on merely historical evidence. The authentic testimony belongs to the whole Church. and is invested with the same Divine character Jesus Christ. SECT. iv). ized officials. preached what they had heard from Christ and the Holy Ghost the successors of the " . I. " dictated by the Holy Ghost. a council this makes the belief element dogma poses obligatory. the immediate Envoy of His Father.

The Apostolic Deposit comprises. Three phases. Apo--toiic Deposit." We shall therefore use the in the latter sense. not a mere reproduction of the Apostolic teaching. transmitted to the Church by an is authoritative act of the Apostolate. This first stage is called Apostolic Tradition. an original and authentic document of Revelation. 15 ' whereas the power of imposing the obligation of governing body and its Head. . like the Old Testament. irapaB{)Ki]v). A Manual of Catholic Theology. " New By of desynonymization. and the term Tradition to the oral teaching." but only of Faith handed truths. the ment. as we shall see. may be observed in the development and gradual progress of the transmission of revealed doctrine (i) The Apostles confiding the Deposit of Revelation to the Church with the obligation to continue its promulgation (2) The transmission of Revelation in and by means of the Church and (3) The enforcement of belief by the Rule of Faith imposed by the Chiefs of the ' : .. "fll ii. The Apostles were the original depositaries of Chrisan Reve i at 011) as we n as it s first heralds. belief resides only in the down by term authentic witnesses. Three phase* II. 20. the term Deposit has become re" " stricted to the written Deposit. " does not express any notion But the word " Tradition " " of Faith made obligatory. " Testaa process . "Keep that which is committed to thy trust" - t j All subsequent knowledge of drawn from the Apostolic Deposit.48 CHAP. Apostolate. which is consequently said to be the Source or Fount of Faith. the latter expression being derived from i Tim. They handed over to their successors the truths which they possessed. transmission and imposition usually go together. the Old Testament. The Apostolic Deposit was transmitted in a twofold form by word of mouth and by writing.. i. although. together with the powers corresponding to their mission. or Apostolic Deposit. Both Testaments were. and the oral teaching of the Apostles. more or less divided by time. and therefore it is. therefore. although composed by the Apostles or their disciples. It was written at God's command by men under His inspiration. vi. Revelation is : ment. as a matter of fact. The New Testa(depositum. still alike in their nature. [BOOK r. but evi t"o.

and maintain at all times and in behalf of the whole Church the teaching of the Apostles and of the Church in former ages to impose and to enforce it as a doctrinal law binding upon all and to give authoritative decisions on .. . and legislators. . . and thus by practising the obedience of Faith to prove themselves living members of the one kingdom of Divine truth. are Rule of Faith. with it as the Apostles themselves would if they were still hold . witnesses. the Church acts as regulator of the Faith. and these doctrinal laws. i It is the its integrity. All the me. and stands in the living Active Tradition is now analogous to that occupied Rule of by the 3. public and private. The heirs of the Apostles have the right and duty to prescribe..mbers of the Church are bound to submit their judgment in matters of Faith to " " this rule. and as a written Tradition its position with regard to the tion. and judges of different rank. Holy Scriptures.PART 2. SECT. same relation to the Holy Scriptures In the course of the Apostles stood. But in the Church the judges are at the same time witnesses. administrators.. . Thus we see that the Divine economy for preserving and enforcing Christian truth in the Church possesses in an eminent degree all the aids and guarantees which are made use of in civil society for the safe custody and interpretation of legal documents. m and to transmit the CHAP. statical This action of the Church is called Active Tradithe doctrines themselves are called Objective Tradition " The term " Ecclesiastical Tradition is sometimes tion. promulgate. or denied. In this capacity points obscure. Church's office to 49 IL 15. In both there are documents of various kinds. as the oral teaching of time this Tradition has also been committed to writing.] The Transmission of Revelation. and to deal entire Deposit. In the Protestant theory there are written documents and nothing more. used in a narrow sense for the unwritten truths of Revelaliving. . controverted. called the together with the act of imposing them. But the Church has a further office. written and oral. I.

chap. and have God for their Author. 16. which was not contested Both Councils. CHAP. iv. SKCT. The Sacred and Canonical Books. in opposition to the early Protestants. 16. have been conSECT. [BOOK I. and that it must be understood and explained according to the mind and the tradition of the Church. iii. sidered in recent times Scripture are sacred and canonical because they are the Written Word of God. Holy Scripture the Written Word of God." i. . God the Author of Scripture.e. I. " i i -r-> by writers tinged with rationalistic Protestantism. the equal value of Oral and Written Tradition.50 A Manual of Catholic Theology. however. CHAPTER III. as being documents of Revelation merely because the Church has acknowledged them to be historically trustworthy records of revealed truth. This.) and the Vatican Council (sess. the controversial importance of which was rather overrated than otherwise by the Protestants. 2). in. declared that the Written Deposit was only one of the sources of theological knowledge. THE doctrine concerning the Sources of Revelation was formally defined by the Council of Trent (sess. at the time of the earlier Council. the Council had only to define their extent and to fix upon an authentic text. But the Vatican Council had to assert the Divine character of Scripture.. At Trent the principal object was to assert. As regards Holy Scriptures. THE APOSTOLIC DEPOSIT OF REVELATION. The books of Holy is by no means the Catholic doctrine. however. the definitive 11 r i collection or the authentic documents of Revelation preserved and promulgated by the Church.

proved by her authority nor simply because they contain Revelation without any error but because. pro Jacobitis}. iii. since the the books both of the one God is the author by the councils is likewise Christ and His Apostles taught Holy Scripture when quoting the Old Testament clearly imply that God " is the author. and as such have been handed down to the Church. The Holy Synod receiveth and venerateth all with like devotion and reverence Old and of both. but the holy is made by came not by the men of God spoke . prophecy of Scripture private for prophecy interpretation will of man at any time. Who enlightened their minds and moved their wills. i. 43). times instead of "the Scripture saith" we find " God saith. " [The Holy Roman Church] professeth that one and the same God is the author of the Old and the New Testaments. : Florence. and to a certain extent directed them as an author directs his secretary. passim). in the Holy Ghost" (Mark xii. * J J SECT." And even before the Council of Trent the Council of Florence had said. when it " says. The Scripture must needs be fulfilled which the Holy Ghost spoke before by the mouth (Sm "David himself saith <TTo/mroc) of David" (Acts 16). To this " the Vatican Council adds The Church doth hold these for sacred and canonical.. Somedoctrine defined in itself. St. being written under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost." the Holy Ghost " : No . The Scripture. 1. Paul distinctly declares that all Scripture is breathed Trao-a ypa^rj OtoirvevaTog (2 Tim. 36 Matt. ." where it is the sacred writer who is speaking (Heb. because the holy men of both Testaments spoke under the inspiration of the same Holy Ghost" (Decret. after being [books] composed by merely human industry." 2. New Testament. The Council of Trent had declared that the whole of the books of the Old and New Testaments with all their parts were to be held as sacred and canonical. Again. 5 1 human whom in they are ascribed being merely CHAP.PART L] the The Apostolic Deposit of writers to Revelation. xxii. the instruments of the Holy Ghost. Peter also speaks of the Prophets as instruments in the hands of by God. " St. they have God for their author. they were then ap: Council of Vatican. the Council of Trent takes the Divine origin of Scriptures for granted . 16. not because. 1 6).

TOV ayiov (Clem. Damasus) says that the Scriptures were St. n. Manual of This Catholic Theology. 6 Mich. inspired (2 Pet. Divine authorship of Scripture.52 HAP. n. Gelasius (or. the Holy Ghost. nn. in. Rom. Hares.Adv. seeing that we know that they were written under the active influence of the Holy Ghost (EK rfje TOV Hvfv/naroQ 07/01* tvep-yaac).. iii.. M. 28. i Kings x. iv. i. xi. : fiaToc.. Augustine then by Himself and afterwards by the Apostles. in Ps. Further.<r<c Tlvtv- "What to Almighty God . The Scriptures were spoken by the Word and His Spirit" (lrer\." is Scripture but a sort of letter from His creature ?". by the Holy Ghost. Study therefore. De Princ.) says that it does not matter who was the human writer of the Psalms. composed " also the Scripture which is styled canonical {De Civit. too. 8). ii. ep." " the Divine Oracles. last text... says that " written by the Holy Ghost (Pr&f. 4. phrases by which they expressed their belief in " The Apostle moved by that Spirit by Whom " the whole of Scripture was composed (Tertull." The Fathers frequently call the Bible " an epistle from God. 31). 20." The Lord of Heaven hath sent thee His letters for thy life's sake." " the (a) " " are the Scriptures of God. in the name and under the influence God (cf. Hence the manner " of quoting them " The Holy Ghost saith in the Psalms : . lib. : composed "by the action of God. virb [BOOK I. ad Cor. " the Scriptures were Dei. according to Thiel.of a Prophet. A i.. and says of Theodore of Mopsuestia that he rejects the book of Job. rivsv^aroc ayj'ov it is true. but it refers also to the whole of the teaching. Theodoret (Prcef.. " the true words of the Holy Ghost TO? aXnOtig /o?'. from the very earliest days taught the 3." And " God having first spoken by the Prophets." the Scriptures of the Lord usual Inspiration. . I pray thee. cap.. and meditate daily upon the words of thy Creator" (Greg. 2). " in his rage against its author. 21). lib. 3). the " Scriptures are words spoken by God Study the Scriptures. " The Divine Scriptures. applies primarily to prophecies strictly so called (foretelling events to come). De Or. Origen. The Fathers . . 8). because he speaks of The Fathers. " 45). Hence calls the the Fifth General Council (the second of Constantinople) Holy Ghost purely and simply the author of Holy Writ. 22)..

"[Christ] by the human nature which He took upon Himself is the Head of all His disciples. De Civit. 41). God spoke to them or writers] through them (Aug. who arc.. Justin compares the human writer to a lyre played upon by God through the action of the Ghost (Cohort. 8).. praef. Whatever He wished us to read concerningo His words and works He ordered them. When therefore we learn something. the secretary. as it were. is He therefore Who dictated it the writer . for His members have done what they learnt from the orders of their Head. Holy (c) From this dependence of the human writer on the Holy Ghost.] The Apostolic Deposit of Revelation. ad Grcecos. in and such great peoples believed that when [the sacred were writing these books. We who extend the perfect truthfulness of the Holy Ghost to the smallest lines and letters (i^utic SE ot KCU ^ut'x/ 04 r *ie . the members of His body. since the Holy Ghost is rightly believed to be the author of the book. Not without reason have so many CHAP. xviii. the Fathers infer the absolute truth and wisdom " of every.). In Job. i. receive a letter from it some great man. 35). Hence when they wrote what He manifested and spoke. and When we know from whom comes and what it means.. n. even the minutest. 1. and know that the Holy Ghost is its author. De " It is quite useless to inquire who Cons. will receive the Gospel narrative as though he the very saw the hand of the Lord writing. as it were. The latter is. any inquiry " about the writer is like asking about the pen (Greg. wrote this.. to write down.PABT I. De Zelo. it is folly for us to ask what pen he wrote it with. c. we must by no means say that it was not He Who wrote. 8).. M. or the pen " employed by God analogies which are set forth in the following well-known passages. His hands. or the hand. detail of Scripture. Dei. hand which belonged to His own body " (Aug. The Fathers also determine the relation between the (bi] Divine author of Scripture and the human writer. And St. " 53 (Cypr. He work and Who was the Inspirer of the made use of the voice of the [human] writer is the writer Who to transmit to us His deeds for our imitation. Any one who rightly understands this union and this ministry of members performing in harmony their various functions under one head. Evang. n..

or that the translator has not caught what was said. 3). when different writers is distinctly opposed to it. or that my understanding Summary of doctrineof is at fault" (Ep. of it is not enough Holy Scripture. such ." first instance from God's intention to express in writing . as is granted to the Teaching Apostolate. [al.] n. a positive The sacred writers themselves required. yet. and if I should meet with anything in them which seems to be opposed to the truth. this reverOrat. And tine is : ence and honour. 19. [BOOK I. preserving from error. Inspiration in itself is "the action of God upon a human writer. prethe Divine authorship venting error from creeping in implies a positive and interior influence upon the writer.. it is not enough that the Sacred Books should have been written under the merely negative influence and the merely external assistance of God. 105). which is expressed by the dogmatic term Inspiration. Kf / the following passage of St. II. ad Hieron. they expressly state that they have made use of their own industry . ii. not to doubt but that either the codex is incorrect. a a Kc" 7/oa^ft7C row IlveujUaToc TTJV aKpifleiav fXicovreg) do not and dare not grant that even the smallest things are " asserted by the writers without a meaning (Greg. certain truths through the instrumentality of human agents. whereby God moves and enables the writer to serve as an instrument for communicating. n. to believe most firmly that no author of them made any mistake. on the dictation by word of mouth is not make no mention . Although a negative assistance.. God must in some way speak to him nevertheless. To carry out this intention God moves the writer's will to . nay. the Divine thoughts. The That God may be the author of Scripture in a physical sense.. for the physical authorship of other hand. viz. something previously unknown to the writer has to be written down by him. and that Scripture may be the Word of God as issuing from Him. Catholic Church expressly teaches that God is the author of the Holy Scriptures in a physical sense.. Naz. Augus " I acknowledge to especially worthy of notice that I have learnt to pay only to those books your charity of Scripture which are already called canonical.54 1" ^ '' Manual of Catholic Theology. and the diversity of style of the Of course. in Inspiration arises in the writing. Ixxxii.

K Hi them to his mind and assists him to the right understanding and faithful expression of them. own i. This would exclude any human The formula was originally directed against the Manichaeans. Just as . in. is is not mere history or mere Further ex nevertheless has to do with history. Deus. 2. FIvEt^uaToe St. that Moses wrote the Pentateuch. we must not take this in the same sense as is when it is said that Milton the author of Paradise Lost.. and at the same time suggests CHAP. Scriptuiae partes coangustare. When it is said that God is the Author of the Sacred Books. It has a Though purpose. 3. literature. Thorn. Encl. that when God employs natural instruments for a supernatural purpose." (Leo XIII. ture.g. He does not destroy their natural powers. authorship. soul is 1 On the other hand. The Church has never decided the question of the human authorship of any of the Books. what after the fashion of the soul and the body.] The Apostolic Deposit of Revelation. the action of portions of Scripture. but adapts them The to His III. 174. are plainly opposed to it (cf. or 1 " Nefas omnino fuerit inspirationem ad aliquas tantum S. 2a 2*.PART J. The assistance has been reduced by some theologians to a mere surveillance or watching over the writer but the stress laid by the Fathers on the instrumental character of the writers in relation to . diversity of style in the different books is accounted for by the general law. so too the action of the Holy Ghost is present in every part of Scrip- But the Schoolmen went on to say that though the whole and entire in every part of the body. God. the Bible it as well as a Divine element and how books are human and how far Divine is the great The two elements are united someScripture problem. There may be a strong opinion. a. 55 1 write down these truths. VTTO rou aytou ^tjoojutvot. it does not exercise all its powers in each and every part.. who held that the Evil Spirit was the author of the Old Testament. 2). human element far the the soul is present in every part of the body. the Holy Ghost is not necessarily the same throughout.) . e. q. but some powers in some parts and other powers in other Hence we must not restrict Inspiration to certain parts. Prov. and it literature in the highest sense of the word. and the Scriptural expression.

that the whole of the prophet of that 4. conceclere sacrum ipsum auctorem errasse. Jerome says (In Jerem. all-embracing knowledge of the 1 Who inspired "Nefas omnino fuerit . Hist. et St." as well as the New. He must adapt Himself to the circumIf He acted otherstances of those whom He addresses. xxviii. SECT. ii.56 CH<VP. Book name but no of Isaias was written by the definition has ever been given. and the Scripture the soul II. a.T. As St.. make use of a story. Thomas (i. and form together one general source of theological knowledge. cannot admit that the Sacred Author Himself has been guilty of error. however. Both are of equal excellence. conveyed by the words. 17. sequutus est quae sensibiliter apparent.T. and conveyed by the letter The Spiritual Sense has its foundation in the Holy Ghost. also called Typical. 70. . Holy Scripture as a Source of Theological Knowledge. id. There are two fundamentally distinct senses in Holy the Literal. Hist. T. The former is that inhuman writer. 112.) * See Lagrange. Catholic Theology. . . 1 He may. Who spake by the Prophets. i) rei veritas " And : Moyses autem rudi populo a condescendens. conveyed by the things expressed by the words. Hist. The Old Testament is not a mere history of Revelation. . Proph. " : Multa illius in Scripturis Sanctis dicuntur secundum opinionem temporis quo gesta continebat. (Leo XIII. It contains a fuller exposition of many points of Faith and morals than the New it is as it were the body of which the New Testament . wise.. The Old Testament is inspired by the Holy " Ghost." p. The excel- I. Criticism and the O. . being the work of God Himself." non juxta quod q. Holy Scripture. the two pervade and complete each other. Again. _j_*7- A We Manual of . is The various Skri^tTre. sect. He would fail to be understood. [BOOK I. see Franzelin. du Canon dn N. whence it is tended by the of the text." 5. du Canon de V A. : : Spiritual. in. far Ho'iy surpasses in value and excellence any human account of Revelation. On the Catholic canon of Scripture. Loisy. for the purpose of teaching some dogmatic principle or pointing some moral lesson.) referuntur. not necessarily history. De Script .

is xxiv. Such explanations are often insufficient . but usually only one Literal Sense. From these different senses of Holy is that a text A regarded as belonging to the Mediate Sense. or purely spiritual. however. and Ecclus. however the language is figurative. although in purely human writings such interpretations would appear to be distortions.e. p relations them. a significance g. a confirmation. These relations are the basis of the Spiritual Sense of Scripture. if An historical fact. The Literav Sense affords the most obvious proof. provided that the relation between the type and the thing revealed contained typified be either directly stated in the Literal Sense or in it as an evident consequence. and from the words themselves. in they were of an institution. in some circumstances. and not directly expressed by the Holy Ghost The Spiritual Sense likewise offers a cogent argument. as applied to the Blessed Virgin. Indirectly. Thus. We derive our knowledge of them from the things expressed by the words. text may have several spiritual or mediate meanings. the meaning of the figure must be ascertained before an argument can be drawn from it. viii. i. or logically inferred from the literal.PABT I.m i beyond that which they would convey merely human precept. but to the Scripture it follows A text eis ca P a A 11 r All of many inter capable of many interpretations. Where. as being foreseen by the Holy Ghost. 57 the writer. but in dignity it is inferior because only intended. Familiar instances are the passages Prov. may origin. to us the spiritual sense is mediate. or an illustration. as a type. whether literal.] The Apostolic Deposit of Revelation. a writer. demonstrative argument that a certain doctrine A can be obtained from any sense demonstrably intended by the Holy Ghost. Many applications of the Sacred Text commonly adopted by the Church may be ' ' Holy Ghost it is immediate. The Inferential Sense is equal in demonstrative force to the Literal Sense. the Spiritual Sense acquires demonstrative force from explanations given in Scripture itself or handed down by Apostolical Tradition. stand isolated the mind of the whereas in the mind of God it may be related to other facts and truths. Sentences and even single words written under c Divine direction have. must be based upon the Literal Sense.

where arguments in favour of many Catholic doctrines are drawn from the typical signification of various miracles. and attains results beyond the reach of the latter. tells us that God has a Son. the The Mirror. the theological knowledge of generation is the only basis of an accurate inter. of nature we have a faithful though imperfect image of God's Wisdom. mean that it is the only source.5& C HAP. [BOOK I. See Wiseman's Essays : Miracles of the New Testament. does not position as a source of Faith. A Manual of Catholic Theology. combination and comparison of these expressions are of great help towards understanding the Eternal Generation of the Son and. for instance. pretation of these expressions. sages The careful study and comparison of different pasof Holy Scripture throws great light on the dogmatic . arbitrary. whereby we gather from the Sacred Text pious considerations and suggestions. the Image (Figure). SECT. not necessarily intended by the Holy Ghost in the precise form which they take in the reader's mind. teaching of the Church and. taken together. and yet not wholly Dogmaand III. the Wisdom of His Father. Scripture. destined to kindle in our minds a manifold knowledge of the supernatural world. 1 8. but in the Inspired Books the defects are remedied. which. This purpose is attained by that sense and interpretation of Holy Writ. is quite in keeping with the former. to determine the Spiritual Sense with complete certainty. or even a source acces- We . however. and give us only probabilities. and a more perfect representation is set before us. and that this Son is the Word. have seen that Holy Scripture holds a very high This. But the constant practice of the Church has made it serve another purpose. in. Theological Exegesis far surpasses mere philological criticism. The False and Self-contradictory Position of Holy Scripture in the Protestant System. on the other hand. The certain principal object of Holy Scripture is to give us knowledge of Revelation. In the book however. a sound knowledge of this teaching gives us a deeper insight into the Written Word. form a strong argument. Sometimes a number of them. on the other hand.

down by Oral Tradition withstanding the excellence of its being a written document of considerable dimensions. That it Holy Scripture rule may The PTOfaisn. it should embrace the entire sphere of revealed truth formally perfect. the whole Bible. all 59 Indeed. that is. or by its own natural light and inclination. it should not need to be is is Apostolic Deposit. to remove these difficulties. .PART sible I. CHAP. or even " to Confessions of Faith and Formularies. in. without the intervention of some living authority. some of the very circumstances which constitute the excellence of the Bible its only. and consequently that not the only source of Faith. in 21 that Oral Tradition is a substantial part of the prove not the only be seen from the following considerations. that is. and nothing but the We shall Bible. otherwise the object of Revelation would be frustrated. They usually admit more or less explicitly some other rule of Faith for instance.] The Apostolic Deposit of Revelation. The result has been that the Bible has become the sport of innumerable sectaries and the source of endless divisions. is but a dead in systematic arrangement. lastly. The Rule of Faith should be materially complete. Practically. we should never be able to prove that Scripture is a source of Faith at all. the mischief has been to a great extent prevented by the submission of the people to the guidance of others. Protestants reject the Teaching Apostolate. notcontents. the mind of the reader guided by a private supernatural revelation. and exposed to many false Some means must be provided by God interpretations. And. that is. however. is the sole Source and Rule of Faith." though the latter have no recognized authority. often obscure letter. the Bible. always and everywhere. full of deep and difficult matter expressed in the metaphorical language of the East make it unfit for the general use of the people Protestants cannot help feeling the force of these arguments. a number of revealed truths handed : Moreover. as we shall see. Nevertheless. appliNone of these cable to all men. characteristics can be affirmed of Holy Scripture. theory : supplemented by any other and universal. and necessary to each and of the Faithful. distinct from Holy Scripture. There are. I. . and maintain that the Bible. wanting and hard to be understood.

as a matter of We may fact. seen to be the Teaching Body in (cf. in. rests conclusive. indeed. there still remains the question whether these statements themselves were inspired. or even advisable Hence the Church for every one under all circumstances. cannot seriously be put forward There must at the present day as a test of Inspiration. and some of the inspired writers were neither Apostles nor Prophets. See The Pope and the is Bible. tradiaory. be some public and authentic witness to the fact of Inspiration. We cannot infer it from the character of the writers or the nature of their There have been Prophets and Apostles who writings. F. Besides. A Manual of Catholic Theology.J. II. But the Protestant theory is not only also its very existence can be known only by means of Revelation. [BOOK L - After what has been said it is clear that the reading of is not necessary for salvation. the common belief in the copies. the "gustus spiritual's" of the early Protestants. there is another difficulty in the Protestant that the inspired character theory. 270). Newman's Idea of a Uni- Moreover. canon of Holy Scripture and the identity of later on evidence which is by no means historically And this common belief has. state that their writers were m ysterious contradictory.60 CHAP. " still assert what St. Clarke. Some of the Sacred Books. certain regulations on has with great wisdom imposed the Bible the subject. been produced by the action of the Church. p. R. Augustine said long ago I. The consoling effect upon the reader. and this we have the Catholic Church versity. Card. The only way to avoid a vicious circle is to appeal to some testimony external to the Inspired Books. but this does not necessarily mean that particular Divine influence which goes by the name of Inspiration. The Proiheo^'con. how could we be sure that the copies which we now possess agree with the originals ? Apart from the authority of the Church. Even if we admit this. we should still require official testimony of this fact. for my : . by Rev. S. Inspiration influence of God that the result of such but a animated by the Holy Ghost. were not inspired (in the technical sense). false. of all the books of the Bible was made known at the time if Even we were to grant of their original publication.

The Apostolic Deposit. that the Apostles promulgated by God's order both the Old and New Testaments. and thus gave it the dignity and efficacy of a legitimate source and rule of Faith. the Apostles published Holy Church as a document of Divine Revelation. x 61 in. The mere writing and publishing. part.. Catholics maintain. The Position and Functions of Holy Scripture in the Catholic System.] The Apostolic Deposit of Revelation. and with whom He had promised to be for all days. I. and handed Scripture It is on this ground it over as such to their successors. This fact of promulgation by the Apostles is generally treated of by the Fathers in connection with the transmission of Holy Scripture. even to the consummation of the world. on the other hand. . nisi me Catholicce Ecclesiae commoveret auctoritas" (Contm Ep. To them the Bible is a windfall. were not deemed a sufficient promulgation of inspiration. Protestants. Rather He would have committed the publication of it to the care of those whom He was sending to preach the Gospel to all nations. 19." SECT. They reject the authoritative promulgation by the Apostles. It was necessary that the " 1 Ego vero Evangclio non crederem.PART I. of the Catholic Church. n. . even by an Apostle. This promulgation might have been expected from the nature of Holy Scripture and the functions of the Apostles. upon the world to be the sport of conflicting opinions. Mantcheei. and they can prove their doctrine by evidence drawn from the earliest centuries. and the necessity of entrusting the Deposit of Revelation to a living Apostolate and consequently the word "deposit" is in their mouth devoid of meaning. have no right to call the Bible the. : . 6). God would not have cast His Word Holy published Apostles. fum/am. should not believe the Gospel except on the authority CHAP. position and functions of Holy Scripture in the Catholic System may be briefly expressed in this proposition Scripture is an Apostolic Deposit entrusted to the in other words. coming they know not whence. that the Teaching Body claims the right of preserving and expounding the sacred writings. or even an. as a document received from God.

Thefunction >cn P ture. is a public document. [BOOK i ~- document should be put on a footing with the Old Tcstament. instrument of instruction and proof in the hands of the members of the Teaching Apostolate. but admitted as certain on the ground of the . duly promulgated. in virtue of its permanent and official promulgation. St. Besides promulgating Holy Scripture as a Divine and ene them totL document. HI. See Apostolate. Jerome says of the Gospel of it. and the character of the Sacred Writings. As St. Irenaeus and Tertullian in 9. authentic text. The Church necessarily possesses an authentic text of the Scriptures. 1. 2. A Manual of Catholic Theology. becomes a 3. 5. Church. and that its lawful administration beHence longs to the Church. who alone have the right of authoritatively interpreting it. condemn any HI. the duty. that it is an Apostolic Deposit. or any abuse of its All this again is implied in the nature of the meaning. II. the Divine authority of which is evident to all the members of the Church.62 CHAP. If either by church s : constant use or by express declaration a certain text has been approved of by the Church. Holy Scripture. the passages quoted from St. it Mark " : When it Peter had heard in the he both approved of " and ordered to be read churches (De Script. its conformity with the original must be not only presumed juridically. to expound its meaning.}. The j function of Holy Scripture in the Catholic determined by the two facts. III. that text thereby receives the character of public authenticity that is to say. and finally to resist and attacks upon its teaching. the Apostles transmitted it to their successors with the right. and approved for public reading in the Church. The custody and is tures administration of the Holy Scripnot entrusted directly to the body of the Church at . Source and Rule of Faith but it is still only a means or infallibility of the The . 4. Private interpretation must submit to authoritative interpretation. and the power to continue its promulgation. Eccl. to preserve its integrity and identity. identical with the original. to make use of it in demonstrating and illustrating Catholic doctrine.

as Sacred and Canonical. alone. one of which is dogmatic. riii Scriptures are the common property of all the members ot the Church. Bible belongs to the Church and to the Church however. is the fundamental principle of Tertullian's work. " it in consequence of its long-continued any one." says the Council. confer upon the Vulgate its public ecclesiastical authenticity. principles laid down in applied by the Councils of Trent (sess. entire with all their parts (libros integros cum omnibus suis partibus) as they have been used to be read in the Catholic Church. "receiveth not. and the other These decrees.. Decisions of the Church on the Text pretation of Scripture.PART I. 20. 63 but to the Teaching Apostolate nevertheless. the rights of the Teaching Apostolate include that of taking and enforcing disciplinary measures for promoting the right use. knowledge than his own 6. however. HI. such use is it But they have no right to apply perfectly legitimate. The duty of the administrators is to comlarge. iii. teaching to all who are in the obedience of the of the Faithful thereby secure a better if each one were to interpret according to Besides. .). but rather declared and confirmed the authenticity already possessed by public use. should contest the right of the latter to appeal to the Scriptures at all. those who are outside her pale use it as a means of discovering and entering the Church. Prcescriptionibus Hcereticorwn. before arguing with heretics on single points of scriptural This doctrine. and Inter- The (sess. the said books. its The body light. or to turn it against the Church. If . the CHAP. I. The Council of Trent issued two decrees on the Sacred Text. . 20. the preceding section were iv. such private handling of Scripture is really opposed to the notion of its being the common property of all. 7. Lastly. to their own purposes. and should thus defeat their action actionem. De He shows how Catholics. SKCT. i/~ municate Faith.] The Apostolic Deposit of - Revelation. The If.) and the Vatican The Council the Vulgate. a mode of defence corresponding to some extent with demurrer). or preventing the abuse of Scripture. at the outset (prcescribere SECT. did not so much disciplinary.

but say nothing about the authenticity Hence the latter original text or about other versions. only guaranteed by 2. Kaulen. the said old and Vulgate edition. may be admitted. and force of expression.64 CHAP. and its It should be used in all not be rejected. is Word of God which either openly contradicts the Word of God or is not the Word of God at all. the old Latin Vulgate edition Moreover. be. authority may transactions relating to Faith and morals. . and and that no one is to dare expositions." At the same time. in. 58 sqq. 20. even in public trans- . and also additions. 3." 1. the same sacred and holy Synod considering that no small profit may accrue to the Church of God if it be made known which out of all the Latin editions. Catholic Theology. disputations. hath been approved of in the Church. History of the Vulgate (in German). SECT. . p. however. " The Vulgate is the theologian's Bible. in public lectures. which. Cf. the decree does not forbid the use of and morals the Vulgate other texts. and as they are contained J let him be anathema. by the lengthened usage of so many ages. now in circulation. Again. sermons. Hence the saying. No Hebrew text has ever been used in the Church since the time of the but the Greek text in public use during the Apostles first eight centuries must be considered as fully authentic . [BOOK i. retain their public and private value. even in dogmatic texts. But in matters of Faith and morals the Vulgate does not put forth anything as the its authenticity the use of the Greek Catholics. for that time .. the entire contents of the Vulgate are substantially correct. since the schism. and diversities in texts not dogmatic. De Script. held as authentic to reject it under any pretext whatsoever. A Manual of in . as pospublic sessing complete demonstrative force within the Church. They affirm the of the Vulgate. omissions. iii. sect. Franzelin. These decrees are not exclusive. especially the originals. and are upon the whole identical with the original. The conformity of the Vulgate with the original is Differences in distinctness not to be taken as absolute. of the Sacred Books ordaineth and declareth that is to be held as authentic . . . In demonstrating and expounding doctrines of Faith may confidently be used.

[the council] decrees that no one. presume to interpret the said Scripture contrary to that sense which Holy Mother Church to whom it belongeth to judge of the hath true sense and interpretation of the Holy Scriptures or even contrary to the unanimous held and doth hold Sacred . Clement VIII. II. although ing the Interpretation of Scripture.. while renewing the said decree. consent of the Fathers even though such interpretations were never intended to be at any time published. : true sense and interpretation of the Holy Scriptures F . in The Tridentine matters of faith and of morals pertaining to the edification of Christian doctrine. published an official edition of the Vulgate which came general use. according to the unanimous consent of the Fathers. " decree quoted above conorder to restrain petulant spirits. and must now be considered as an authentic reproduction of the text approved by the Council.I. tinues.. " I also admit the Holy passage in the Creed runs thus Scriptures according to that sense which Holy Mother Church hath held and doth hold. or CHAP. at against non-Catholics as an arguincntum ad hominem t or in purely scientific disquisitions.] The Apostolic Deposit of and Revelation. relying on his own skill in shall. that is to be held as the true sense of Sacred Scripture which Holy Mother Church hath held and doth hold. declare this to be its meaning in matters of Faith and morals pertaining to the edification of Christian doctrine. The Council of Trent also issued a decree concern.i actions. We. was in later days very much misunderstood. in order to support illustrate the Vulrate. . 65 j. in execution of the Tridentine decrees." The . wresting the Sacred Scripture to his own senses." The " Forasmuch Vatican conclusion of the Vatican decree is as follows as the wholesome decree of the holy and sacred council of : Trent concerning the interpretation of the Divine Scripture hath been perversely explained by divers persons. to whom it belongeth to judge of the . Furthermore.TheCouncil into This decree. SECT. Hence the Vatican Council has explained its true extent and meaning. to whom it belongeth to judge of the true sense and interpretation of the Scriptures neither will I ever take and interpret them otherwise than : . and . further explained in the Creed of the council drawn up int by Pius IV. .

very little thought will convince any one that the A Catholic rule of Scriptural interpretation does not clash with a reasonable liberty and the development of scientific On the contrary. on the other hand. Moreover. has a similar value. sqq. but also directly and positively. t. i. authentic.66 CHAP. and is. The Oral Apostolic Deposit Tradition. therefore E 21 ' A it is Manual of lawful to no Catholic Theology. Fid. while the principle of private judgment has produced nothing but errors and exegesis.. because to do so would be a denial of the true sense of Scripture and not merely an act of disobedience. Stapleton. man to interpret the said Sacred _ Scripture against this sense or even against the unanimous consent of the Fathers. the unanimous interpretation of the Fathers.). received by the Apostles from the mouth of Christ Himself. to give an interpre. infallible. in the The Protestant rejection Apostolate while. xxxi. [BOOK I. narrower sense of the word. maintains that the preaching of the Apostles. according to the explanation given by the Vatican Council. destructive criticism. 21. Franzelin. the meaning of the Tridentine decree is that the Church has the right to give a judicial decision on the sense of Holy Scripture in matters of Faith and morals that is. et xi. Demonstr. x. Etudes TJieol. Introd. sect.. . sur le Concile du Vatican. destroys the very existence of Oral Tradition. not only indirectly and negatively. in. Vacant. iii." Hence. like the Holy Scriptures. universally binding. whose writings reproduce the authentic teaching of the Church. unwritten as well as written. an essential part of the Apostolic " Deposit. . the period subsequent to the Council of Trent produced the most famous Biblical commentators (see supra. as we have of a permanent Teaching seen. p. have come down even . 11. the Holy Ghost dictating. The Council of Trent seeing clearly that this truth and discipline are contained in the written books and the unwritten traditions which. The Catholic doctrine. p. . injurious to the Written Word. is an independent and trustworthy Source of Faith. De Script. tation To oppose such a decision is unlawful. or from the Apostles themselves. 405. Princ. SECT.

John Chrysostom in h. that g^. tion of the books supposes the existence of a Teaching 1 Body. 21.CHAP. transmitted as it 67 in. as having been dictated either by Christ's own word of mouth or by the Holy Ghost. In the earliest ages of the Church. which thou hast heard of me in faith. This Oral Deposit can. be transmitted as securely and perfectly as the Written Deposit. whether by word. follow. fact of the perpetuity of the Apostolate St . both of the Old and of the New Testaments . it was universally held that the contents of the apostolic preaching were transmitted to the Church as a permanent Source and Rule of Faith. and in the love which is in Christ Jesus. who shall be fit The to teach others also" (ib. iv. all the books and also . Scripture nowhere says plainly. the said traditions. The same doctrine is proved by the fact that in patristic times the true interpretation of Scripture was ruled by the Teaching Apostolate. and the testimony of the early Fathers that the Scripture Apostles handed over to their successors.. ii. i.] The Apostolic Deposit of Revelation. the contents of their oral teaching as an independent and permanent Source of Faith. ing the examples of the orthodox Fathers. or by our epistle St. as well those appertaining to Faith as to morals. brethren. " I. . the same commend to faithful men.PART I. The Catholic doctrine is an evident consequence of ^i^^on It is plain from Holy the perpetuity of the Apostolate. I. iii.). and the ing. " things' which thou hast heard of me by many witnesses. 2). naXriv 7rapa0?'yK:r)v) by the Holy Ghost" (2 Tim. by reason of the natural and supernatural qualifications of the depositary. 1. were from hand to hand. And Hold the form of sound words. and hold the traditions " which you have learned.). 14 cf. ii. SECT. together with the written documents of Revelation. too.^. or even implies.Paul - implies also the perpetuity of the authority of their teach- Paul expressly enjoins the holding of the things which he preached as well as of those which he wrote. (2 Thess. St. Keep the good thing committed to thy trust (rijv 13-14). and preserved in the " Catholic Church by a continuous succession (sess. 9. Many truths not contained in Scrip- . with an equal affection of piety. again. stand fast. " Therefore. unto us. " . See above. The whole composiit is to be the only Source of Faith. receiveth and venerateth.

because it could hold its own even if ditloL no Written Deposit existed. A 1. Oral Tradition could. Cf. 2. granted that God's steward. the constant mutual watchfulness. their fidelity to and respect for apostolical traditions. imperfection of the Apostolate. Cseterum quod apud multos unum invenitur. 5). a doctrine is Church is a sufficient proof of its and faithful transmission. c. th.. looked down upon none of them to lead them into the truth. " Granted that all that the Holy Ghost hath (the churches) have erred.. Even from a merely human point of view.. 21. non est erratum sed traditum. . Relations c. c. . 1 28). Whatever is found to be one and the same among many persons is not an error but a tradition" (Tertull. the daily application of most of the truths in question in private practice and public worship all of these are adfor the preservation of truth and the premirably adapted vention of error (cf. the inspiration and interpretation of Scripture cannot be known without the aid of Tradition. De Dogmatik. the Vicar of Christ.68 CHAP.. as we have shown. Protestant objections on the ground that an Oral Deposit cannot be perfectly transmitted. Any force that these objections may have can be turned against the transmission of Scripture itself. whereas. . [BOOK I. ture were held on the authority of the Apostolate.. Exitus variasse debuerat error inter multos eventus unus est. the 1 "Nullus ecclesiarum. De Prascr. Nevertheless. . viz.. SECT. is it likely that so many and such great churches should have gone astray into one faith? Never is there one result among many chances. absolutely speaking.. by reason of the xi. . Kuhn.. The error of the churches would have taken different directions. objections Stapleton. in. as infallible through the assistance of Holy Ghost. Catholic Theology. do not touch the Apostolate as we conceive it. The cohesion of the different members. Secure ra" II. introd. Franzelin. although it was for this that He was sent by Christ and asked of the Father that He might be a Teacher of truth universally held in the apostolic origin .. the constitution and organization of the Apostolate afford an almost perfect the guarantee for the purity of the doctrine transmitted. 3. ix. The very fact that Trad." . hath neglected his duty. be the sole Source of Faith. Manual of 1.

important truths are explicitly stated there. The Bible clearly teaches the doctrine of the and this implicitly contains the far 6 sufficient . Holy Scriptures have a value of certain sense even necessary. distinction. however. The most not at least some foundation in the Bible. contain not only the God. but not as revealed by God.Apostolic clear Traditions. confirming. but something self-subsistent. StCT.] The Apostolic Deposit of They Revelation. but also the language of their own." . which he proceeds to answer in favour of the necessity of tradition.PART I. . and are . yet. Franz. illustrating. Hence we may say that the Bible itself is complete and sufficient... Sometimes. we may say that Oral Tradition is the living and authentic commentary upon the written document. down with distinction There are many regulations which have been handed apostolic authority. and they give details. in 21.). in contrato the Divino. " I worship the fulness of Scripture. is not This easy of application. The Fathers and the Schoolmen often insist upon the completeness and sufficiency of Holy Scripture." HO* Teaching Apostolate. And Tertullian's saying. St. th. certain texts of the Fathers which at first sight might be quoted in support of our thesis refer to discipline rather than to dogma. enabling the Faithful to acquire a vivid knowledge of There is no revealed doctrine which has revealed truths. In other matters. They are a sort of text-book of Tradition. though enough in itself." refers to the doctrine of creation (cf. at the same time. These are called Merely-Apostolic Traditions. Word. the Fathers speak of the completeness of Scripture merely with regard to certain Thus in the well-known passage of points of doctrine. De Trad. 2} where it is said that " the canon of the Scriptures is perfect. Vincent of Lerins (Common. not a mere commentary. and illustrations to an extent unattainable developments. completing and vivifying the text III. 69 in a CHAP. On the other hand. by Tradition.. On the whole. such as ecclesiastical institutions 1 " Scripturarum canon perfectus sibique ad omnia satis superque sufficient. except in matters strictly dogmatical or strictly moral. and of itself enough and more than enough for everything" 1 the Saint is really putting an objection. c. but they do so in the sense of the present section. xix. whole of Revelation.

it remains an open question whether a given institution is of Divine right and belongs to the Deposit of Faith. . A Manual of Catholic Theology. In any case we are bound to respect such traditions. guide us e.7O CHAP. we say embrace Apostolical and Ecclesiastical Traditions and all other observances and institutions of the said Church. (i) testimony of the Teaching Apostolate or of ecclesiastical documents that some institution is of Divine for instance. (2) the nature of the institution itself the essential parts of the sacraments as opposed to the . and Thus in the also those which are merely ecclesiastical. in. . " I most steadfastly admit and Creed of Pius IV.g. [BOOK i. ." . I also receive and admit the received and approved ceremonies of the Catholic Church used in the solemn adminis: . Where these criteria cannot be applied and the practice of the Church does not decide the point. the validity of baptism conferred by origin heretics for instance. and discipline. there are various criteria to merely ceremonial parts. ECTUII. tration of all the Sacraments.

tradition differs essentially from human CHAP. historical - or Its higher. 22. SECT. the Deposit may not be known and acknowledged by the whole Church or expressly and distinctly attested by the leading organs of the Apostolate. I. Hence their testimony is not the testimony of men. Origin and Growth of Ecclesiastical Tradition. But it is also something far exegetical. There may be a break in its continuity and universality. versality We may therefore continuity. iv E 22 f^ whether popular or scientific. same at every The tuimat Tr^cuSo^ II. but on their rank in the Church and the assistance of the Holy Ghost and the they form one body fashioned by . and animated and directed by His Holy Spirit.CHAPTER IV. are the members of Christ's Church . . Nevertheless it must be admitted that the human element modifies the perfection of Tradition. but the testimony of the Holy Ghost. organs God Himself. Its value does not depend upon the number of witnesses or their learning. and uniof Oral Tradition. as are also further It is possible that for a time a portion of developments. assert that the essential integrity. Human tradition can produce only human certitude it increases or decreases t^unT ECCLESIASTICAL - tradition. l^di^on com P ared Ecclesiastical Tradition is indeed human. with the course of time. authenticity of their testimony remains the point of the stream of Tradition. ECCLESIASTICAL TRADITION. A temporary and partial eclipse of truth is possible. and it may be popular or scientific. as required by the infallibility . and may ultimately fail altogether. inasmuch as it is in the hands of men.

General truths contain . to become universal. The dogmas of the Im. admitted. this is alone sufficient However. [BOOK I. at least by the Body as a whole. truths . is . Nothing can be proposed as Apostolic Tradition which is not Apostolic Tradition. definition. are subject to the -*' imperfections of the following laws : human 1.72 CHAP. lost. A Manual of Catholic Theology. it time. particular imply consequences complex statements involve simpler statements whether as constituent principles parts or as conditions retical principles and practical truths presuppose theovice versd. and even to be rejected by some or not distinctly enforced by others. Tradition. truths clearly expressed . and handed down in the Church. 105). p. There are. and indefectibility of the Church and as modified by the element. If we can show that at a given time the Tradition was universal continuity is not absolutely in cases of an authoritative necessary. 2. Only the actual and express Tradition of a truth can be appealed to in proof that it is a matter of Faith. several ways in which one truth may be implied in another. except always based upon the fact that the Tradition in question was universal for a long time. requires a long Even when an authoritative definition is given. we may observe. iv. Hence the duration for a more or less long period should be proved. must be attested and transmitted at least implicitly that is to say. if not by every individual teacher or hearer. Truths belonging to the Apostolic Deposit which have been so obscured as not to be known and professed by all the members of the Church. or is opposed to it and no truth handed down by the Apostles can be altogether . maculate Conception and of Papal in other Infallibility are implied dogmas in all of these four ways (infra. The most essential and necessary truths must always be expressly taught. distinctly professed must contain the obscured truths in such a way that by careful reflection and the assistance and of the Holy Ghost these obscured truths may be evolved and proposed for universal acceptance.

th. The modes or forms in which the infallible testimony of the Holy Ghost is given are as manifold as the forms of the living organism of the Church. 73 CHAP. .. is Next called the in extent. the universal belief of the Faithful is of great weight in times when its unity and distinctness are more apparent than the teaching of the Apostolate itself. quod ah (Vine. 112. the distinct. This unanimity and maintained by professions of Faith expressed universally admitted. I. Although but an echo of the authentic testimony of the Teaching Apostolate. The Various Modes Testimony is in which Traditional - given in the Church. For our present purpose we may distinguish them according to the rank of the witnesses. Head and members alike. by catechisms in general use. IV SECT " 3 - SECT. Cf. during the Arian troubles. Hilary could " The faithful ears of the people are holier than the say. t cap.. or morals. St. As we have shown in 13. is what Sensus fidelium. " 1 Legem credendi though far lower in rank. or when a part of the Teaching Body is unfaithful to its when the Teaching Body. about to define a duty. Common. where he rejects the 1 " Curamlum est ut est id omnibus creditum " teneamus quod ubique. quod semper. The most adequate testimony exists when the entire Body of the Church. is and act upon a certain doctrine. And before the definition of the lips of the priests. in so far as such practice supposes Hence the and includes Faith in particular doctrines. 23. Linn. De Trad. Franzelin. statuat lex supplicandi. The whok Church teach. " The"Sens US fidelium -" this sensus fidelium involves a relatively independent and immediate testimony of the Holy Ghost." that is." II. and constant profession of a doctrine by the whole body of the simple Faithful. Thus.] Ecclesiastical Tradition." Immaculate Conception the profession and practice of the Faithful were appealed to in favour of the definition.PART I. profess. p. discipline.. old rule quoted against the Pelagians. 3). xii. and by the general practice of the Church either in her liturgy. doctrine which had for a time been obscured in the Church. or appeals to all the manifestations of the Holy Ghost in its favour. universal.

the doctrines taught by the Holy See. the Pope pronounces a judicial sentence he can bind the whole Church. Essays on " As . Newman's Arians. sqq. "The Roman Church or Apostolic See hath held and doth hold. The Bishops disp. apart from the authoritative decisions of the Pope. because the teaching of each Bishop is reflected and repeated by the clergy and the Faithful of his diocese. 1859. 218 See also Card. an infallible testimony at every moment of its duration over. Moreover. quoted by Ward. morethe chief organ of infallibility in the Church." as "The Catholic Church hath held and doth because the universal Church must hold. Hence the testimony of the Priests and of Theological Schools in subordination to the Bishop holds a sort of and the TheApos- intermediate position and value between the " Sensus fide" lium and the testimony of the Episcopate. the Church's Doctrinal Authority.74 CHAP. [BOOK I. pp. IV. as water Ward. The central. p. . a certain . The universal teaching is of the Bishops and Priests another mode truth. because the Episcopate is It is. 467 . flowing into the whole body through a thousand organs from the Ecclesia Docens. teachers as well as taught. p. III. even by opposition within the Teaching Body. at least hold. sometimes called the testimony of the Particular Churches. This mode of testimony is (" I am with you all days "). and fibre . the blood flows from the heart to the body through as the vital sap insinuates itself into the the arteries whole tree. fallible. there exists in the local Roman Church.. iv. has been the custom to consider the formula. as a consequence of the connection between the Head of the Church and the equivalent to Roman See. descends through a thousand channels from the mountaintop to the plain so is Christ's pure and life-giving doctrine diffused. into each bough." Murray. 70." When implicitly. 23 A Manual of Catholic Theology. n. x. De Ecdesia. perfect and juridical representative of From the earliest times it Tradition is the Apostolic See. The of ecclesiastical testimony to revealed testimony of all the Bishops is in itself in- independently of the teaching of the inferior clergy belief of the Faithful. interpretation given in the Rambler for July. and the authority of his decisions is not impaired. 464. 15. and leaf.

sqq. of Lerins 11. but also in subsequent ages. especially by the College of Cardinals who take part in the actual general government of the Church. their writings became the basis of the further development of doctrine. V.." and sometimes as " Paedagogi." The Sons of the Fathers were not all bishops. Thus they were the Fathers. Vincent the text of St. and by St. Their position and imhave been defined by St. In the early days of the Church. c. commonly given to Bishops by their subjects and " They are also called Fathers of the Church. 15). naturally. Paul says (i Cor. Besides the Apostolic See and the ordinary Apostolate.. They . iv. the extraordinary representatives of Apostolical Tradition were usually eminent members of the episcopate." with reference to what St." because. when extraordinary means were needed for its preservation. living as they did in the infancy of the Church. not only of the Church in their own day. when the teaching functions were almost exclusively exercised by the Bishops. an expression of the habitual teaching of the Holy See. their special function was to fix the substance of the Apostolic Deposit so that. This arises from the fact that the Faith professed in the Roman Church is the result of the constant teaching of the Popes. Augustine c. and thus their doctrine Besides. God has provided auxiliary channels of Ecclesiastical the person of the extraordinary auxiliary members described above. Augustine (Contra portance Extrachannels. yet not many fathers. the later writers are regarded as the " Sons of the Fathers. Tradition in Julianum. of the second Com(Commonitor. i. especially ii. " " They received the name of Fathers because this was the title who comments on by their successors. i. xxviii. Many of them were priests or members of Religious Orders. 75 TV and normal testimony which must be considered as CHAP. accepted by the laity and taught by the clergy. 12. "If you have ten thousand instructors (paedogogi) in Christ. they received a more abundant outpouring of the gifts of the Holy Ghost. 37). Compared with them. et ii. or masters of theological schools. represents His teaching in an eminent degree.] Ecclesiastical Tradition.) monitorium}. and were placed side by side with Scripture as channels of Apostolic doctrine. and c.PART I.

III. they too are in the Church's custody and are There can be no subject to the Church's interpretation. the official organs of Ecclesiastical Tradition in the exercise of their functions. 24. The various writings and documents which constitute Written Tradition may be divided into two classes. [BOOK I.." SECT. pictures. Theologians. equal in authority to the subsequent Oral Tradition. the Expression of the Living Tradition. Writings and documents are not needed for its transmission nevertheless they are useful for the purpose of fixing Tradition. SitCT. 24. such as Liturgies. Still . must also assist in the production and preservation of such documents so . I. like Holy Scripture. Documents U notn eces^rj r Ia . vases. they constitute a Written Tradition. Ordines Romani. represent the mind (sensus) of the Catholic Schools and L of the Faithful.g. Documentary Tradition. A Manual of Catholic Theology. belong by their very nature to the Written Tradition. e. at least a more or Written wSthHOrai less perfect exposition of previous Tradition. Who watches over the living Tradition. Sacramentaries. Decisions of the Popes and of Councils Liturgical documents and monuments. iv. and are. as to cause them to present. and are distinguished for human learning and industry. symbols. II. and which. . therefore. if not an adequate. inscriptions. ' to n I. contradiction between the teaching of the Fathers and the doctrine of the Church apparent contradictions are due either to spuriousness or lack of authenticity on the part of the documents. or to a mistaken interpretation of them. When the writings of the Fathers reproduce the authentic teaching of the Church. Ecclesiastical Tradition by its very nature is oral. connected with . etc. and of remedying the imperfections of the human element Hence it follows that the Holy Ghost. The first class comprises those which emanate from dition. which they apply to the development and fuller of " its comprehension of doctrine rather than to the fixing " or Hence their name of " Doctors substance.76 CHAP. Like the Holy independent Scriptures. an objective and remote Rule of Faith running side by side with Oral Tra- official they are not by themselves a complete and Source and Rule of Faith.

documents. public worship . . by Dr. and even of heretics classes do not exclude each other. . Catholics. believing as they do in the Divine authority of Tradition. Rules for demonstrating Revealed Truth from Ecclesiastical Tradition. Many docu- ments belong to both. The Roman Catacombs have lately acquired great importance as monuments of the earliest Tradition. independently of the ecclesiastical rank of their author.PART I. and. under different aspects. The second class of documents is composed of those which. above all if it sible. is quite sufficient to prove the former existence of the same Tradition. they may still be of great weight. To this class may doubtful The two Catholics. the above section mentioned in be gathered from the laws themselves. especially of those makes it even imposThe Tradition of the present time. it is not necessary to demonc 11 t J-M from coeval documents that the Church borne actual witness to a given doctrine. it scientifically. contribute to the history or better scientific knowledge of Tradition. Theologians on the truths of Tradition. or to expound and defend I. they contain distinct statements participate more or less in the supernatural character of the living Tradition of which they are the emanation and exponents. 25. scantiness of the . Catholics. SECT. See Roma Sotteranea. i ascertaining the apostolicityot'a doctrine. . is attested by an authoritative definition. 2. even when they are not the work of the authors to whom they are ascribed. These documents and monuments have more than a mere historical value. will of course obtain different results from Protestants who acknowledge only its historical rules for the application of the laws The may value. The belonging to the sub-apostolic age. belong the writings of and pagans. too. 77 iv. according as their object is to ascertain with infallible certitude the apostolicity of a truth. i strate positively has always 11 For the Catholic R"i for i .] Ecclesiastical Tradition. They all in so far as the writings of the Fathers and approved CHAP. will apply the rules differently. or of the authority of the Church generally. Northcote and Canon Brovvnlow.

it may at least produce a moral conviction. mixed with opinions distinctly heretical or destructive of Catholic life and thought. moreover. and can often be turned to good account.D. they must appeal to antiquity. and the judges of the Faith have to decide some controverted question. Thus. however. as St. a conclusive argument against the traditional character of the doctrine. Sometimes the local traditions . It is not necessary to go back to an absolute antiquity it is sufficient to find some time when the Tradition was undoubted. deed reply to their arguments from Tradition. We may and in- set traces of the doctrine in the different ages. When. so that denial would be rash II. have no right to demand apologetics. marks are applicable Scientific and defence. for which there is abundant historical evidence. they must investigate the Tradition of the past. Vincent of Lerins expresses it. varying. We can sometimes ascertain its origin and show that the Church difficulty arises resisted it.78 C slcT'2 A Mamial of Catliolic Theology. a Catholic has no further interest in the investigation of its continuity. Even when the investigation of Infallibility antiquity does not result in absolute certitude. IV ' perhaps only in a latent state. better to prove to them the Catholic principle of Tradition. indefinite. or. except for the purposes of science and Heretics. 431). we can sometimes have recourse to the consent of the Fathers and TheoThe temporary uncertainty and even logians of note. in itself. The opposition can generally be shown to be purely human. direct proof of the antiquity of a doctrine. The Tradition of a truth being once established. When the Tradition is not manifest either in the present or in the past. [BOOK I. the decisions were based upon the testimony of the Fathers of the fourth century. It would be easy to prove that all these to the Gallican opposition to the of the Pope. : a l tnou gh partial negation of a doctrine within the in Church is not. the Ecclesiastical Tradition of the present is not publicly manifest. Any further knowledge of its former existence is merely of scientific interest. before them the is but it . at the Council of Ephesus (A. from an appeal to merely is or the opposition inconsistent.

. The Writings of the Fathers." him to some extent to the dignity of the mark of antiquity is not without the authority Subjectco-extensive with that of use of the TT importance. No great significance was attached the Council of Ephesus or the older theologians to the The Church herself has beantiquity of the Fathers. Hence it does not embrace truths of a purely natural and philosophical character. following their advice. SECT. their authority is not limited to their testimony to truths expressly and formally revealed. whose mouthpiece they are. This latter mark who are distinguishes them from the doctors who have lived in more recent times. we have already explained. IV.PART L] Ecclesiastical Tradition. when speaking of the Fathers quoted at the Council of Ephesus : " Only these ten. as II. . I. believing their testimony. the sacred number of the commandments. stowed the title of " Doctor Ecclesiae. upon many saints of later date. and judges [and the Council] holding their . 26. 11 the Fathers 1-1 is -i authority of the Father* the other hand. but extends to the dogmatico-theological interpretation of the On whole Deposit of Revelation. Vincent of Lerins. The domain of doctrine covered by and i infallibility of /'-i the Church. reduces the authority of the Fathers to that of mere historical witnesses could not better be refuted. doctrine. The material and formal authority of the Fathers that is. counsellors. witnesses. The " Fathers " are those representatives of Tradition who have been recognized by the Church as excelling in sanctity and in natural and supernatural gifts. because these are not part of the public teaching of the Church. but it has only a secondary influence upon by their authority. The modern view which ing the rules of Faith (n. logical writer raises a " Father. and the ecclesiastical use of their writings are beautifully expressed by St. were brought forward at Ephesus as teachers. " . and obeying their decision passed judgment concern." by which it honours the most illustrious Fathers in the Liturgy. 30). or truths revealed only per accidens. 79 CHAP. and who belong to the early Church. the subject-matter with which they deal. and has thereby put them on the same say that the canonization of a theo- We may even Still. level.

The number required varies with the nature of the doctrine. [BOOK l. doctrine. and It is of them. Manual of must be Catholic Theology. on the other hand. infallible. all the Fathers agree. The consent of the Fathers has always been looked upon as of equal authority with the teaching of the whole Church. and that no discrepancy should be admitted among them except on the strongest grounds (4) under extraordinary circumstances it may give us a moral cer- tainty of a doctrine when. are . SECT.. openly enforced that doctrine as being Catholic. which may be public.. . . 26. and consequently were not subject to any censure (2) that the doctrines for which the Father was renowned. or the definitions of the Popes and Councils. Cyril's Anathemas. and comparatively unimportant and with : . . and has treated those who deny it as heretics. When. that the oSiy some approbation of their writings is guarantee of the truth of all that they teach. because the Church s . is not . . We careful to distinguish between the .. without being contradicted by the Church. former _. must distinguish between the consent of the Fathers and the authority of one or a certain J the consentient testimony of . iv. evident . Some particular works. . however. or. for instance. not intended to be a positively probable (3) that there is a strong presumption that the doubtful expressions of the Fathers should be interpreted in accordance with the commonly received . hardly possible to ascertain the opinions of every Father on every point of doctrine. . The Church's approbation implies: (i) that the writings approved were not opposed to any doctrine publicly held by the Church in the time of the author.. number all of the Fathers. their authority attains its perfection. have. We A ni. some illustrious Father has. however. it follows that the consent of the Fathers must be regarded as fully ascertained whenever those of them whose writings deal with a given doctrine agree absolutely or morally. may be of an abstract. speculative character.So CHAP. and on which he insisted most. and as the Holy Ghost prevents the Church from ascribing to the whole body of the Fathers any doctrine which it But inasmuch as is they did not hold. St. for instance. a matter of daily practice and of great importance. received this guarantee. provided that they are numerous and belong to different countries and times. as.

and with many other circumstances. without formally attributing to it the character of a dogma. be Nevertheless it is at least a Catholic treated as a dogma. The doctrine thus attested cannot. because. The authority of the Fathers is held in high They hv esteem by the Church in the interpretation of Scripture. however. with their position CHAP. IV. be easily explained by a collation of the various passages. and the denial of it would deserve the censure of temerity of error. authority in 8 They made the Bible their especial study.) SECT. The consent of the Fathers is a and not an exclusive rule. I. which may. 81 the personal authority of the Fathers. If they merely state that the doctrine is true and taught by the Church. the interpretation positive must be in accordance with it where it exists. whereas in their other writings they are rather engaged in expounding Catholic dogma. because in the latter they often have in view particular points of doctrine of a practical or ascetic nature. with the amount of opposition to the doctrine. iv. But even in both kinds of writings a complete scientific exposition of the text can seldom be found. whereas later sa^ptu"^!" writers have not been so directly concerned with it. (See supra. ^l*7 the Church.PART I. The Writings of Theologians. but where it does not exist we may lawfully interpret even in opposition to the opinions of some of the Fathers. as a rule. this testimony has by no means the same weight. i. ' in The Consent of the Fathers does not always prove the Catholic character of a doctrine in the same way. 27. the doctrine must be at once accepted.e. p. Hence the many apparent differences in their exegesis. This consent must be gathered from all their writings and not merely from their commentaries. truth and morally certain. and when they have treated of it they have followed the lead of the Fathers. who ar or masters of the theological schools tf^V" G . By as who members Theologians we mean men learned in Theology. the Fathers have in hand some particular doctrine which they endeavour to draw from and base upon the text. on that account.] Ecclesiastical Tradition. If they distinctly state that a doctrine is a public dogma of the Church. 65.

[BOOK j. the whole of his doctrine is dependently . No more than this probability can be produced by the consent of many or even of all Theologians when they state a doctrine as a common opinion (ppinio communis) must be presumed that . may be considered either individually and parAs a rule. if their doctrines are based upon sound arguments propounded without any prejudice and not contradicted very decidedly. authority The Theologians. Some approved authors are of acknowledged weight. while others are of only minor importance. authority of Theologians. which came into existence after the patristic era. It is only in exceptional cases that the Church gives a public approbation to an individual Theologian. the tially. School during the to all last three centuries . in obedience to and under the supervision of the The title belongs primarily to the Schoolmen bishops. like that of the Fathers. The authority of a single Theologian canonized Saints. or of the whole body collectively. the positive probability of the doctrines must be presumed. 27 ' A Manual of Catholic Theology. iv. ^II. inteaching of the Church in his day of his reasons.82 CHAP. but only to such as are weighty and approved (auctores probati et graves). the majority is their teaching Theologians agree. distinguished and approved writers on Theology whether they have adhered to the Scholastic methods or not. What we are about to state concerning the of Theologians must not be applied indiscriminately to every Catholic writer. we mean one who is held in general esteem on account of his learning and the Catholic spirit of his teaching. and this is done by canonization or by the still further honour of conferring on him the title of Doctor of the Church. however. of the Middle Ages the Scholastic Theologians strictly so-called then to all who followed the methods of the . of approved and weighty it When. When we speak of an Approved Author. positively probable merely on account of his authority. and perhaps (with the exception of some authors of the greatest weight) does not create the presumption that no point of his doctrine was opposed to the common much less that. taught and handed down Catholic doctrine on strictly scientific lines. Moreover. II. and. not opposed to that of the Church. generally.

according to St. L. c. E fl_27 These questions have been discussed at great length by Moral Theologians in the controversy on Probabilism.. These principles on the authority of Theologians were strongly insisted on by Pius IX. . If all agree that dogma and that to deny doctrine is certainly a dogma.. nevertheless the existence of the consent shows that the doctrine belongs to the mind of the Church intellectus). their consent is If. c. and they are evident consequences of (catholicns the Catholic doctrine of Tradition. Catholic a particular doctrine is a it is heresy. 83. 29). Grat. "Error cui resistitur dist. error). Although the assistance of the Holy Ghost is not directly promised to Theologians. in the brief. Gravissimas inter (cf. lib. and that such denial is deserving of censure. 2. The consent a doctrine doctrine is Catholic truth only of Theologians produces certainty that when on the one hand the is proposed as absolutely certain. See Lacroix.) approbatur. tr. is again.] Ecclesiastical Tradition. nevertheless the assistance promised to the Church requires that He should prevent them as a body from otherwise the Faithful who follow them falling into error . implies the consent of the Episcopate. they agree in declaring that a doctrine sufficiently certain and demonstrated. The consent of Theologians be led astray. CHAP. et veritas quae non defenditur opprimilur" (Deer.. and on the other hand the consent is universal and constant (Consensus wtiversalis et constans non solum opinionis sed firma et rates sentcntia). 83 ' and not as a common conviction (sentcntia communis). i. Mor. non p. 1 (Supra. Theol." * And even natural reason assures us that this consent is a guarantee " of truth. this again is a sure proof that the doctrine is in some way a Catholic doctrine. 68. and that consequently its denial would incur the censure of rashness.PAKT I. then that If they agree that a doctrine cannot be denied without injuring Catholic truth. " Not to resist an error is to approve Augustine's dictum of it not to defend a truth is to reject it. infra. Whatever is found to be one and the same " among many persons is not an error but a tradition would all : (Tertullian). not indeed a formal proof of the Catholic character of the doctrine. TV.

. [Book 1 ~ iv. Thomas). encyclical jEterni Pairis on the studv of St... xiii. prop.8^ CHAP SK A Manual of Catholic Theology. Syllab.. The substance of the teaching of the Schoolmen and their method of treatment have both been strongly approved of by the Church (cf. 27 ' The Church holds the mediaeval Doctors in almost the same esteem as the Fathers. and Leo XIII.

The Rule very act Apostles. but should be made obligatory. Hence the Catholic Rule of Faith may be ultimately . to adhere to it in common. and also specially in its Active Sense. The Church to^hTword should put it forth in such a way as to bind all her members obligatory. in perfect unity of Faith. but this universal belief is produced by the action of the Teaching Apostolate. Hence the original promulgation is the remote Rule of Faith. THE RULE OF FAITH. The Rule of Faith considered generally . E ^-2 submission to it should not be left to the choice of man. nature and dignity of the Word of God require CHAP. The fact that all the members are indeed bound to conform their belief to that of the whole community. ' THE that its fulness. and with one voice and in all I. Fakh> not the Rule of Faith itself. the members of which are in their turn subject to their Chief. v. as a public II. But for this Rule to have an actual and perma- nently efficient character. which must exact from all members of the Church a docile Faith in the authoritatively proposed. SECT. it must be continually promulgated and enforced by the living Apostolate. 28.of 'the'"* This universality is "e'R^of ciency of the Catholic Rule of Faith. teachers and taught. Individual tion by the Teaching Body is III. of Faith was given to the Church in the The remote of Revelation and its promulgation by the m^Ruie. and the continuous promulga truths of Revelation unite the whole the proximate Rule. but rather its effect. and thus body of the Church.85 CHAPTER V. members of the Church The actually agree in one Faith is the best proof of the effi. and social law.

. are not laws strictly speaking. in which is the true and complete solidity of the Christian Religion and I promise also not to mention in the Holy Mysteries the names of those who have been excommunicated from the Catholic Church that is." . however. of j The is act or collection of acts whereby the Word is by'the God enforced as the Rule of Catholic Faith called Cnurdi. . n technical language " Proposition by the Church (Propositio Ecclesia. chap." Proposition c IV. iii. " because it emanates from the Teaching Body and is and not in the addressed to the Body of the Faithful that it emanates from the entire community. Both also rest ultimately on . but are merely authoritative declarations of laws already . are of equal authority. and is communicated to the Faithful with the Hence the ordinary express intention of enforcing belief. enjoining belief " in what is proposed and Proposition by or of the Church. sess. tcr-ji A Manual of Catholic Theology. The ordinary Proposition of the law of Faith is identical V. enacted by God. Both forms. written and unwritten. in which the Proposition is made and assumes are determined by the nature of the Teaching Apostolate and of the truths proposed. Proposition of or by the Church takes the form of a Statute or written law when promulgated in a solemn decision. but the written form is the more precise. is necessarily a promulgation of the law of Faith teaching and an injunction of the duty to believe. and consequently But the the law of Faith is naturally an unwritten law. Vat. The manner it the form which with the ordinary exercise of the Teaching Apostolate for the Word of God by its very nature exacts the obedience of Faith. It is called " " because it is an authoritative promulgation Proposition of a law. I hope that it may be mine to be with you in the one communion taught by the Apostolic See. reduced to the sovereign teaching authority of the Holy g ee This was asserted long ago in the Creed drawn up " Wherefore following in all things by Pope Hormisdas the Apostolic See and upholding all its decrees. v. 3). Council. sense The manner proportion. Such decisions. and in most instances they only enforce what is already the common practice. already contained in Revelation. [POOR I. See. those who agree not with the Apostolic : .86 CHAP.

although these are its principal subject-matter. but there is also an obligation to accept the favoured view as morally ceror tain. external submission is required. the authority of the Head of the Apostolate. such decision per se imposes only the obligation of external obedience. Points of doctrine . a Rule of Theological Thought or Religious Conviction. But in such matters the Apostolate requires only an undoubting and submissive acceptance and not Divine Faith. a rule of theological knowledge and conviction rather than a Rule of Divine Hence there exists in the Church. side by side Faith. sentence in matters of Faith is valid unless pronounced or approved by him and the binding force of the unwritten form arises from his tacit sanction. VI. The Teaching order to realize the objects Apostolate. and consequently is. VII. to which every Catholic must submit internally as well as externally. but has not been given or approved by the highest authority. least commands the teaching of one opinion in preference to another. the The judicial. at least a direct denial of Catholic Profession. and is. so far. with and completing the Rule of Faith. When a judicial decision has been given on some point of doctrine. Church forbids the teaching of certain points of doctrine. The extent church's Revelation. but rather resemble police regulations. legislative. 87 v. The authority of the Church's Proposition enforcing obedience to its decrees and guaranteeing their infallibility. These disciplinary measures may under certain circumstances command at a respectful and confident assent. i. of Revelation. is not restricted to matters of Divine Faith and Divine . and other similar acts of Disciplinary are not all members of the Teaching Apostolate abso- esua solutely binding rules of Faith and theological thought. if not a direct denial Any refusal to submit to this of Catholic Faith. must extend its activity in beyond the sphere of Divine Faith and Divine Revelation.PART L] The Rule of Faith. No judicial CHAP. when the involves disrespect and temerity. volt against the authority of the law implies a spiritual reChurch and a rejection of her supernatural veracity. the refusal of which For instance.e. to preserve the Faith not only in its substance but also in its entirety.

The difference between the rules of theological knowledge and the disciplinary measures is important. nogmas. however. or may exact merely external submission and apin the Rule of Faith we distinguish three the Rule of Faith in matters directly revealed. recommended. SECT. and Divine. may create the obligation of strict obedience and undoubting assent. or Christ. In the Church's language a dogma pure and simple is at the same time ecclesiastical. The former demand universal and unconditional obedience. and insisted upon in papal allocutions or encyclical letters but not distinctly defined. Thus : assent of a certain grade (3) the Rule of Faith in matters of discipline. Moderate Liberalism. * Dogmas may be classified according to (a) their various subject-matters. Everything revealed by God. Ghost . 89 ' A Manual of Catholic Theology. and. (b} their promulgation. internal proval. is an attempt to conciliate Extreme Liberalism by giving up these various latter distinctions. indirectly. Dogmas and Matters of Opinion. degrees (i) exacting the obedience of Faith . expressed. revealed by is God Church called a but not yet explicitly proposed by the Material (as opposed to Formal) Dogma. and reducing all decisions either to formal definitions of Faith or to mere police regulations. only respect and reverence. exacting respect and external submission. [BOOK I. and (c] the different kinds of moral obligation to know them. But a merely Divine Dogma that apostolic. in the genuine text. (a) Dogmas may be ( divided in the same way as the con- tents of Revelation 5) except that matters revealed per accidens are not properly dogmas. . or the Holy is by that very fact a Divine or Christian Dogma when authoritatively proposed by the Apostles it became an Apostolic Dogma when fully promulgated by the Church. a dogma that Holy Scripture. represented in the seventeenth century by Holden (Analysis Fidei). (2) the Rule of Faith in matters theologically connected with Revelation.88 CHAP "^II v. I. is. 29. in the eighteenth century by Muratori (De Ingeniormn Moderatione) and Chrismann (Regula Fidei). contains undoubted . the . It is. fica ~ tb"of Dogmas. Ecclesiastical Dogma. exacting submission and reverence.

(c} dogmas are to be believed either Implicitly or Explicitly. because they do not. v. especially in liturgical matters. 89 - And consequently the denial of matters CHAP. We accept. to the Archbishop of Munich. especially . where clearly supposes and professes a truth as undoubtedly . are subdivided into Defined and Undefined. The Criteria. because it imrevealed/^ plies the assertion that Holy Scripture contains error. The motions of the sun and the earth are not indeed matters of dogma. at least implicitly. Again. admit the Latitudinarian distinction between Fundamental articles. every dogma proposed by the Church. but the great astronomer's teaching was accompanied by or at any rate involved the assertion that Scripture was false in certain texts. 2. the necessity of knowing them is of two kinds Necessity of Means (necessitas medit) and Necessity of that is. They are nearly all set forth in the Brief Tuas Libenter.e. i.PART L] The Rule of Faith. addressed by Pius IX. With regard to the obligation of knowing them. the belief in some Precept (necessitas prcecepti} is a necessary condition of salvation. however. E 29 f^_ accidens is a sin against Faith. truth throughout. or means of knowing Catholic truth. and Non-fundamental articles which need not be believed. All Catholics are bound to called most essential. universal practice. Formal into Material and Formal. (e) it the public and permanent tradition of the Roman Church . and of particular councils solemnly ratified (c) the clear and indisputable sense of Holy Scripundoubtedly ture in matters relating to Faith and morals (d) the universal and constant teaching of the Apostolate. any positive command of the Church. . With regard dogmas are divided (b) to their promulgation by the Church. which must be believed. This principle accounts for the opposition to Galileo. . apart from dogmas Dogmas : . The following are the criteria of a dogma of Faith : (a) Creeds or Symbols of Faith generally received (b) dogmatic definitions of the Popes or of ecumenical councils. while the obligation to believe in others arises from her positive command The former may be are Fundamental. Criteria of may be easily gathered from the principles already stated.

were considered as absolutely the occasion of the free. or as logically connected with revealed truth. In this sphere of Approximative Theology. 29 ' A . addressed a Brief to the Archbishop of that city laying down the Catholic principles on the subject. definition there may be reasons sufficient to give us moral certainty. on in 1863. however. however. are (i) doctrines which it is morally certain that the Church acknowledges as revealed (veritates fidei proximo) (2) theological doctrines which it is morally certain that the Church considers as belonging to the integrity of the Faith. Freedom. is of various degrees." And the Vatican " It suffiCouncil says. Between the doctrines expressly defined by the Church and those expressly condemned stand what may be called matters of opinion or free opinions. indeed." . To resist these is not. v. Where there are no such reasons this censure is not incurred. there. error (errori theologico proximo) . but only rashness. the teaching of the Fathers when manifest Matters of and universal (g) the teaching of Theologians when manifest and universal. like certainty. and consequently the denial of which is approximate to theological . Manual of Catholic Theology. [BOOK l. The 22nd Proposition condemned in the "Syllabus" was taken from this Brief. dom to morally certain obligation to believe. (3) doctrines neither revealed nor logically deducible from revealed truths. as it may be styled.90 CHAP. II. and range from absolute free. especially in Where there is no distinct religious and moral matters. Munich Congress " The obligation under which Catholic and runs thus teachers and writers lie is restricted to those matters which : are proposed for universal belief as dogmas of Faith by the infallible judgment of the Church.. ceth not to avoid heresy unless those errors which more or less approach thereto are sedulously shunned. but to useful or even necessary for safeguarding Revelation : These three deny these would be rash (temerariuni). at the end of the first constitution. and all matters not strictly defined Pius IX. degrees were rejected by the Minimizers mentioned at the end of the last section. It is not possible to determine exactly the boundaries of these two groups of free opinions they shade off into each other. revealed (/") . formal disobedience.

and " Judgment means the negative decision whereby false doctrines are condemned The wording of definitions is not restricted to (censures). less common them all. the new definition takes the form of a confirmation or renewal of a former definition. there are certain specific objects e. decisions con- cerning the Faith. Definitions and decisions are essentially acts of the J acts teaching power. 30. and the welfare of the Church. Definitions and Judicial Decisions generally. Thus the Vatican Council. : " Sometimes they take the form of a The Holy Synod believeth and conform of a declaration " " at other times they take the of doctrine. what* or reject as anti-Catholic.PART ij The Rule of Faith. the case of the five propositions of Jansenius. at the end of its first constitution. II. Hence. 91 CHAP.. Sometimes. any particular form. constitutions. . it will Before we study them in be well to treat of the elements and forms to more or I. and thereby to promote the glory of -ill-The The objects ofDefimtionsand God. as distinguished from other acts of the Teaching Apostolate. however.g. as in the preceding. v SECT. definitions. profession of Faith fesseth " . e. they are termed decrees. or of canons threatening with " " all who refuse to accept the Church's anathema teaching. positive and final decision in " matters of Faith (dogmas). considered SECT 3- The chief rules of Catholic belief are the definitions and decisions of the Church. as in the chapters of the Council of Trent and the Vatican Council. In this case. remove existing doubts. . in the strictest sense of the word the holder of this power lays down authoritatively whereby what his subjects are bound to accept as Catholic doctrine Definitions . the Immaculate Conception and the (i) to definitions of Infallibility of the Pope are cases in point. (3) To prevent future doubts and to confirm the Faith of the weak. and decisions. detail. statutes. (2) To condemn criminal doubts prevailing against dogmas already defined. " Definition " means the In the modern language of the Church. The general object of authoritative decisions in j doctnnal matters is to propose dogmas in clear and distinct form to the Faithful.g. the salvation of souls.

Each holder of the teaching power can judge individually. also assists in fixing its time. such as universities. no further question as to its opportunedefini- The Holy Ghost. always as inferior judges. and (as those who by . may publish statements of their views. v. been the practice of the Church. in virtue of his sovereign power. -J upon the duty of conformity to the doctrinal decision " of the Holy See. except those whose power is only delegated. a consulting vote. Authoritative emanate only from the holders of the teaching power in the Church. Still. Hence the importance of acting in conEven from the earliest times junction with the Holy See. but all are subject to him. and in recent times bishops and local opposed to general) councils have been ordered not to attempt to decide doubtful questions. and may thus prepare the way for a dogmatic definition. but only to expound and enforce what has already been approved. reason of their functions are bound to act in the Cardinals in the concert as. it has been the rule to refer to Rome the more important questions of Faith. is subject to no other judges Matters of general or tribunals. interest (causes communes) or of great importance (causes majores] are of his cognizance. there can be ness. [BOOK 1. and it has gregations. the or executors of decisions already given. should judge collectively in synods and councils. who assists in making the tion. the centre of unity. except when they act simply as promulgators The Pope. These statements may even have greater weight than the decisions of individual bishops. ' A Manual of Catholic Theology. insists Under certain circumstances they may withhold or posta definition in order to avoid greater evils. that the Bishops. supreme and universal judge. But before coming to any decision he is bound . and he possesses. Nevertheless they are merely proand stand to the final judgment in the relation of visional. The question of the " Opportuneness of a definition must be decided by the judges themselves. a guarantee of veracity which does not belong to individual is He Bishops.92 CHAP. Once the definition is given. Learned men and learned societies. it Roman Con- follows from their office. as in the pone case of the Gallican doctrines. for instance. The Sources "ion^nnd ns< and decisions can definitions III.

time. 120. or again by other means have defined that those things are to be held which they have found to be in harmony with the Sacred Writings " and Apostolical Traditions (sess. so that the members become his assessors. or by ascertaining the by summoning opinion of the Church dispersed over the world at another . has only to be enforced these be dispensed with. chap. even in this processes may case. abLTiuLiy When the authority of the judge is not supreme. Leo to Theocloret (ep. and con. may also place himself at the head of these various colleges. the well-known letter of St. " The bishops of the whole world sitting and judging with us. He may. Jlnl- lerini). . they may be advisable. ed. whose He decisions he afterwards completes by adding his own. a statement of the reasons may be necessary. ecumenical councils. although integral portions of the When an judicial functions. and to consult his advisers CHAP. iv. 4).SEfUeither individually or collectively. the investigation of the case. but he does this merely reasons As regards the manner of to render submission easy. and to enable the judges to affirm already-defined doctrine that they speak of their 1 own full knowledge (ex plena et propria cognitions causes}. 93 to study the Sources of Faith.PART I.] The Rule of Faith. according as circumstances required. Pontiffs. sellors times he must allow his ordinary and extraordinary counto act as subordinate colleges of judges. IV." says the Procemium of the first constitution of the Vatican Council. If this is not advisable. made. the judge acts rashly.. Dogmatic definitions being judicial acts presuppose investig*. it should be noted conducting that an examination of the Sources of Faith and the * hearing of witnesses. and an examination of them may be permitted. so as to remove all suspicion of rashness or prejudice.necessary sequently the presumption in favour of the justice of the judgment is not absolute. are not always necessary. nay some. v. by means of local synods. but the judgment is binding. an investigation of the case (cognitio causes). However. The same council also enumerates the various ways in which the Popes prepare their definitions: "The Roman at one time. Sometimes even the highest authority states his for coming to a decision. 1 Cf.

We shall now examine the various sources of Decisions and Judgments. 31. The formula." does not necessarily is Spiritu Sancto legitime congregate?}? that the Divine guarantee decisions for the universal We must. " It arguments. thus defines Papal . "The synod remember final lawfully assembled in Hence the expression. " A Manual of Catholic Theology. The Vatican of the Fourth Council. ' Although doctrinal strong on these arguments but upon the supernatural authority of the judges. possess this perfect right and power to exact universal assent and obedience it is necessary that they should be infallible. however. and this presumption is not sufficient to make the judgment infallible or to exact " It hath seemed unconditional submission. the Second Council of Lyons. imply that the accompanying judgment is infallible. v." In the case of individual judges the Divine guarantee depends upon the legitimacy of their appointment in the case of councils or other bodies of judges it depends upon the . Papal Judgments and their Infallibility. Inferior ecclesiastical judges as a rule ask the Pope ratify their decisions. legitimacy of their convocation. in virtue of which they are entitled to say. the Holy Ghost (In perfect only when Church are given.94 CHAP. and is the regulator and centre of Catholic Unity. rhe Pope I. His decisions are without In order to appeal and are absolutely binding upon all. Saving the judgment or under correction of the Apostolic See (salvo jtidicio. their definitions are always supported by binding force does not depend hath seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us. In other cases it is merely presumptive. [BOOK 1. the Father and Teacher of all Christians and the Head of the Universal Church. and the Council of Florence. is the supreme judge in matters of Faith and Morals. The authority of the judgment depends upon the rank of the judge. good to the Holy Ghost and to us. SECT. or they add the qualification. and the Profession of Faith of Pope Hormisdas. sub correctione Sedis Apostoliccz}" Hence no process is complete and final until the Holy See has to " given its judgment. completing the definitions Council of Constantinople. The Pope.

cap. non autem ex consensu Ecclesiae irreformabiles " esse (Concil. sess..PART I. pro suprema sua Apostolica auctoritate doctrinam de fide vel moribus ab universa Ecclesia tenendam definit. when he speaks ex Pastor cathedra that when.] The Riile of Faith. per assistentiam divinam. on the contrary. 95 CHAP. an investigation of : " Definimus Romanum cum omnium Christianorum Pontificem. cum ex cathedra loquitur. Whenever the Pope speaks as Supreme the Roman infallible. nature and extent of the Infallibility of the Pope This Infallibility is the It differs both from Revelaresult of a Divine assistance. cathedra Faith. or the impulse to write down what God reveals. The form of the ex . tion The and Inspiration. is possessed of that Infallibility with which the Divine Redeemer willed that His Church should be endowed for defining and therefore such doctrine regarding Faith or Morals . Vat. Teacher of the Church. ea infallibilitate pollere. Pastoris et Doctoris munere fungens. ideoque ejusmodi Romani Pontificis definitiones ex sese. all and only such points of doctrine as are or may be proposed for the belief of the Faithful. that is to say." * The person whom the Infallibility is vested is when the Pontiff speaking ex cathedra. qua divinus Redemptor Ecclesiam suam in definienda doctrina de fide vel moribus instructam esse voluerit. id est. iv. in discharge of the office of and Doctor of Christians. by virtue of his supreme Apostolic authority he defines a doctrine regarding Faith or Morals to be held by the Universal Church by the all Divine assistance promised to him in Blessed Peter. he speaks ex cathedra nor is there any other ex cathedra teaching besides his. "fH. It does not involve the manifestation of any new It doctrine. Its subject-matter " " doctrine concerning Faith or Morals is that is. judgment is with intent to bind all the exercise of the Apostolic power the Faithful in the unity of the are also contained in the definition.. exercising the highest doctrinal authority inherent in the Apostolic See. 4).-* v. 1- Infallibility: "The Roman is. to An ex cathedra judgment is also declared be supreme and universally binding. . and not from the consent of the Church. definitions of the Roman in Pontiff are irreformable of them- selves II. Sedens). Pontiff. 1 supposes. The definition therefore leaves no room for the sophistical distinction made by the Gallicans between the See and its occupant . ipsi in beato Petro promissam. (St?des.

and the Bull Ineffabilis Deus on the Immaculate Conception. proofs. or of a rule of Faith. Ex cathedra decisions form. : i. Recommendations. The is is determined partly " the words possessed of by subject-matter. in which the decrees are proposed expressly as ecclesiastical laws. and further establishes the latter by excluding the consent of the Church as the is necessary condition of it. in the documents containing such decisions only those passages are infallible which the judge manifestly intended to be so. and are sanctioned by heavy penaland Auctorem Fidei ties e. It is not always easy to draw the line between the definition and the other portions of the document. Encyclical* 2. except where the explanation is itself the dogmatic interpretation of a text of Scripture. A j Manual of Catholic Theology. granted to him directly as the successor of St. The most solemn form is the Dogmatic Constitu- tion.g.I. ex cathedra judgments. the council deduces their Irreformability. . decisions." Moreover. or Bull. v.96 CHAP. and only prevents the Pope from omitting nves t:igation and from erring in making it. admit of great variety of * time. the object of the Infallibility of the Pope and of the Infallibility of the Church being the same. The commonest forms of ex cathedra decisions used at the present time are the following Comtitutions and Bulls. so far as . The ordinary rules for interpreting ecclesiastical documents must be applied. and not indirectly through the medium of the Church. Next in solemnity are Encyclical Letters. The approbation of the Church the consequence not the cause of the Irreformability of Form* of tjc cathedra. HI. . [BOOK i. BCT. From the Infallibility of ex cathedra judgments. revealed truths. Peter. the Constitutions Unigenitus against the Jansenists. or in as far as it fixes the meaning and extent of the definition. At the same and explanations accompanying the decision are not necessarily infallible. The Divine assistance is not granted to the Pope for his personal Nevertheless. their extent must also coincide. it benefit. partly by that Infallibility with which the Divine Redeemer willed that His Church should be endowed for defining doctrine extent of the Infallibility of the Pope its regarding Faith or Morals. but for the benefit of the Church.

It must be convened by him. Their judgments given conjointly with his are the most comThis assembly plete expression of the Teaching Body. >'- The Pope. however. SECT. they define or in strict judicial is Letters and condemn But it language. It is not an independent tribunal superior to the Pope. Lastly. Doubts on the subject are sometimes removed by subseoften quent declarations. Pope speaks infallibly. they impose no penalties. Is termed a Universal or Ecumenical Council. even when not directly addressed to the whole Church. but. 32.A General of the consent of the subordinate members of^ffl. Confirm*. In ordinary cases.PAST L] The Rule of Faith. pendently On the other hand. can assemble the Bishops and constitute them into a tribunal which represents the Teaching Body more efficiently than the Pope alone. such as the Encyclical Quanta cura. ' cathedra. 97 - they are of a dogmatic character.38 tutions and Bulls. while others are more In the latter case it is not absolutely rhetorical in style. General Councils. speaking ex judgment Bishops apart from the Pope cannot pronounce an infallible The Pope. however. extremely difficult to determine whether these letters are dogmatic or only monitory and administrative. Some of them are couched in strictly juridical terms. as general or particular councils. or in equivalent terms. v. the approbation of a particular council is a Roman it makes merely an act of supervision. I. or at least with his consent and co-operation all the Bishops of the Church must be commanded. f^. must be considered as ex cathedra when they attach censures to the denial of certain doctrines. They resemble Consti. . like Encyclicals. is infallible inde. such ing 4.CHAP. or Roman Congregations. a considerable number of Bishops must be actually present. or at least invited to attend . H . certain that the 3. as a rule. either personally or by deputy and the assembled prelates must conduct their . the whole of the autho>rit the Teaching Body. the Pope can speak ex cathedra by confirmand approving of the decisions of other tribunals. Apostolic Letters and Briefs. and the decision of Congregation is not ex cathedra unless the Pope his own. or when.

of : patriidentical the The other patriarchates with the patriarchate of Rome. The cooperation of the Pope is especially required as supreme Care must be taken not to lay too much stress on judge. Thus a Council. however. ii. It was only in the sixth century. and the body of the Bishops acted on the strength of their Divine mission. See Hefele vol. no distinc. Similar remarks apply to the Second Council of Constantinople. or other dignitaries. perform a double function : they act as witnesses and as judges. Councils of Constantinople are well-known instances. - and act under the direction of the Pope or his Some of the Councils styled ecumenical do not. [BOOK I. Ephesus. episcopate was convened in one place. But these Councils were not originally considered as ecumenical except in the sense of being numerously attended. SECT. although meeting really comof representatives of the whole Church. however.. may be easily accounted for. not by mere invitation. legates. by express command. The Western Councils only represented the Roman archate. The 80 Genera" II. some time after the Creed of the First Council of Constantinople had been adopted at Chalcedon. i. received the title of Ecumenical. Moreover. 100. whereas the deputies. 41. and consequently their authority was with that of the Holy See. The First and Second fulfil all of these conditions. when defining a dogma. and vol.. lest the importance of the papal co-operation be unduly minimized and the true notion of a .98 CHAP. in the East. or on account of the ambition of the Patriarchs. p. v. because the entire. although presided over by the Roman Pontiff and accepted by the whole Church. and Chalcedon. This. before the Great Schism the notion of a General Council was that of a cooperation of the East with the West in other words. The later posed Councils held in the West were far more conformable to Pope and the Western Council sent was the theological notions already given. 12 A Manual of Catholic Theology. It may seem strange that none of the early Western deliberations Councils. the function of witnessing. tion being made in favour of patriarchs or metropolitans. that this Council was put on a level with those of Nicaea. Councils. Eastern Bishops attended personally.

the Pope therefore belongs the authoritative direction of He can. especially the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon. On the other hand. without an express order from him. Council was the We first must. the Pope's judgment. or void on account of a too extensive use of the papal right of direction. special object of General Councils is to attain Th eof>i:t and perfectly the ends which particular councils couS^ completely In relation to can attain only partially and imperfectly. and (3) to help the Pope in the execution and enforcement of his decisions by the promulgation and subsequent action of The co-operation of the Council the assembled judges. the object of General Councils is (i) to give the III. and the judicial power of the whole brings the testimony Church to bear upon the decision of the Pope. and consequently upon the influence of the Roman Pontiff and the various grades of hierarchical jurisdiction. however. which is in itself a complete judgment.PART ij The Rule of Faith. The subsequent Councils. is not absolegates. that many expres. council be distorted. indeed. remember that of the General Councils. combined action and sentence of all the judges . E ^_32 sions of the Fathers of the fourth century concerning the Council of Nicaea seem to insist almost exclusively on the this witnessing function. to exercise his dealt with right. To council. no decision is unlawful lutely binding. v. IV. The greatest possible assistance to the Pope in the preparation of his own judgment by means of the testimony and scien- knowledge of the assessors (2) to give the Papal definition the greatest possible force and efficacy by the tific . The in the co-operation action of General Councils essentially consists The Pope of the members with their Head. followed quite a different line of action. determine what questions and the manner of dealing with them. shall be Hence no decision is legitimate if carried against his will or Even a decision accepted by his without his consent. 99 ' It is true. if he chooses all the proceedings of the Council.CHAP. and that under the then existing circumstances an appeal to the solemn testimony of so many Bishops was the best argument against the heretics. Stress was there laid upon the judicial function. because in such a case the restriction of .

' A Manual of Catholic Theology. Such a sentence would not bind the absent Bishops to assent to it. and indeed in all Councils convoked for the purpose of promulgating and enforcing already existing papal decisions. haustive universal . even in the Fourth Session.. On the other hand. lics if taken apart from the personal action of the Pope. and exworld tradition. Its only effect would be Pope to say that he confirms the sentence of a council. Hardouin. . Catalani the more important decrees are given in Denzinger's . past and present. not by external and illegitimate pressure. as in many of liberty the earlier Councils. . was not indeed as to the doctrine in question appealed to. but also what we may call the perfecting elements. v. searching. At most. preparatory judgment. or even the unanimous sentence. the Pope commanded the accept- ance of his sentence without any discussion.TOO CHAP. is not purely and simply the sentence of the entire Teaching Body. the itself.. .. and therefore has no claim to infallibility. both absolutely and in proportion to the number of Bishops in the the discussion was most free. The decision would not be illegitimate even if. or that he speaks " with the approval of the " Sacred Council (sacro approbante concilia}.. . the result of this pressure would affect the moral efficiency of the Council. Enchiridion.. or the to entitle the Pope to confirm it. not only the essential elements. which is of obedience to the Holy See and of conformity to duty her Faith absolute unanimity prevailed in the final and an overwhelming majority even in the sentence. '-*' is caused by the internal and legitimate principle of order. The decrees of the General Councils may be found in the great collections of Labbe. The Vatican Council. The sentence of the majority. Mansi. The number of Bishops present was the greatest on record. the forcible expulsion of the papal legates from the " Latrocinum " (Council of Bandits) at Ephesus was rightly considered by the Cathoas a gross violation of the liberty of a Council. TheVaticai Council. but as to its fundamental principle. [BOOK I. may be cited as an instance of a Council possessing in an eminent degree.

to prohibit dangerous writings. are not infallible. . Roman Congregations ? Doctrinal decrees of the Congregations. (Propaganda) 4. 6. however. : are certain standing com. 33 ' SECT I. he himself gives a decision based upon the advice of a Congregation.] The Rule of Faitk. The Congregation of Sacred Rites The Congregation of the Index of Prohibited Books The Congregation of the Holy Office (the Inquisi. 5. These Congregations have as their principal function the administration. The Roman Congregations Councils.Roman Congregations. then. at least for the time being. 101 CHAP V. They do not give decisions without appeal. Local or Particular SBCT : The Roman Congregations 30 mittees of Cardinals appointed by on the various questions of doctrine and discipline which The most important Congregaarise from time to time. The Congregation of the Council of Trent The Congregation of Bishops and Regulars The Congregation of the Propagation of the Faith . cute offences against Faith or Morals. 33. however.PART I. own and not his. such a strong presumption in their favour that even internal submission is due to them. which is a tribunal for granting absolutions from censures and dispensations in matters of vows and matrimonial impediments. They have. What. The reason of this is . If. from their decrees are their of the I. 3. or. the Poenitentiaria. is the authority infallibility. . the Pope to give decisions 2. which are not fully and formally confirmed by the Pope. if we may so term it. the general It is their duty to prosepolice of doctrine and discipline. tions are the following 1. . even after receiving his acknowledgment and approbation. It also To these must be added passes judgment on moral cases submitted to its decision. tion). because finality is inseparable Although they act in the Pope's name. such decision is his own and not merely the decision of the Congregation. and to attach authoritative censures to any opinions the profession of which is sinful.

of their ordinary power. may signify nothing more than an act of supervision or an act of the Pope as head of the Congregation. to decide whether this perfect confirmation has been given. v. It is not easy." The usual is name Holy it is See. decrees have seldom needed reform. Thus in England. it is called a Provincial Council when the Bishops of several provinces . Certain formulas. Moreover..IO2 CHAP. they become infallible. If the Pope fully and formally confirms the decrees Particuiai Councils. Hence Pius IX. The Congregations composed of experienced . H. the province of Westminster. solemni). i i * Bishops ot a province or a nation as distinguished irom assemblies of the Bishops of the world. Tuas libenter. which is that usually granted. .. When the council is composed of the Bishops of a single province. and is seldom granted. and consequently when all the Irish Bishops meet in council the assembly is called the "National the United States given to similar assemblies in Plenary Council. and emanates from the Congregation of the Council. the decrees must be submitted to the approval of Rome. i." In Ireland there are four provinces. " must submit to the points out that learned Catholics doctrinal decisions given by the Pontifical Congregations" (Brief to the Archbishop of Munich. approbatio in forma The Simple form. is a mere act of supervision. . The Solemn form is equivalent or to an adoption of the decrees by the Holy See Provincial as its own. 1863). Every Particular Council must be convened with the approbation of the Council. and not as papal delegates nevertheless only fitting that they should act in union with their Head. e.. plain. where there is only one province. The Bishops act indeed in virtue . greatest prudence and conscientiousness they represent the tradition of the Roman Church which is especially We may add that their protected by the Holy Ghost. are present.. are [BOOK I. 2. The Councils held . men schools and tendencies they proceed with the . The approval granted is either Simple Solemn (approbatio in forma simplici. and not as Head of the Church. . however. 33 ' A of all Manual of Catholic Theology. the English Councils are called it is the " Westminster Provincial Councils. . the simple approbavit.g. Particular or Local Councils are assemblies of the . called a Plenary or National Council.

Wherefore all the Faithful are forbidden. 1866. The Westminster Councils. Dogmatic Censures. Peremptory and formal affirmation of a doctrine as Catholic. 1. The decrees of the various Provincial and other Particular Councils may be found in The more the great collections of Councils named above. held in the years 1852. respectively. granted the solemn approbation to times. Without this solemn approval the decrees of Provincial Councils are not infallible.PART I. the presumption in their favour is not so strong. or condemnation of a doctrine as erroneous. and 1884 SECT. but are simply expositions of doctrine or admonitions to the Faithful. The presumption of truth in their favour depends partly on the number and the personal ability and character of the Bishops present. 103 " In modern CHAP. not only to defend as legitimate conclusions of science opinions of this kind which are . would not be tolerated by the Holy See unless such affirmation or condemnation was in accordance with the teaching of Rome and consequently even the simple approval of decrees of this kind gives a strong presumption of truth. See Bellarmine. 34. De Conciliis . Benedict XIV. hath also the right and the duty of I. 34 XIII. character. v. xiii. Councils of Baltimore (United States). 3. been held. the Church having received.] The Rule of Faith. recent decrees are given in the Collectio Lacensis (Herder. De Synodo Diocesana. * of the right ofxheri E htof Censure censure belonging to the Church in the following terms " Moreover. lest any one should be deceived by philosophy or vain deceit. have been published by Burns and Gates. the command to keep the Deposit of the Faith. c. When. together with the apostolic office of teaching. The most important National Council of Ireland is the Synod There have been three Plenary of Thurles held in 1851. the decrees have not this peremptory and formal . however. and partly on the nature of their proceedings and the wording of their decrees. : The Vatican Council has spoken proscribing knowledge falsely so-called. of which four have Freiburg). against Pelagianism are well-known instances. Benedict the decrees of the Council of Embrun..

The censures do not expressly state this right and duty. chap. because of the strictness of the ecclesiastical prohibition sanctioned by the heaviest penalties." "Rash. Moreover. semblance of truth IX. The duty censures. nevertheless the consideration of the meaning and drift In the of each particular censure clearly establishes both. The duty to reject a censured doctrine involves the right to assert and duty to admit the contradictory doctrine as sound. In matters of Faith and Morals they afford absolute certainty that the doctrines or propositions censured are to be rejected in the manner required by the Sometimes the obliparticular censure affixed to them. but also on account of the certain knowledge which they give us of the falsity or untrustworthiness of the censured docTo adhere to these doctrines is a grievous sin trines. but are to hold them rather " inter. No difference is here made between the binding power of lesser censures and that of infallibility infallibility the highest (heresy). case of censures which express categorically the Church's " " " certain judgment. and also because all or nearly all the censures represent the censured act as grievously sinful.IO4 CHAP." Heresy." there can be no question as to this. [BOOK i.. such as Akin to Heresy. because submission to the censure is made a moral duty. Dogmatic censures impose most strictly the duty of unreserved assent." Error.'s brief Gravissimas II." Akin certainty is expressed. of submitting to the Church's judgment is expressly gation mentioned e." In cases of this kind the of the censures is contained in the concerning Faith and Morals which belongs to the Teaching Apostolate. espeh ave been condemned by the Church." to Error. is propositions or to teach or preach them. Ec-^34- A bound Manual of Catholic Theology. otherwise than determined in this our constitution. iit." " " and also in cases where moral Blasphemous. in the Bull Unigenitus : " We order all the Faithful not to presume to form opinions about these . these censures bind not only by reason of the obedience due to the Church." Impious. " " .g. nay as the only sound and legitimate doctrine. such as False. v. known also ful to be contrary to the doctrine of the Faith. 4). as errors having the deceitSee also Pius (sess.

105 Doubt might perhaps arise whether the other censures. the infallibility of the . bufo'eof d&Trine .. As time went on. but denied that they were to be found in these cases would the censure be infallible in . In the former case the censure applies to the context as well as to the proposition in the latter case one on the propositions as is a twofold censure. we abstain from maintaining them. SECT. must ' III. Censures ma v apply to an meaning judgment concerning the author's meaning is at least itself. 35. not be content with the latter." and mere condemnations without any particular qualification. For this reason the Church does not give a separate judgment to establish that a particular text conveys a particular meaning she simply attaches the censure to the text as it stands. The truths which God has been pleased to reveal to NO new 5' mankind were not all communicated in the beginning." Unsound. where this distinction can be drawn. if it were not determining the sense of the author. CHAP. impose the duty of admitting the falsity of the condemned doctrines as at least morally certain. however. I.. contained in the infallibility of the censure itself when no distinction can be drawn between the meaning of the words and the meaning intended by the author. E 35 " " fli such as " Wicked. their master's works.." Unsafe. and sometimes formulates propositions conveying the author's meaning. formulated by the judge. or whether it is enough to As a rule. were worthy of condemnation. the five propositions censured by Innocent X. The Church's judgment demning doctrines and propositions in the sense meant by This infallibility is already some determinate author. virtually contained in the infallibility of the censure The Church in sitions the sometimes condemns an author's proposense conveyed by their context. the later Patriarchs had a larger stock the of revealed truth than those who preceded them . v. . But.] Tlie Rule of Faitk. These various distinctions were of great importance in The Jansenists admitted that the Jansenistic controversy. there infallible. is also infallible when con. and another on the text as In neither of containing the sense of the propositions.PART I. Development of Dogma.

35 A Manual of still Catholic Theology. ix. . It is not enough to say that the difference II. ages the validity of heretical Baptism was admitted in But practice by the fact of not repeating the Sacrament.) 4. Prophets had a larger share Patriarchs. (2) Thus in the early controversy (3) explicit definition. there seemed to be strong arguments both for and against the validity. Migne. SECT v. the stock of Revelation was completed. But can we not go further and admit an organic development? In the case of logical development all the conclusions are already contained in the premisses. (De Bapt. clear that the same explicit Church has not always possessed the knowledge of all points of doctrine and enforced them just in the same way as in the time of the In what terms should this difference be stated ? Apostles. disagree. and are merely drawn out of them. Kinds of n^ntT I. Trad. development in the Church's doctrine. and no further truths were to be revealed The infallibility of the Church manifestly precludes ( 6). 2. of a scroll gradually unrolled or of a casket whose contents become gradually known. Nor. xxiii. doctrines are contained in the earlier ones as the con- This clusion of a syllogism Is contained in the premisses.. while in the later ones it becomes clear and precise. thes. than the [BOOK I. when the question was formally proposed. between the earlier and the later documents is merely nominal viz. indeed. De Organic V op " nfe nt. a dogma may pass through three stages: (i) implicit belief. See also Franzelin. again. though only is to logical. 133. will it do to make use of the comparison . forth no further discussion was lawful within the Church. that the terminology of the earlier Creeds is obscure and vague. A better comparison is that the later defined 01 . some truth in these comparisons. According to him. but they cannot account for all the facts. any change it is in dogmas previously defined. At this stage the most orthodox teachers might. admit that there has been a real. There is. 12-14. the matter was decided.io6 CHAP. Such is the argument of St. But when the Church was founded. Nevertheless. Augustine in the dispute concerning the re-baptism of heretics. II. whereas in organic development . " mem. and indeed Finally. Logical 1 3. and thencedid.

Let the soul's religion imitate the law of the body. yet Scripture teaches plainly that there is only one God speaks of Father. absorption. with age it be exalted. . . Vincent . yet remain uncorrupt and untouched. the primitive teaching absorbed into itself the appropriate Greek elements. So also the doctrine of the Christian religion must follow those laws of advancement namely. not a change (sed ita tamen lit vere profectus sit ille fidei. " Shall we then have no advancement of religion in Let us have it indeed. God's husbandry. fl_ accretion identity. a youth's are larger. that in itself each thing (severally) grow greater. p. no variety of its definition. baby's limbs. with time it be expanded. . advancement of faith. and with all its members. .] The Rule of Faith. that with years it be consolidated.. sustain no loss of its propriety. and that the process was analogous to the growth of an organism ? (Supra. as years go on. v E they spring (Mark there is In organic development 28-32). and the the Church of Christ ? But yet in such sort that it be truly an greatest. . there is vitality. seeing that it is the nature of an advancement. yet they are the same. . . . which. . the doctrines mentioned above. and it speaks of Jesus Christ in such terms that He must be both God and it Man. no alteration or corruption. and proper senses that it admit no change besides. Son. for example. develops indeed and opens out its due proportions. and Small are a yet remains identically what it was. They might just as well look for the branches and leaves of an oak in the acorn from which it sprang.PAST ]. 107 35- the results are only potentially in the germs from which CHAP. Wherefore. non permutatio). assimilation.) This view of the organic development of the Church's teaching is a conclusive answer to those who ask us to produce from ancient authorities the exact counterpart of what we now believe and practise.. xx. growth. . . as it were. but of a change that something be turned from one thing into another. . and be full and perfect in all the proportions of each of its parts. . . Modes oi * whatsoever in this 01 Church. no mere addition or v. Take. It was not until after some centuries that these truths were elaborated into the definitions which we are bound Who can doubt that during these centuries to believe. has by the ^nt. and Holy Ghost.

Nicene Creed. The Cr e ed! tion of al * the others. twelve different forms of it.36.. in the Diet. " and in the Holy Ghost. The chief Dogmatic Documents Decrees. Erroneous III. and the decrees of the Popes and of General and Particular Councils. it can never come to pass that an early dogmatic definition should afterwards be revoked. that same flourish and " (Commoniripen. July. which is the foundais the Apostles' Creed.) On the whole subject. with the words. A Manual of Catholic Theology. More- over. or Symbols of Faith. 28. iii. SECT." The subsequent 2 - The Nicene clauses concerning the Divinity of the Holy Ghost were . 36. which are given in Denzinger's Enchiridion. [BOOK I. Revelation does not follow the merely natural laws of development like any other body of thought. 29). It originally ended 325). published by the Council of Nicaea defines the Divinity of Christ. Council. chap. 1888. our fathers been sown. see Newman's to it by the Church. de Thtol. simplest and oldest Creed. Creeds. See Dublin Review. this influence works under Divine Pro- vidence and the infallible guidance of the Church.cri. "The doctrine revealed has not . great work. Development of Christian Doctrine. I.io8 CHAP. Sess. Oct. The p es ' i. (A D Creed. nn. Creeds and the The most important dogmatic documents are Creeds. Catholique. sh. or be understood in a sense at variance with the meaning originally attached which God has been proposed as some philosophical discovery to be perfected by the wit of man. however. that same must be cultivated by the industry of their children. v. and Le Symbole des Apdtres. by Batiffol and Vacant. Hence sacred dogmas must ever be understood in the sense once for all (seme/) declared by Holy Mother Church and never must that sense be abandoned under pretext of profounder knowledge (altioris intelligenti<z)? (Vat. There are. 1889. that same advance and be perfected faith of torium. While it is indeed necessarily influenced by the natural environment in which it exists. 4. but has been entrusted to Christ's Spouse as a Divine deposit to be faithfully guarded and infallibly declared.

v SECT. The formula prescribed by the same Pope Innocent . 5. is called the creed of St. liii. 109 added before the First Council of Constantinople. Athanasius. As closely follows St. accepted by Pope Gregory X. but further develops the doctrine concerning Sacrifice. It is aimed at the heresies of the fourth and fifth centuries. III. n. n. and particularly Transubstantiation. The Confession of Faith made by Michael Palaeo- logus in the Second Council of Lyons. Expositio Trinity.. and the Primacy of the Roman Church. which Lateran caput is the first Decretal in the Corpus Juris Canonici. n. further develops the Athanasian Creed. The Creed of Toledo.. xxvi. is a free elaboration of the Nicene Creed. Heaven). published by the sixth council of Toledo (A. complete form it is now used in the Mass. Priince et Secundce Decretalis. (1215). The Creed of the Fourth Lateran Council. and dates back at least to the sixth or seventh century. xxiii. The Athanasian Creed was probably not composed St.] The Rule of Faith. Denzinger. Augustine's Creed with even more reason than the preceding creed sius. under Innocent III. In its -HAP. The subjoined condemnation of Abbot Joachim completes the dogmatic definition of the Holy See Denzinger. xxxix. See Denzinger. with some additions against Manichaeans and Pelagians. states more or less extensively the doctrine concerning the Sacraments. 36. Judgment. but is called by his name because it contains the doctrines so ably expounded and strenuously by defended by him. and is the most complete of the authentic expositions of of the it dogmas of the Blessed Trinity and Incarnation.PART I. the Sacraments. The Creed of Leo IX. Creed 4. but adds clauses containing the doctrine concerning the Four Last Things (Death. and also various matters of morals and discipline. it might almost " be called " St. AthanaCreed of See Denzinger. It is still used at the consecration of Bishops. 7. Augustine's teaching. 675). Opuscc. Thomas. 6.D. also St. Athanasian 3. is in substance similar to the foregoing. is based upon the Creed of Leo IX. Hell. and xxiv. . the famous Creed of Fir miter ere dimus. 8. Baptism. 1274. (1210) to the converts among the Waldenses. lii. n.

xiiL Profession of Faith prescribed by Gregory XIII. Ixxxiii. Creed of >ry Denzinger.. the work of doctors or of particular Churches or of the Holy See in a few cases these were the results of the combined labours of the bishops assembled in councils. Ixxxiv. [BOOK I. as a rule. composed on historical lines. and contain in addition appropriate extracts from the decrees of several councils. . Denzinger. the Profession of Faith for the Easterns. is copied from the Decretum pro Jacobitis. of the n. The so-called in Trent. all of which begin with the Nicene Creed. It also It is includes many definitions of the Council of Trent. Denzinger. Popes and the councils are and aphoristic. and contains the same extracts from the Council of Florence as the foregoing Profession. in Denzinger's Enchiridion. for converts from Protestantism. . published by the Council of Florence. II. 1564 by up recapitulates the most important decrees of the Council of o. ' After the Council of Trent thiee more professions of Faith for the use of converts were issued by the Popes. the Four Last Things. 1 1. v. Lastly. The various decrees are given . io.. Creed of Urban VIII. n. Creed of I'lUb IV* Tridentine Profession of Faith./ It is a summary of the teaching of the first eight ecumenical councils. n. In this respect the Council of Trent excelled all others. to the Greeks contains the principal decrees of the Council of Florence concerning the Trinity. and sometimes positive sometimes negative The drawing up of these and developed formulas. and is the most complete of all Decree*. 3 A Manual of Catholic Theology.no CHAP. * ITTTT prescribed by Urban VI II. The and the Primacy. decrees The formulas was. Ixxxii. . the Creeds. drawn Pius IV.

These three also Schrader. considered under a Faith and twofold aspect (i) as act of Faith and (2) as theological scUm*. utrum ea imperari possit ? authors have made the best use of the materials contained in the older theological works. . See Denzinger. Authority. 2 2 q. vol. Salmanticenses. iii. Ward's brilliant little work.PART II. THEOLOGICAL knowledge should be : . Valentia. in the the The question of Faith was exhaustively treated century following the Council of Trent. under the guidance of Faith.. a X Thomas. See Alexander of Hales. . Reding. and Mr. books iii. Trinitate. This distinction has been disregarded in modern times even more than the various distinctions in the objective principles of theological knowledge. iii. submits them to examination and discussion in order to gain a clearer and deeper insight into them. 69 St. . Suarez. especially in the third and fourth chapters of the Constitution (in concerning Catholic Faith. De Veritate. . and German) Kleutgen. . whereas theological science. Ysambert . De Virtut. THEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE CONSIDERED IN ITSELF. iv. Lugo. See among commentators on the Secunda Secundae. q. Bannez. De Fide. OR SUBJECTIVELY. Religious Kno^vledge. q. Theology of the Olden Time. I sqq. Super Boetium De . De Fide. p. Newman's Grammar of Assent. (in German) . Hence the Vatican Council has dealt with it in detail. Dispp. Summa. Theol. we have Card. 68. science. 14. Quasi. Faith assents to revealed truths on the authority of God Who reveals them. In English. and various portions of the opusculum. Wilfrid Tanner. TJie Wish to Believe.

ever.fidelitas. grasp firmly and to confide. bhadh. i. derived from the Latin . on the the Sacred Writings. is I. comes from to its root bliidh. fidentia. credere. to hold The noun and Credere is akin to KparHv. Fides conveys also the meaning of . originally which. . first. by means of speech can thus understand We It must. Credibility are derived from the Latin Credere. 37. firm adherence. the notion of fidelity. according to bind. Belief is akin to Fides. fidelity. and glauben.A Manual of Catholic Theology. howthe significations of fides. trusting We (Germ. The English word Faith . trust. or persuaded). fido. and that this use is noticeable everywhere in Hence Tramp involves. [BOOK I. fides. to persuade. Both fides and credere convey the fundamental meaning of trowing. CHAPTER FAITH. a willing listening and . to convince. in fidelis. or persuaded. be remarked that when used to express some relation between God and man. The notion of confidence or trust appears in the derived forms. and is akin to the Greek Tn'orte the German Glauben Creed. confidence.e. Krat-dha. meant Holy Scripture. fiducia . Etymology of the various words used for Faith The true Notion of Faith. have. therefore. iriariQ is used in a passive or all how 7n'mc has middle sense. the believer. to give trust. hold fast. and fidns. and to allow one's-self to be bound. It afterwards became so often used in specialized in the sense of binding that is. (irtiQiaQaL = to be bound. I. convinced. TT'HJTIQ. SECT. part of the irsiOofj^vof. trarten}. convinced. fasten. to examine the four words. to Sanscr.

obedience and fidelity appear mani- the two expressions used to designate the contrary notions. cling to. libet it has the radical fast. in so far as these are dependent on or connected with acts of the will. do not exclusively refer to acts or habits of the intellect. a cleaving to God. consent. purely and simply. cnrtiOtia. faithlessness. namely. like the German UeberOn the other hand. in a form peculiar to religious 7r?<me. and by entering into a pact. they are sometimes used as the . to praise. to cling and hold fast to God.CHAP. think. mean. geloben. as a docile fident submission to the Divine guidance. these expressions designate only those which have some analogy with acts of the will. and diffidentiay distrust. adharere. as based on or aiming at some act of knowledge. opine. obandire. they express acts of the intellect only. It is plain that these various words. love. In these are included fidelity and confidence. as equivalent to mean. technical I . such as to admit. " to believe " is often used zeugung." in lubet. 113 submission (VTTCIKOVEIV. terms for conviction. however. to wish to find good. and consequently all the acts involved in clinging to God. disobedience. to approve. TriffTig. They often express the and holding and dispositions of the will. obedire) to the command. Thus fides and TTIOTIQ are often used generically to designate every " holding for true. and con- The two elements of festly in -jricmq. has the same root as loben. i SECT* 37 ing call of God. viz. The German word Glauben lieben. hold. to " Hence lubh. is to the context." every conviction nay. with Him. allows himself to be bound by accepting His good gift. according to their etymology and theological use. to promise . or any one of them. perfidia. amplecti. crvyKaTaTiOeaOai. As a rule. and airiaria. When manifold. as expressing a more or less arbitrary assent founded on imperfect evidence. meaning of accepting willingly approving. approve. when used with reference to God. to Whom the hearer . especially obedience and hope. according affections applied to acts of knowledge. In Holy Scripture irian^ and iriaTivtiv.PART II] Faith.y^//j. The sense in which the "holding something for true" is called fides. by Whom the hearer allows himself to be bound secondly. inobedientia.

. HI. is .. Fides. but because rh'arte. moreover. whence comes the term Authority. and also by a respectful and confiding submission to the authority which that perfection confers Hence Faith is not simply an act of the intellect. special signification of the terms Faith. is .. The notion of Faith implies that the assent is considered as something good " " and desirable. with which . authority not because we ourselves perceive its truth. by virtue production. and a willing witness. But when the author or speaker is Infinite Truth..114 CHAP. E i. r that is to say. distinguishable from most other acts of submission to authority by the peculiarity that the authority which exacts We the Supreme Lord. Infinite Wisdom. and must co-operate in its brought about by the Divine Author constituting Himself the guarantee of the truth of what He communicates. It consubmitting to a legitimate order or call to perform The person who gives the order is the author of the action rather than he who actually performs it. of conviction. The part played by the will in this sort of Faith resembles any other sort of deference to authority. . .. now " . . ' A The . and is entitled to exact it must also make This it possible. . accompanied by a willing acknowledgment of a sort of perfection in him. II. He consent of our will. another person tells us that it is true. the acceptance of a proposition. The act of Faith is. but even as a rule.." assent on concerned. and to complete set before us His knowledge. : The part UMwiiL acknowledgment of the authority of the speaker. In ordinary cases we are invited rather than commanded to assent on the authority of sists in some action. This consent implies an approbation given to the assent of the intellect. may have some doubt. as to his knowledge or veracity. results from our Assent on authority esteem for the mental and moral qualifications of the and is. Manual of we are Catholic Theology. however. and even if we have no such doubt. in virtue of the moral perfection of His will. (BOOK I. therefore.. fll_ 37 "Assent on authority. guarantees that He communicates only what He knows to be true and that. The speaker. not merely as a basis.. he has no power or right over us. another. but an act commanded and brought about by the will acting on the intellect the assent of the intellect to what is true is determined by the consent of the will to what is good.

is in itself.CHAP. It also termed Divine Faith." assume and veracity. Terminology. however. but they all designate the same act. apart from rity.PABT II. of their children. thus offering to the mind of the hearer a foundation for certitude. and Truth itself. xii. E 3 eluded. any external legitimation. because it . . Nature of Theological Faith. The nature of Theological Faith has been clearly The : Vatican " Seeing by the Vatican Council. .. Heb. Faith is assent given to the Word of I. sufficient to command the assent manner. may. chap. Parents have a natural superiority and dominion over their children. deceive or be knowledge But our Heavenly Father is Infinite Wisdom deceived. 115 ' of the perfection of His intellect all danger of error is ex. 3 that man wholly dependeth upon God as his Creator and defined Faith. The nearest approach to Divine authority and Divine Faith is found in the relations between parents and their offspring. parents.] Faith. sess. although their children reasonably their Human SECT. Theological God in a manner befitting its excellence and power. and because it is interwoven with the economy of salvation Catholic Faith. because it leads to supernatural salvation and has God for its Author and Generator. iii. assent to the doctrines proposed by the Catholic Church. in opposition to human is founded on the authority of man Supernatural Faith. The relation between God and man is a sort of spiritual paternity (cf. tion Christian is made by Christ. IV. Christian Faith. surer than the latter's own personal Reverence Father. faith . T. These four appellations are not exactly synonymous. because its subject-matter is the Revelafaith that is. The manner in which authority asserts itself to and is received by a believer varies according to the nature of the authority and of the communication made. 38. the respect and reverence due to parents cause the child to take for granted in And like knowledge and veracity. 9) their whereby we are entitled to address Him as " Our Father. though under different aspects. knowledge. as being the authors of their existence hence their authounlike that of any other person. II.

not because we perceive its intrinsic truth by the natural light of oui reason. of things to be hoped for" a . It describes act of spiritually seizing and holding beyond the sphere of our intellect things the vision of which is the object of our hope and the essence of our It tells us that Faith is a conviction future happiness. i). viroaraffig. fection. Uncreated Truth. intellect and will to God the Revealer. the evidence of things that appear not' ' (Heb. is quoted by the council Faith as the fast things that are With. xi. like pating the fruition of it. whereby. pointing and leading to the future vision. I. A Manual of Catholic Theology. with the help of God's grace. implying an act of the intellect as well as an act of the will (2) that it is faith in an eminent degree. the Church confesseth to be a supernatural virtue. and consequently is supernatural.' confirmation of teaching. and resembles it in its inner perthe knowledge of His. is a supernatural participation in God and a likening of our knowledge to inasmuch as our Faith has the same subject-matter as the Divine knowledge. and also from all forms of rational or irrational. is the substance of things to be hoped for. but on account of the authority of God the Recan neither deceive nor be deceived. instinctive St. which is the beginning of man's salvation. we believe what He revealeth. Who Faith. xi. Paul's ' emotional Faith. The literal meaning of the text is as follows is : "The substance. ?8. we are bound to submit by Faith our But this Faith. not only externally by Divine authority." This definition faith in means (i) that Theological Faith is the strictest sense of the word that is to say. Divine Grace. . the future vision itself. but also internally by . and seeing that created reason to entirely subject SliCT. The in classical text its Heb. is [BOOK I.n6 CHAP. assent on authority. For vealer. and even anticiHence it implies that Faith. These three characteristics of Theological Faith distinguish it from all natural knowledge with which the Rationalists confound it. according to the Apostle. Lord. because implies unlimited submission to God's sovereign authority and an absolute confidence in His veracity. and is therefore an act of religious worship and it a theological virtue and (3) that it is influenced. i.

to the authority of strives to conform The believer. an evident demonstration. Moreover." Credere .PART IT. The excreeds. which supposes an explicit knowledge of the motive and an express act of the will. a clear showing. the difference between Theological Faith and every other sort of faith or knowledge.] Faith. submits God and trusts in God's veracity. definitions. pression Credere Deum signifies belief in God as the subjectmatter of the act "I believe that God exists. lumen seu virtus fidei) or its subject-matter (fides qua creditur]. We Theological Faith. it 1 1 ^ I. founded upon the degree of distinctness with which the act of Faith apprehends its subject-matter also between Formal Faith. the act of Faith they apply only figuratively as being the result of the giving in hand and the clear manifestation." is . especially the collection of . which is a habit infused or resulting from repeated acts of Formal Faith. and produces acts of Faith as it were instinctively without distinct consciousness of Formal Faith. fides qud creditur) of the act (gratia fidei. . 'future good gifts. Various uses er Faith in theological literature. these relations of our Faith to the Beatific Vision bring out. are now in a position to trace the genesis of Thegenesi III. hence a perfect certitude and conviction. and mould it into an introduction to and participation of eternal life. These expressions are applicable to the habit of Faith without any figure of speech to /uLij fiXfiro/utvwv. or the principle either the act (credere. moved by grace. concerning things invisible. We subjoin some remarks on the use of the term knowledge. and so a sort of anticipation of their " f things that appear the evidence tXsyx ^ possession giving in hand. and his mental judgment to that of God manner with and to connect God's infallible his convictions in the closest Grace makes this connection so perfect that a most intimate union and relationship are established between the believer's knowledge and the Divine knowledge the excellence and virtue of the latter are thus communicated to the former. not. A distinction is sometimes drawn between Explicit and Implicit Faith. IV. . were. Fides is used to signify Faith. as . a pledge and security for the CHAP. . and the like. and Virtual Faith. as clearly as the definition of the council.

TV*. - i Deo means belief on the authority of God "I believe what God says " Credere in Deum implies both of the former meanings " I believe in God on God's authority. They may be grouped is and useful (decens et and are the following Faith orjustum commoduni). a truth proposed to us because it is the Word of God a word founded upon Divine Authority." Now God is the First Truth in a threefold sense in being (in essendo). the question. "Why do we believe?" or "What " the motive of our Faith ? many answers may be given. contributes to our moral perfection. in virtue of which He is the Highest Being. the Uncreated Principle of all things. the Source of all goodness. As a testimony to the truth of Faith. under the head of what et : . is applied to this sort of Faith. because of the infinite perfection of His Being. because He possesses perfect : . the Possessor of all truth. Hence the classical form " God is the motive of Faith inasmuch as He is the First Truth. Divine Authority influences Faith in a twofold manner it is a call to Faith and it is a testimony to the As a call to Faith. guaranteeing the truth of the Faith and supplying a foundation for certitude.1 1 8 A Mamtal of Catholic Theology.? Formal Object or Motive of Faith. CHAP. SECT. Themotire is I. relating immedi- We believe ately to God. In both respects the Divine authority is based upon God's Essence. . the expression of the Divine will and power to which : man is bound to submit. Divine Authority is truth O f Faith. As a rule. 39. whence the name " theological." . Divine authority acts as the Supreme Truth." that is. in knowledge (in cognoscendo). however. II. when we speak of the motive of Faith we understand In that by means of which the act of Faith is produced. HOW Divine fnfluencw Faith. [BOOK I. and therefore entitled to the homage of our intellect and will. elicit To Some us to motives of Faith are similar to those which induce other free acts of the will. the case of Theological Faith this is the Word of God. and leads to our eternal the soul and satisfies the moral salvation it ennobles it enriches necessity of submission to and union with God and elevates our mental knowledge by increasing its store and by strengthening its certitude. fitting utile.

g. so in the case of Divine Faith.] Faith. i). evidently inferred from truths directly and Mediately d trutte? immediately revealed are the subject-matter of Theological Knowledge rather than of Divine Faith. being cannot deceive. xi. If. Lugo. motive of Faith is impressed by the will upon the intellect as a light which enlightens and manifests the truth of the Word proposed. the believer bases his assent on the knowledge and veracity Truth. But most theologians (e. filled. Suarez. infinitely holy.PAET II. Again the motive of Faith that is. moved by the motive of Faith. a truth i. A of Faith it proposition or fact becomes the subject-matter when God reveals it and commands us to believe on His authority. in As of the witness. reacts upon the intellect. Faith finds in When these two conditions are fulits and its "evidence" (Heb. the end and object towards the apprehension of which the will moves the intellect. and confidence. 40. or at least can be believed with Divine Faith. : SECT. The Subject. ally that Truths which are revealed only mediately and virtuis. God both " substance " it is doubtful whether. All such truths must be believed In the following with Divine Faith properly so-called. Kleutgen) are of opinion that Divine Faith is possible in the case of these first when they are authoritatively proposed by the The reason is that the proposal of them by the Church takes the place of the immediate proposal by God truths only Church. God intended to reveal them. He in speech (in dicendo). however. the will urges the intellect to base its assent upon the infallible The knowledge and veracity of the great First Truth. and if they were known to the promulgators of Revelation. conjointly with the First Truth contents of Revelation. because. Reding) think that they may be believed with Divine Faith. God as the First Being and is at the same time.Matter of Faith. acts on the will. urging it respect to elicit an act of Faith in what is proposed by the Infallible every act of faith. Divine authority.g. 119 CITAP. cases how far. infinite knowledge . i. . some theologians (e. I. which thus in its turn acts on the intellect directly and not merely by means of the will. of whatever kind. as The will.

in reply. Whatever is proposed for our belief must be true in itself. that the relation of moral matters with the sanctity of the Church only indirectly bases Faith in them on God's knowSaints. nor an illumination of his mind similar to that Faith .1 20 A . SBCT. less perfect ligious than the former. 5. ->. and authority of God. Revelation. that it springs from . CHAP. respect for the knowledge. Truths which only indirectly belong to the domain of Revelation (supra. notably Muzzarelli. while the latter is divinely moreover based upon the miracles wrought by God in proof of the holiness of His Saints. i. They claim Divine Faith especially for matters connected with morals and for the canonization of either would tell against the revealed sanctity of the Church. and is infallible. by the Church. is The which Faith. tion of the Divine 2. II. Foremost among the attributes cf the subjectmatter of Faith is its truth. sembles Theological Faith in this. Nevertheless. Many theologians. Still. Truths in- concerted Revelation. the miracles wrought through the intercesledge.. but are only indications of the Divine Will which the Church interprets. but and infallible character. In such cases God Himself gives testimony by means of the Church. [BOOK j. because an error in We Again. and The subject is consequently Faith founded upon them is only Ecclesiastical Faith. Manual of Word. II. which acts as His The assent given replenipotentiary and ambassador. Faith does not suppose in the believer a direct knowledge of the truths which he believes. veracity. 40. declare that these truths are the subject-matter of Divine Faith on account of the Divinely promised infallibility of the Church.. there is an essenbetween Theological Faith and the assent indirectly is called given truths connected with Ecclesiastical still. Catholic Theology.) are primarily the subjectmatter of human knowledge they become the subjectmatter of Faith when the Church has authoritatively proposed them for belief. Himself. is by reason of its refar above any purely human faith. as this assent is not directly founded upon God's knowledge but rather upon the knowledge possessed tial difference to latter. may observe. sion of holy persons are not direct revelations. and assumes the form of an extensive interpreta_ .

a. as it were. Indeed. evidence of things that appear not. q. IV. & J SECT. 27). are the chief subjects of in the Beatific Vision. inasmuch it . and through God. is required. its being "the substance off. it not only reduces all its to a certain unity in God. xi.. 3 " : : visum. Faith aims at giving us the knowledge of the things concerning our future supernatural Hence. Faith is therefore. The relatively in(cf. in a certain . In accordance with Utrum objectum fidei possit esse " Utrum possit esse scitum "). . 40. Who is their ultimate End and immutable Ruler. and judges of all created things with reference to God. all things in God Seeing faculties the Divine Essence . " the contrary. embraces objects far beyond the sphere of the human " But although " the things that appear not are the proper subject-matter of Faith." and a. Trusting in God's knowledge and veracity.itstranscendcntal it has God and His Divine Nature for its subject. God Himself. Faith.^^J^ things to be hoped for. but also apprehends in own tenets God and through God all created truth.ci-aracter. i. that absolute invisibility visible can also be made 2*. aliquid 2*. Faith being the CHAP. . in His invisible Essence.). i Cor. i. Hence we see again how much the subject-matter of Faith transcends all human knowledge." implies that its subjectmatter is inaccessible to the natural eye of the mind. even On when revealed it is the peculiar excellence of Faith that it makes the unseen as certain to our minds as the seen (Heb. ." and in accordance with the intentions of its Author. to a certain extent. for no natural can reach the heights or fathom the depths of and its relations with the soul of man (cf. it Faith glories in truths above reason. the whole supernatural economy of salvation is subordinate to the belief in God as the final object of our eternal beatitude. 4 III. and delights in mystery transcends all human faith and science.] Faith. as He is and as He will reveal Himself to the blessed and God's Nature as the principle which causes our supernatural perfection and beatitude by communicating Itself to us. Faith is founded on God's knowledge and vera. it must not be supposed as mind. Thorn. happiness. its subject-matter St. ii. 121 of the Beatific Vision. city matter and it tends to the Beatific Union with Him. .

xi. (Matt. It is on this account that. Motives of d blhty wha t! The Motives of Credibility.. Motives of Faith that is to say. Hence Innocent XI. . .To enable us to elicit an act of Divine Faith in a revealed truth." the Motives of Credifor assenting to the major premise The bility are the reasons for assenting to the minor. nay even with doubt whether God has spoken" (prop. marks and criteria clearly showing the proposition to be really the Word of God. [BOOK I. 41. we could not reasonably assent to it on the authority of God. E i. . " supernatural assent of Faith necessary for salvation is compatible with merely probable knowledge of Revelation. ^Il 41 ' what modern philosophers call a " transcendental knowledge. the proofs that no means self-evident. in dealattacks of unbelievers. but are the object of the fiercest by . xxi. cipally upon the Motives . ." Adhering to God in all humility. The No certitude is perfect unless based reasonable certitude motives. in reasonableness of our Faith. so evident that no one can call them in question whereas the Motives of Credibility that a given doctrine is of Divine origin are is. e. God's knowledge and veracity are. I. that a particular doctrine was originally revealed by God . vealed. therefore. with the reasonableness of Faith.122 CHAP. accept with any proposition as being the word of God without Motives of Credibility that is. The Motives of Credibility are not the same thing The former refer to the fact as the Motives of Faith. it effects what philosophers have vainly attempted by their exaggeration of the natural powers of the human mind sense. 25).). We upon cannot. stress is laid prining of Credibility.g. A Manual of Catholic Theology. This will be clear if we bear mind that the assent given in an act of Faith is infermtial " : Whatever God reveals is true God has rethe mystery of the Blessed Trinity therefore The Motives of Faith are the reasons the mystery is true. condemned the proposition SECT. the latter refer to the necessity of believing generally whatBoth are the foundation of the ever God has revealed. however. the fact of its being revealed must also be Without this perfect certitude perfectly certain to us.

God. and unbounded fertility in all that is good. is a legiti" mate promulgation of the Divine word In order that the submission of our Faith might be in accordance with : give us.. external proofs of His Revelation. For to the Catholic Church alone belong all the wonders which have been divinely ' ' ' i.CHAP. chief errors concerning the Motives of Credi. And again. Moreover.] Faith. Some Catholic Theologians have also erred by assigntoo prominent a place to these inward feelings. and especially Christ our Lord Himself. arranged for the evident credibility of the Christian Faith. which denies the possibility of * in matters said to be revealed. as to a light that shineth in a dark place (2 Pet. miracles and prophecies. above all. and the Prophets. We have the more firm prophetical word. the Church herself.PART II. f in some of its forms. by her Catholic unity and invincible stability. it is written. is both an enduring motive of credibility and an unimpeachable . by means of His Only Begotten Son. The : bility are ' . which substi(2) Protestantism. i. whereunto you do well to attend.. together with the Holy Ghost. SECT* <ii* (i) Rationalism. Divine facts and. wrought and uttered many and most manifest miracles and prophecies. are most certain Divine signs of Revelation adapted to the understanding of all men. and of persevering therein constantly. exalted sanctity. But in order that we may fulfil the duty of embracing 19). and hath endowed her with plain marks whereby she may be recognized by all men as the guardian and mistress of the revealed word. God hath willed internal assistance of the God's almighty power and infinite knowledge. the Lord working withal. any _reasonable certainty ' / . by her wonderful propagation. 123 II. 20). and has especially declared how the proposition by the Church of doctrines as revealed. namely. Erroneous opinions and Catholic doctrine. which. and touching the Apostles we read. the true Faith. hath instituted the Church. Wherefore Moses. Against ing these errors the Vatican Council has defined the Catholic (3) doctrine on the nature of the certitude concerning the fact of Revelation. at least tutes for external criteria inward feelings and consolations. and confirming the word with the signs that followed (Mark xvi. 'They going forth preached the word everywhere. while they clearly manifest to reason.

. The Me. 3). s-ibjective 6 wffices. and maketh her children certain that the Faith which they profess resteth " on the surest foundation (sess. testimony of her Divine mission. i. nor is it implied in the terms of the Vatican definition. and and are at Explanation and proof of the catholic Faith must eas '" all times manifest to all who inquire. . It is not necessary. if we believe for revealed reasons exclusively. maintain that the assent must be purely rational." "reasonable worship" unless sound reasons. The Catholic Church therefore teaches: (i) that we must have a rational certitude of the fact of Revelation in . distinct from Revelation and the result of our own inquiries.. us as facts of past history. [BOOK I. and thus come down to but also. following paragraphs will serve to explain and the doctrine just stated. persuade us of the fact that the doctrines proposed for our belief If we believe without any are really the Word of God. order that our Faith may be itself rational (2) that this certitude is not founded exclusively on internal experience. a subjective and relative certitude is sufficient. according to the teaching of most theologians. On the other reason. 41. prove i. however. iii. on external and manifest and manifest facts which accompany the proposition of Revelation can produce a perfect certitude of the fact of Revelation in the minds of all and (4) that these facts not only accompany the original proposition of Revelation. facts (3) that these external . A Manual of Catholic Theology. but that by means of the unity stability of the Church they are perpetuated in the same way as the promulgation of the Divine Word. SECT. 2. and excludes all doubt from his mind words. But this applies especially to the cases of children and uneducated persons. xi. that the certitude of the fact of Revelation should be invariably. chap. our Faith is also irrational. because we thereby fall into a vicious circle.124 CHAP. hand. our Faith is manifestly irrational. Whence it is that like a standard set up unto the nations (Isai. We do not. absolutely It is enough if it appears satisfactory to the perfect. and indeed chiefly. in each and every case. First of all it is evident that our Faith cannot be a III. in other believer. 12) she calleth to her them that have not yet believed. and even then it supposes that those persons .

. It must therefore be supported by public and Divine origin. and objective certitude. that c. Spec. p. . and by which He signifies to us His will consists effects. in Migne's Curs.. the external signs of the fact of Revelation. also Bishop Lefranc de Pompignan's contract ix. restricted to the person who feels them. 2 troversy with a Calvinist. torn. supernatural. Among the signs of the Divine origin of a doctrine must be reckoned the inner experiences of the believer. the first point to be established is the Divine mission of these witnesses. Cf. The proper criterion of the Divine origin of a verbal com- munication. Although in theory it would be conceivable that the first promulgators of the Faith who had their it was only mission attested by Divine signs. liable to illusions.. and also according to the teaching of the Church. upon whose humim testimony they rely have a perfect CHAP.] Faith. and that this fact should have been handed down to us in the same way as any other historical event.. that is. c. 1070. As God has ordained that His word should be proc r f posed to the faithful by the ministry of authentic witnesses. vi. God has ordained that the signs or criteria of Divine origin should uninterruptedly accompany the The fact of Revelation is preaching of His doctrine. iii. Haunold. and as might be expected from the nature of Faith and Revelation. because they are subjective. The effects of grace upon the soul are especially important. Theol. Adultes ignorants. as might be expected from the nature of the thing. in external.PABT n. Sur la Foi des Enfants et des . Human testimony has a place only in so far as it plain signs of 4. and can be felt only after the fact of the Revelation of the doctrine has been otherwise apprehended. 3. its Among purely human bears witness to the Divine facts connected with Revelation to those persons who cannot personally apprehend them. nevertheless. as a matter of fact. and Divine facts or which God intimately connects with the proposition of His Revelation. Theol. 1 i i i 1 Continuity of the Idbii ">ny. we should believe that He has spoken. 125 i. The Faith is proposed by public authority. Nevertheless. lib. these inner experiences cannot be either the exclusive or even the primary criteria of the Divine origin of a doctrine.. and exacts public and universal inner nave'th"?** p obedience.

without a continuous Divine approbation. excluding all feared g The certitude of the fact of Revelation must be in keeping with the firmness required by Faith. must be so evident as to generate a certitude excluding all doubt and a certitude sufficient to place a reasonable man fear of error under the obligation of adhering to it. Catholic theologians. does not mean that the evidence must be of the most perfect kind. This. *" i. discipline. work . and thereby the existence of a continual. but even at the present day sanctity. has therefore been most opportune. and worship invincible constancy in resisting the attacks of powerful enemies within and without for more than eighteen cenmiracles . and so became the prey of historical criticism. It is now of Faith " an enduring motive of credithat the Church herself is bility and an unimpeachable testimony of her Divine Her wonderful propagation. but the work of God. Christ's mission becomes such an isolated Some fact that its full significance cannot be grasped. 41 ' thereby brought home to us in a more lively. Besides. . such as prophecies and miracles. combined with their . When the Divine mission of the Church was denied. in spite of the mission. have not given enough prominence to the constant signs of Divine approbation which have accompanied the The Vatican definition Church's preaching in all ages. direct. and effective manner. as manifested in her Saints. however. her inexhaustible fertility in every sort of good her her unity in Faith. . in their endeavours to defend Christianity and the Church on purely historical grounds. when the Divine mission of portance even Christ Himself is the object of so many attacks. This question is of the greatest imat the present time. not only in her her eminent early years.126 CHAP. living testimony was rejected. A Manual of Catholic Theology. turies Certitude : all these are manifest signs that she is not the work of man. The proofs of so as to render denial absolutely impossible. Faith in the Divine mission of Christ thenceforth rested upon merely historical evidence. Hence all theologians teach that the demonstration of this fact from visible signs. the fact of Revelation may admit of unreasonable dissent. Our judgment on the as is manifest by daily experience. [BOOK I." greatest moral and physical difficulties.

like for. among those condemned by Innocent XI. he easily sees how incompatible it would be with the supreme perfection of God to give such positive indications of the existence for the authority of a revelation all. it is clear that the moral dispositions of the inquirer exercise the greatest influence upon such a If he has a love of truth. : " The will cannot make the assent of Faith more firm in . and firm confidence God's wisdom and providence. i. fc i. the truth." By the weight of reasons are meant the Motives of Credibility.] Faith. must wiity do not not be confounded with the Motive of Faith. itself than is demanded by the weight of reasons inducing " " us to believe. that be believed. It is possible to refuse assent to the fact of Revelation by rebelling against Divine authority. lead. in of His veracity. of which they are signs. On the other hand. v. Paul says. Occasional Sermons. Now. concerning the faith (i Tim. Newman. no interest in. and treating God as a deceiver. ix. and other signs by which The Motives 7. " Having faith and a good infidelity..<'- and authority . This explains the condemnation of Prop. Card.PART II. the signs and wonders appear command to believe and as pledges judgment. we prove the credibility of the fact of Revelation." is formed with reference to God's veracity God f2l. 12J It is credibility of the fact of Revelation worthy of belief CHAP. and if Dispositions for Faith. which is the SaSh.** The Motives of Credibility authority and veracity of God. or are not intended to prove a revelation." prophecies. therefore. which some rejecting have made shipwreck " Cf. " The do not produce the certitude of Faith they merely dispose. the rational certainty of which . conscience. a deep reverence and holiness of God. " . that is as indications of God's to say. miracles. or if he has a dishe is wanting in submission to God and confidence in Him. 19). good dispositions urge him unhesitatingly to accept the latter alternative. if in fact He had made no revelation : at The his God is and " Either inquirer is confronted with the dilemma " a deceiver or He has given a revelation to mankind . and herein consists the enormity of the sin of Hence St. he will endeavour to persuade himself that the signs do not come from God. and urge the mind to submit to the Divine authority. has revealed these things they must.

but also the contents. The latter are either communicated infallible directly by Church. our Mother. but also the things which have been 8. Faith a a " a v. i. is SECT. in which God makes Faith accessible to mankind is the authoritative teaching of the Church. 42. 43 neither the measure of the confidence with which the will clings to the contents and facts of Revelation. however. In the former case. It is. or even a part of the highest motive. The object of this teaching is not simply to convey to our minds the knowledge of revealed truth. we must know not only the fact. Faith is possible even without their being proposed by the Church. prompts him to of credibility. In order to : revealed. but to render " faith which cometh by hearing. she proposes detailed points of doctrine as a living and ever-present witness. of Revelation in other words. I. as a book would do. because more against our pride. adheres to them. [BOOK I. nor the measure of the firmness with which the intellect impelled will by the The ordinary Revelation. more difficult." upon which possible the the Apostle insists.rtue" Faith and Grace. SECT. God or are proposed by His By submitting to the testimony and authority of the Church. The Church sets before us the contents of Revelation as worthy of belief. we yield that obedience of Faith which is the result of our reverence for our Heavenly Father. and demands our assent thereto on the authority of God. rally able to perceive revealed truth when brought under his notice. but by so doing The act in the true spirit of Faith. authoritative teaching of the Church does we not supply an entirely independent motive of Faith. acts rather as an instrument or vehicle of the real motive. reverence and honour God. It is not absolutely impossible for man unaided by Man is natugrace to elicit an act of faith of some kind. The ordinary way. or the It highest motive. An act of faith of some kind . too. indeed. we must know not only that a Revelation has been made. elicit an act of Faith.128 CHAP. A Manual of Catholic Theology. and which is of the very essence of Faith. to submit to the Church than to God directly . and also the authority of God and the motives His moral nature.

and in a manner befitting the paternal must be substantially different from every act. . . the root and and also supernatural in foundation of man's salvation its mode (secundum modum or secundum quid] by reason . II. Who giveth to every man sweetness in assenting to and believing in the truth. destined to the Beatific Vision . sive essentiaui).its in quoted teaches directly that Faith Faith supernatural cause and in its object. . and must be capable of attaining transcending the natural order. by grace which raises nature to the supernatural order .] Faith.. Who and His children." A points Grace.PABT It. Hence the act itself must be super. . 129 But the act of Faith CHAP.. But theeffectofa .. the other comes from Medicinal Grace grace which makes up for the shortcomings of The Vatican Council teaches that Faith is a "supernatural virtue whereby we believe with the help of that is. the supernatural essence of the act of Faith consists in our accepting revealed truths in a manner befitting our dignity of adopted sons of God. complete explanation and proof of these various must be deferred till we come to the treatise on For our present purpose the following will be sufficient. therefore. and to call has deigned to speak to us as raise us to the most intimate . and it repeats the words of the Seventh God's grace " No man can Canon of the Second Council of Orange assent to the gospel preaching. possible. T-. in the manner requisite for salvation (sicut oportet ad salutem consequendam\ with. Speaking condescension of God. naturally i. intended and faculties. nature. inasmuch as it is the beginning. of the great difficulty which the embracing the Faith and accepting natural its man finds in consequences. transcends our natural : is. . " : out the light and inspiration of the Holy Ghost. is The definition just supernatural supernatural cause must communicate to the very act of Faith the worth which enables that act to attain a supernatural object. it merely natural an object generally. supernatural cause. natural . its commanded by God ^J 1- and is supernatural in two ways supernatural in very substance or essence (secundum substantiate. The first-named supernatural character is given by Elevating Grace that is..

and an anticipation and ibretaste of the supernatural knowledge in store for us in The supernatural essence of Divine the Beatific Vision. the hearing of an internal one. 45) the external revelation Son. intimately God the interwoven but still distinct efficient cause of Faith. so that Faith becomes as it were a participation of God's own Life and Knowledge. 42. A Manual of Catholic Theology. Faith is Divine. The acts must be supernatural. 17). union with Himself. one moral. [COOK f. and must there- be the result of the illumination and inspiration of Hence the illumination which gives the soul the immediate inclination and power to elicit a supernatural act of Faith is not the only one to be taken into account. and into a striving after its supernatural object in a manner commensurate and also in the union with the excellence of that object and assimilation of our knowledge with the Divine know. believer is and producing in the author of Faith as him subjective certainty. Gcd no one else can be. ledge. are supernatural from their very outset. preparatorydispositions IV. But more particularly it consists in the transformation of our sense of Faith (pius credulitatts affectus] into a filial piety towards God. : by purely external influences. Faith must be infused into the soul The by Divine light. Faith thus contains two elements. Holy Scripture teaches that Christian Faith requires an internal illumination in addition to the external revelation (Matt. the light of Faith have of the mind preceding the infusion of merely the character of pre- paratory dispositions or of co-operation enabling the light But even these acts of Faith to exert its own power. not only because its certitude based upon God's authority. SECT. The practical judgment " that we can and ought to believe" which precedes the " plus affectus" must itself be the result of a supernatural illumination. xvi. besides the hearing of the external word. but also because God is Himself is the efficient cause acting upon the mind of the III. . I. and the learning from an internal teacher (John is attributed to the visible It visible Father. and must be received irom the hand of God. the other intellectual.130 CHAP. fore the Holy Ghost. the internal to the infollows that Faith cannot be produced vi. and. nor can the mind of man produce it by his own natural exertions.

Nevertheless a natural knowledge of this same practical judgment must be prein order that the supernatural illumination may take place. as we have seen. The best way to explain this is to consider the natural judgment as merely speculative until the supposed itself Holy Ghost transforms it into an effective judgment determining the act of Faith. instinctive simply act. howHence the ever. According to the Vatican Council it is. and although God is its principal cause.PART IL] Faith. from the intellectual and moral conditions of our nature na and partly from the obligations which Faith imposes Without upon the intellect and will of the believer. The Council of Trent (sess. The Vatican a Free Act. although less important. it 13! could not produce a supernatural act of the CHAP. have not the same difficulty in believing. vi. nor a blind. morally impossible. The * illumination to us by external revelation. for God's assisting grace is not absolute but necessity relative. The secondary and relatively supernatural character Faith also 6 y of Faith. SECT. "an entire submission of the intellect and the will. Doctrine of the Councils . . essentially an act of obedience. Although so many external causes are brought to J bear on the act of Faith. chaps. the help of God's grace man could not surmount these difficulties. even in this respect. nor an act forced upon us by Divine grace or by the weight of demonstration. and Scripture. : Council further explains the Tridcntine doctrine in sess. 4-5) describes Faith as a "free movement towards God. at least so far as it repeats and animates internally the command to believe given otherwise will." implying a twofold operation hearing His outward word and receiving His inward inspiration. nevertheless the act of Faith is a Human Act and I. and consequently the act of Faith would be. E fl_43 has also the character of an internal word or call of God." It is therefore not a passive or receptive act. V. is nevertheless more lupe"action of the practical Faith is beset with difficulties arising partly apparent. varying with the moral and intellectual dispositions of the persons to whom Revelation in the is proposed. All men. Man's Co-operation a Free Act of Faith Faith A ct. i. 43.

assent of Christian Faith arguments. [COOK i. The Supreme Certitude of Faith. .132 CHAP.. Besides this primary liberty of Faith. 22 John Luke 45. . Matt. doubt and every Faith requires the fullest assent. excluding every fear of deception. xvi. of worship. Its childlike simplicity is really the highest sense. iv. to the supernatural order. ix. which always speaks of the act of Faith as act. Liberty of Faith supernatural. i. The non-cogency of the motives of credibility may be referred to three causes (a) the obscurity of the Divine testimony (inevidentia attestantis) (b] the obscurity of the contents of Revelation (c] the opposition between the obligations imposed upon us by Faith and the evil inclinations of our corrupt nature. . 21). The same is the necessary result of human doctrine may be gathered from Holy a free and moral the like : Scripture. and leads to the highest intellectual attainments. iii. Twofold liberty. 14. -44 It speaks of "yielding free obedience to chap. the freedom of the children of God. Hence act of Faith must be determined by an act of free every will. sqq. which allows the will to withhold its consent and leaves room for doubt and even denial. In eliciting the act of Faith man's freedom is elevated . and cf. This supernatural dignity and excellence lead to a supernatural and Divine freedom : of Faith its . whereas with every wind of doctrine " by the wickedness of men. The infidelity leads only to folly. 17. Rom. Matt. . xx. an act of obedience. 3-20 Gal. I. iv. e F&STthe iJMulmy.. and including the . . The Council of Trent also indicates the positive character of the free act of the will determining the act the will determines the act of Faith freely because moral dispositions move it to obey God. by cunning craftiness (Eph. Rom.. the full and perfect possession of the highest truth in the bosom of the Eternal Truth. there is also a secondary liberty. cf. to and fro and carried about " No more children tossed cer- SECT. 20 Mark x. Luke x. arising from the non-cogency of the motives of credibility. III. God." thus meeting the rationalistic assertion that the iii. n. " A Manual of Cathohc Theology. 3. of the mind. 29. the freedom from error and doubt. 27 iv. i.. 6. 44.

different No other faith answers to the excellence and infallible truth. but is certitude. The supreme firmness of Faith must likewise be distinguished from the incapability of being shaken which belongs to evident human knowledge. high degree of certitude which belongs to the The act of Faith is attained and completed by means of the supernatural light of Faith which pervades all the elements of the act. 133 i. than true. is essenmore perfect than the certitude of tially higher and The motive of Faith. is therefore to reject unconditionally any doubts or difficulAs theoloties arising from the exercise of our reason. which is the authority of more trustworthy than the light of our reason. as we have seen. That the certitude of Faith is supreme does not imply that all other certitude is untrustworthy. 2. science. The supreme that is certitude of Faith it nature to say. 1. E 44 fJ[_ force of God's Faith is thus essentially from mere opinion without certitude. must be made. In order to understand this. This light. unimpeachable evidence. gians say.PART IT. this certitude vividly than human certitude based upon motive. surmounting all doubts and rising above all other certainties (certitudo The Vatican Council. 4). or that we must be ready to resist evident human certitude apparently conflicting with the Faith. We are bound by which we obtain scientific certitude. super omnia). as it were. its is appreciative in its includes and results from a supreme appreciation of vividly than is any other less felt even not necessarily felt more As a rule. being. the certainty of Faith is supreme. a ray of the Divine The .] Faith. A real conflict between Faith light of and reason III. declares Faith to be a complete submission of the mind. 3. II. c. fullest conviction that what is believed cannot be other CHAP. God. a threefold distinction Explanation. tude of Faith. consisting in the perfect subjugation of the created inAnd the council also tellect to the uncreated Truth. enjoins the unconditional rejection of any scientific in- quiry at variance with the Faith (sess. and also The certifrom so-called practical or moral certitude. iii. is impossible. as regards the firmness of assent.

applied by mistake to propositions not revealed The Vatican Council. Hence. we ever. as distinct tive proposition of revealed truth. : duced from the external objecand also as distinct from the act of human faith. . The certitude produced by it is lible that its therefore Divine in every respect. Catholic plied by Faith carries with it the consciousness that it is Divine Faith produced by Divine light. In like manner the Council of Trent states that Faith affords a certitude which cannot have falsehood for its subject-matter (cut non potest The light of Faith cannot be misapplied subesse falsum}. " " The words illuminatae fidei signify the Faith as it is prosubject-matter. which cannot err. leading to fanaticism. to belief in error nevertheless it is possible for man to mistake an act of natural faith in a supposed revelation for a supernatural act elicited by the aid of the light of Faith. be destroyed by an abuse of our free-will.e. *^VP. participates in the Divine infallibility and cannot but illumine the truth. The supreme certitude of Faith implies that we * must have the will to remain true to the Faith without doubt or denial. Light. whereas the self-made faith of Protestants cannot assert itself as Divine without Faith irreformable. i. iv. every act of Faith is an irreformable act. -d Manual of Catholic Theology. Faith produced by Divine illumina" tion) we define to be altogether false (sess. and the firm conviction that it can never be given up on account of its turning out to be false. Council.. is erroneously thought to be are bound to reform faith which Divine but by God. the Faith of the Church. and posFaith can. Again. in the believer. iii. Some external criterion is needed whereby we may dis- Such a criterion is suptinguish the one from the other. after declaring how God co-operates in the acceptance of Faith and in perseverance " Wherefore the condition of those therein. concludes thus is : who have by the heavenly gift of Faith cleaved to Catholic truth is by no means on a footing with the condition of . [HOOK I. chap. howsesses a certitude that cannot be shaken.134 i. 4). and so absolutely infala real act of Faith can never have falsehood for This has been defined by the Vatican repeating the definition of the Fifth Lateran Council " Every assertion contrary to enlightened Faith (illuminates fidei.

Necessity of Faith. let him be anathema. led for those by human opinions. and must be based upon a supernatural Divine Revelation.] Faith. follow a false who have received the Faith under the just cause for " CHAP. until they shall have completed a scientific demonstration of the truth and credibility of their Faith. The latter always includes the former." Every one who embraces the Catholic Faith binds himself most " I promise most constrictly to adhere to it for ever. except on the score of ignorance. the council enacts. March 2. In infants the Habit of Faith is sufficient is . The act of Faith must be complete. E i. XL. to the last breath of my life" (Creed of Pius IV. Faith alone can give that knowledge of the supernatural economy of salvation which enables man to dispose his actions in harmony with his supernatural end. SECT. The Faith which is a necessary means of justification and salvation is Theological Faith.). Necessity I. by God's help. 135 religion . iii. Nor is Inchoate Faith sufficient that is. to retain and confess the same [Faith] entire and stantly inviolate. perfect in its kind. chap. but not vice versd.PART IT. 1679). The Necessity of Faith is twofold: a Necessity of Means and a Necessity of Precept. in the by God. 3). so that Catholics can have just cause for calling in doubt the Faith which they have received under the Church's teaching. This. those who. faith founded on the testimony which creatures give of God's existence and providence is not enough (see prop. directed against the doctrines of Hermes.. xxiii. And in Canon 6. teaching ^_4 ^- of the Church can never have any changing or calling the Faith in doubt (sess. condemned by Innoc. broad sense of the word that is. in those who have reached the use of reason some act required bearing in some way on the economy Faith. "If any one shall say that the condition of the Faithful is on a footing with that of those who have not yet reached the one true Faith. not extending beyond a of salvation as revealed willingness and readiness to believe. 45. No excuse can be made for any breach of fidelity.. a faith in the germ. . Every doubt against the Faith must unhesitatingly be rejected as sinful.

A fundamental condition of all our dealing with Him. disA>. i). in this sense. after is Christ's economy J not mdis- necessary. obtained their justification and salvation by means of Faith. Peter Chrysologus states. 5ECT^4 i.136 CHAP. easy to understand how eternal salvation should have become impossible for those who are unable to arrive at an explicit knowledge of Christian Revelation. is the Providence. and this belief is as much above our natural knowledge as is the belief in God the Rewarder. A Manual of Catholic Theology. some allusion to the words spoken by God to Abraham " " I am thy protector and thy reward exceeding great reason t j_^ t : . not in the abstract. as of Abraham. xi. yiverai] a rewarder to them that seek i. 6) to prove Abel and Henoch. it is not sary condition of salvation. S. as St. existence of God. but as being our God. They suffice to enable man to that. . in His death and resurrection. pensable. [BOOK 1." refer to the (Gen. Theologians rightly conclude from Heb. The two points of Faith mentioned in this text are indispensable. then the words He is" correspond with this article. and Him. just as the words "that He is a rewarder to them that seek Him " correspond with the last " article. that their Faith was founded upon a positive Divine Revelation " Without Faith it is impossible to please God for he that cometh to God [to serve Him] must believe that He is. like Abraham. iv. Life everlasting. as leading us on to salvation under the care of His paternal belief in His existence. pre-Christian times. It is an in open * the economy. because they are the two poles on which There is probably the whole economy of salvation turns. : Hence the words. sect. the first article of the Apostles' Creed ex" that presses belief in God as our Father. Faith question A Christian whether.). The best solution of the difficulty would seem to be that given by Suarez (De Fide. -uthin is adduced by the Apostle (Heb.. the two points there mentioned were alone necessary to be expressly believed. If. 6 at least in tend by hope and charity towards salvation. xv. as a necesOn the other hand." is [becomes. " that He is." xi. Many texts in Holy Scripture seem to demand Faith in Christ. xii. The texts demand- . Faith in the Christian God as the Source of 2. how far coming. although Holy Scripture does not say of them.

. Under extraordinary circumstances. 3-8. 2. Faith the Blessed Trinity. aa. that is. we implicit desire receive. So. and done is not explicitly known. and the necessity of Baptism closely are connected like together. The Necessity of Precept "/^Tpt* extends conditionally arising from the command to believe to the whole of Revelation. 2 X q. AVC are bound to believe it explicitly. however. Faith and Hope a in the Christian economy of salvation (see St. the obligation II. q. that there It is the general opinion of theologians a grave obligation to know the contents of the Apostles' Creed. Thorn. The implicit wish and willingness to believe in Christ must be accompanied by and connected with an explicit Faith in Divine Providence as and this Faith implies having a care of our salvation tion. Baptism. especially as Faith in Christ. and all that is required for the worthy reception of the Sacraments is and for !l Thorn. the ordinary normal means of salvation.. Every Christian. 2. is bound to know explicitly those revealed truths which are necessary for leading a Christian life and for the fulfilment of the duties of his state. Cf. The Faith in these mysteries is. varies with the circumstances of the individual. too. the mere implicit desire (votuni) suffices. a. the implicit desire to believe in Christ and the Trinity must be deemed sufficient. ^^i45 interpreted more rigorously than those referring to the ' in necessity of Baptism. 2 proper participation in public worship. There is no positive law concerning them. the Lord's Prayer. 137 ing Faith in Christ and the Blessed Trinity must not be CHAP. As soon as we know that a truth has been revealed. and to do whatever By " " mean is the desire to needful for salva- although what is to be received. 7). . 2 2. believed. the Decalogue. St.J Faith.PART IT. however. The number of revealed truths which we are bound to know and and abilities believe explicitly. to believe. with the commentaries thereon . i. when the actual reception of Baptism is impossible.

pious. For our . consequently. Against these errors the Vatican Council teaches : that some understanding of mysteries is possible. CHAP. SECT. and sober inquiry. she attaineth. by God's gift." forth that this understanding is Then the Council and : sets less clear less perfect " than Still she understanding of things natural is never rendered fit to perceive them in the same (Reason) way as the truths which are her own proper object. of all times have held that no understanding is Agnostics possible of things beyond the sphere of natural reason. that supernatural truths can be demonstrated by reason. 46. WE have now to consider how- far we can understand ticn. and that Faith can be replaced by knowledge. and. the supernatural truths or mysteries which we believe on Rationalists and the authority of God and the Church. and in modern times Giinther and Frohschammer. pretending that reason adds a certitude to Faith. Vatican aeniutioii. [BOOK i. Other theologians allow the co-existence of Faith with knowledge. and it " When Reason enlays down its conditions and rules lightened by Faith maketh diligent. CHAPTER II.158 A Manual oj Catholic Theology. Doctrine of the Vatican Council on tJie Understanding of Faith. n. were of opinion that nothing is beyond the grasp of human reason. most fruitful knowledge of mysteries. both from the analogy of things naturally known and from the relation of mysteries with one another and with the end of man. I. Abelard and some theologians of the thirteenth century. FAITH AND UNDERSTANDING. new II.

contemplates a magnificent cycle. Practical illustrations of this theory will be found in every chapter of the following treatises for the harmony of the whole. IV. as in this it long as III. The Understanding of Faith has. as are absent from the Lord. a moral rather than a purely logical character. mortal then. .. Faith. which is also the last end of man. . CoroiiaHe. 4). comparing the mysteries with one another. qucerens intellectutri) mind to things Divine seeking after understanding (fidzs first adapts the natural notions of the likenesses between the by determining the analogies or two orders. An understanding is thus obtained of the several mysteries varying in perfection with the perfection of the analogical conceptions. so far surpass CHAP. therefore. 1 39 it the Divine mysteries. the created intellect that. The Understanding of Faith cannot lead to any independent certitude. for " we walk by faith and not by sight (sess. by their very nature. nor can it afford any additional certitude to the certitude of Faith. and grouping them in the order determined by the principle of causality. facilitate Results of standing""* Its only effect is to and strengthen the act of Faith by removing apparent difficulties.] Faith and Understanding. hidden by a cloud. beginning and ending with God. even when conveyed by Revelation and received by Faith. chap. Further. life we were. iii. Unity is given to this noble cosmos of supernature by the terminus to which every part of it is directed the glory of God in the Beatific Vision. and corresponds with the pious Its moral dispositions of the will which incline to Faith. and constituted after the manner of a living organism. . and by inducing the mind to accept truths so beautifully in harmony with one another and with the Nature of God and the nature of man. persuasiveness is felt more as regards the first principles of the supernatural order its logical persuasiveness is more manifest in connection with inferred truths. see the Division of the work given at the end of the Introduction.PART II. enlightened by Faith. the mind. they remain covered by the veil of the Faith and.

only when it shows not merely that the thing is (quia est. The immediate stitnw . theological conclusions are organically connected with the Understanding of Faith. as such. from the knowledge of the revealed principles from which it starts. If we consider that the conclusion cannot be stronger than the gical conclusions weaker of the premises. the natural reason*:. It is an open question whether the certitude of theolo-* science. On the other hand. Sm). Revealed truths. and the result of two distinct factors is therefore essentially different from and inferior to our This kind of certitude certitude of one of the premises. But since Faith. SECT. just like natural truths. as distinguished from human or In the domain of natural science.140 CHAP II A Manual of Catholic Theology. A further object it. [BOOK I. on the one hand. distinct. certitude with which is When we adhere to the conclusion of an an extension of our certitude of the only argument But in the domain of premises. from which other truths may be logically in- so used. can be used as principles ferred. Hence Theological Knowledge differs. is to evolve from Faith a wider and deeper knowledge rooted in Faith but not formally identical with and having a certitude of its own similar to the certitude of Faith. but also why and wherefore it is (jtropter quid sit. it would seem that theological conclusions are only humanly or naturally certain. Nature of g cal I. su^r*' is supernatural or merely natural. Theological Knowledge. but not exactly of the same kind. SECTM?. from which . these revealed truths are called Theological Reasons. Like natural . on the other hand. 47. its certitude it has complete scientific value only when its demonstrations are based on principles which are the real objective causes of the conclusions in other words. from philosophical or natural is science and. we have between simple Faith and Theological Knowledge. and comparatively perfect notion of what he must believe. II. our certitude of the conclusion of an argument is Faith Faith and reason.' is to present to the mind of the object of the Understanding of Faith believer a true. ort). . called Theological Certitude. and is of the same kind. requires us to know only what here another difference its subject-matter is.

rightly understood. SECT. 48. 141 they spring as their root. This. collection eminent degree. A science pure and simple should not merely a Theology* sc of facts or truths. and that consequently these latter can no more possess true theological science than supernatural Faith. Besides. Its subjective principle of cognition is one. the contingent facts of which it considered in so far as they eternally exist in treats are the all-commanding will of God. God. and its subject-matter is one. and concertitude more sacred and inviolable than any human science. The true theologian looks loving disposition upon the rational minor premise less as a partial motive - than as a means whereby he arrives at the full comprehension of the major premise. as for . will likewise extend His grace to the assent which the theologian gives to similar concluAt any rate. SE 48 f3l_ expansion. but a complete system orlinked together by fixed laws and reducible to ganically Theology fulfils these conditions in an objective unity. I. all this goes to prove that the assent sions. Science. n. that Theological Knowledge. in its principles clusions. should deal only with necessary. In this sense also theology is eminently a science. truths. Its primary object. the supreme substantial unity. to theological conclusions is of a higher character than the assent of heretics and infidels founded upon human motives. God. but with the ideas and laws that govern and connect such phenomena. and many of them.PART IL] Faith and Understanding. would mean that science is not concerned with the transient and changeable. enjoys a We see. and particular. They are also supported by the pious and to believe. and universal not with what is contingent. be. Created things are dealt with only in as far as they tend towards God and are factors or elements of the Divine order of things. too. Scientific Character of Theology. temporal. is necessary and eternal. Who preserves His Church from error when she proposes theological conclusions for our belief. it is sometimes said. viz. and rules over all things. and that every human certitude not intrinsically and extrinsically perfect must give way to theological conclusions perfectly ascertained. eternal. God. and of which they are a natural CHAP.

Theology.. Contra Gentes. however. indeed. and its notions are analogical. are guaranteed of all the sciences. natural is its primaiy. of God and His eternal ideas. universality. See St. especially when they matter long in by the Church. Objectively. too. viz. So. does its subject-matter. however. Thtoio^y a Theology is a peculiar it distinct *"'. lll49 instance the birth of Christ. from God's omniscience. and therefore can throw knowledge But the superlight on everything that can be known. because its evidence is not direct. the dignity and excellence of a science depend upon the dignity. 4 . because this defect . therefore. Theology i among the Sciences. It is. rheoiogy the noblest science. nay eternal importance.. and so possess as it were a universal character. TJie p. sciences do. does not makes prevent Theology from including in its domain many truths It derives its which also belong to the other sciences. Thorn. does not degrade Theology. is i_ both subjeci and objectively the highest and noblest of all sciences. I. tion The and separate science by reason of cognition and its peculiar peculiarity of its principle of cogni- a science generically distinct from all other sciences.142 CHAP. The and for natural belongs to theology only in certain respects a special purpose. the excellence of a science is measured by the degree of certainty which it affords. inferior to some of the sciences as regards clearness and distinctness. Idea of a University. SECT. 430.e. This. E ii. of its principle subject-matter. in so far as what is natural is related to the supernatural order. i. Subjectively. II. are of lasting. which embraces the whole supernatural dl-der. Rank of . possesses the highest cerMoreover. it is also the most profound and thorough titude. Theology. does not deal with the subject-matter of the other sciences in the same way and with the same exhaustiveness as these Card. But Theology. and proper subject-matter. c. ' A Manual of Catholic Tlieology. direct. ii. Newman. as it demonstrates all its contents on the ground of Eternal Reasons (rationes ceternce). 1. both in its principles and conclusions. and unity of its subjecttively three attributes which we have just shown to bean eminent degree to the subject-matter of Theology. 49. This. [BOOK I. by reason of the excellence of its subjectj r r il matter and of its principle of knowledge.

] Faith and Understanding. indeed. 77/i? three great branches of Theology Funda- mental. following the example Holy Scripture. The wisdom of this world is styled Philosophy.). (2) how T we are to know the things that have been revealed (3) what are the things that have been revealed and (4) what tion. I.PART if II. Human reason. Hence the name of Wisdom is given in many passages of Holy Scripture to the know." because to him it was the noblest science. pressed by styling Theology the Transcendental Science . Theology may be said to be the science of Revela. . a love of and seeking after wisdom but it is Theology alone that is the true Wisdom itself. it is clear are the groundwork of 3 and 4 that 3 is . Positive. n it be SK 50 f3l even a proof of the dignity of Theology. p. have already mentioned the various branches of Theology (Introduction. By this is meant a knowledge far Theology wisdom. Now.Three us (i) that there is a Revelation. or Divine Wisdom {Sapientid). and what the indrawn from them. It tells . endeavours to attain a knowledge fulfilling these conditions. a knowledge dealing with the highest principles and most exalted things. i. ledge contained in or developed from Faith (see especially i Cor. . xvii. of II.). We t"y of are the relations ferences that can be that I and 2 between these things. for. CHAP. common knowledge. The Fathers and theologians. . SECT. because it is a consequence of the exalted character of supernatural This supreme excellence may be fitly exknowledge. We are now in a position to speak of them in detail. and Speculative. and ii. 50. and yet with the greatest certitude perfecting the mind and elevating it to God the highest Good and ultimate End of all enabling us in the practical order to direct all our actions and tendencies above . that is. 143 is amply atoned for by other excellences. wherefore Aristotle called Metaphysics " Wisdom. towards their proper object Eternal Beatitude. borne up by Faith and the pious boldness of Faith. it really attains what a godless and reckless modern science such is and - vainly strives after. express the peculiar dignity of Theology by terming it Wisdom pure and simple.

As soon as we know that God has spoken we naturally ask. . and Inspired Writers (Heb. 20 Acts xiv. Now the business of Fundamental Theology to prove the trustworthiness of these records. i. and has worked supernaturally. II. mental. . her eminent sanctity. of a positive character that is. by her wonderful propagation. xiii. i. 1-9). and indirectly through 14. Those who Prophets. 15 . and for the various miracles that God has indeed " at fertility in all that is good. . originally heard God or PI is envoys were con- vinced of the Divine origin of what they heard. Positive. ." and spoken But the evidence for the fact of afterwards by His Son. that branch of Philosophy called Natural Theology. We have before our eyes a plain proof that God has spoken. 2). and then were able to it infer that these really came from God. The Catholic Church herself. Revelation is not merely a matter of history. Apostles. They of unaided reason. and so to establish sundry times and in divers manners in times past to the fathers by the Prophets. is a standing unanswerable argument of her Divine origin and mission.144 CHAP. Those who lived in after ages had first to be convinced of the truth of the record of these sayings and doings handed down by word of mouth or by writing. Fundaand Speculative. The existence and attributes of God are proved in three great branches of Theology : come within the province supernatural ii. dealing with fact and that 4 is more subtle and metaphysical than the others. i. and need no . . How are we to find out the things that He has revealed ? This question was the turning-point of the her inexhaustible : . Revelation to manifest them (Rom. by the working of miracles and the fulfilment of prophecies. [BOOK I. 14-16 Wisd. The dogmatic constitution published in the third session of the Vatican Council summarizes the scope and function of Fundamental Theology under four headings (i) God the Creator of all things (2) Revelation (3) Faith (4) Faith and Reason. -A Manual of Catholic Theology. But God has freely bestowed upon us a higher way of knowing Him and His dealings with man. ii. to examine the evidence is and prophecies. Hence we have FondaTheology. He has spoken directly by His own voice and the voice of His Son.

j Theology. usually called Polemical or Controversial Theology. inasmuch as the question concerns the very basis of our belief but it is more . and those made by Rationalists on the very existence of Revelation. will allow. Its proper function is to estabthe truths of Revelation. both Apologetic and Controversial. and strives thereby to get a deeper insight into it and into them. and not to penetrate into their and deeper meaning and mutual relations. SECT. After having established that God has made a ? sit ve & Theologj Revelation.] Faith and Understanding. Deists. Atheists. have naturally drawn off attention from this profound and sublime study. but with comparing revealed truths and entering into their Theology. views it in connection with other dogmas. The other branch of Fundamental Theology is some- times designated Apologetic Theology.). . and so on with the other great mysteries. very essence as far as reason. in the sixteenth century. that God raised man to the supernatural order. n. 50. 145 controversy between the Catholics and the Protestants CHAP. It examines the various sources of Revelation. it tells us that in God there are Three Persons. Speculative Theology starts where Positive Theology ends Positive Theology proves a dogma Speculative Theology : . our next step is to inquire what these things are. IV. The noblest branch of Theology is that which is inner those who Speculative concerned. The deep and many-sided insight which it gives into things Divine is itself a most desirable enrichment of L . not with proving the contents of Revelation.PART II. Positive Theology takes for granted all that has been proved by Fundamental III. written and unwritten . The branch of Theology that deals with it may be styled fundamental. But treat of it do not restrict themselves to the former task. But at the present time signs are not wanting that it is once more being cultivated. that flesh man fell. but make excursions into the higher region. iv. and after having discovered the means of knowing the things that He has revealed. that God lish the Son took and died for us. and others. The attacks made by Protestants on the Rule of Faith. and was decided by the Council of Trent (sess. examines it closely. guided by Faith. because its function is to defend Revelation against Rationalists.

without value. Positive Theology proves that it has been revealed that there are three Persons in God. c. God exists. TheoL. . chap. Apologetic Theology proves that to us truths above our reason. diss. enabling us to participate more fully in the It is also of help to our bi essm g s anc fru ts O f the Faith. Relation between Reason 1-1 T-> and Faith. I and 5. its certainty. 4. the mind. proves to us that 2. not indeed by increasing senting revealed truths to better advantage in the light which they throw on one another. and in the harmony of Even against heretics it is not their mutual relations. There . sophy. These 8 applied"?" e t gma he Tmuty. vol. viz. which is really a branch of Philo. Speculative Theology teaches us how One Divine Essence is possessed by Three distinct Persons. like Faith. SECT^JI. 1. TTT I... iv. Rationalistic 51. An example will perhaps help us to understand the We take various distinctions spoken of in this section. iii. and profound speculative theologians. that One Person possesses It as uncommunicated a Second possesses It as communicated by knowledge and a Third possesses It as communicated by love. of the last three centuries have been at the same time 1.. ii. but by preFaith. . notably in Book we II... On all these points Speculative Theology renders The great controversialists great service to the truth. ]sj atura i j Theology. 2 Kleutgen. It also lays the foundation of Faith. V.. where of the Trinity. See Canus.146 CHAP. we strive to penetrate into the mystery SECT. xii. in the falsification of true notions. viii. Their chief strength lies in the confusion of ideas.1 i ar>d aids in the development of revealed doctrines. shall rise Part II. A | Manual of j Catholic Theology. Occasionally into Speculative Theology. has its own proper subjectmatter and province. 5. and in the abuse of logic. the dogma of the Blessed Trinity. Controversial Theology proves that the testimony and authority of the Catholic Church is the means of finding out what God has revealed. We repeat in this place that the present manual deals . He has revealed 3. Human -. chiefly with Positive Theology. i -laims n mn ' by the council reason. [BOOK i.

Reason a domain of its own. certitude (2) the right of human reason to hold its scientific conclusions. its supernatural character. that on purely natural principles and with purely natural . As both Faith and Reason come from God. but also invade the proper domain of Faith for old ones. Faith. 2. tions principles upon which the relabetween Faith and Reason are based are stated by the Council to be the following is a principle or source of knowledge.. condemned (i) The right to treat of same way as natural truths. however. but that all the dogmas of the Faith can be understood and proved from natural principles by reason duly cultivated : let him be anathema.PART is. "If any one shall say that in Divine Revelation no mysteries properly so-called are contained. If any one shall say that it can come to pass that time. II. a certain territory which common Reason and Faith. higher in dignity than reason. It is plain that these claims not only entirely emancipate Reason from the control of Faith. three are canons the principal claims of the : Rationalists revealed truths in the is. too. and i. n. 51. although at variance with revealed doctrine. If any one shall say that human sciences are to be treated with such freedom that their assertions. according to the progress of science. and independently of the authority of Church and (3) the right to substitute new meanings . chap. and cannot be proscribed by the Church let him. is 147 to both CHAP. and likewise having its own proper domain. relations of the two. : " " 3. 4). is a principle possesses of knowledge." etc. they : The fundamental . Hence we must consider the mutual This subject has been clearly ex- pounded by the Vatican Council (sess. notwithstanding their opposition to the revealed doctrines. in and destroy II.] Faith and Understanding. iii. 1. a meaning should be attributed to the dogmas proposed by the Church other than that which the Church hath understood at some and doth understand In these : let him. can be received as true. 2. Fundaprincfpies. so that we need only quote and explain what is there laid down. etc. the definitions of Faith. SECT.

I. See Dr. indeed. by contributing to the understanding of its subject-matter.I4& SECT. and " take into her service what they teach (prol. the latter should rule all the other sciences. and only apparently reasonable. Again. Faith and its theological development are the highest science. HI. its legitimate conclusions or legitimate only a false liberty or licence that is inconsistent with submission to Faith. 51. [BOOK i. CHAP. n. human not interfere with freedom. Faith and Reason combine for mutual aid and support. idea in his splendid work. The Seraphic Doctor develops the same (Prol. and she constructs as it were a ladder. and are the supreme object and highest end towards which the activity of man can be " : same doctrine thus Philosophy is Theology. i). the lowest rung of which is on earth. Clemens. Hence a Catholic has the right and the duty to reject any such assertion or conclusion as soon as he is informed by the infallible teaching of the Church that his Faith is really illuminated. Reason the handmaid of Faith. This influence of Faith on Reason implies. Sent. Reason assists Faith by demonstrating the credibility of Faith. Bonaventure Theology takes from nature the materials to make a mirror in which Divine things are reflected. q. Faith it by rescuing from many errors. Reductio artium ad Thcologiam. cannot be opposed to each other. is of service to Reason. these two principles the Council infers that any conclusion or assertion opposed to illuminated (supernatural) Faith is altogether false." That is to say. but does science. even in the domain of and by guiding it to a profounder and 'more comprehensive knowledge of natural truths. On the other hand. in I. yet in such a way that each retains its own proper character and comparative inde- pendence. Thomas expresses the that the end of the whole of Seeing lower than and is ordained to the end of directed. 3. a certain weakness and dependence on the part of Reason. or arrive at contradictory conclusions. and the highest in Heaven" : St. and by developing it into theological science. And St. A From Manual of Catholic Theology. Breviloq^. De Scholasticorum sententia : PJiiloso- . " a. The relations between Reason and Faith can be summed up in the well-known formula " Reason is the It is : hand-maiden of Faith.

mean the due combination of Aristotelian. and its history. vi. Its principles and conclusions are Catholic when they agree with Faith. . 1 49 pJiiam esse ancillam Theologies : Kleutgen. other. cap. in its principles. in a certain sense. n. (See the interestbetween Plato and Aristotle. stitute for it a totally new or different system must be viewed with distrust. so much the more as all modern attempts of the kind have miserably failed. sopher at a fuller guided by the doctrines of Faith. Newman. be true and sound nevertheless. of this combined system is a guarantee of the truth of its main Hence any attempt to subprinciples and conclusions. vol. Its spirit is Catholic when the philois Philosophy Christian. The Fathers recogGod preparing the way for By Socratic philosophy we built.. The use which the Church has made. Card. in St.PART iij Faith and Understanding. and became the foundation upon degree times. In Socratic philosophy attained a high pre-Christian of perfection. prove that its proper philosophy. and when they can be used in In other words. to a certain extent. Idea : of a University.. and prepares the way for the scientific development of supernatural truths. philosophy is speculative theology. Christian and Catholic in its spirit. and Catholic when it is really true and sound Christian Non-Christian philosophy can indeed. and continues to make. its two forms. which Christian philosophy nized in this fact the is Hand of the science of the Gospel. the nature of the science itself. although it has sometimes given more prominence to one than to the other. 428. Platonic and These two correct and supplement each ing parallel and should not be separated. . iv. Franzelin. Hence it follows that philosophy must be. Append.. Thorn. when he aims knowledge of the natural truths contained in Revelation. Christian philosophy Opusc. De Trad.. 3 1 5 sqq. or at least do not clash with it. p. De Substantiis Separatist) blends them together. and in its conclusions. IV. development is dependent on its Christian spirit.

identifies us with them. spiritual science I give thee thanks. I. The us into most intimate connection with the mysteries of the Faith.. . and Wisd. 17). light in A supernatural These is Theology. place needed to ties assist the mind naturally inherent in difficulties overcoming the dimcula knowledge of supernatural in .. Theology as a Sacred Science. 25 and hast revealed them cf.. to little ones (OTTO o-o^wv KOI " (v>)7n'o<c. Eph. and judice. that it contributes more to the perfection of than the best-developed but unassisted natural abilities. This life brings 3. " Newman. xi. keeps them continually before our mind.. because thou hast hid these things from the wise and " prudent 4). The Divine " assistance required for their removal " often mentioned in His unction teacheth you of all things cf. i. . " Both : subject to the influence of passion and presorts of difficulties are alluded to by the Apostle The sensual (^/vx tK c) m ^n : : things that are of the Spirit of (77Vi^ar<icwc) God for perceiveth not these it is foolishness to it him. i." " xiii. On Implicit and Explicit Reason viii.150 CHAP. effective. to produce that purity of disposition and humility of heart which are indispensable for all moral and religious knowledge." influence of the Holy Ghost on our spiritual r reaches its perfection when He diffuses in our knowledge soul the supernatural life of Divine Love. as it Divine charity. arise its from the nature of the notions from the sensible human mind. Oxford University Sermons. ii. SECT^ Divine needed II 5 2. 1 1. 8.. . O Father. A Manual of 52. which draws world. Catholic Theology. auvirwv). Hence children and uneducated people sometimes have a clearer perception of the mysteries of the Faith than persons calling themselves philosophers.. is spiritually examined. mind ... and he cannot understand because ii. is . at least morally. and.. (i John 27 Again.g. in the first things.. charity Natural Inference. is (Trvsu/iarticoe) man judgeth e. chap. Matt. Scripture. things" Cor. all But the (i spiritual 14. and especially for a knowThis assistance is often so ledge of the supernatural.. 15). Lord of heaven and earth. SECT. . the action of the Holy Ghost is required. [BOOK I. illumination of the . which is were. v. Card. influence of Divine Grammar of Assent.

remodelled or improved. Eph. definite. for instance. Nature and Object of this * /- . . . by means of which God manifests Himself in a marvellous manner. &E< It transforms the elementary ^_53 ledge of spiritual things.] Faith and Understanding. is also productive of increased know. the perfectibility of the human mind. and indeed the necessity. . of progress Origin of result in general from the inexhaustible riches ThfoTo^y" of revealed truths. human sciences. 14. the wise dispensation of Providence which gradually evolved Revelation. indeed. The spiritual contentment produced by Charity in the soul helps us to understand the perfect harmony existing between revealed truth and the noblest aspirations of our nature. 2 Cor. and clear (2) erroneous opinions held by some may be corrected and (3) demonstration and defence may be tive progress is : uncertain.PART II. Charity gives a keenness to the spiritual eye. 16-18 53. Beauty inasmuch as He is the principle of the greatest mysteries the more we love the better we understand the love of others. and lastly from the necessity of combating heresy and infidelity. in certain auxiliary branches of research because its limits have already been fixed by the fact that Revelation has been closed. in pro - gr purely rational principles it cannot give up or alter anything which has once been defined it cannot discover for it . I Cor. progress is made chiefly in the correction of partially held erroneous opinions. and fixes it upon the Divine Love Charity gives us a sense of the Divine and Sweetness Chanty likens us to God Himself. understanding into a perfect Wisdom which is a foretaste " and beginning of the Beatific Vision. iii. . 151 fruitful of good works. SECT.CHAP. T. . The in Theology possibility. 16.1 Theology. n. rf. 13 . Posipossible in three directions only (i) what is or obscure may be made certain. ii. III. Progress of Theological Science. any new province except. . The fire of Divine Charity is naturally accompanied by a Divine light. Speaking generally. Progress in Theology necessarily differs from pro. iii. . can gress never desert the standpoint of Faith so as to substitute II. sqq. Progress in Theology is not as constant and steady i ts cours*. . indefinite.

on the abilities of individual members of the Church. Mathematics. In Spain. theology attained an . as though they were still uncertain. Syllabus. and history progress more steadily than Theology. sophy based on the negation of first principles. for the purpose of discovering for his own benefit or for that of unbelievers the grounds upon which they are based. that is.) reason. to the vital To do would be an insult to But a comparison of the state of Theology in Germany and Spain shows century. doubting them until natural science has proved them to be true (as Hermes did) or hypothetically. because the fundamental principles of Theology are fixed. In recent times the enemies of Theology. some in oi its less r science a " prudent friends. In both cases the principle of the Faith is denied. its principles. less the rejection of the method scholastic theologians. On the whole. no progress is possible except on the basis of previously acquired results. Liberalism is opposed to authority because it looks upon It demands unauthority as an obstacle to progress. and principles of the old A third is form of liberalism. Epochs of profound theological learning have been succeeded by epochs of comparative sterility. have tried to give sacred " basis. xiii. in the sixteenth when the Congregation of the Index ruled supreme over theological science. accepting them. and also because the assistance of the it Holy Ghost. serious than the other two. (See this power of the Church and to Divine Providence. Nevertheless Theology advances more steadily than Philosophy. A Manual of Catholic Theology. the natural sciences. and progress in Theology is rendered as impossible as progress in a philo. because theology depends. preserves IV.152 CHAP. [BOOK I. ii. because they deal with fixed formulas and facts. prop. that is. and even from straying i i mean*. limited freedom in its methods. Besides. J its con- ditions and far from the truth. The only permissible doubt is Methodic Doubt. but subject to scientific ratification (Gtinther). as progress in dogma. much more t jian dogma. and its conclusions. that progress results not from licence but from authority. A Catholic theologian may treat of the truths which he firmly -believes. working through the Church. SECT'S. liberal Liberalism in Theology consists its r 1 i questioning principles either categorically.

153 unparalleled height of splendour. par J. de la Thfologie Positive. Theology was in a pitiable state of decay. the authority of the Church (4) prudence in the use of auxiliary sciences hostile to the Church . . Turmel e Catholique au XIX Sitcle. See Hist. and thoroughness of method.] Faith and Understanding. par J. when freedom of thought flourished. Bellamy. La . and (5) exactness . . The true conditions of a fruitful progress in Theology are: (i) a firm adhesion to the Faith (2) the acceptance of the progress already made (3) a willing submission to .PART IT. In Germany. during the CHAP. BB " " ^_ eighteenth century.

.

II.BOOK GOD. .

opposing the Unity to the Trinity. While." God and " Of God as Three " Deo Trino\ we shall here .THE natural and usual division of the treatise on God is founded upon the Unity of the Divine Substance and the Trinity of the Divine Persons. the Divine Internal Activity. then the Divine Life. whereby the One Substance is communicated to the Three Divine Persons. as One. lastly. however. as is done in the division " Of (De Deo Uno. and. De connect them organically by first studying the Existence and Nature of God.

Contra Eunonium . De Deo . and Theophil. Expositio materiaria eorum qua de Deo a theologis dicuntur (Bibl. De The completest Gregory of Nyssa. Alexander of Hales and St. Theol.. Kleutgen. Kuhn. Billot. Lugd.( 157 > PART GOD CONSIDERED THE AS I. Franzelin. They enter more into detail in their polemical writings on the Trinity and Incarnation. ONE IN SUBSTANCE. and. Fathers treat of God as One when they speak of Creation against pagans and Manichaeans. St.. De Trinitate. above all. Naturalis. Schwetz. Divinis. Literature. Hilary. Thomas (/. qq. St.). Thomassinus. De Divinis Nominibust with the commentary by St. Berlage. Perfectionibus Moribusque theologians of the present time the best treatises are by Staudenmaier. Patrum. Reynaud. Of the countless modern writers we need only name Lessius. Petavius. Maximus the Confessor.g. Augustine. In the Middle Ages St. xxi. Anselm's Monologium was an epoch-making work. The best collections of texts from the Fathers on this question are those of John of Cyprus. torn. and Janssen. and Frassen. 2-26) contain copious materials. De Among . St. Pesch. patristic treatise on God as One is that of Dionysius the Areopagite (so-called). St. Trinitate . : Basil. especially against the Arians e.

158

A

Manual of

Catlwlic

Theology.

[BOOK U.

CHAPTER

I.

OUR KNOWLEDGE OF
A.

GOD.

NATURAL KNOWLEDGE OF GOD.

SECT.
CHAP.
SECT.
Natural
I.

54.

Natural Knowledge of God considered generally.

I.

THE

54.

God was denned by

Catholic doctrine on man's natural knowledge of the Vatican Council " Holy Mother
:

knowledge
of

God

possible.

Church doth hold and teach that God, the beginning and end of all things, can certainly be known from created for the invisible things by the natural light of reason of Him from the creation of the world are clearly things
'

;

being understood by the things that are made (Rom. i. 20). ... If any one shall say that the One true God, our Creator and Lord, cannot be certainly known by the natural light of human reason from the things that are
'

seen,

made, let him be anathema (sess. iii., De Fide Cat/wlica, ch. 2 and the corresponding can. ii. i). Holy Scripture, upon which the council's definition is
based, teaches the
ROM.
from Heaven against
i.

"

same doctrine

in

many
all

passages.
xiii.
(fj.dra.ioi
/uf

Wisu.
is

For the wrath of God
all

revealed

But
there
is

men

are vain

ungodliness and injustice of those men that detain the truth of God in injustice (ver. 18) ;

yap irdvTes

&vQptairoi <f>virei), in

whom
:

not the knowledge of

God

(For professing themselves to be wise
they became fools, and they changed the glory of the incorruptible God
into the likeness of the
.

and who by these good things that
are seen could not understand
that
is

Him

(rbi/ uv-ra),

neither by attend-

image of a

and they liked corruptible man, . . not (eSoKiyuoiroj') to have God in their
knowledge).
(Vers. 22-28.)

ing to the works have acknowledged who was the Workman but have
:

or the wind, or the swift air, or the circle of the stars, or the great water, or the sun
fire,

imagined either the

and moon to be the gods that the world (vers. i, i).

rule

PART

l.J

Our Knowledge of
is

God.

159

Because that which
is

known

of

God

manifest in them (rb yvoxrr'bv rov
<j>affp6v
tffTiv

06oO

Iv ouToiV).
it

God hath
(ver. 19).

manifested

For unto them

With whose beauty if they being CHAP. i. SECT. 3,4. delighted, took them to be gods let them know how much the Lord of them is more beautiful than
:

they

;

for the First

Author
all

(yeveai-

dpxris) of

beauty

made

those things.

For the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly
seen, being understood by the things that are made (airb Kriaeuis K&a\j.ov
rols
irofh/j.affi

Or
let

if

they admired their power and
effects

their

(Si/W^ic Kal

tvtpyfiav),

voovfj.eva KaQoparat)

;

His
(f)rf

eternal
dfSios

power also and
8ui>a/j.LS

divinity

aurou

Kal OeiJrjjs).

them understand by them that He that made them is mightier than they for by the greatness of the beauty and of the creature, the Creator of them may be seen, so as to be known
:

thereby
tturcoj/

(tit

yap pfjedovs
uva.\6y<a<>

KTicr^droiv

6

ye

So

that

they are inexcusable.

Be-

cause

that

when they knew God
t6v),

(Vers. 3-5.) But then again they are not to be pardoned ; for if they were able to
Qfcapetrai).

(yvdvTts
glorified

rbv

they have not

know so much

as to

make a judgment

Him

as

God,

or

given

thanks, but

became vain

in their

own
was

of the world, how did they not more easily find out the Lord thereof ?
(Vers. 8, 9.
)

thoughts, and their foolish heart darkened (vers. 20, 21).

" For when the Gentiles who have not the again nature those things that are of the law, these law do by having not the law are a law to themselves who show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience

And

:

;

bearing witness to them, and their thoughts between themselves accusing or also defending one another (Rom. ii. also St. Paul's discourses at Lystra and Compare 14-16).
at
"

of

Athens (Acts xiv., xvii.), in which a natural knowledge God is presupposed as a foundation of and a point of
II.

contact with Faith.

The

doctrine of
able and

Holy Scripture and the Council may
paragraphs
:

be expressed
1.

in the following
is

Man

is

bound

to acquire a true

know-

Knowledge
obligatory,

natural faculties, and is responsible for ignorance or denial of God's existence, and for any consequent neglect of religious or moral

ledge of

God by means

of his

own

duties.
2.

Although

it

is

most

difficult for

unaided reason to

spontaneous,

knowledge of God, nevertheless some elementary knowledge of Him is natural to the human mind that is to say, a notion of God is acquired spontaneously at
attain a perfect

;

160
CHAP.
i.

A

Manual of
of reason
;

Catholic

Theology.

[BOOK

TI.

the very

dawn

no external help, certainly no

SKCT.J4.

p ro founcj philosophical instruction, is needed. The notion of God is likewise so much in harmony with the spiritual
nature of man, that no adverse influences can altogether This doctrine is not formally expressed by the destroy it. Vatican Council but it is contained clearly enough in Holy
;

Scripture,

and
(cf.

is

universally taught
2).

by the Fathers and by

theologians
yid
rational.

is also natural as 3. This knowledge of God proceeding from the very nature of human reason, and as being in accordance with its laws that is to say, this knowledge arises, not from some blind instinct, or blind submission to authority, but from a most simple process of reasoning. Created nature is the medium whereby, as in a mirror, God manifests Himself to the eye of our mind. Our
;

knowledge of Him,
intuition of

therefore,

i?

not a direct or immediate

Him as He is in Himself, but of Him as the Cause of created knowledge
Council directly states only that
to attain to an

an inferential
things.
is

The

human

reason

unable

immediate apprehension of God, and that the mediate apprehension by means of created things Hence the possesses a real, true, and perfect certitude. definition does not formally exclude the possibility of some other objective and immediate perception of God,
not having the character of an intuition of or direct gazing

upon His Essence. Revelation, however, does not recognize any such immediate knowledge, and the attempts made by theologians to establish its existence are not only without foundation, but even tend to endanger the dogma of the Divine Invisibility, and the dogma of the independent
force of the mediate knowledge.
it*

media or

sources.

4. Our natural knowledge of God is based upon the consideration of the external world, that is, of the things apprehended by the senses, and also upon the consideration of the spiritual nature of the human soul. The external

world manifests God chiefly in His Omnipotence and Providence the life of the soul manifests the inner attributes of the Divine Life. The material and the spiritual world are thus, as it were, two mirrors in which we behold
;

the

image of the Creator.

The

materia' mirror

is

less

Our Knowledge of

God.

161
i.
'

know- CHAP. E 55 fl_ means of it is easier, more natural, ledge acquired by and more popular. Holy Scripture and the Fathers lay special stress upon it. 5. Our natural knowledge of God is aided by the super- Supernatural manifesta,
;

perfect than the other, but for that very reason the

natural manifestations of the Divine power, which can be tionsperperceived by our senses and intellect, the natural means of our natural

i

f

i

i

T>

i

i

our knowledge. Physical and moral miracles, special and general instances of Providence, such as the hearing and answering of prayer, the punishment of evil-doers, the reward of the good, and the like, are instances of what we

mean. This species of Divine Revelation also serves to the medium of Faith, authenticate the verbal Revelation

and

is

the continuation of natural Revelation.

On

the

other hand, by it alone the existence, and many attributes of God, may be known, and therefore it is particularly

adapted to excite, develop, and complete the knowledge founded upon simply natural contemplation. Gf. Franzelin,

De Deo
SECT.

Uno, thes.
55.

viii.

The Demonstration of the Existence of God.
1

of

The complete treatment of the proof of the Existence God belongs to Philosophy and Apologetics. We shall
some remarks on the nature, and organic connection of these proofs. To be or to exist belongs to God's very essence.

here confine our attention to
force,
I.

" God
,,

The
i

proposition, "God exists," is therefore immediately Jem in itseit butnottous. ir r 7 \ -KT 11 evident tn itself (per se nota secundum se). Nevertheless, since we have no immediate perception of the Divine

Essence, this proposition
(per se nota qtioad nos).

is

not immediately evident

to

us

acquired

by experience.

To our mind it is a knowledge The manifestations of God are
us,

immediately perceivable by the existence of God.

and through these we prove

II. Although the existence of God requires proof, still TWO forms oftheDej C-TT our certitude of His existence is not necessarily the result monstmion of a scientific demonstration. natural demonstration,

^

,

A

sufficient to

generate a perfect certitude, offers itself to human mind, as it were spontaneously. The proevery
1

See

A

Dialogue on the Existence of God, by Rev. R. F. Clarke, S.J.

M

1

62

A

Manual of

Catholic Theology.
if

[BOOK
all,

II.

CHAP

i.

cesses of scientific demonstration,

made

use of at

find

already in the mind a conviction of God's existence, and only serve to confirm and deepen this conviction.
Division of the Proofs.

kinds
The
indirect.

in. The r proofs of the existence of God are of two direct and indirect. r. The indirect proofs show that our knowledge of the Divine existence is the necessary result of our rational

nature, whence they infer that the existence of God is Hence we as certain as the rationality of our nature.

have:

(i) the Historical proofs,

taken from the universality
;

and constancy of this knowledge (2) the Moral proof, based upon the moral and religious activity resulting from and (3) the proof taken from the logical and psycholoit
;

gical character of this knowledge, by showing that it cannot result from internal or external experience, or from artificial combination, and must therefore result from the

natural tendencies of reason
and
direct.

itself.

The direct proofs represent God as the only Sufficient Cause of some effect which we perceive. They tend directly
2
.

to prove His existence,

natural process of
scientific

human

and are a development of that reason which, previous to any

demonstration, has already convinced us that He are classified according to the nature of the At the same effect used as a medium of demonstration. time, they form one organic whole, the several parts of
exists.

They

which complete and perfect each other.
arranged as follows
:

They may be

A. Proofs taken from existing things of which God is the Cause (a) From attributes common to all things, and pointing to God as the Absolute Being
:

(= Metaphysical Proofs) Co) From the dependent and conditional existence of things, which requires an independent and absolute Cause (causa efficient)
:

;

(/3)

From

imperfection, mutability, and natural limitation of things, which require

the

an immutable and absolutely perfect Cause
(causa exemplaris]
\

PART

I.]

Our Knowledge of
(-y)

God.

163

From

the motion and development of which CHAP. i. E S5> ^j_ things are capable and which they accomplish,

Prime
(U]

supposing thereby an immovable Mover and Final Cause (causa
proper to certain classes of
:

finalis}.

From

attributes

things, and pointing to God as the Absolute = Cosmological Proofs) Spiritual Nature ( From the nature and energies of matter, and (a) the design in its arrangements, which can

only be accounted for by the existence of an intellectual Being, the Author and Disposer of the material universe the nature and energies of mind, which suppose a Creator and an Absolute Mind (y) From the twofold nature of man, in whom mind and matter are so intimately blended that a higher creative principle must be admitted, the Author of both mind and
;

(/B)

From

;

matter.
B. Proofs

taken from possible or ideal things of which
:

God is the Principle The possibility, necessity, and immutability

in-

herent in certain conceptions of the possible, the unlimited domain of things possible all of these

suppose the existence of a Being, real, necessary and infinite, the foundation and source of all being

and
.

truth.

See St. Thorn., /., q. 2, a. 3. JV. It is an article of Faith that the Existence of God Wueoft can be known by natural means. From this it follows that the proofs which are the natural means must themselves be convincing. It does not, however, imply that each of the above-mentioned arguments taken apart has
the

power of convincing. All, or at least some of them, taken together are capable of producing the requisite certitude. But the evidence of the demonstration is not like that of a mathematical In mathematics, proposition.
especially in geometry, our imagination aids our reason
;

1 6*.

A

Manual of

Catholic Theology.

[BOOK

II.

CHAP.

i.

no moral considerations oppose the admission of the truths to be proved. The proofs of God's existence appeal to our reason alone, and compel it to rise above the images of our fancy and to accept a truth often most opposed to our
natural desires. At the same time, the evidence is far more than a moral evidence. It produces absolute certainty, and imposes itself upon the mind in spite of moral obstacles.

SECT.

56.

Our

Conception of the Divine Essence

and

the

Divine
Our knownotlntu^ve*!
I-

A ttributes.

natural knowledge of God is mediate and our knowledge of the Divine Essence cannot be indirect, nor can intuitive that is, resulting from direct intuition it be even that is, reflectto intuitive cognition equivalent ing the Divine Essence as It is in Itself purely and simply.
;

As our

The

be the case only if creatures were perfect of the Creator, and also if, in addition, we had images a perfect knowledge of their essences. Holy Scripture tells us that the vision of God, as He is, is promised as the
latter could

reward of the sons of God in Heaven (i John iii. 2) and describes our present knowledge as a seeing through a glass in a dark manner (&' eaoirrpov e'v aiviy/uart) (i Cor.
;

xiii.
yet positive

12).
II.

An

impossible.

idea or conception of God as He really is, is Nevertheless, our idea of God is not simply

negative and relative, showing merely what He is not and in what relations He stands to other beings. It is true, indeed, that the first element of our notion of Him is that

He
that

has none of the imperfections of

finite

things,

and

possesses the power to produce the perfections of creatures yet, as these perfections are a reflection of Hfs
;

He

perfections,

are enabled to gather from them notions or of God, imperfect and indirect indeed, but conceptions
still,

we

and analogical.

time, positive and truly representing the perfections belonging to the Divine Essence. HI. The perfections found in nature are but faint
at the

same

reproductions of the perfections of the Creator. Hence our natural conceptions, before they can be applied to the

Divine Substance, must be purified of all imperfections, and must be enlarged and elevated so as to be made

PART

I.]

Our Knowledge of
is

God.

165
it

worthy of God
is

Holy Scripture and the Church in three ways: (i) The simplicity and substantiality of the Divine perfections are indicated by the use of abstract terms, e.g. by calling God not only good and wise, but also Goodness itself and Wisdom (avrayaOocalled,
1

(GeoTrptTrac). expressed in the

This

"

eminent sense," as

CHAP.
E
s

i.
'

language of

"eminent
se

Three ways
ofexpressing it.

TTJC,

avToaofpta).

(2)

The

infinite fulness of

His perfections
"
all,"
e.g.

is

expressed by adjectives with the

prefix

almighty, all-wise. (3) The intensity and super-eminent excellence of these perfections is pointed out by the prefix which may be expressed in English by the virip, super,

adverb
IV.

"

supremely,"

e.g.

supremely wise.

analogical value or the eminent signification is pu-^and Some of the perfections ofpkcd*u not the same in all conceptions. creatures can be conceived as divested of all imperfection, the transcendental attributes of unity, truth, goodness, *.g.

The

and the attributes which go to make spiritual creaWhen these notions are applied tures the images of God. remain analogical indeed, but still they are to God they used in a positive and proper sense, as opposed to a metaor symbolical sense. But some natural phorical, improper, cannot be conceived without some imperfection perfections
force,

adhering to them they cannot therefore be predicated of God except in a symbolical and metaphorical sense, e.g. God is a lion, a rock, a fire, God is angry. Such metahave a deeper meaning than ordinary phors, however, because they are founded upon the fact that metaphors,
;

every perfection of the kind are called "pure, and simple, and unadulterated perfections" (perfectiones
the
First
is

Cause

reflected

in

creature.

Perfections of the

first

simplices]
is,

;

the latter are called

"

mixed perfections

"

that

combined with imperfection. The Greek Fathers designate the two classes and our corresponding knowledge of God by the expressions, Ka-T}yo o////ara TI Aem or cnroStiKTiKa, OtoXoyia auroStiKTiKi) for the first class, and ara aTroppTjra, or fjivariKa and Oto\oyia crv/ufioXiKT] Karr)-yop)'/ju The two classes complete each other the for the second. attributes enabling us to understand what is obscure simple and undetermined in the mixed attributes, and the latter
perfections
l

;

giving a concreteness to the

first.

166
CHAP.
i.

A

Manual of

Catholic

Fkeology.

[BOOK

II.

correct notions of
ys
3 fgettbg

IV. Theologians distinguish three ways of arriving at God by means of the analogical conThe first is from natural perfections. ceptions gathered the Positive method, or the method of Causality (causa by which we consider the created perfection as

nmionsof

e.vemplaris),

an image and likeness of the corresponding Divine perfection. The second is the method of Negation, or removal
(negationis sen remotionis], whereby perfections exist in God in the same
viz.,

mixed with imperfection. Eminence (vioff viripo\i]v), which is a combination of the two preceding methods, and consists in conceiving the Divine perfections as of the most exalted character, and
as having in themselves in a

we deny that certain manner as in creatures, The third is the method of

supreme degree whatever is without any admixture of imperfection. Hence there are three ways of predicating of God the perfections found in creatures. We can say God is
perfect in creatures,
:

a
is

spirit,

God

lives,

God

is

rational

;

meaning
;

that these

can also say: God not a spirit, is not living, is not rational meaning that these perfections do not exist in God as they exist in creatures. To reconcile this seeming contradiction, the
perfections really exist in God.
perfections should be predicated of

We

God

in the

sense
is

superspiritual, superrational. often expressed by the Fathers by saying that
:

God

is

eminent This doctrine

God

is

at the

same time

Travwvu/uoc,
all

avwvuyuo?, vTrtp^vvfjiog

(all-

names, nameless, above

names).

These three methods may be aptly compared with the methods of the three principal fine arts. The painter produces a picture by transferring colours to the canvas the sculptor executes a statue by chipping away portions of a block of marble while the poet strives to realize his ideal by the aid of metaphor and hyperbole. The indirect and analogical character of our knowledge of God renders us unable to embrace in one idea all the perfections of the Divine Substance, or even the little that we can naturally know of them. We are obliged to
; ;

Corollary.

combine several particular conceptions into one relatively complete representation. But the subject will be considered in the chapter on the unity and attributes of God.

l.J

Our Knowledge of

God.

167

give to things are the ex- CHAP. L Hence what pression of our conceptions of those things. Proper and ,. c r^ J T has been said concerning our conceptions of God applies analogical 6 to the names by which we designate them. Negative God.

V.
,

The names which we
.

,

.

names exclude

all

idea of imperfection

and represent God

as a Being sni generis which can alone be properly predicated of Him. All positive names transferred from the

creature to the Creator are

more or

less

improper names

Him, because they are not predicated of Creator and creature in exactly the same sense. Still, not being predicated of God in quite a different sense, they are not simply improper but analogical names. The most perfect among them are the names of pure or spiritual perfections, because they express perfections formally contained in Him. Although they are predicated of Him by way of eminence, still they belong to Him more than to creatures, because
of

the perfections they express exist in God with more purity, For this fulness, reality, and truth than in creatures.
"

reason they are sometimes attributed to Him exclusively: Who alone is," " One only is good, God." The names

of

mixed

things can

perfections, especially specific names of material only be given to God in a metaphorical or

symbolical sense. VI. From what has been said it follows that the Divine Our know. Essence can neither be conceived or expressed by us as tive and "" it really is in itself, but still that some conception and some expression of it are not beyond the power of our natural an absolute knowledge is impossible, a relative faculties and imperfect knowledge is within our reach. The doctrine contained in this section is beautifully

expressed by

St.
"

Gregory of Nazianzum,
Thee
all

in his

"

Hymn

to

God:"

In

things do dwell, and tend

To Thee Who
Thou
art at

art their only End ; once One, All, and None, And yet Thou art not all or one. All-name by what name can I call " * Thee, Nameless One, alone of all ?
!

I

Sol tvt na.vTa. /ueyci,

<rol 8'

adpoa itdvra floa'e,
ou'Sf'c.

2u

irdv-ruv Tf\os

tffffi,

Kal els xal -itimo. Kal
Ha.vuvvp.1,
Traii fff

Ot/x' %v ttav, 06 iravra.

Ku\taav

1

68

A
57.

Manual of

Catholic Theology.

[BOOK

II.

CHAP.
SECT.

I.

57-

SECT.

Contents

and Limits of our Natural Knoivledge
of God.
all

Contents.
S

I.
the

Our

natural

knowledge of God embraces

those

cuse

f

Divine attributes without which
as the First

God cannot be

conceived

and Supreme Cause of the
is

visible universe.

This doctrine
that
"

set forth

the invisible

by the Apostle when he teaches " things of God are knowable in so far

as they are reflected in things visible in nature, the Divine

j. mits
fnTiude
Trinity

.

'

Nature (0aorr)e) being especially mentioned. that is, the II. The Trinity of the Divine Persons manner in which the Divine Nature subsists in Itself and communicates Itself to several Persons lies absolutely beyond the sphere of human knowledge our reason cannot discover it, or even prove it on natural grounds after its This is taught by Holy existence has been revealed.
;

Scripture in the general passages concerning the inscrutableness of the mysteries revealed to us by God. These not merely to His inscrutable counsels, expressions refer,

but also to the inscrutable depths of His Being. "The Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. For what man knoweth the things of a man, but the So the things also that spirit of a man that is in him ? " are of God no man knoweth, but the Spirit of God " No one knoweth the Son but the Father, (i Cor. ii. 10, 1 1). neither doth any one know the Father but the Son, and he
to

whom
;

it

shall please the

27 cf. John i. 18). the dogmatic conception of the Trinity compared with the sole medium of our natural knowledge of God. The Divine

Son to reveal Him " (Matt. xi. The same can be demonstrated from

Persons operate externally as one single principle (imum universorum principium, Fourth Lateran Council). Now, from the effects we can know only so much of the cause as actually concurs in the production of the effects wherefore from God's works we can infer nothing concerning the
;

Trinity of Persons.
why
S

the
' '

npTbV
by rI^on.

The indemonstrability of the Blessed Trinity largely contributes to the incomprehensibility of the mystery. Whatever cannot be arrived at by reason is difficult of
mental
representation.

Conversely, the

incomprehensi-

and better adapts our conceptions to the dignity of God.. elevates the mind above mere animal nature. which is one of the fruits of Faith. from natural knowledge. God. /. Lastly. The moral and spiritual life. i. Faith fixes the mind on itb object.PART L] bility Our Knowledge of is. 32. and the best adapted to our capacities. a. Hence it is that no process of mere reasoning can lead to a knowledge of God as He is. Thorn. Our supernatural knowledge of God differs essentially 13. ceptions SECT. The object of the Mosaic Revelation was to preserve in its purity the idea of one God against the corruptions of . 169 of the Trinity. i. 58. the manifestation of God in the Incarnation has given us the most perfect manifestation of the Deity. Both the indemon- strability and the incomprehensibility originate from the is and lives within fact that the Trinity is God as He Himself. that it a conception of further reason of in the impossibility of forming CHAP. B harmony with natural things is a *^J - its indemonstrability. and it also reveals many supernatural works of God which place the Divine perfections in a brighter light. : will SUPERNATURAL KNOWLEDGE OF GOD. I. Holy Scripture tells us of many Divine operations in nature which would have escaped the eye of our mind. The P rojjr<-s knowledge^ Divine Revelation gives a progressive development of the idea of God. perfects the image and likeness of God. apart from and above the manifestations of Him in nature. even if we abstract from the final revelation of the mystery of the Trinity. and so produces a more faithful mirror of the Divine perfections. Nothing new was and revealed to the Patriarchs concerning the Divine Nature attributes their knowledge was the same as natural . Revealed Names of Goa. and enables it to free its conceptions from the disfiguring elements which an unguided imagination might introduce. q. See St. The light of Faith illuminates the Divine manifestations in nature. Faith gives us disclose an obscure knowledge of Him the Beatific Vision Him to us. knowledge and as that handed down by tradition. although the nature of the conis the same in both.

under the name of the Eternal Wisdom. the Life. as ^ *?N.). and holiness.170 CHAP. The first class comprises the names which designate the supreme excellence of God rather than His Essence : 'PN. vii. The name EL. and to conceive the Divine Nature as the purest spirituality as the Light. it enables us to gain some . and the is theology of the New Testament thereby anticipated. the Love. viii. often used with appositions. Wisd. xxiv. infinite greatness. It presupposes the Old Testament Revelation without making any further disclosures concerning the Divine Nature but. goodness. In the present section we shall confine ourselves to the former. insight into the Divine internal fecundity. ^'n^. The Prophets point out and describe in magnificent language the Divine attributes which can be known by the light of reason especially teristic of God in the name Jehovah. wisdom. iravroKpardtp. There are seven substantives applied NameZ" to God in the Old Testament. I. even without apposition. is EI. It proclaimed God's exalted Qwer Qver a jj things finite and material. El. the Truth. his Father. A Mamial of Catholic Theology. . and not internal and external communication. and polytheism. as it tells us of the mystery of the Trinity. omnipresence.. eternity. This latter aspect is first opened up in the Sapiential books (Prov. Ecclus. b$. The object and tendency of Christian Revelation is to raise man to a most intimate union with God. such . and His absolute p dominion over mankind it revealed the essential characidolatry . [BOOK II. DTrfrx. unchangeableness. the Mighty. omniscience. The names applied to God are either substantives or adjectives. justice. is God of Gods.. These " Holy Names " may be divided into three classes. almighty DNnfpx bx. and so as the principle and ideal of the supernatural perfection to which we should tend. . where. omnipotens. sterns L . the inner life of the Deity is exthe infinite hibited in its these attributes are spoken of Majesty of God. and consequently Life of which it man becomes manifests the inner perfection of the Divine a partaker. creative omnipotence. But all simply to bring out in order to reveal anything further concerning His Essence. The Seven II. seldom used of false gods. unity.

Worthy of to false gods. Judge. is. Jehovah (Exod. 14-16). applied to the one. is probably Yahweh. inferior sense to beings inferior to God kings. which might possibly be designated by the other Divine names. Commander. name of God. It " is nin?. It is never used of the false divinities the plural of majesty. I am Who am. e. iii. that God is is the One Who purely and simply Whose Being dependent on no Who therefore can neither be limited nor changed by anything. in the strictest sense of the as Moses asked for in order to make known . When as reflections of His Majesty. Yah. The second class contains only one name. ruling. judges. of their fathers. whence the abbreis meaning . word. . Hence external cause. or unearthly beings. angels.PART ij D'n"6$ Oiir Knowledge of God. It is moreover a name of alliance. of the stars. the Arabic Allah. that is. because it describes the Divine Essence. is distinguished from all other beings. Appositions are sometimes used to define the sense. because God. or of it means the God of all creatures. This name combines the meanings of El and Elohim.g. and also from powerful. not only inspires fear on account of His physical might. real or possible. of the heathen. Seo-Trorijt. true God. essentially jehovai. because the idea of supreme moral power and sovereignty was not associated with them. Kvpioz. and Who. a proper name. Elohim. e. . commanders. with the correlative significations of Awe-inspirThis name is given ironically adoration. especially from all pretended divinities." The correct pronunciation Its viation iT. Elohim Zebaoth. Dominus. ing. 171 L Elohim. Elohim must be taken as the majestic plural rather than as an indication of the Trinity. plural of Eloah. as being intimately conthe nected with the covenant between God and Israel it is. the hosts or armies of angels. but Other beings can indeed be judges and they are so only inasmuch as they and not in the eminent sense indicated by represent God. a proper name.g. Lord pre-eminently. V ^. 2. the God of hosts. such to the people the characteristic name of the God. the Supreme men sometimes " 1 1 Adonat Lord. the CHAP. but also exacts reverence and submission as a moral Adonai is used without apposition as a proper power. Powerful. Adonai. and in a true but weak. by reason of this mode of existence.

found chiefly in the ProWTiftri. knowledge of the true God as revealed in the name Jehovah was t jie pi e(jg ej the m edium. but expressing with more force the sublime excellence of the true God. 59. ^'n. Haelion. applied to false divinities. and did not reveal to them His name Jehovah. o etc. e. the High. and the proof of the alliance. In their substantive form they are. that Jehovah was His most appropriate name. as a matter of fact. the Holy Lord. The third class embraces those names akin to the first class." the H^yn. Most the Holy. i. In the New Testament these names are replaced by : their Greek or Latin equivalents. akin in meaning to El. 6 Kvpiog. Hakadosch. 3. the Just as the New Testament takes over from the Old Testament the doctrine concerning the Divine Essence and Nature. self-sufficiency. phets and among these especially in Isaias the Holy One of Israel. and inviolability of the Power. adopted by Him to serve as a symbol and watchword of the public worship of the one God.g. The best solution of the difficulty is. SECIES. High. but designating with more energy the independence. to overpower (?) the Strong. especially in the Vatican Council. Deus. Altissiimis. The Doctrine concerning God as defined by Church. Sublime. A Manual of Catholic Theology. and Jacob by the name of God Almighty. and only occasionally insists upon this doctrine. 6 o>v. 3) that he appeared to Abraham. Mighty. akin to Elohim. Judge and Lawgiver of the chosen Akin to Adonai. and that it was. perhaps. HascJiadai from schadad. [BOOK II. vi. whereas El Schadai expresses more accurately the relation of God to the families of the Patriarchs as their powerful protector. SECT. As the name Jehovah was in use before the time of Moses. so has the Church from her very infancy looked upon it as . El Schadai. people. The most frequent name applied to God is the classical word 9 toe.172 CHAP. however. the question arises as to the sense in which God said to Moses (Exod. Isaac. 'ii\pi(rroQ. and therefore it is equivalent to " the Almighty.

things are naked and open to His eyes (Heb. and ineffably exalted above everything that exists or can be conceived. iii. protecteth and ruleth For 13).] Our Knowledge of God. Infinite in intellect and will and in all perfection Who. whether . " But God. " visible deny and are the following the one true God. If any one shall and Lord of things thema. . "The Holy. even those things which will come to pass by the free all agency of creatures. and afterwards human nature." The corresponding canons " i. let him be anathema. that. 173 i. it is the It was only in our own day. that the Church at length issued a formal definition in the Vatican Council (sess. i). altogether simple and unchangeable Substance. by His providence all the things that He hath made. If any one shall say that finite things.PART I. of His own goodness and of His almighty power. to wit. notwithstanding the importance and the fecundity of the dogma of the Divine Essence and Nature. " This one true God. the Creator : invisible. most happy in Himself and of Himself. when the most grievous even errors concerning God had spread among Christians. "3. sufficiently it is proposed and as universally admitted. Hence CHAP. viii. being one. Immense. must be asserted to be really and essentially distinct from the world. "4. iv. participating of both because freely in the very beginning of time composed of spirit and body. essence of God and of all things is one and the same. Creator and Lord of Heaven and earth. i). let him be ana- 2. Roman Church believeth * ' Text of the Vatican and confesseth that there is one true and living God. made out of nothing both kinds of creatures. Eternal. nor to acquire but rather to manifest His perfection by means of most the good things which He bestoweth upon creatures. let him be anathema. individual. Apostolic. Catholic.. subject of so few definitions. the definition. Almighty. Incomprehensible. If any one shall say that the substance or. not to increase His happiness. Who reacheth from end to end mightily and ordereth all things sweetly (Wisd. angelic and mundane. If any one shall not be ashamed to say that besides matter nothing doth exist. chap.

all-remembering .174 CHAP. and independent of. d. intelligent. " Or. Who had no origin . individuals. or corporeal. just as He necessarily loveth necessity. and then defines His absolute independence of and entire distinction from all other beings. 5. species. let him be anathema. Who passed an by Himself. according to that law of right and wrong which He has written on our hearts. . If any one shall not confess and all and things contained therein. living. finally. He is One Who is sovereign over. unchangeable Being . positively through the attributes which manifest His absolute greatness as Supreme Being. Who will judge every one of us at the end of time. 1 Compare with this decree the magnificent description of : God Cardinal Newman (Idea of a University. operative amidst. the constitution of nature. the course of the world. ^_S&. the origin of society. have emanated from the Divine Substance " Or that the Divine Essence by the manifestation or evolution of Itself becometh all things spiritual . the fortunes of nations. Manual of Catholic Theology. say that God created not by will free from but necessarily. the Council firmly establishes His absolute dominion over the universe. Himself. Who created and upholds the universe . all-perfect. never-ceasing energy mixed Himself up with all the history of creation. both spiritual and material. the appointments which He has made . all-seeing." . SE i. Who has a purpose in every event. ." The definition of the Council is directed (i) against Atheism. and especially against Materialism (2) against Pantheism (3) against certain modern opinions mentioned The Council develops the idea of God in detail in can. shall . " that the world 5. Lastly. or at least spiritual things. with an adorable. dependent. that God is the universal or indefinite constitute being which by self-determination doth the universe of things distinguished into genera. let him be anathema. have been as to their entire substance produced out of nothing by God " Or all . 36) " God given by self- is an individual. [BOOK IT. p. the action of the human mind. almighty. and thus has relations of His own towards the subject-matter of each particular science which the book of knowledge unfolds . between Whom and His creatures there eternity is an infinite gulf. and a standard for every deed. " Or shall deny that the world was made for the glory 1 of God. Who has. One in Whose hands are all things. personal and present .

There are. and it is all one and the same with His Substance. howrestricted to see reflected in creatures. The " nature of a thing is sometimes styled its physical essence. The essence is itself. TI WE I.( 175 ) CHAPTER IT. may be considered as fundamental and as the root from which the latter spring. tions of have now to inquire whether. considered as the " root of the essential properties. is . THE ESSENCE AND ATTRIBUTES OF GOD. the substance is termed "essence. In former case. notably its vital activity. others.CHAP. there is some one which may be considered as the foundation of A direct and all the others. Whatever God is or has in Himself. Fundamental Conception of God's Essence and Nature. certain when compared with the our conception of God which. Our knowledge of God we His attributes which and which we refer to the Divine Substance but the Substance itself we have no power to apprehend. 60. E God. among our concep. ever. or from the elements in consideration of the its activity." to signify what it really is. Substance as It is in Itself. called the metaphysical . . The fundamental conception of a substance may be formed either from the consideration of its being. in the latter case. CONSIDERED GENERALLY. SECT. is is manifestly impossible." an expression also used to signify all that belongs essentially to a substance. intuitive representation of the Divine Terms plained. it is called "nature" that the source or principle of activity. He is or has of Himself without external cause.

in the identity of possibility and reality. God cannot produce HimSelf-realization. . There is a still deeper and more exhaustive concepsaid to be tion of the Divine Substance contained in the expressions. understood in this sense. When we wish to distinguish God from all other beings we think of Him as a substance existing of itself a substance which owes its existence to no external principle. in contradistinction to all other beings which have a derivative and precarious existence. that God is a pure act without any admixpure actuality by saying. avrovata) is the first distinguishing attribute which we conceive of the Divine Substance. II. III. and His Infinity means that every possible perfection is actually possessed by Him. Jehovah. but possesses existence essentially and absolutely. is really the essential name of God. . iSsunc-e! Who " Schoolmen express " this is. ii. self God's any more than any other being can. We must bear in mind throughout that the conceptions of essence and substance as applied to God are only analogous. or Self-caused. (actus purus) . this only means that He does not require or admit of any cause. and from which we infer the other Divine : to say." (" das absolute Werden of Giinther). I am of Myself and absolutely." Aseity attributes. This Divine Actuality is the foundation His Simplicity consists of God's Simplicity and Infinity. . ture of is potentiality.176 CHAP. but also the notion that God is constantly giving Himself existence " or the " Selbstverwirklichung. A Manual of Catholic Theology. Jehovah. fundamental conception of God is spoken of as the question concerning the metaphysical essence of God." Among modern theologians the question of the - The Divine Essence. " God is His own existence " " God's essence is exist" " God is Being " 6 &v. : " I_am_Who am " that is " excludes not only all external principles. and is only possible The name actually exists in Him. because the essences which we know are not identical . or the essence which distinguishes Him from all other beings. essence. [BOOK II. He ence The is. and accounts for all His essential properties. being actually possessed in others because it Every perfection possible in any by God. In other words Aseity (aseitas. When He is His own cause.

and is without essence. which is or perfection. God is His own above all essences. 1 *' Divine Substance is Its own Life. but also the noblest form of spiritual nature. which is absolutely independent and immanent. 6 1. uTTEjooua-toe. TJie Perfection of the Divine Being. then. God auro. we express Its immateriality and intellec(John The tuality." that is. . Hence the expressions " : 177 is with existence. adequate principle It cannot be conceived as animated or of Its whole Life but must be considered as Absolute Life. Hence immaterial and intellectual sub- stances are said to have a spiritual nature and to be spirits. Created beings do not receive their perfection with their A being it is of which ^ substance energy. Much more. the manner in which God possesses His Life and also contains the fundamental characters which make the Divine viz. because God is When we word " not only the uncreated and highest possessor of a spiritual nature. Life in its absolute fulness and perfection. but as active and self-subsistent. we distinguish the life-giving principle from the lifeterm the former " Spirit " when we consider less matter. or which are suitable and due to it.CHAP. 24). We it." in its eminent signification. Just as the Divine Substance exists of Itself. The vivified. a spiritual Life. I. SECT. teriality and consequent intellectuality of the Divine Sub- designate the Divine Nature as a spirit iv. the Divine Nature must be conceived as absolutely and in When we speak of created the highest degree Spiritual. oucnoc. n. rlXoc. TtAaorrje- The the completeness of their being. and avovaioc.] The Essence and Attributes of God. perfection of created beings N . the absolute immaLife most eminent and sublime .PART I. Moreover. Essence. It is the sole. is IV. so The Divine Nature> does It act of Itself. The above description contains the generic difference between the Divine Nature and created nature viz. Life pure and simple. nature. they acquire it by exerting by means of external agents. Spirit. not so much as animating matter. their own internal They thus attain their end. or . the former being the source of the latter. stance. is applicable to God's exalted nature purely and simply. Notion of is perfect when it possesses all the qualities capable. is the Divine Life.

n. and must therefore be. things exist in the universal perfection of God is expressed " in the language of the Schoolmen by the terms Virtually" and " Eminently. etc. necessary. not only self-sufficient. Tt'Arje) .1 78 A Manual of . He possesses in Himself a perfect equivalent of their perfections. which is the source and exemplar of all created perfection. He is essentially perfect (ai/ro- He is self-sufficient for He possesses in tion or external influence. Again. 14 TO irav lortv auroc. SECT^I. xxxiii. Just as God so is is any origin or beginning. 36. Rom. instance. without independent. for God . . This existence of all perfections in God. It implies His own perfection. every existing or conceivable -perfection (TravrfXrj'e). it can never embrace more is always relative than the good qualities due to a particular class of things. [BOOK n. but are produced by His power (virtus} and. tially existing an absolute Being that is. free from all admixture of imperfection He contains them in a perfection of a higher character as. Godabsoinfect. 29 Acts xvii. He is the perfect principle of all things. II. and do not flow from Him as water from a spring. xi. a real and complete This equivalent is the fund equivalent of this perfection. besides. His Substance. from which He draws His universal power and universal Cf. xliii. Exod. CHAP. Catholic Theology. ." Created things are not contained in materially. entire perfection. essenHe also absolutely all that He can or ought to be by His Nature. but also capable of bestowing their perfections on all things. this fulness of being. knowledge. the sense of vision is included in the higher power . God does not contain the perfections of His creatures He contains them in exactly as they exist outside Him. not only in the sense whatever constitutes Divine perfection belongs essenthat tially to Him. and must possess in Himself every kind of perfection. Ecclus. nor can it reach such a high degree that there is not some higher degree possible. implies more than the posideal knowledge. their purity. God con- His perfection (awrajoioje)'. without any internal evolu- {^"fwftloZ God's perfection is absolute. 25 The manner in which the particular perfections of created session of creative power and that He possesses in . but also because His perfection embraces III. that is to say. which is their type or model. .

are external to Him. . They . n. Truth. auro TO perfection. indeed. 179 of understanding. xxxiv. But the principle is true only to a certain extent in the case of attributes which express Divine external action that is. designate the Divine SubI. . xliv. Lastly. which is not. There does not exist. E f^ 2are consequently concentrated in one Divine Perfection. This principle and the attributes of Unity. stance in it Itself. need not belong to Him from all eternity. The Divine perfection alone is essential and uni. IV. and still more its effect. of all other perfections.] TJie Essence and Attributes of God. as may also be . 62. Revvarder because these relations are not in God but outside Him. but are the Divine Substance Itself as related to contingent objects. His perfection is the principle. and hence the measure and object. inhering manner of an accident. or equalled by created perit can never be exhausted fections hence it is incomparable and all-surpassing. and is the acme of all perfection (vTrsprlXrig. anything rt'Aoc). The manifold perfections of creatures CHAP. Isai. and not something distinct from It. whereas the action itself (actio transiens]. and God . All the Divine attributes which designate something necessarily contained in God. SECT. which are indeed perfections only in as far as they resemble and participate in the Divine perfection. because all of these necessarily . Redeemer. 7. for although these acts are not essential to God. Our Conception of the Divine Attributes Classification. but contains and surpasses them all by reason of its richness and value. nor can we conceive. Ps. Moreover. Cf. 10 . Beauty belong to the integrity of the Divine Essence and Nature. 15-17. this principle cannot be applied to attributes expressing a relation between creatures such as Creator.God essential versal. above God by means of which God's perfection can be measured or defined. and xl. after the applies to such as Self-conalso to the Divine essential Activity sciousness and Self-love . active influence on creatures because the power and will to act are in God. It is also true of the Divine intellectual and volitional acts concerning contingent things . still they are not accidents of His Substance.PART I. a combination of them all.

Again. and can be expressed in language. [BOOK IL of attributes designating Divine external actions. none of them can belong to God. exists in space and in time.It * s evident that attributes expressing external relations of God to His creatures. Unchangeableness of God (cf. Rewarder. Their contradictories must be predicated of Him. is There are various ways of classifying the Divine The arrangement which we propose to follow based upon the fact that God is a being. infra. Hence they may be predicated of God as Positive attributes. must have the two faculties of a spirit intelligence and will. III. common teaching of the Fathers and theolobased upon the dogmas of the Simplicity and 63. IL said 2' A Manual of Catholic Theology. and tively. None of the attributes represent the Divine Substance as such and in its totality. the attributes designating the Divine Substance are not necessarily identical with each other. arrived at in different ways and from different All this is the is gians. Although all of them express the same Divine Object. Redeemer. but are separate rays emanating from a common centre. sort . ! cti n ?f the attributes. it has limits. and such aspects are manifold. on the contrary. Again. such as Creator. good. Lastly. although imperpresent to other beings. II. God. All of these qualities imply some sort of imperfection hence. belong to Him from all eternity. They are not. and these are styled His Nega. and beautiful. 65). A created being has composition of some and it can be grasped by a mind. nevertheless each of them corresponds with a particular conception of our mind. fect in creatures. as regards what they represent. identical subjecalso differ objectively that is. even if not essential.180 CHAP. do not themselves imply imperfection. even in finite things. but only under starting-points. every created being is in itself one. and externally it has power and is These attributes. part of the universe . and a living. spiritual being. They some ciassifica- particular aspect. attributes. and also attributes expressing something in God. being a spirit. therefore. because their basis is not eternal. are not identical with each other. It can it is finite . Essential attributes. tive attributes. true. . it be seen by bodily or mental eye It forms subject to change.

Inconfusibility . . n SECT. WilU . External: (1) Omnipotence. A. following table will 181 The clear : make this arrangement CHAP.] The Essence and Attributes of God. (li) Positive attributes (a) : Internal (1) (2) : (3) (4) Cj3) Unity Truth. Immutability. . Beauty. . Goodness . (7) Incomprehensibility InefTability.l. (2) P. Invisibility . spiritual Being (a) (b) : Intelligence . 6a. Attributes belonging to God as a living. God : ar> a Being : . 03) Immensity Eternity. Omnipresence. Attributes belonging to (a) Negative attributes Simplicity Infinity .

Our Lord Himself says " God is a Spirit. in other words. is practically the Old Testament by the prohibition of material representations of God (Deut. physical Simplicity. and formless. His immateriality is evidently implied. iv. who maintained that the Divine Substance was indefinite. CHAP. in T.1 82 A Manual c/ Catholic Theology. immutable. 63. or. pantheism of the Stoics. and thus perverted the true notion of spirituality. 2. SECT. of God is included in His Simplicity. I- The Divine in set forth immateriality. as may be seen in the writTertullian and Lactantius indeed ings of the Apologists. because the latter ought to be anterior to it in time or at least in nature. and the rest. infinite. CHAPTER III. and they that adore Him : must adore Him in spirit and in truth" (John iv. like the air. [BOOK II. omnipresent. but they need not be dwelt on here. 24). and there are certain special difficulties to which it gives rise. THE NEGATIVE ATTRIBUTES OF GOD. Scripture. The first active principle of all things cannot be itself capable of resolution into simpler elements. 16). empty. or spirituality. ascribed to God a body. It may be also demonstrated by special proofs . The Simplicity of God. this And was from the laid earliest days of the Church attribute down as a fundamental against the pagans. the imE fll 3 materiality and incorporeity. or to the dogma . and . Wherever Scripture speaks of God as invisible. Proofs from reason. or spoke of His form and figure but they did so in opposition to the Gnostics. The proofs from reason for the Divine Simplicity are most conclusive. vague. and may be proved by the same arguments. THE absolute Simplicity. and which demand solution.

and the completeness and thoroughness of the manner in which it is possessed. in the Council of Rheims against Gilbert. Love.] The Negative Attributes of God. Hence this attribute requires that God should not only possess all that is perfect. and between that all that is real in Him reality: "One Supreme Thing" it should be one indivisible (Fourth Lateran Council. E Again. are all incompatible with physical com- position. follows Conversely. Aseity and absolute necessity can only belong to a Being absolutely simple. which flow from the nature of the first - principle. every difference between potentiality and actuality. together. the attributes of pure actuality. as indeed is expressed Light in its greatest purity by the very name Jehovah. . reason for not taking these expressions in their literal sense on the contrary. and the rest. and consequently simplicity. is Cap. 2. but that He should also be His perfection. There is no Light. And again. or realities completing each other. reality. not that He has these qualities. God when it says that God is the Life. Light. is the sole original possessor of these could not say with truth that "God is perfections. given by the say. 6' moreover would require an external cause to bring them CHAP. omnipresence. if God that no composition exists one indivisible in Him. Damnamus). 1. Truth. Scripture uses them to peculiar nature of God. Even before the Fourth Lateran Council. and in Him there is no darkness. Simplicity is in itself a great perfection." if He were not point out that God It and perfection that is. 183 in. because the several parts of a composite . Holy Scripture teaches the absolute simplicity of scripture. because it connotes the excellence of the perfection of which it is predicated. infinity. they Fathers. the literal sense is required by the Besides. if the " connoted by the term " Light were not all one perfections and the same identical perfection.PAET I. II. The attribute of metaphysical Simplicity excludes M <% physical from God every kind of composition. Wisdom. Internal reasons for the Divine Simplicity were also Without absolute Simplicity. God could neither be absolutely infinite nor absolutely immutable. this doctrine was defined more in detail by Eugenius III. Tradition.

the Divine and hypostatic chaEssence determined by any individual character. God it by grace. and acting. God being we cannot con- thing whatsoever. q. v. and between necessary and contingent God is one simple act. . 3' being would be dependent on absolutely independent and ceive as a subject perfected cc. There is likewise excluded the composition of subnot instance. elevated The simplicity of the life by which the created spirit shares supernaturally in the Simplicity of the Divine Life. the Divine Simplicity excludes any composithat might result from the real difference between tion several activities. . as. a. 3. Physical simplicity is not exclusively proper to P Saiy simpie. consists in its being freed from the influence of creatures and being . \. such as between knowing. belongs to God alone.184 CH^r. Consid. Lastly. c. d. Thomas. III. enabled to know God immediately else in in Himself. God alone acts... and completed by anySee these arguments developed by St. in. each other. 1. Composiexcluded from God. Metaphysical simplicity. but which are found even in spiritual creatures. between immanent and transient operation. 7. Scotus in I. to some extent. De. willing. partakers of the simplicity of the Divine Life. that of a spiritual substance with an external accidental perfection. 2. the source of the exclusion of all composition from Him. for human essence is determined by special marks or characters in each human individual. Created spirits. All activity in IV. 3. viz. may be made. racters is also excluded that is to say. E A Him Manual of Catholic Theology. its various accidents. Composition of essence and existence. Bernard. on the contrary. . [BOOK n. but their elevation itself implies a composition of a peculiar kind. fll self-sufficient. Monolog.. and to know and love everything Him and for Him. We subjoin a list of the kinds of composition excluded by the metaphysical Simplicity of God. /. xvii. . also belongs to all created spirits. " i .. The composition is of essence . the stance and 4. Sent. In created things this kind of composition is the source of all other kinds Its exclusion from God is in like manner of composition.. 8 St. xvi. because the Essence of God is to exist. . 7 . is excluded Anselm. and constitutes their likeness to the Creator. St.

Distinctions in theological kind last mentioned are called Mental distinctions (distinctiones language of the rationis] because the thing distinguished. ^f^64 Substance everything that implies composition. An exaggerated notion of the Divine See Simplicity was condemned by Pope John XXII. but they are not mere subjective because the perfection of the object furnishes an Hence they are called objective foundation for them. 185 V. fictions. therefore. but between different ways of Such differences looking at one and the same perfection. imply composition. If there 00 " were no other distinctions but such as entail composition. " distinctiones rationis ratiocinate" or " cum fnndamento in They thus occupy a position between Real distinctions implying objective composition. Thus may be established which do not conflict with His Simplicity.PAST I. but are based upon and are necessitated - by the very simplicity and perfection of in their object. is represented in our mind by different conceptions. and the essential difference of attitude in God's activity within and without could not exist. in'ood distinction could no more be attributed to God than comThere are. SECT. 23. Such distinctions. although objectively one and the same. for without them the real distinction between the three Persons.] The Negative Attributes of God. distinctions God Denzinger. est incomparably and im- measurably greater than anything conceivable (quod . are even necessary in God. which are thus expressed in the language of the Schoolmen (i) that than : ceivingthe which nothing greater can be conceived (quo nihil majus cogitaripotesf) (2) that which contains all conceivable great. I. omnem magnitudinem is qua. distinctions which do not position." ratiocinantis}. The is. 24. The attribute of Simplicity excludes from the Divine CHAP. however. 64. and Merely-mental distinctions having no objective value (distinctiones rationis re. really exist only in our mind . not between separate elements. ness or magnitude (guod continet cogitari potesf} (3) that which . because they are made. Infinity of God The Infinite that the endless or limitless may * "^ree way. in. Ixvi. of con- be conceived under three different aspects.

Assuming as certain the infinity of certain particular attributes (e. Cf. Intellect. and the fulness of His Being attains the utmost limits of being both intensively and extensively. omnipotence and omniscience) and their identity with God's Essence. . however great.. God was in iii. in I. or (sess. (i) God cannot be chap. [BOOK IT. 64.. /. The Divine Infinity in Substance and perfection may be shown both a posteriori and a priori. thought nor can any other being be conceived greater. nor can it be due to internal incapacity for . and because their infinity is essentially contained in the plenitude of being required by the essence of the substance. more perfect than God . Toletus. can either equal or measure it on the possible God . that is. better. greater perfection. has every conceivable perfection and every conceivable form and degree of each perfection and (3) the plenitude of the Divine Being is such that no sum of finite perfections. . finite being and its indefinite increase plication are possible only on account of God's tible plenitude of Being. but as The transcending all conceivable degrees and kinds of perfection (2) not only in some one attribute but in all not only as to the magnitude or multitude of the (3) objects of His activity. the infinity in Substance and perfection plainly follows. q. 7. and Will in themselves. Essence and activity. CHAP. no limithis infinity is contained in the Divine Aseity tation can be in God because no external principle can determine it. Hence we infer: The notion of Divine Infinity . of as greater. but also as to the perfection of His infinitely . And a priori. and multiinexhaus- absolute substantial infinity of God evidently implies that He is infinite (i) not only as compared with a certain kind of created beings. (2) there is no limit to the Divine perfection. mains omnibus aliis qua Gotiinfinito cogttart possunt).1 86 A . The infinity of particular attributes is based upon the infinity of the Substance because they are identical with it. better. because God contains all conceivable perfections. in. incompardbiliter vel incommensurabiliter SECT. contrary. Catholic Theology. II. and with all the other attributes. Manual of . " Infinite by the Vatican Council to be " understanding and will and all perfection defined This is to say.g. or more perfect than He is. i).

The Divine Infinity does not prevent God's knowledge. but only an ideal any much less does it imply an increase intention or direction universe. Things outside the Divine Substance cannot be added to the Divinity so as to produce. or Hence God plus the at least a greater aggregate of beings. inasmuch as they are not limited to the same extent as material creatures. whereby they are elevated above all sensible nature. not more than God alone. be communicated by hypostatic union to a created nature but Infinity does not therefore cease to belong to God alone. but by the assumption of a human nature by a Divine Person. Spiritual creatures resemble God in the of their substance they are also like Him in simplicity comparative infinity. even the Divine Infinity. the Infinite . 187 ' excludes the possibility of things existing independently CHAP. They participate still more in the Divine Infinity by means of grace and glory. 2. and can embrace in their general conceptions an immense multitude of possible beings. if not to comprehend. from without. nay.PAET I. The infinite dignity of God can. Absolute Infinity of Substance and perfection iscodaw m an attribute proper to God alone no substance. it is true. either a greater being. This communication is effected. .] The Negative Attributes of God. not by the production of a new and independent dignity. real expansion or motion ad extra. For the same reason be said that the Incarnation added being to the it cannot Divinity for the human nature of Christ is only united to the Divine Person inasmuch as God produces it and a Divine Person possesses it. . 3. . but not of things existing dependently on Him. III. above their own nature. Being of God Himself. and activity from being extended to objects Such extension does not imply outside Him (ad extra}. and inasmuch as their intellectual faculties can know all things. volition. in " 4 outside God. is . . no perfection outside God 'can be infinite in the strict sense of the term. and are enabled to apprehend. Who makes it His own and is adored in it. because infinity is incompatible with dependence. as it only bears upon things entirely dependent on God.

De Civ. finity. 23 i Tim. 17 Rom. SECT^S. " Scripture. from the necessity by which God actually is all that He can be. etc. 2. I absolutely immutable: no change whatever Dj v i ne Substance He is always absolutely in Substance. 1. of alteration Ps. Attributes. is irapaXXayii Tpoirtjs cnroaKiaafjia 1 27. 28. CHAP. vi. After the Creed. I- Godimmutable. the Council of Nicaea added the words. II. vii. Tradition. can a ^fec the same i. Reason. i.. abounds with for similar testimonies. 10. (cf.1 88 A God ^. iii. J . 3. III. no change nor shadow (James i. which exclude all external influence and all internal reasons requiring or producing change from the Divine . who affirmed a conversion of the Divine Nature into the human nature. Augustine 17). 12 . too. theme of and 1. xi. say that the Son of God is variable (aAXotwrov) or changeable (TJOETTTOV).. or substitution of one state of being for another in the Divine Substance and. or conversely. i. 17. and I change not " (Mai." Moreover. excluding all beginning and end from the independence and self-sufficiency of the Divine Essence. Wisd. who maintained the passivity of God against the Eutychians and Patripassiani. all . Dei. granted the Divine Immutability as an article of Faith in their disputes with the Arians. . 27. 16. The Councils and Fathers take . " with Whom there fj i. [BOOK II. 6) . 1. and Heb. lights. The rational proofs of the Divine Immutability are derived from the very Essence of God. Tradition. which excludes . who taught the emanation of creatures from God against the Stoics. espepossibility of acquisition or loss. Father of cf. and Life. which is Being pure and simple. xii. lastly.). am the Lord. who opposed the Son of God to the Father as the changeable to the unchangeable they demonstrate it against the Gnostics and Manichaeans. SECT< 6 5> _77^ Immutability of God. . " the is ^e . . St. Manual of Catholic Theology. c. Simplicity. ci. which excludes the These arguments. "The Catholic and Apostolic Church anathematizes those who . this doctrine is a prominent feature of all apologetics against the heathen. It is a favourite cc. composition or decompofrom the Divine Insition consequent upon mutability which is incompatible with increase and decrease.

The following thesis supplies the key to the solution of the other difficulties. in consistency belongs order to produce a change in God. Everything. as a matter of fact. ciple of .PART I. . and Necessity. these very attributes are the foundation of His freedom. Infinity. on the contrary.] The Negative Attributes of God. notably all newness of volition or motion in execution. we have also given the principle for explaining the apparent contradiction between the Divine Immutability and the freedom of God's Will. and con- sequently they must participate in the immutability of these. in E ^_ 5 to God's contingent acts of thought and will. 189 cially the last named. Now. II. still. would seem at first sight not to apply CHAP. and is also theoII. which would involve any change in the Divine Substance must be excluded.)." This doctrine is of Faith. and although the Divine Essence and Life are entirely independent of them. But it is absolutely necessary that His cognition and volition of things outside Him should be themselves determined. they are contained in the Divine Essence and Life. because indetermination would involve imperfection and if . "God. as we have already seen ( 64. and every affection and determination received from without. this its determination in direction God (ad intrd) is absolutely necessary . the difficulty of accounting for free will in God arises less from His Immutability than from His Simplicity. although. to be opposed to the Divine Simplicity and Infinity. when rightly understood. on this or that particular object cannot be something with a beginning or end. Moreover. Indeed. a free determination should cause a new act or new existence in such a way as the ideal of freedom. is the prinall mutable beings and of all the changes which take place in them wherefore God's essential Immutability does not exclude the variability of His external activity and of His relations to creatures. although these intentions or directions of the Divine Intellect and Will upon contingent objects do not constitute the essential Being and Life of God. By basing the immutability of God's free decrees upon the necessity of His whole Being. although immutable in Himself. But. however. this is not the case. It is evident that the power of changing a decision once freely taken is not essential to freedom to .

1. Repentance. and hatred and anger against the wicked. But here. Creation and I. based upon God's external St. nor does it not a formal such a change. Who Himself is neither elevated nor lowered in the process (cf. 1. q. also. 2.... Much less do the attributes of Creator. Thirdly. Lib. notably in the Incarnation His and by means of the operation of His grace. c. by the and in God's P n tow aiMs' is elevated to unity Person and dignity with God. the crea- ture alone substantially and inwardly affected grace brings the creature nearer to God. according to the evil conduct of creatures. But the real motive determining the Divine operations is in God y the case of the Incarnation the creature Himself. His pleasure or displeasure bestowed at various times has really existed from all eternity in Him. would seem. and the rest. Holy Scripture incompatible sometimes denies its existence in God. Theincarnation and grace. Lord.190 A Manual of Catholic Theology. when the effect commences. St. Moreover. the acts of Providence are measured by time. 17 . in time. Augustine. does not entail a variety of acts or dispositions in Him. involve a change in Civ. God enters into various relations with creatures. . that such changes in creatures react on the Creator. presuppose is God does not produce effects by means of forces or instru- ments. c. 73. 3.. His infinite love for the Supreme Good is at the same time love for the good among His creatures. but is manifested in time. 83 Q?t(sst. Abelard. The works of the Divine Omnipotence all are not eternal. also terminates in is Him. and affect even His inmost life. seems to be most with the Divine Immutability. Introd. De (cf. 6). xii. of the eternal decree change in the producer. [BOOK IL CHAP. logically and philosophically evident but theologians differ in their way of expressing and applying it. indeed. and in a certain manner change in . but at other times good or . Him iii. activity. Dei. De Incarn^). Augustine. the Divine action (ad extra} that causes it commences likewise. therefore. that He is disposed differently. but by simply enacting His Omnipotent Will. and disposes His operations accordingly. and therefore. Again. But the Creation and realization. in. God takes notice of the changes which occur It in creatures. These relations constitute a variation which proceeds from God.

Hi. because they are by their very essence subject to change. Absolute immutability belongs to God alone. viz. 191 attributes it to Him.1] The Negative Attributes of God. Augus- n. as to resemble q. Ad Siniplicium. and would thus destroy its Simplicity. I. the incorbelongs by ruptibility of their substance and the immortality of their life. God can no more enter into necessary or substantial composition with any other substance than He can admit of composition within Himself for the component substance would have to become part of the Divine . . The The Vatican Council asserts this God is " ineffably exalted above attribute all by stating that things that exist or The Vaticat can be conceived" (sess. 66.life. Substance. We . in such a We manner tine. communicated to His creatures. or there would be an end of the Divine Simplicity. in various times and circumstances. by means of grace all defective mutations natural to creatures can be prevented. which would degrade the perfection of the Divinity below that of created spirits. 66 SE the Divine operations or affections manifest themselves ^j_ externally. expounded. The Inconfusibility of God. must therefore understand that CHAP. Hence. immutability which belongs to God is. too. or matter.PART . II. ItGodaione "" cannot be communicated to creatures. the excluattribute which sion of the Pantheistic system. human ii. chap. St. because it does not exclude multiplicity and progress in the creature's this takes place the inner should note that a sort of immutability nature to all spiritual creatures. to some extent. Universe. SECT. form. Definition. I. repentance. and of His being numbered or classed with other things. and even made impossible and when . God cannot become identical with other substances.. However. Cf. i). we -have now to consider is a of the Divine Simplicity. But this communicated immutability is never absolute. in.. an bethe JStoSaw God cannot be the matter or substratum of all things. 2. because either these substances would cease to be distinct from each other. It excludes from complement God the possibility of entering into composition with any other substance. III.

6). and Dominion. A union of kind. neverthet- less this same attribute renders it possible for God to permeate creatures with His Substance in a manner far more intimate than one creature could penetrate and perThat innermost presence of which the meate another. even in a supernatural manner. be reckoned or classed with other 4. and Apostle speaks : in us all. No beings. He live nor its soul. Even general notion can embrace God and His creatures.1 92 A Manual of Catholic Theology. immediate consequence of the creation and preservaan 7rt In a certain degree it extends to all tion of all things. in. and has an independent existence besides. by active assumption and dominion. and without any fusion of the united natures. 3. God cannot. 2. Power. not to mention various absurdities which they involve. An intimate union with Him requires the elevation of the creature to a supernatural state. is not excluded by any Divine attribute on the contrary. it is possible only . viz. [BOOK II. but it increases according to the increase of God's things. even in such a way that His Substance only partially acts as soul of the world. and Infinity. Immutability. simple. and submits this it to Himself. Nor can He be the soul or substantial form of the universe. because E ' is eminently one. the All these hypotheses directly contradict attributes of Simplicity. and incannot. form part of a composition resulting in the production of a Hence in the Incarnation there is neither unity nature. CHAP. HI. and when applied to creatures. the notions of substance and being have different meanings when applied to God. God present mail thmgs on the ground of the Absolute Being. of nature nor loss of independence or self-sufficiency on the part of the Divine Person Who makes the human nature His own. " Who is above all. God cannot because He has nothing in common with them. by His own proper energy. and through all. again. iv." 6 is Travrwv Kai Sta Travrwv KOL EV ira&iv (Eph. and is therefore limited to certain classes of creatures. Although the absolute simplicity of the Divine g u b s ance exalts it above all created substances. influence on creatures. We shall treat further on of the Hypostatic Union by . be the root of all things in the sense that things partake of His Substance and His Substance divisible.

and how wilt thou know? The measure of Him is longer than the earth. no space. and But darkness my be as light as the darkness thereof and the light thereof are I said. i. saith the " Peradventure thou wilt comprehend the steps of God. 67. and wilt find out the Almighty perfectly ? He is higher than heaven. ? "Am saith the Do not 23. Godimm< extension. and not a God afar off? Shall a man be hid in secret places.] The Negative Attributes of God 193 which God the Son unites to Himself a human nature. (Deut. real or possible.PABT I. Lord (Jer. and night shall the day alike to : Perhaps darkness shall cover me. cxxxviii. 24). God would be there also. And light in pleasures. in E 6. even there also shall Thy hand lead me. whither shall I flee from Thy face ? If I go up into heaven. He is extension is is He contained in any definite room or exalted above space and place His virtual such that no formal extension whatsoever can . dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea. God is everywhere we cannot conceive Him absent in an eminent manner from any existing place. and CHAP. I. fl_ also of the intellectual union of the Divine Substance with ' the blessed in the Beatific Vision. equal. saith the Lord. or measure it. real and possible. I. the circumscribed presence of creatures. my God Thee" (Ps. can include His Immensity is included in Him. The dogma of the Divine Immensity and Incircumscriptibility (a^w/orjToe) is based upon the fact that God is entirely independent of space and place. In Holy Scripture the attribute of Immensity appears Scrfoturt. nor place . and present. and what wilt thou do ? He is deeper than hell. more in its concrete form of Omnipresence as opposed to . and if any new space came into existence. all space. and O . " . He has no formal SECT. Consequently. Thou art there if I go down into hell. a at hand. . and I not see him. I fill Lord " ? xxiii. and Thy right hand shall hold me. night shall be shall not be dark to Thee. Thou art If I take my wings early in the morning. heaven and earth. The Immensity of God. 7-12). exceed. is God in Heaven above and in the iv. "The Lord He earth beneath" Whither shall I go from Thy Spirit ? or 39). think ye.

T 29. ." De Trin. \. We Abelard has put into verse the text of St. in.) Reason. how- . The attributes of Immensity and Ubiquity belong infinite r. intra cuncta Intra cuncta nee inclusus. II. subtus cuncta. ii. this action cannot be conaction and substance are identical. Hilary. Extra totus complectendo. give it as containing an abridgment of the doctrine of " Super cuncta.. God place and not outside it. : the Fathers. Gregory. We must ning. Moreover. is essentially excluded from space. He would have to move in order to pass from place to place. Satan went forth from the presence of " the Lord St. 8. in Job.. The immensity of the virtual extension is based on the plenitude of the Divine Being which implies the capability of being present to all things. v. intra totus es implendo Intra . 3 sqq. Moral.. extra cuncta. etc.. xi. For even granting the possibility of action from ceived in God in creature. has the power of producing every possible Whom for a creature where God is not already present in Substance and in Essence. is a For either God is in necessary condition of the absolute Immutability of God. if As to the second. 1. Tradition. I CHAP. 7-9). [BOOK n. De Trinitate. Subtus nullo fatigaris. (Job See also Kings vni. " c. here confine ourselves to referring to the most important passages St. the Divine Immensity is a consequence of the Divine Omnipotence. We can. xi. in its full import. The Fathers very : often insist upon this attribute. extra numquam (Rythm. which would be inconsistent with God's sovereign self-sufficiency and imin a definite mobility.. But as God no place can be thought of a distance. Subter cuncta nee subtractus. Immensity. 2. Super totus possidendo. super nullo sustentaris. dilataris. extra cuncta nee exclusus.194 SECT. nusquam coarctaris. on the words. any more than they cannot be communicated to creatures the Divine Substance itself. Gregory the Great. broader than the sea 67. super cuncta nee elatus . The Divine Exaltedness above. or He alternative is absurd. and Independence of space and place result from the spirituality of the Divine Substance.od ainne uiirneus to God alone . subter totus sustinendo. -d Manual of " i Catholic Tlieology. fills and exceeds all space. i. 12. Isai. near the begin. or He some first The were definite space. 3.

in Concerning the Replication of the Body of Christ in the treatises Holy Eucharist. "Grace be unto you and peace from Him that is. 6) : " ^ternitas est interminabilis " " vitae tota simul et perfecta possessio Eternity is the possession. I am the first and the last (Isai. is no succession in it. . a created spirit. The Divine Eternity signifies God is above and independent the Divine duration cession. refers fre" " quently to God's Eternity. conceive a creature in supernaturally endowed with the power of Replication that is. " I the Lord. . (3) that the duration of God is absolutely and indivisible it admits of no past or future. of life without beginning up That is to say. and that is to come Before (Apoc. but yet endlessness is a consequence of Eternity rather than its essence and this life is possessed " all at or end. v. the SECT. and even a material body. 1.. God's activity is absolutely changebut yet is life indestructible all limit is excluded from this life. The very name He Who is once. I." to show that there God in " implies the necessity of endless and ever-present existence. as might be expected. . prop. I. i. the mountains were made. of time. or the earth and the world was formed from eternity and unto eternity Thou art God " . can be ever. and : is absolutely without change or sucin no way affected by the flow of time is . xli. but coexists with and exceeds all time (2) that of . 4). but that His everpresent " now " enjoys everything that He could have possessed or can ever possess.PABT I.. All this is admirably summed in the well-known definition given by Boethius (De Consol Phil. over. 68. inasmuch as He has neither beginning nor end and is in no wise limited by time. The simplicity and virtual extension of God's duration are a superabundant equivalent for all real and possible time. Holy Scripture. God (i) that the duration eternal.] The Negative Attributes of God. 195 IIL endowed with a sort of ubiquity CHAP. perfect and all at once. Morethe sense of filling all the space really existing. more will be said on the Incarnation and Holy Eucharist. and " " that was. The Eternity of God. the capability of being in several places at the same time. but is essentially an ever- standing present. 4)." less.

eternity except by the eye of my mind. c. quasi adhuc non sit"). But in eternity nothing is past or future. were not yet ('yEternitas tantummodo est. nee erit. Relation of 6 Eternity" lo time. just as the central point of a circle coexists with all the points of the circumference. in Joannem. and Thy years shall not fail (Ps." he says.196 A " Mamial of Ecclus. 6 Tract. (Ps. before 58). cxxi. nee fuit. xcix. comparison with the Divine do not come and go. God that in . ci. because these are made up of past and future movement. " A thousand years in Thy sight are as yesterday 26-28). . O (John viii. in virtue of His Eternity. xlii. " as a thousand years. every single moment of time. But Thou art " always the self-same. II. Lord. Hence temporal things have no the eye of successive duration in is. cf. Wherefore it alone can most truly say of itself I am who am and . " surpasses temnor can I perceive what its very vivacity . The Divine it . and pass by or along Eternity. ' ' : . In the beginning. and a thousand years as one day .. say to you. thou didst found the am " earth. I Abraham was made. For by that I exclude from eternity all change. (2 Pet. Tradition. not will be. 8). M . Augustine should be espe" Eternal life. amen. God. i -L L precedes. "Amen. in. having the simplicity of the Divine Essence and being only virtually extended. SECT'S. His duration has no 1_ beginning. Ixxxix. poral by the Fathers St. and in eternity I perceive no portions of time. . and exceeds all Eternity. or end. bears certain relations to time and to temporal events. ' He Who is sent me to ' you " . not is future has not yet begun as though it were not still.). 49 see also In Psalm. but with. 2. [BOOK 1L I CHAP. They and all of them shall shall perish but Thou remainest grow old like a garment and as a vesture shalt Thou change them and they shall be changed. coexists in its entirety with necessarily coexists real time. 4). succession. Ixxxix. . they In God's sight they have neither past nor parts of it. because what is past has ceased to be. Catholic Theology. Among life is cially consulted. and what whereas eternity only is. quasi jam non sit. (De Vera Relig.. n. " " is past One day with the Lord is which (Ps. of it alone can be said. 21). as though it was. and the heavens are the work of Thy hands. iii. 2.

but are eternally present. inasmuch as He grants them a life the object rational beings in ness. Eternity in the strict sense of the word belongs to alone. Contra Gentes. from the centre. and which there- fore participates in the simple immobility and uniformity of the Divine Life. 197 Thus the points of a CHAP. I.J The Negative Attributes of God. SECT circumference in motion change their positions relatively to other points but always remain at the same distance ' ^ in. but to the fact that the Divine Eternity encompasses and embraces all created duration. Godaione et< God without beginning or end is incommunicable to creatures. Weighty theologians admit the possibility of a being created from all eternity but it is of faith that no such Duration without end can of course be being exists. so that the Divine knowledge cannot rightly be called either memory sion of the Divine or foreknowledge. made according to God's image and likea supernatural manner.PART i.. . The Invisibility of God. Godinvisibi* bodily eye. if not to all. and is the result of His independent and necesmode of existence. because creatures. eternal This. future. however. Thomas. 6 1. St. 69. . analogically. and will be the lot of all . of which is His own eternal Substance. communicated to creatures. God can elevate Nay. immediate intuition of an object. Cf. created things are visible. the term is also applied to the knowledge acquired by the mind's eye. Their eternal presence in God's sight is owing. Him in His presence all things of all times. does not involve the existence of events and things. in the same way as the virtual exten- Substance encompasses and embraces God sees and knows as actually standing before all space. 1. not to a duration coextensive with eternity on the part of creatures. All some But God is invisible to the bodily eye of even independently of His Simplicity. Both reason and Scripture manisary But it is not certain whether duration festly teach this. particularly to the knowledge Vision is acquired by direct. properly the act of the noblest of our senses but. c. SECT. them even to a participation in the simplicity of His eternal Life. at least to created beings. iii. III.

and indirectly through the medium of creatures. but is seen mediately invisible. ledge of Self-existing Being is natural to the Divine Intellect . Scripture.^9. visibility. 16). II. He SQ is a pure Spirit. but all creatures have a participated. is in God cannot be the object of such impossible. These attributes establish such a disproportion between the Divine Essence and the intellectual simplicity faculties of creatures. A j Manual of This i Catholic Theology. muc lj s implied by the texts which will be quoted. If. "for any by its own natural powers to see the For cognition takes place so far as the But the former object known is in the subject knowing. at t he least^ matter of faith . the mode of existence of the object to be known is of a higher order than that of the subject knowing. Here the eminent His i. above. xiii. dependent existence. 12). invisibility is a [BOOK IT.isoas. alone for no creature is its own existence. but then face to face. inaccessible light. SECT. in. "We the world are clearly seen. because He is physically simple eye is His absolute metaphysical and immateriality make Him invisible to the mental eye also. Whom is see" (i Tim. Now I know in part but then I shall know even as I am known" (i Cor. God is also invisible to the mental eye of angels and of men. " Who supernaturally illuminated eye of created spirits. Thomas. . and indeed of every conceivable created spirit but it is possible for Him to make Himself visible to the . therefore. 1 No man perfection of God." says St. " vi. The created . See also that . and dvvelleth in light inaccessible alone hath immortality no man hath seen nor can (/>w5 otKwv ctTrpocnrov).198 CHAP. The reason why God is invisible to the bodily . nature of the subject knowing. . the knowledge of this The knowobject is above the nature of the subject. that faculties. the latter according to the manner of existence of the latter wherefore all knowledge is in accordance with the . 20) unknowable in Himself. "It is created intellect Divine Essence. . as the cause of His Ingiven " hath seen God at any time (John : see now through a glass in a dark manner 8). Theological te. i. sect. and to the u mind. God is are made (Rom. "The invisible (TO ao/oara) things of Him from the creation of . being understood by the things " that is to say. 56.

so that He can infuse Himself into them and unite Himself so intimately with them as to become their vivifying form.. The elevation. . and can therefore only be communicated by God in virtue " " information is possible of His Simplicity whereas the because God's Substance is infinitely more simple than that of created spirits. iii. It is outside the created intellect only as exceed- ing the powers of the latter. to be able to gaze on the Divine Essence. iii. 4). a.PART I. Thomas. See. God stance enables the created intellect to behold His Sub- refining its cognitive powers and Himself upon them as intelligible form. CHAP. The created intellect. . in the same way as in the domain of the senses excessive light is blinding and excessive sound is deafening (excellentia sensibilium sunt extra facultatem scnsuum).III. by elevating and Contra Gentcs. in finitely can a spirit gaze upon God whose more above the simplicity of a created less : above matter. latter is simple. 1. is but an assimilation to His infinitely simple Intellect. except in so far as God by His grace unites Himself to the created intellect as knowable by it" (/. for the Divine Substance is the first thing intelligible (primum intelligibile)) and is the principle of all intellectual cognithan this tion. q. unknowable prove If the bodily eye cannot behold a created spirit because the III. therefore 199 of intellect cannot see God by means His Essence. 12. or as an immaterial substance is to the senses). on this point. by impressing " This elevation and " information of the intellect is possible by reason of His infinite Simplicity. c. 4 ad 3. that our intellect is to the most manifest things what the eye of the owl is to the sunlight." q. St.. SE 69 ' fIi At first sight the arguments given would seem tocodnot that God is altogether unknowable to any creature.. 1. indeed. by Substance is not beyond the reach of the created intellect as being entirely extraneous thereto (as for instance sound is to the eye.] The Negative Attributes of God. therefore.. 51. requires to be strengthened by some Divine light in order See also /. is much is simplicity spirit St. This difficulty is answered Contra Gentes. a. 54 " The Divine Thomas. c. Whence the Philosopher (Aristotle) says in the second book of the Metaphysics. 12.

A Manual of is Catholic Theology. II. not. knowledge exhaustive of its object. As the simplicity of God makes Him invisible to all beings except Himself. body. III. which. is from the beginning in the What we have Exod.g. xxxiii. 70. i). shall not see " the expression." In the Old Testament said . Firmiter). SECT. xxxiii. of God or of His Angels . 70. iii. e.. or abstract knowledge sometimes adequate knowledge . embracing whatever is knowable in and of the object. internal or external. the term Incomprehensible. The adequate comprehension of the Divinity cannot be communicated. xxxii. that. and again in the Vatican Council (sess.2oo CHAP. as applied to God in Holy Scripture and Tradition. easily explains the meaning of " Thou canst not see My Face for Me and live. as far as exists only for the human soul of certainty. 1 1. so [BOOK II. The Incomprehensibility of God. indirect. so does His infinity make Him incomprehensible that is. according to the common teaching. to see bosom of God with the Divine Person. IV. as opposed to mediate. Gen. Fourth Lateran Council (cap. we know with This privilege. Besides. " " I. is in The Divine Incomprehensibility Holy Scripture in connection. where God is described as incomprehensible as well as immense and omnipotent. Hence the vision of God cannot be of the natural life. in virtue of the Hypostatic Union. 20 : man God face to face." is often used in connection with any clear manifestation. the To o sraze on God human mind in its much above the nature of present state of union with the The of vision God in ttatit vite. ywpiiv} sometimes desigSECT. KaTaXa/mflaveiv. often spoken of indeed. even in the Beatific This is of faith as defined in the Vision. God Incomprehensible. to man during this mortal life unless as an excepgranted tion or special privilege. however. to any creature. Exod. if not the complete extinction. with the . In the Church's comprehend language the term (comprehendere. 30 . nates intuitive knowledge. to all but Himself. has always been taken to imply the absolute impossibility of being adequately known by any scripture creature. Christ. chap. such a vision could not take place without producing either an ecstasy or the suspension.

Job xi. vi. 71. in We have already explained 56 how. First. 3. theless. whole of it. 1-9 doctrine of the Fathers . 3. notwithstanding the attribute of Ineffability. and Ruiz (De Scientia Dei. is ineffable or 1.PART I. God is also ineffable in the sense that no created mind can give to the highest knowledge of God an exIn this pression adequate to convey it to other minds.CHAP. cxliv. quate to convey a knowledge of the Infinite as it is in . " the powers of a finite mind and as the " light of glory vii. E 71 f3L show the impossibility for man adequately to know God..] The Negative Attributes of God. the l ij i. . 2. Reason granted to the blessed in Heaven still leaves them finite. a created medium cannot be adeInvisibility. 30 sqq. and a corollary of the Divine likewise a matter of faith. .). man is able to speak about God and to give Him various names. HI. r u j r j knowledge we have of it may be defective. disp. God inexpressible is inasmuch as no In this created mind has an adequate knowledge of Him. . 201 but with man's limited knowledge. O the depth of the riches of the wisdom and of the knowledge of God How incomprehensible For are His judgments and unsearchable are His ways who hath known the mind of the Lord ? Or who hath Beatific Vision. it does not enable them to fully grasp the Infinite. . In the language of the Schoolmen. but not wholly (totum non totaliter). I. 4) III. xi. and consequently the expression of it must be defective or. the reasons which " ! ! been His counsellor ? recompense shall be also may be found in Petavius (De Deo. Or who hath first given to Him and made him?" Rom. The inner and formal reason of God's IncomprehenAn infinite object surpasses sibility lies in His infinity. secondly> SECT. An object may be ineffable in two ways. Never. Expression deficient- sense the Divine Ineffability is a corollary of the Divine Moreover. apply also to the case of the " blessed in Heaven. 33-35 see The Ps. . God in- effable - . is sense the Divine Ineffability Incomprehensibility. The Ineffability of God. xliii. language may be inadequate to express the knowledge Knowledge really possessed. a blessed spirit sees the Infinite but not infinitely (infinitum non infinite) and sees the . Ecclus.

as in all other acts of intellectual cognition. [BOOK II. but even any sort of expression of Him as He is in Himself. Him impossible. in. to utter" (2 Cor. The kind of ineffability in question belongs also.2O2 CHAP. the blessed see the Divine Essence as it is in itself. H ff f r - s the Beatific Vision. the Face of God. were. 4). Paul. It is xii. To Himself. that in the Beatific Vision the knowledge of the blessed is not a mental representation (species expressa). however. to a certain extent. HI. Who as it . God is ineffable to such a degree that not only is an ade- God not ineffable to Himself. He produces in Himself an adequate expression of His Being quate expression of . God is not ineffable. though by no means certain. If this is the case. Word. highly probable. . itself. which this is His consubstantial Word (Aoyoe-) By means of is. to the supernatural knowledge of God sometimes communicated to saints even in this life like a knowledge which they cannot express in words who " heard secret words which it is not granted St. ?I ' A Manual of Catholic Theology. to man II.

but eminently one by His own Essence. i. fiovaq. and there is none else there is no God besides all . Divine Infinity God exhausts the plentitude of being. is the 5ftS-. by His eminent and all-perfect' unity. Of these we may mention one viz. And this Oneness of God has a particular excellence from its being on the one hand infinitely comprehensive. POSITIVE ATTRIBUTES OF A. His absolute simplicity excludes especially " the possibility of I am multiplication of His Essence. tvag. or " Unissimus " eminently : He is the primarily One. and on the other hand perfectly immutable and always the same. In virtue of the absolute perfection of His Unity. 5). 72. . I. SECT I 3 is one in a supreme and unique manner " maxime unus. xlv.CHAT iv. Me" 42. no being independent of Him can be conceived or can exist. The proofs of this Unicity or Unique- ness are best given by St. III. not made one. there can be no other being above or beside Him He necessarily stands alone above . If there were another God. that from the . n Hence the Fathers call God. i - j r> stance and . Jehovah. but " The unique Unity. by reason of the perfect simplicity of His Sub.Being. The Unity of God. that according to St. c.. SECT. not only one. Contra Gentes. God is absolutely unique . other beings. GOD. neither would be the highest being. immeasurably more one than anything beneath Him.( 203 * CHAPTER THE IV. INTERNAL ATTRIBUTES. 1." as St. Thomas says. is. God II. Oodthe God." Ipsa Unitas. Thomas. (Isai. Bernard. and so neither would be God at all.

II." Oodthe fast Truth.204 CHAP. although Hence it follows (i) that we can not necessarily by us. the Divine truth highest and completest truth. God. in the immutability of the Divine Essence. by some influence of the First Truth on our mind (2) that the affirmation of any truth . K 2l2^ He foundation and highest ideal of the unity of all other beings. God is further. 6. As God is essentially the most simple. the truth. He is at once the Alpha and Omega of all things. [BOOK II. 6. logical or objective truth in immutable He possesses the attribute of onto- is but a repetition. quently the measure of the truth they contain." and I John is. the mirror things can be known better than in themselves. as the perfection of the Divine Essence is infinite. Again. as God is His own Being. the ideal. As First Cause He is. infinite. by the plenitude and richness of His unity. perfection. It is implicitly contained in John xiv. and conseis No He truth before Him the First Truth (prima veritas). in which all as it were. SECT. and participates therefore God is the immutable truth. and His knowledge is independent of everything : . A Manual of Catholic Theology. I. v. The act which the Divine Essence knows itself is not merely a by representation of the Divine Essence to the Divine Mind it is identically one and the same with His Essence. He is the prototype. so is He also His own truth. God th 73. " Christ is the truth (TJ oAiyfleia). and by which they are held together. Hence God is the clearest and purest truth.IV. the Objective Truth. " I am the way. know nothing as true except . the foundation of the objective truth of all things existing. and also of the possibility of all things possible. or the objective light. and an infinite degree. and fills the Divine Mind with a knowledge than which no greater can be conceived wherefore God is the Moreover. in another form. This doctrine life. of all things. it is also infinitely knowable. is at the same time. and truth pure and simple that is. ^r or above Him. He necessarily knows Himself as He is. By His eternal immutability He is the centre round which other beings gravitate. the principle and ideal of multiplicity and variety. and the not Himself. . Lastly. of the doctrine on the Divine Essence.

when all we desire other goods. it is the inexhaustible source from which all God good things. and proothers. a communication or outflow from the Divine abundance or possessing. .PART L] implies The Positive Attributes of God. besides. 205 Truth the affirmation of the First and Fundamental CHAPIV E 74> fl_ and (3) that the negation of God implies the negation of all objective truth. comes to them God th from without hence they are not sources of goodness. communicates to them existence and its especially. inasmuch as He He is the good of irrational creatures. or is a means of acquiring and enjoying external goods. but rather subjects capable of being made good by the Creatures never contain in accession of new perfections. but changing deception. II. it into falsehood and SECT. and is what we desire. of perfection. themselves all their goodness . The Divine Goodness is the good of all others. the Objective Goodness. He is not perfectible by the accession of All extra-Divine goodness is merely external goodness. and the sovereign and highest good it is the first and fundamental good. Whatever creatures are or . The infinite Essence of God is not only the good God the of Himself. It is. the essential Goodness. because of their self-insufficiency. desire to possess. God. and as the end teiiigent" . and which all other things. but is. It is especially in relation to His intelligent crea-Godthe * tures that God appears as the highest Good. I. 74. . knowledge uncertain. III. being essentially the fulness of perfection. other things draw their goodness. moreover. . God. on the contrary. containing eminently all that is worth desiring good. the good of all other things is to say. and the end and object of all good all other goods must be desired as coming from God. He is the Good pure and simple. 1 of all goodness. appears to our mind as good. and must be possessed as a participation of the Divine Goodness itself. their internal goodness is but part of their total goodness. because it contains duces all more than the equivalent of all others. possess. the only neces- sary and all-sufficient good. or tend to. thus not only making all . He is not a good of some kind or class . wherein He finds all He can desire and that possess.

SECT. 23-25. Anselm. the Absolute Beauty.. cc. . because in His infinite perfection He contains eminently whatever can . the end of all other goods because these either are not objects of enjoyment or are not merely such. The Schoolmen express this doctrine by saying that God is bonum fruendum. c. God. CHAP iv. 1. merely as a means to an end.. moreover. but as desirable in Himself. is the object of eternal joy. whereas to reasonable SECT. intellectual creatures He is the only beauty which . and the selfsubsisting Ideal of all that is beautiful. and because nothing outside Him is good and lovable except in as far as it partakes of the Divine Goodness. on account of His essential perfection that God is not merely lovable on account of the benefits He bestows. standing out above all their other goods. De Div. and consequently the most good. Norn. De Trinitate. cod tv bvLue. and the finds in the contemplation of Himself Him To His to impress beauty upon His external works. but on account of His internal perfection. 5 Dionysius (Vulg. viii. 4. and that He is admirable not merely on account of His works.JS. God is. "the Good to be enjoyed. make To Himself God delight which He moves creatures the object of pleasurable contemplation.. II. and alone able to gratify all the desires and to realize He stands out as all the aspirations of the created mind." whereas creatures are bona ntenda.). This implies that God is not desired is Oodthe 6 Beau'ty. 4 . St. n. God is also eminently good and lovable. surpassing them all in perfection. concomitant created perfections.206 A Manual of Catholic Theology. 75. esp. but lovable in Himself and for His own sake. Augustine. the highest good of His reasonable creatures." The classical texts from the Fathers on the Divine Goodness are St. because He actually possesses in an infinite degree whatever is good and lovable. IV. Proslog. crea t ures j^ e communicates Himself. but at the same time means for attaining the fruition of the Divine Good. [BOOK II. God mot I. God beautiful the highest Good. the absolute Beauty. " goods to be used. to be possessed by In this capacity God is means of knowledge and love.. iv.

7. in virtue of which each element of it is refulgent with the beauty of all. see St. the whole love of the . which shines most perfectly and sublimely is the highest development of Divine perfection in It we can easily detect all the elements of beauty. the Blessed Trinity. Organic beings represent the Divine Ideal of beauty in the manifold energies proceeding from the unity of their organization. Glory. proportions. Basil. and also vii. Dion.IV. Among c. there is than . viz. perfect identity no greater unity in multiof the Three Divine Persons no more perfect unfolding of essential perfection and life than the trinitary fecundity in God. Reg. Holy Scripture usually mentions the Divine Beauty as Ecclus. Cf. but abstracted from all reality. De Trin. which contain a certain unity in The inormultiplicity. plicity In the fact. of His perfection. all - 207 created CHAP. especially matical But the best represent more of the Divine prototype. Norn. wherein the whole Divine Essence is communicated the whole wisdom of the Father uttered in His Word.PART I. The Divine Beauty. 75. i.. . Wisd. however. know- ledge and love. as far as our sensitive knowledge goes. Light not only has its own beauty. intern ii. iv. the Fathers.] The Positive Attributes of God. Fus. can fully satisfy their craving. viii. in the inorganic world. (Vulg. to the Divine simplicity. III. it also lends Its rarity is the beauty to all other material things. the ideal of which . . of the Divine Beauty. . not the result of the harmony of parts or of anything that presupposes comGod's Beauty resides in the absolute simplicity position. the nobler metals and gems. . the splendour of perfection and life. The Divine Beauty contains the type of all that is God the in creation.. beauty is a faint copy. Disp. 3. ganic substances. nearest approach. The Divine Beauty in . St. is image light. Created spirits reflect the Divine Beauty in their life and motion. xiii.)... the resemblance of the image to the ideal or prototype. It appears most faintly in the beauty of mathe- beautiful We beau^. xxiv. 1. SECT. is c . De Div. unity and multiplicity. Hilary. find it copied with various degrees of perfection in every work of God's power and wisdom.

takes the place of the Latin omniThis latter implies a power to or above all things. I believe in Specific work and character of the Father Almighty II. B. including all conceivable power times. beauty is especially the Son. a iravTOKpaTwp. there By appropriation. correspond with those of the Divine Essence. The Creeds. self-subsisting and essential to God . infinite. without any composition in itself. in the Septuagint. . absolutely simple. nothing as the specific work of the Divine Omnipotence. because He is the splendour of the glory of the Father. which. . but for every. consider creation out of God Omnipoicnce. moment of their existence. God Divine perfection. Father and the Son poured forth in the Holy Ghost and is no greater resemblance of any image to its prothan the resemblance of the Divine Word to the totype. the Fathers of the Church. 76. the perfect expression of the attributed to Eternal Father. independent. . on the contrary. perfectly immutable All this is .2o8 CHAR iv. but brings things forth out of nothing as to their whole substance. present in all space at all " contained in the words. necessary. whereas the former designates a power holding and sup- . not only modifies pre-existing things. that is. necessarily this As its power it is immediately flows from the Divine Essence. Without the Divine Being no other being would even be conceivable as This doctrine is condensed in the Greek word existing. of God. the New Testament. SECT. Created causes. can only act on something already existing they never The power are the total causes of the effects produced. and the Greek Creeds. r The Omnipotence of God. without beginning. following Holy Scripture. A Manual of Catholic Theology. and maintains them in existence in such way that they depend on Him not only for the first. purely active and communicating perfection. potens. and Theologians. [BOOK IT. which receive their being from without. attributes Hence self-sufficient. EXTERNAL ATTRIBUTES. is God" rwer ^ ^he Possession of absolute power included in the infinite perfection of God.

the Second and Third Persons of the without. is (Eph. iii. for many things must appear feasible an infinite intellect. to infinity. The Divine Omnipotence jectively. xix.. Things intrinsically possible possible extrinsically on account of the Divine whatever does not i in- tence.PART I. I " 2) . Although the effects produced are finite. SECT. impossible. Although. howcreate the infinite.. the Divine Mind alone its extent . more abundantly than we desire or underaccording to the power that worketh in us" things 20). and that no number.] The all ^- Positive Attributes of God. which is also. ^i God is possesses . Trinity manifest . of finite productions can exhaust the Divine Power. become Power. or indeed have never entered to Who is able do all stand. which (Job all is able " to transfer existence. which to the finite mind seem simply " it. infinite in itself or sub- and also externally or objectively. porting j things (pmnitenens). xlii. and hence ruling all things. still the Power which produces them manifests itself as infinite. what God cannot do. . toExtentof Omnipo- is. Its interior its objective infinity must be underinfinity is evident stood in the sense that no greater power is conceivable than the Divine Omnipotence. which results from the comcan grasp to patibility of their various elements.. trinsic possibility of things. because the notion of a ! being at once infinite /.. how- ever great. is self-contradictory. the foundation of the inexhaustiThus the production of the bility of the Divine Power. 26). iv. smallest creature points to a Force which rules the very essence of things. and on which. 76.. all 209 things CHAP. God cannot and produced ever. p . at the same time. therefore. possible volve contradiction. 11 and penetrating III. and preservation of things suppose in the Creator an infinite fulness of being or perfection. know that With man this them from non-existence to Thou canst do all things " is impossible : but with God As to the inthings are possible" (Matt. He can and does His Omnipotence in communicating His own Such a communication takes place. all being for the creation depends for its existence. the that power to give existence to whatever . within. Omnipotence does not imply the power of producing * an infinite being.

. 21 and Suarez. as a matter of fact. from God Spirits alone receive their being immediately their life alone cannot be made subservient to a higher life . or annul all the consequences of actions done. . the consequences of sin. in creation is. . St. spiritual life. . are . no creature has even as an instrument. in the world as the principle of all motion inorganic world as the principle of vital activity and. c. Not only supernaturally. IV. above organic all. 3 A Manual of Catholic Theology.. . to produce every possible thing is maniproper to God alone. . iv. by means of grace and to the glory. disp.. See. which. Omnipocreated forces. of faith creature can so co-operate is theologically and philosophically certain. is the power to create all things peculiar to God. but also V.. . made participators of the infinite beatitude of God to God cannot undo the past. and cannot.g. acquires an infinite dignity likewise to spiritual creatures who. the 1-11 1-1 the root which comfoundation upon which they rest the soul co-operating municates to them their energy with them. . although many difficulties of detail can be brought against this doctrine. . The power festly a perfection the power to produce one single thing out of nothing because such power presupposes in its possessor the infinite fulness of being. even be communicated to creatures. the root. according co-operated. Phil. 1. That. Furthermore. In like sin. ii. or to or change in the cause. because sin is some- manner the power Relation of perform actions involving motion is not included in Omnipotence. i . diss. they alone are able to be so elevated and ennobled as to have a share with God in the fruition of His own God alone 11 Essence. chap.. iv. the foundation. Contra Gentes. and the soul of all powers and forces outside which they spring It is the source from God. Again. ix.. [BOOK n. ' - humanity of Christ. Omnipotence does not imply the power of committing thing defective. to suffer. through the Hypostatic Union with the Divine Person. . e. The Divine Omnipotence is the source. on this special point. 26.2io CHAP. Metaph. because do so would involve a contradiction but He can prevent Himself. that no to the common teaching of theologians. in the spiritual world as the principle of intellectual and . and intimately permeating their immediately Thus the Divine Force appears in the innermost being. 1005 . Thomas. . Kleutgen.

presence in . creatures because He these tween the substance of the Creator and that of the creature. penetrates. manner. 77. a simple coexistence. is their Creator and. admitting the possibility of action from a distance. Things are contained in God because by His are in God. would be against His Immensity. The Omnipresence of God. for He embraces all possible worlds.] The SECT. no space. but upheld by it as their first touching principle. pervades. God present I. maintain that the contact of God with creatures consists formally in faith. God's presence in the existing world is not a limit to His Omnipresence. however. So much is of A controversy. present to them in the most intimate not only not separated from them by space. II. so all things not. Positive Attributes of God. for this would be opposed to the Divine Simplicity . and because by His Omnipotence He actually upholds all existence. 211 CHAP. has arisen as to the manner which God is present in creatures. indeed. nor as an inclusion of the Creator in the creature. filling and pervading or even the Divine Substance. Holy Scripture insists more on the extension of the sv'ur virtual . consequently. the absolute cause of the innermost essence of is created things. penetration of their substance possible only to the simple substance of the infinite Author of things. describe the Divine Omnipresence as theologians formally consisting in the absence of local distance be. Immensity He fills all space. IV.PART I. The Thomist view is more logical and attractive the Scotist view reduces the existence of God in creatures to . He is but He As spirits have no parts and them necessarily means more than it implies a coexistence with them in the same place exclusively proper to fill itself. and permeates their very subThe Divine presence in spirits has a character stance. in On the other hand. for this with them. Theologians of the Thomist School. The existence of God in creatures must not be con- bi : tn t ceived as a mingling of the Divine and the created substances. God. the followers of Duns Scotus and others. As God is in all things. starting from the principle that a cause must be in the place where it produces its effect. maintain that God is not necessarily present to creative action.

7 sqq.. et presence which St. . ii. potentiam. expounds as follows: "God is in all things by His power.212 CHAP. in Job. c. 8). and Col. 77 ' A Manual of Catholic Theology. (/. The whole doctrine of the Divine Omnipresence has been summed up by St. Degrees of sence in IV. 1. st. 16. KOI iv TTCKTIV). HI. n. ceu 8m . The supreme degree of Divine presence is attained in the supernatural life of the soul and of the blessed. although present in all parts of the body. "God is in all things by essence.. Fathers and Theologians touch upon this 5). inasmuch as all things are subject to His power He is in all things by His presence. Thomas prcesentiam (Mor. 1. Cf. 6 Father of all. . 15. art. and " Dens est in omnibus per essentiam. i... Still. iv. inasmuch as He is in all things as the cause of their being " . xi. v. Sent. ii. does not fill them all with the same perfection nor act in all to the same extent. 1. 13.. II. power. 8.. iv. Many point when dealing with the question how far the devil can penetrate the human soul (Peter Lomb. Gregory Omni- which is accessible to them only in as far as the soul conforms itself to their evil suggestions. Tradition. into which the devils cannot introduce their substance. fll Divine Omnipresence. 3). 36. Just as the soul. and through all. inasmuch as all things are bare and open to His eyes He is in all things by His Essence. this also is clearly pointed out in " One God and many places. Gregory the Great in the formula. De Deo. c. Since the power of penetrating the innermost substance of spirits is an attribute proper to the Divine Omnipresence. Rom. so also God.). [BOOK n. and in all " : (ETTI iravrwv. E iv. dist.. the indwelling of the Holy Ghost or of the Son in created spirits is often brought forward as an evident proof of the Divinity of the Son and of the Holy Ghost (see Petav. In the controversy with the Arians and with the Macedonians. does not act with the same energy in every part. 8. . which corresponds to the Divine infinity and immensity. They hold that the innermost recesses of the soul are a sanctuary to which God alone has access. though present in all creatures. q. Thomassin. 12.. Trin. than on the intensive presence above described. and De c. p. ii. the Fathers insist particularly upon this point. iravrwv. especially in Eph. 17 Heb. who is above all.

Creatures not so filled with were. inasmuch as they are not distant from but the space is not dependent on them. distinguishing Him from the kings of this world.g. it the Divine presence. at the same all all to act upon impossible for God to act at a distance. although manifests His power and sovereign dominion. a The indwelling of God in the sanctified soul fills it with new life.] The Positive Attributes of God. the souls of sinners and the damned active presence of God in all things created God's Omof course. occupy spirits. but so fills it that its very existence is dependent on His active preThe Divine presence so encompasses all things and sence. cast out and even in them also God exists and abandoned. His presence enables distant things each other. the immovable. and majesty 17). but in the sanctiHis temple. as it is to the is God "the King power of God. God it God we is the the nature of the presence must extend to all times as well also. of which God Himself is the soul the creature God is present in participates in the life of the Creator. all space that while. God. far from God. appear. : SECT-77 ' fied soul as in the rest of the world as in His kingdom. who V. the unchangeable. iv.PABT I. . where He manifests His glory (i Cor. iii. who rule but for a time. 213 CHAP. on the active power of God. contrary. on the . to all space and every place. 17). The it a portion of space. m are not bound by the limits of space. God. is not only not far from any space. and to whose power time is not subject. . Holy Scripture of ages" (i Tim. in hell. is the it is principle of principle of change motion. as e. so that whenever a calls present. i. and God. time. From of gather that it If the possibility and existence of creaas to all things. their continued tures depend duration or time depends on thing exists or is possible. Created "n ps p^elnd extends.

Created pure spirits bear to God a somewhat similar to the relations of the body to the soul. whereas . II. SECT. The Divine Life in general Perfection.. THE DIVINE LIFE. preserved. the life of all that Him In this respect He is eminently the supreme Spirit (" the God of the spirits of all flesh.. involves a transition from potentiality to actuality the immanent activity proceeds from the substance. v. .- is God a Cod. reason alike teach us that . xvi. inasmuch as we conceive spirits as having independent life lives.. God analogically. and as infusing life.214 A Manual of Catholic Theology. / God . 22). living God. and not a simple perfection . mixed with other forms of life as the life of man is. life we conceive it. FAITH and . that His life is spiritual. I. and pure . The Old Testament speaks of the Living God.. Hence life is attri- in . as the soul the life of the body " (Deus vita anima sicut anima carporis). [BOOK IT. and relation moved by the life the Divine Life. Still it is not essential to immanent activity to commence in the substance and to subsist in it as in its subject the immanence is greatest when the action is identical with the substance. Hence the dictum is " : God is of the soul. 78.. it to perfect it. Unlike creatures which possess is life. applies to is a mixed God only analogically. the attribute of as it a living not -n But Life.. CHAPTER V." Num. all and is from without. but He imparts it to the fundamental life. 78. personal. but possessed by Him in the most proper and eminent manner. Its Absolute CHAP. God is Life. and remains . buted to God u Life. SECT.. It not imparted to things. their life-activity being caused..

because it is evidently contained in the simplicity and independence of God. the Life. That God possesses most perfect intellectual knowSECT. highest ideal and last end. The Divine Knowledge in general. and 26 Acts fIi79life A the term / t 1 i i Wisdom. the capability of ordering and disposing all things in accordance with their When speaking of creatures. proper character of the Divine Life as the highest form of spiritual tT T TT r r is Wisdom. CHAP. nor between these two and their object. division. God God isHis distinction external affects. but only to the highest of them on the contrary. nothing in . Who hast the knowledge of all things " ledge contained in the Bemg. . The First Principle of the order of the universe. SE God's v. xi. as also a just appreciation of all other things in reference to the Supreme Truth and Goodness. I. determines any way. Cf. 19 Ecclus. . Hence Wisdom implies the most perfect knowledge of the highest truth. and. John 4. living activities. Him v. i. xlii. (Esth. and because it is formally expressed in the proposior influences it God Himself. the Source and Ideal of all knowledge. is His knowledge: in Him there is no real between the faculty and the act of knowing. 22 sqq.] The Divine calls Life. 215 John xiv. not to the sum-total of their in God. " O Lord. appropriate.). Whom there full is Wisdom 79. Even when His knowledge extends to things outside Him. even oftener than that of Being The appellation of Wisdom is most (6 wv) and Living. designates the as a proper life of God. . John and adequate expression of the specific III. 20 i. must necessarily be possessed of wisdom. etc. xiv. consequently. no multiplicity or . 6 . 3 Kings 3 ii. . because Wisdom designates the perfection of spiritual life as name manifested in the acts of the intellect and of the will.PABT the I I. the adequate reason for such extension of the Divine knowledge is in II. ii. we give the name of in Wisdom. This is of faith. is God an gen very idea of the Divinity. and the most perfect love of the highest good. "The Lord knoweth all knowledge" Rom. Holy bcnpture very frequently thus . xvii. . 5. New Testament v. and in external actions. 33 Col. life. moves. . etc. 14). i. i (Ecclus. and uses the name of Wisdom of God. expresses the perfection of Life.

1 6 : A God other is Manual of Wisdom. The Divine Essence can act this part in the process of the Divine knowledge. things exist because God. 14. tions . 8). The mode of action of the Divine knowledge is essentially different from that of the knowledge of creatures. of ^ S pj r j ts ( i. through His knowledge. The knowledge which God has of things outside Him. is [BOOK II. is identical with it. because. lastly. He sees The created mind knows itself as it knows other things the knowledge of its own being is only the starting-point. puts it midway between God's knowledge and ours. on the contrary. it presents to the infinite knowing an adequate object. 16). God. again. does not presuppose in these things an existence independent of the Divine knowledge on the contrary. possesses in His Essence an object which itself determines and produces His knowledge from within. We receive our knowledge from natural things. xlii. inasmuch as it is the essential principle of all that exists outside God. the perfect knowledge of it implies the perfect knowledge of all that is or can be. doctrine is Essence is the formal object" of the Divine knowledge. and is commonly taught by theologians. God the is Catholic Theology. God knows them as caused and produced by His knowledge." This point of doctrine (viz. . q. seeing their possibility in His own Essence. things of nature stand The . and is sufficient to fill the Divine Intellect and to extend the Divine knowledge to all things knowable. 79 .. and a condition of the rest of its knowledge. w hich As God is the Light things (Ecclus.). light- man.2 CHAP. SEcr_ v. and that all other things knowable are its " material object. an object of infinite perfection and. that the Divine Essence is the formal and primary object of God's knowledge. of created causes. as follows " : briefly expressed " In the language of the Schoolmen this by saying that the Divine St. in the light Light. decrees that they shall exist either by an immediate act of His Omnipotence or through the agency faculty of . of which God." John of which Mode of so also all He enlighteneth every Himself the sun. III. Thomas (/. because. not its source and root. . because it is intimately and essentially present to the Divine Intellect nay. and that other things knowable are its material and secondary object) is a development of defined dogmas. a. In fact.

adequate. _ Knowledge- is intrinsically is that it necessarily embraces whatever necessary knowable. xxiii. Lastly. the Divine knowledge is comprehensive and cinations . seeing it built. the Divine knowledge possesses the highest possible perfection. It is in a unique manner an intuitive knowledge. v E 79 ' wherefore. because such an expression might imply an indeterminaticn on the part of the Divine knowledge. V. into the most hidden parts" (Ecclus. conjectures. It is in a unique manner an intellectual knowledge. so God's knowledge precedes them. 13. it is an uncertainty eminently certain and unerring knowledge : and error being incompatible with intuition and comprehensiveness of knowledge. Thus God's knowledge is. free it adequately comprehends its object from abstractions. . the sun.PABT L] is The Divine : Life. and is their measure just as a house stands midway between the knowledge of the architect who designed it and the knowledge of him who knows it only after the cause ledge of fl_ ." IV. 24. iv. Moreover. By reason of God's infinitely pe because it attains its object from within. 28. The negative attributes of the Divine perfection r shine with an especial splendour in the Divine knowr 1 Negative attributes f God's ledge. and looking into the hearts of men.). etc. Job xxviii. 217 CHAP. or ratio- it comprehends all possible beings in the very foundation of their possibility things are present to the Divine intention before they are present to themselves. because in a single act. beholding round about all the ways of men and the bottom of the deep. All these attributes are of faith. because implied in the infinite perfection of the Divine intellect. Heb. It is absolutely simple : God . Although. unlike human knowledge which penetrates to the essence and nature of things only by observing their external phenomena. still it cannot be said that God's knowledge of things contingent is itself contingent. from its Essence and Nature. this necessity is only hypothetical. as natural things precede our knowthem and are its measure. inasmuch as it grasps the inmost essence of things in the most exhaustive manner. cf. as regards contingent objects. and are clearly set forth in many texts of Holy "The eyes of the Lord are far brighter than Scripture. its identity with the Divine Essence.

The Divine Immensity and Omnipresence add another fection to the science of per- God. .. We are depth and breadth. . how He sees. A Manual of all Catholic Theology. It is immutable it. knows Himself and act. VI.. xlii. This ought to be kept well in view in order to meet the difficulties connected with this question. Ecclus. 1. we are unable the same act. c. Ep. Trin. the Divine knowledge is in a special manner incomprehensible and inscrutable to the created mind. it is things outside Him in one indivisible extension . : or withdrawn from It is eternal. iv. St. The domain of the Divine Science comprises.. 7 . and an infinite number of things in the domain . Aug. the knowledge of which constitutes the exalted and incomprehensible privilege of the Divine Omniscience. therefore. and indeed is partly in direct opposition to the laws which regulate created knowledge. v. further. in one and and how the intuition of a its free and. cause the intuition of acts. but also the manner in which the Divine Intellect lays hold of things external and renders them present to itself without being in the least dependent on them or waiting for them and to come into existence . Lastly. is.. to understand effect. not only as regards truths of an eternal character. . nothing can be added to having neither beginning nor end nor succession. c. inasmuch as they bring all knowable into immediate contact with the Divine things Intellect. (i) God (3) the (2) the metaphysically possible created by God the motions and modes of (4) things being of creatures as caused either by God or by creature? Himself. . xv. that is knowable. and as far as it is knowable. It is infinite in intensity as well as in that the deepest and the richest knowledge nothing is hidden from it it embraces an infinite object in the Divine Essence. notably to the mind in unable to comprehend not only its its natural state. The absolute perfection of the Divine knowledge expressed by the term Omniscience: God knows all Cf. 7. but also as to things temporary which are eternally visible to the eternal eye of God. .218 CHAP. [BOOK II. De Peter Damian. St. of possibility. 8. Godomis y 16 sqq. themselves (5) especially the free activity of creatures. A agent involves cognition of this kind free is utterly beyond and above the methods of finite cognition.

. they find a solution in . God's Knowledge of Free Actions of His free Creatures. At each of these three degrees of Divine knowledge our difficulties increase . The difficulties which the Divine knowledge of actions presents to our mind. as far. (2) God has this knowledge from all eternity that is. cause whereas the created mind only knows it from its external manifestations or effects. We shall tJie treat of (5) in SECT. we should with all its of creatures. from within and so far a priori . The knowledge which God of His creatures characteristics : is distinguished possesses of the free actions by the three following these actions in (i) God knows them- selves. " (2) conditionatorum o>v futuribilium}. (3) knowledge of " knowledge of conditional acts . before the actions take place (3) in the Divine Intellect the knowledge of free actions is logically preceded by the knowledge that. It is not without a purpose that Revelation so often insists upon the knowledge of the free actions of man as the exclusive and wonderful privilege of God. under certain conditions and circumstances dependent on the Divine decree. bear in mind that the activity CHAP. such actions would take place." (KapSioyvwata) acts " future free (scientia " . arise from our inability to understand the peculiar process of God's cognition.] The Divine to (4) Life.PART I. complete solution of the difficulties is imAll that we can hope to do is to remove possible. 219 As tions. v actual and possible modifica- is as much dependent on God as their substance God knows this activity from within. and the way in which the created mind acquires its knowledge. as they are in the mind and heart of their author. however. apparent contradictions by clearly pointing out the difference between the way in which God knows. is. which is indeed more peculiar in this than in other matters. from its very . the following section. as they are soluble. a knowledge in which the Divine Light illumines the most secret and dark A recesses. 80. The above three characteristics are termed respectively (i) " searching of hearts.

as that is. . 9. used must. v. Holy them. c. and even out. Who search the heart and prove the reins Who give to every one according to his way. i. exactly as they exist in the consciousness of the free more adequately than the free agent himself (2) that God alone possesses this knowledge God knows external free actions from within . however. 8). The things. xxviii. 13-15). This doctrine involves Cf. between God and created of faith (i) that God knows the free actions of His creatures from within. He know is from the inner disposition of the agent. hearts of the children of is men " " 30). so also does the inner free act from and in its principle. to whom the thoughts of men and of other angels are also imperviable. The Lord searcheth all hearts. Creator. . Who under" standeth all their works (Ps. ii. " The Lord hath looked from Cf. and unsearchable. especially of the spirits. 1.. the Lord. be also applied to the angels. which . heaven He hath beheld all the sons of men. and the bottom of the deep. before they are manifested withagent. xxxii. He Who has made the hearts of every one of them. Acts 24 and xv. . : following texts the Lord are far brighter than the sun. De Angelis. knows them (3) that. 10). perverse above : all i. who can know it ? I. . " For Thou only knowest the (2 Paral. know whether the important consequence. and this free will is entirely work of God. Creatures and their activity. . knows As to the exclusiveness of this knowledge. 21. beholding round about all the ways of men. that the devil can no more the tempted consent to temptation than he can force them to consent. we select the The eyes of " " the most hidden parts (Ecclus. point. xvii. 3. B God's of Free Acts A It is Manual of Catholic Theology. and can have no tendency. 28). including their free . xxiii. . Scripture indeed speaks mostly of the hearts of men as The emphatic expressions being hidden from other men. 9).22O CHAP. and understandeth all the thoughts of minds heart " (I Paral. first [BOOK II. Suarez. according to the unanimous teaching of the Fathers. God so alone 2. ' a correct exposition of the relation of causality I. no motive. vi. into " As Scripture proofs of I. and looking into the hearts of men. no the the free will of the creature its act independently of God knows frotifwTthin. " and according to the fruit of his devices (Jer.

Life. Now. without reserve. and that the second description applies. bad actions deflect the free actions of which lect He is the Creator and Conservator. f Hence free actions appear to the Eye of knows them with them. Thus the action of the creature does not enlighten the Divine Intelbut. God of His creatures. v.. they cannot act unless God moves and co-operates How God T. lay too much stress on the that God knows the free actions in and through His point action on the will while others give too much prominence All of the . the action is itself enlightened by the Divine Mind. only to bad actions. and consequently no freedom. : sees from it. do S not proceed from God at all. The formal objective reason (ratio formalis objective?) why God sees the free determination is the dependence of the free will on God. it must be remembered that God knows all effects by His knowledge of their causes. not as independent external manifestations. both parties agree that the first description can be applied without restriction only to the knowledge of good actions . however. 80. The Divine are intrinsically i . or from the motives communicated to it by God for if such a conclusion could be drawn. but from the created will. in as far as they are bad. a knowledge which peneHe therefore knows trates to their uttermost capabilities. and moved by. SECT. iedg e o"fr!e This explanation enables us to see how the knowledge not'ci^n r which God has of free actions does not interfere with their frdom! .PART!] activity. Consequently. Him. but in that is. i-. is not inferred from the previous state of the will. like their other actions. on the contrary. by the free will dependent on. there would be a necessary connection between the previous disposition of the will and the subsequent determination. This knowledge. which. . . therefore. L r dependent on God J J i CHAP. on account of its dependence on God. the actual determinations of free will as they are elicited . to the idea that the free actions are known by God in But themselves. : 221 that is. Some. as they proceed from the created will. in the free will and its activity their origin and root tended . God as the course of a motion originated and supported good actions run the course which He inby Him . schools of Theology agree in this explanation manner in which God knows the free actions of creatures.

" II. . that God. its energies and faculties. the following proposition " will also be clear God's certain knowledge of the free creatures in : God by reason of the same knows the free actions of His determination of the will is not the cause of this determination nor is the determination of the will the reason why God knows it. is it known God. does not determine free actions in the same manner as He determines other actions of creatures. " : The foreknowing power of God but it is because of us that He foresees what we are about to do for if we were not about to do the things. [BOOK II. : The Divine w ledge of because they were not going to be. Hence God knows . St.222 CHAP. may extend His knowledge to that particular determination of the will. the adequate knowledge of which includes the perfect knowledge of all things dependent on it. God. Just as the self-determiquestion. the free actions of creatures is eternal. On the contrary. Hence the reason why God knows the free actions of His creatures is the relation of causality and dependence between Creator and creature. John Damascene. The foreknowledge God is true and infallible indeed but it is not the cause why we do certain things on the contrary. A Manual of Catholic Theology." The fact that a free determination takes place is merely a condition of God's knowledge of it nevertheless.. it is a necessary condition necessary in order . and all the actions that actually result. the knowledge of of . v. however. freedom. God is determined by His own Essence to the knowledge of the free acts in His knowledge proceeds from Himself. the impulse by which He enables it to act. If this be rightly understood. so also influence. an(j causes an object o f the Divine knowledge. by means of His causal influence. therefore. His own Essence. because we are about to do certain things. nation of the will is consequent upon the causal influence to of God. God foreknows them. Like all other Divine knowledge. from this impulse. but not the knowledge itself. or may result. The free will of the creature indeed determines SECT^SO. : Frictions. Contra Manich. 7^ has not its cause in us . John Damascene. as Creator and Conservator He contemplates in the same act the substance of the creature. God could not have foreseen them. This doctrine is thus expressed by St. c.

touchstone of Divinity. "All things are bare and open to His eyes.. after their which God has of free actions the same If it only grasped the action as a material ledge would be false or incomplete." Prescience of this kind is exclusively proper to God. The possibility of an eternal Foreknowledge is evident from the a priori nature of the knowledge. Augustine (Ad Simplicium. 29. 24. 28. The knowledge before. 2) gives a classical description of the way in which God sees future things as present. He contemplates the as actually present. the knowForeknowledge would . 25 . "Show the things that " are to come hereafter. that is. SE ^i8 and knows them even better than the creatures themselves - He further contemplates them as perpetually present do. with the reality they acquire when accomplished in the The Vatican Council (sess. cxxxviii. apprehends free actions formally as such. . 223 the free actions of His creatures before they are performed. God's Foreknowledge must be eternal because all ii. Cf. n. for God knows future things in their eternal cause. 'St. ii. and xxiii. no more alters the nature of our acts than the fact that they are seen ' or remembered by ourselves or by is others. the decrees of His Providence ought to be made in time that is in God is God's For* ge St also. v. iii. c.PART L] The Divine Life. CHAP. performance. 22. Marcioii). and we shall know that ye are gods Every one of the many prophecies con(Isai. C. during. being a priori. Besides. 23). Further.. xli. the Divine Knowledge. a Ecclus. knew the free actions of His creatures only in time. as proceeding from the will by free determination. 1. even the things which will take place by the free action of creatures. Ps. fact. future . if God necessarily eternal.. The fact that God sees what we do. Him there is no time The Divine Foreknowledge is an eternal contemplation does not and therefore does not interfere with the liberty of the whhivee W created will. I sqq. tained in " ledge. xxxix. because to things temporal stand before His undivided eternity with their temporal character and are seen always as they are when they actually exist. i) says: course of time. " ledge a proof of the Divine Foreknowa proof of the Divine ForeknowEvery prophet " Praescientia Dei tot habet testes quot habet is is Holy Writ prophetas" (Tertull. and Besides. q.

or. II:" He was taken away lest wickedness should alter his understanding. cannot be denied to God. Hurter. In fact. often deal expressly with the present In the controquestions in connection with Providence. and Vol. fll_' only interfere with liberty of action if it supposed a necessary influence of God on the human will. The Divine no se O f a>n- The knowledge performed by free agents III. the circumstances. I. he was not delivered into thee. Cf. No. . xxxviii. of the actions which would if be certain conditions were fulfilled. the commentaries on Wisd. xi. 2. Not one of these Fathers tries to justify men. pp." the hands of his enemy (i Kings xxiii. in the sermon on this text (Opp. p. afiswered positively. and. . It is in itself FreeAaions. St. De Tradition. and St.. (See infra. c. or for conferring dignities upon on the plea of ignorance of what would happen under them. 1-13). and others would commit under given conditions. moreover. Scripture. He would deprive them of their liberty (cf. viii. Cf. " They will deliver But David having fled. or deceit beguile his soul esp.). unfulfilled conditions (Jer. woe to thee. Bethsaida : for if in Tyre and Sidon had been wrought the miracles that have been wrought in you. See other instances of the Divine knowledge of future actions dependent on " Woe to thee. 15 sqq. God being asked by David if the men of Ceila would deliver him into the hands of Saul. God for creating these " 764-770). p. 20-23).) et Gratia. iv.. Gregory of Nyssa. they had long ago done penance in sackcloth and ashes" (Matt. it is an unmixed per- fection. Augustine (De Corr. 372.224 CHAP. God could not' frame His decrees concerning knowledge. Saul. 87). De Deo. if He did. Judas.). necessary for the perfect ruling the government of rational creatures. or if it had the character of a conclusion necessarily following from given premisses. Corozain. E v. [BOOK IT. ii. without such of the world by Divine Providence. -A Manual of Catholic Theology. versies with the Manichaeans and Gnostics. they all admit without hesitation that God foreknew the sins which Adam The Fathers and Eve. 449 sqq. Franzelin. torn. p. Deo. Holy Scripture fully supports this doctrine. II. 242.

The foundation of the Divine ideas is the infinitely perfect Divine Essence. all The Divine the fJt^wk- Divine ideas. The Ideas 1 different i-r i i i 11 The Divine ideas not thc sameas ideas. " are works of wisdom. but setting up and 2. on the other hand. however. I. because of the simplicity of the All beings outside i. God and eternal (Ao-yot owo-twSac. 8 1. very r -i -i from the ideas which guide the human artist. is essentially a product and an expression of a Divine of the Divine Wisdom are. are often used synonymously. Moreover. and comprehended as so imitable by the infinite Intellect of God. In the language of the Church. Activity to its 225 CHAP. drawn from. and Goodness. Beauty.PABT I. the expressions idea. commonly artist tion which the signifies the mental representahas of his work (ratio rei faciendce). exemplar. and must be the object of the contemplation of the Divine Mind. the Divine Substance. Hence all the works " of God art. All the works of God are produced with perfect knowledge of what they ought to be. The ideas of the created artist. and all that is outside God Idea. essentially proper to .e. ciii.] The Divine Life. 3. rationes aternce}. External V.vs all : made "Thou hast Wisdom is the operates ad extra by artistic ideas. worker of all things" (Wisd. Philosophically and God theologically this doctrine is expressed as follo. 1. informing their very essence and. being identical with God. modelling not only the external appearance of things. of the Divine tion. Idea. a participaan imperfect copy or imitation. forma. 24). and all are intended to represent and manifest the Supreme Being. imitable ad extra in finite things. SECT. t>Ea. or rather works of His wise things in wisdom (Ps. they have in themselves the power of actuating themselves. : Q . Being hence their types or ideas must exist in the Divine Essence. theUmVer^e. 81. The Divine Wisdom in relation The Divine Ideas. The former are truly creative ideas. The Divine " sidereTas The ideal is the highest conception of a thing. and identical with. vii. SECT. 21). are only relatively original even his noblest inspirations are mostly . by their essence. God are. species. containing in itself the perfections of things. They are absolutely original ideas. ttSoe. determined by external circumstances.

: in measure." as a guide and educator. not only as in an abstract mental representation. leading man on to the participation of the All-Wise life in God. It is essentially a work of the Divine Wisdom to give order. . V SECT. He has as many ideas as He knows to be possible representations of His only one idea Him. and read there by means of the light of reason. thus offering an image of the eternal law To rational creatures especially.226 CHAP. ii. 21). 2. Holy Scripture calls this ordaining operation a measuring. and to establish the laws by which this object is to be aimed at and attained. 15). i. Wisdom prescribes laws for the right direction of their These laws are " written in the actions towards their end. and weighing . The Divine Wisdom as Ordainer and Lawgivei. 6. How many ideas in 4. in which each holds its proper place. still there is no ideal of Divine Mind. but a difformity or deformation of things a work of the Divine Wisdom nor a work of God at all. God contemplates in one idea the type of all possible imitations ad extra. as it were. heart" (Rom. evil. however. No ideal of 5. the ideas. Divine Substance. The laws that regulate the movements of creatures are implanted in their nature. The creative power of the Divine ideas enters into action only when God decrees so by an act of His Will. [BOOK IT. their foundation and the mind contemplating them. For evil is not a positive forma. evil in the Although God knows evil. A Manual of Catholic Theology. harmony. but as in their real model and type. is further of the Divine Wisdom to determine the ideal perfection to which creatures should tend as to their ultimate object. as there Essence. the Divine in God. A and number. In His absolutely simple and infinitely rich Essence. " Thou hast ordered all things numbering. The Divine Wisdom appears here as "doctrix discipline Dei. attribute xi. 14. and weight" (Wisd. are all one and therefore created things are contained in God. and are. Formally speaking. How many is ideas are in there in God? is Materially God? there only one ideal for all things together as well as for each in particular. identified with their substance. . and organization to the things to unite them in one representing the Divine Ideas harmonic whole. II. 81. it is not tion. and each and all tend to the end proposed by the Creator.

means of God knows Ruie^. 91. 45. The the involves perfection of the Divine knowledge of all the ways and infinite Wisdom The Divine S realizing the ultimate object of creation. is to the created " its as opposed Ood'swnii real identity with the Divine substance. and thus to attain His own wise objects." can be no successive acts of will. i). however. For in us it is a faculty distinct from our substance and actually distant from its object whereas in the Divine Will there is no difference whatsoever between "is in in . vii. a more proper and complete manner than in us. . the SECT. unimpeded (Wisd. which acts and operations should be produced or prevented.. I. but everything is made subservient to them. II. is In this sense the spirit of eternal wisdom all : called Travrn-'icrKoirov and aicwAurov. no sanctity. Will. act and object. and a most perfect Will. 23). a. see St. The will is an essential of a living spirit without it there could be in God no power. 82. Thomas. no beatitude. and He knows how to direct every action and operation to its end. God. Who has the power to bring about or to prevent even the free actions of His creatures.. over- seeing itself it things. no desires. The fundamental property of the Divine will. Substance. freedom to commit sin. viii. 227 On III. I* 2*. or tendencies. i). The essential act of the Divine Will consists in the delight with which God embraces and contains Himself as the . dist. a. or justice. the relation between the eternal law in God and the CHAP v.PAET I. The Nature and Attributes of considered generally. including with the free will of man. God is and -to Whose Will all things are subservient able to direct evil actions to good ends." says St. so that nothing upsets His plans. power. Who foreknows the future and its contingencies. Providence is best seen in its dealings Freedom of action. natural law. 2. q. would undermine the stability of any but an infinite Providence. God Hence in God there substance.] The Divine Life. all and ordereth fection of the Divine The perthings sweetly" (Wisd. I.d a. and of Wisdom " is said She reacheth from end to end mightily. is^o^ hasa evident to faith and reason alike. Bonaventure (in Sent. Divine Will That God has a Will.

It is indeed essential to the Divine Will. by which influencing it from without all things are created. or of anything the uncreated act. to attain the intended object. however. The not a cause moving the Divine Will. . in order to bring them into existence not to derive from them any increment of perfection or In itself the act of the Divine Will is posseshappiness. the Divine Will moves Itself.228 CHAP. g2 ' NO e external Divine" Highest Good. . act on the Divine Will in itself. and consequently to determine Itself to the choice and disposition : of appropriate means is object. however. even more than to the will of creatures. and The free orders or disposes it in some particular manner. inclinations of our will cause us to act however. they are but the reason . and determines by what means these objects are Thus the love of God for Himself causes to be attained. that in God the satisfaction of such desires is neither a want nor a cause of new volitions. motives and objects are dependent on the primary one they are only motives and objects because God wills them Hence subordinate motives and ends do not to be such. This delight extends to things outside Him. HI. It directs Itself upon some particular object. . is that with Him there can be . why brought about or permitted by God Himself. and of which He takes notice for His own sake they are by no means external causes moving the Divine Will to action. cannot be subject to such influences. SECT - A Manual of Catholic Theology. . v. actions of creatures are but circumstances in creation. [BOOK II. the . sion and fruition in its relation to external goods it can but freely distribute its own abundance. In God. The supreme goodness of the Divine Will is the reason and the rule determining the direction of the Divine voliGod loves His own goodness and tion to definite objects. An immediate consequence of the identity of God's Will with His Substance. to act for an object. but the reason why first motive and the ultimate object of His Will are they are His Essence conreally identical with His Will All subordinate sidered as the supreme objective Good. only. waL no question of a cause moving the will. therefore He wills its glorification and communication ad extra. just as the desires and with this difference. Him to will things outside Him.

the love of self itself is not a sufficient object for all their volitions . logians. IV. a condition and their volitions. as it is the Supreme Beauty. The common among way v.. it. The love of self the starting-point of all objects of their desires exist outside and independently of them. wa See Ruiz.CHAP. although they differ in the of expressing Voluntate Dei. But God is Himself the proximate and principal object of His volition. to submit to His majesty by honouring and serving Him. to manifest "The Lord hath made all God has created the things for Himself" world' "of His own goodness. is. nate ends. As. to know and to praise it. its objects. De Divine Will and selves. most communicable. in which God's Love of Self determines His love of creatures is as follows : The manner 1. 4). or at most as subordi. too. the love of it excites a love the Infinite is As Good of reproducing 3. the love of it implies love of communicating it. the dependent on the possession of external goods. disp. and is capable of being copied and multiplied. From this genesis and order of God's volitions we infer .PAET I. All other things the Divine Will attains without being in any way determined or perfected by them they are either not intended for themselves at all. it is but part of higher aims and objects. (Prov. it.] The Divine doctrine here stated is Life. duce His beauty. Again. He i). and to cling to order to participate in the Him with love to repro. ch. and as their perfection and felicity are themselves with creatures. Another consequence of the identity of Will and The relation J * between the Substance in God is the peculiar relation between the Dmm. Thus all things find the motive of their existence in the Divine Self-Love and in it. they find their ultimate The supreme Good is . bestows on creatures " (Vatican Council. dignity and majesty of the highest worthy of honour and glory hence God is induced to create beings able to give Him honour and glory. and powerful. not to increase His happiness or to acquire but His goodness by means of the good things which iii. 2. object. sess. 229 the theo. and between the objects them- objects. fruitful. however. xvi. They are made in goodness of God. xv. .

intends really and truly that they should possess the perfections communicated to them. First of all it is certain that liberty of choice cannot necessarily. omnipresent. etc. and appreciation with which God honours the goodness and dignity of His creatures. sion The Divine stls'seif an the ' ^Divine Substance.. simple. esteem.The Absolute Freedom of God's Will. It is absolutely independent. this . immutable. although His creatures are only means to His glory.. respect r . SECT. when willing things as means and instruments to other ends. God loves I. eternal. the act of the Divine is . beauty. but is free end with consciousness and God knowingly and willingly loves His own is in respect objects outside II. Hence we perceive the benevolence. on the contrary. . however. although they are but means for the glory of God. includes viz. only . For this very same reason. the perfection essential to acts of the the acting for an for pleasure lovableness. existence on a Divine volition. for pendent their things and. God's absolute perfection necessarily includes the absolutely perfect action of His Will. be attributed to all the volitions of the Divine Will. attributable to the Divine Will to. [BOOK II.230 CHAP E v. and identical with. and dignity. Another consequence of the identity of Will and Substance in God is that all the positive and negative attributes of the Divine Substance must be applied to the ideal . . God. Will will..in Liberty of choice . Drvi ne Will. He offers Himself as the object of their possesand fruition. The necessity of this act even greater than the necessity which proceeds from the nature of creatures and compels them to act because it is founded in. 83 ' A Manual of Catholic Theology. infinite. to external as these are de- Him. but only inasmuch as they are means. necessarily directed to the Divine Essence as the highest good. %-$. the Divine Essence. fll another difference between the manner in which the Divine Will and the created will bear upon their objects. There is no selfishness on His side and no degradation on the side of creatures. which make them copies of the Divine nay. and He takes pleasure in the goodness. does not value them in themselves. V. The created will.

however perfect a created necessary to Him. in as far as it should be glorified by find delight in external and should be enabled to But there is no necessity here. viz. iii.} God is perfectly free to create or not to create beings outside of Himself. of His will" (Eph. ix.PART I. n . See also Rom. however. is not necessary to Him because His essential in of . n). i. He is not bound to intend His external glory. indeed. if the . and thus proving Himself sole necessary and absolutely self-sufficient Being. . of God. He must own the love of His But if He wills not to glory that moves Him to create. glory is all-sufficient do so for His own glory. chap. create. i Cor. The Love creatures of Himself moves appears to Him fitting that Him He to create. "Who has predes" us . but did so as necessarily as He loves Himself. Holy Scripture " : fittingly describes the liberty of choice all in God Who worketh things according to the counsel tinated (i. following considerations contain the proofs from reason and the solution of difficulties. according to the purpose of His Will 5). John iii. (&) Again. because God might glory. of the Divine perfections. world be conceived. 18 .. " (can. and therefore a still more perfect one could be conceived. anathema 1. This consideration gains additional force from the dogma that the Trinity is an infinite communication. 3' creative volition itself is defined by the Vatican Council. E v. (a. Hence. v..). i). and it God is creates. He is likewise free to create any of the many worlds alike possible and unMoreover. and again. it would always be finite. God is free to create the world with any He is not bound to degree of perfection He chooses create a world of the greatest possible perfection. If. which. 231 This CHAP. 2. by abstaining from producing other beings.] The Divine is Life. ad intra. If He is free to create or not to create.. "If any one shall say that God did not create with a will free from all necessity. Reason. in the free choice " God created the world ^Il of freest design" (sess. 8. assert his Self-Love in another way. let him be Scripture. xii. Such beings are neither necessary The themselves nor necessary to the beatitude or perfection God they can only serve to his external glory.

God was bound once finite to create the most perfect world all. however. "And I went down into the potter's house.) through which the general object of creation is to be attained and also in the determination of the position which each particular being is to occupy in the universe. and behold he was doing a work on the wheel. as it seemed good in . Manual of Catholic Theology. This principle applies especially to the creation of beings of the same kind. because a world at and incapable of higher perfection involves a : All that can be said is this once God has determined upon creating a world. sanctity. It ought. 3-7). Thus God is bound by His wisdom and goodness to ordain particular things to the ends of the whole world of His choice. No man has a better claim than any other to be called into existence or to be distinguished by particular gifts. His own moral perfection requires that He should realize the idea in a fitting manner. and immuIII. [BOOK IL possible. Rom. 10 sqq. Ecclus. O house of Israel. 2O sqq. He refuses to none the perfections required by their nature. if God favours some creatures with extraordinary gifts. xxxiii. and to destroy it" (Jer. Cf. Holy Scripture often mentions this point in order to set forth God's absolute dominion over His creatures. . saying of Israel ? saith the Lord. And the vessel was broken which he was making of clay with his hands and turning he made another vessel. to be borne in mind that. Although the Divine volition of finite things is 3 from antecedent necessity. and over His gifts to them. . ix. I will suddenly speak against a nation. v ECT^S. The Divme volition Atibjectto free tonsequent necessity. and the whole world to His own glory. . xviii. _ . and in the degree of perfection to be granted to them. I Cannot Then the word of the Lord came to do with you as this potter. and to excite the gratitude of men for the gifts so freely bestowed upon them by the Divine bounty. O house of the potter. : his eyes to : make it.A CHAP. me. God is free in His choice of the particular beings (<:. j^^ vvould be unable to create at contradiction. so are you in Behold as clay is in the hand My hand. and against a kingdom. to root out. it is subject to the necessity consequent upon the Divine wisdom. and to pull down. and ordain everything to His own glory.

to decree likewise v. passions which dim the mind and upset the will. sanctity and Willing immutability. The wisdom and sanctity of a choice do not always require a special reason for the preference given it is sufficient that there be (i) a general reason for making a choice. irdfhi. this simple willing is not arbitrary and therefore unwise and unholy. of voluntas ordinata. 84. with " " of God.] The Divine Life. Hence the Divine Will. a willing only foundation in the Divine liberty." that all is necessarily connected as means or otherwise The older Theologians give to this these objects. When speaking of the affections of the Divine I. He CHAP. perfection excludes all affections which imply bodily activity. The Divine its acts in as far as they bear on their an eminent manner. . and. a fortiori. viz. (2) . These notions are important . the consciousness that the choice is really free." affectus. The Affections (Affectus] of the Divine Will. the willing of ultimate ends and the willing of certain means that is. but are treated by the the will.PAET I. 233 certain objects. in contradiswhich has its the willing of an end does not always entail necessary willing of particular means. The same end and besides often be attained by various means . regulated by His wisdom. a relation analogous to that which our will bears to its objects when moved by our Will. has scope left for freedom. on account of their bearing on the predestination. by "consequent necessity. entirely without reason. tability. others merely useful or ornamental may be chosen. we consider objects in 1 "Affections. excitement of the mind. Yet. even when acting in of a previous decree. is Once God has freely decreed bound. especially Love)General principle. are the same as the emotions. then. the name tinction to the voluntas simplex. in God a twofold simple volition. passivity. Schoolmen as belonging either to the sensitive appetite or to . and (3) the intention to direct the object of the preference to a wise and holy end and all these conditions are all fulfilled in the Divine simple Volition. consequence There is. difficult question of SECT. The may the necessary means. thereto.

God contains formally only such affections as are deter- mined by His own Essence. viz. A malevolence. . exist formally other affections. such as complacency in His goodness. not to be conceived as really distinct or conflicting. placency in what is good. such as fear and sadness. they ought . are only improperly In other words. hatred or 2. certain unrest. the degree of appreciation of the evil This painful sensation. increasing with with a feeling of disgust and displeasure.234 CHAP. which imply imperfection. the Divine Will. benevolence. the hatred or abomination of what is wicked is inseparable. With the aid of these principles. spring from the former. T^. it is almost impossible to find The other Divine affections. love. it will be possible to determine in detail which affections can be attributed to lothe Divine will. or a in God various . and strives. Hatred consists . to the abomination of evil. is not essential attained. the Highest Good. however. and joy. Between the affections which have God Himself for their immediate object. or metaphorically attributed to Him. TTT-H Love of what befwiful" The affection is Divine Will most properly attributable to the The delight in what is good and beautiful. if by analogy with ourselves we distinguish many affections in God. in created wills. [BOOK II. The contrary affection. . which have creatures for their object. . but as virtually contained in the one act of the Divine Substance. v. even a virtual distinction. I. whataffecattributable II. ^- Affections not essentially connected feelings. benevolent inclination towards Himself. Who knows that by His power and wisdom Henevo- evil itself is made subservient to the ultimate end of creation. This affection is connected. The Divine Will cannot be affected by anything external hence. with imperfection. primary object of this Divine complacency is the infinite Goodness and Beauty of the Divine Essence the secondary From the comobjects are its created representations. and towards the beings which participate in His Goodness. such as love and delight. in is impossible in God. to a greater evil precisely as evil it . It does not exist in God. and are ramifications of the Divine Self-Love. 4' <d Manual of Catholic Theology. is another formal and proper attribute of the Divine Will. in wishing some one takes pleasure the evil of the person hated.

of which the sinners are members. God continues His benevolence to sinners. but. If hatred and sadness can find no room in the Divine Will on account of the imperfections they imply. or uses " similar expressions. all is against love . is likewise impossible in God. and are only metaphorically applicable to God. Scripture hardly ever attributes hope or fear to God. are affections entirely incompatible with the repose and happiness of the Divine The Will. 3. even when they are damned in hell. it GO iu Love. indeed. to destroy the hateful object. Other affections formally attributable to the Divine Will are joy and delight in God's infinite Beauty and Goodness.PABT or I. on the contrary. respect and Holy repentance be excluded. God acts as we . but is begrudge them happiness He wills their punishment only inasmuch as by it the order of the whole of creation. whatis against the Nature of God. Pain and sadness. J Not Hope or r> TV hope and fear. and is excluded from Him whatever is according to essentially is Love. ^^ acts. When Scripture speaks of God's hatred of sin. God ever Love. type upon which all His other to the reader. and does not as the latter operates patible with also contrary to the nature of the Divine Will. the forced submission to the order of God's universe. yet possessed 4. viz. III. This way of speaking is affections like much more must Anger or Repentance admiration. same is true of pity. the " hatred of what is wicked ought always to be understood. the noblest kind of sadness. lesser an affection inasmuch on creatures only to communicate the Divine Goodness to them. . not only unworthy of God and incomHis absolute repose and beatitude. . although the effect is The desire for things not there. Love is foremost among the Divine affections is the affections are modelled. as if He felt pity . God . the affection is wanting. and Love pure and simple . is maintained and the sinners themselves receive the sole good available to them. and not mere malevolence. anger and adopted in order to make the actions of God intelligible conceive an angry man would do under the same circumstances. as enjoyed by Himself or shared by His creatures. Such CHAP. 235 v.] The Divine extent. but often anger and repentance. is Life. for He wills their natural good even in hell.

but the of . By reason of its origin in the Divine Wisdom and Self-Love. directed towards their salvation. Benevolent. God's love of creatures is essentially wise and holy. and tends to unite them 4. and is Love. Hence the meaning of the expressions " " " God God. It is a gratuitous love. and which takes the form of the noblest kind of : . intinwte. with God's Love of Himself. and without any profit on the part of God. which sacrifice to the capricious desires of creatures their own salvation and the honour of God. and bonitas here must be taken as expressing benevolent love. determinate beings which receive their existence in virtue of His Love. and if we distinguish pure love from holy love it is only in order to point out the absolute gratuity of the the name of charity. therefore. ordinating them to the highest good. The Divine Love with Him in the fruition of His own perfection. is indeed foremost among. God's benevolent love of creatures actually existing in substance. IV. as here described. [BOOK II. would infinitely different from a blind and weak tenderness. 3. 8. Whose nature is goodness (St. 2. charity. Love. of creatures is eminently intimate. ayenrrj. and embraces It is identical creatures in their innermost being. Leo). love. and characteristic of." I John iv. former. love. and necessarily subIt is. Holiness is an essential element in pure love. all Divine affections but it is not their living root and their real principle. Gratuitous. God's benevolent love of His creatures is charactenzed by the following properties i. Such tenderness is unworthy of God it would be impure love. This is Love only in as far as by love we understand the complacency which God finds in the infinite Goodness of His Essence. is according to the inclination and disposition of the Divine Nature. by which we wish well to other beings just as we do to ourselves. Hence The love arises the unitive force proper to Divine Love. caritas.236 CHAP. charity (ayoTrij). not deserving . v. freely bestowed without any : whseand claim on the part of the creature. A Manual of Catholic Theology. creatures for each other brings them together. His love of Himself freely directed towards is. God's love of creature*.

infinite. ii. degrees. of creatures unites the creature to the CHAP. Lastly. mutability. limitation. more love is shown to the better ones than to the less perfect. and temporality of their objects. the negative attributes of infinity. It " which the New Testacharity or love of God and almost exclusively recommends. Ecstatic. All the distinguishing properties of the Divine Love " love shine forth most brilliantly in the supernatural " which God has for His rational creatures. 84. haustible. so that. SECT. immutability. all. Creator. because God loves one object more than another. has willed the one to be better than the other. because in the Divine act itself But it manifests itself in various there are no degrees. is that " and giving Himself to them in many ways. embracing.. 6. out of " " Himself (Phil. Humanly speaking. is eminently fertile and inex- inexham tible. God. and with His Love His goodness. God causes His Love. iv. whence that famous is beloved creatures into the closest union circle of the Divine Love described by Dionysius the Areopagite. 7. in the Incarnation. empties inasmuch as.PART L] The Divine Life. it may even be said that. each and all On its the part of the same for objects. and has adorned the one with choicer gifts than In this respect He the other. on the part of the beloved objects. " " ecstasis of the Divine Love aims all external glory. in His adopted humanity. Love . He renounces. is eminently an ecstatic love that is. The Divine Love . and eternity belong also to the act of Divine Love. eminently universal and God the love is c.. God for 237 v. elevating them to the participation in His own beatitude. without sacrificing His internal glory and absolute honour. although its external manifestations are subject to the 8. He loves them as He loves Himself. 7). of friendship By this supernatural love. The Divine Love De Div. love for His creatures. The Divine Love at bringing the with God .. Norn. ment chiefly . and to pervade and replenish His creatures.Universal. to expand and to overflow ad extra. The 5.

infinite. but especially because sin. God .238 CHAP. because the creature is bound to further the honour of God as much as it and 1 also because sin. also. because His own Self and His interests are identical with the Supreme Good. no sin With Him. 13 5. Holy Scripture frequently " insists is sanctity as here described. the will to permit sin. See. indeed. 8. unable to repair the disorder inGod. 12). 85. with Hence the Divine purity is an infinite abomination. but also of intending it positively as a means to other ends . unjust (a&fcoc) God " (Deut. not only because the possibility of sinning infinite perfection. on the other hand. In God there can be no moral imperfection. ut nostro more loquar. Rom. Hab. i. may dispose of is Sanctitas perfecta et est. and implies an infinite distance between God and purity free all fault. Is God God may Derma sin.. in the sense of the such opposition classical definition is given by the Areopagite " : Holiness altogether perfect and spotless * In order to complete the concept of in every respect. from sin. 9 God's infinite detestation of sin entails the impossibility not only of willing sin as an end. because He positively abominates it with an abomination proportionate to the esteem He has for the Supreme Good which sin despises that is. would. 14 i John iii. to the Supreme Good and giving them is But impossible with God. of sinning or participating in sin is absolute and sibility would destroy His of the nature of to metaphysical. He can only have . in opposing personal interests preference. when able to prevent it. is just ? and right forbid . iniquity. SECT. and to make use of such permission as an occasion to bring about good. This immaculate purity and absolute freedom from all sin is termed Sanctity or Holiness. herent in " lies in its power. [BOOK n. xxxii. 5. ab omni scelere libera et omnino " omni ex parte iminaculata puritas (De Div. be against moral perfection in a created being. Ps. c. (Rom. A Manual of Moral Catholic Theology. 6). V. . He . and xliv. To permit sin. in other Sin consists in preferring one's self words. the imposor anything approaching thereto. 4) iii." sanctity. God " faithful upon the Divine and without " . ix. Norn. it is necessary to add that God is inaccessible to sin or to contact with sin. NO moral Perfection of the Divine Will u God" I. v.

God. is. on It may even be said the part of God. the absolute dignity and majesty of God and the designation is the more appropriate the more the creature disposes its whole . Godpos- God's absolute moral perfection necessarily implies vi .] The Divine Life. viz. and indeed the only. Both of these ways manifest God's abomination of sin. goodness of creatures when considered as a direction of the will towards the highest moral object. a positive good. predetermines the permission of evil and ordains a a 2 Cf. and develops greater purity. convenient name for the moral perfection life of God. Thorn. 79: " Utrum Deus sit causa peccati. and that all A In is its called positive aspect also the moral perfection of God This name is applied to the moral Holiness. not. the immediate and only formal object. who permits evil When Holy only when he cannot prevent it. evident that sanctity is the most. and constant volition highest good. by furthering it in any way He pleases. q.PART I. of what is good cannot be conceived. the perfection of which is enhanced by the fact that the highest Good. v. according to the exaltedness of such an object. other goods are objects of the Divine Will only because and in as far as they are subordinated to the more pure. Unlike man. and constancy in morals. the permission of sin is. the ultimate object of all volition.. His honour as but __* and are. in His Wisdom and power. III. they must be underimply stood in the above sense. either by preventing sin or by converting or punishing the sinner. Positively speaking. Consequently. therefore. although sin is always an evil. independently of other reasons. G e rfe oral ' y in Will on Himself as the supreme object of all volition. that the permission of sin is better than its entire prevention. indeed. i it to His ultimate ends. therefore. Scripture uses expressions which seem to that God positively intends evil." '. energy. and the infinite love and esteem of Himself included in this act. the moral perfection of God consists in the essential and immutable direction of His II. He chooses. 239 CHAP. eligible means for the manifestation of His glory. It is. St. for the Divine Will. by sacrificing it. exalted.

self-love and self-esteem) is pure act identical with the Divine Essence. which imply submission to a higher being faith and hope. and in their organic relations. Thus. tend to . are widely difIn creatures. religion and obedience. Not . so that all the Divine virtues are character of purely active and regal virtues. embraces and contains them all. like a bond of perfection. v. even those which have an external object. only to bring out the absence of the opposite vices of pusillanimity and anger. A Manual of CatJwlic Theology.. as The virtues of passing from potentiality to actuality. in their diversity. inasmuch as they express esteem for the highest good and for the good order of things. His perfection would be the same if He abstained from the exercise of any external virtue and as the only virtue essential to His perfection (viz. . howthe possession of all the virtues of creatures. and consequently a diversity of virtues can only be based upon the remote and secondary objects creatures of the Divine volitions.. Those virtues alone belong formally to the moral perfection of God which manifest and bring into operation the excellence of their subject . such as fortitude and meek. The royal character of the Divine virtues appears in their exercise. . and they belong to Him in an eminent manner... It is. which presuppose a state of imperfection and temperance. . evident that many of these cannot exist actually in the Creator. are manifold because they bear upon many and admit of various degrees of perfection. in the moral life of God. which requires a subject composed of mind and matter. all ferent from what they are in creatures. . They are only virtually contained in the Divine perfection. which. absolutely simple and perfect. is attained by the Divine Will. so with God . ness. it cannot be spoken of as exercised that is. are all alike impossible in God. But in God all virtues are one.. increase the inner perfection of the virtuous subject. are metaphorically attributed to God. for instance. . Some moral virtues.240 CHAP. In God objects only one object. virtues. which. . of creatures consists organic unity of the virtues the subordination of all others under the Love of God. ever. viz. because He can will nothing but Himself and in The things that are subordinated to Him as their supreme . [BOOK Ti.

united more closely than in man. 86. Love . and R . that it is not a conformity with a higher rule. the disposition of the will In this sense. justice acts in accordance with truth. as distinct from goodness. to determine the absolute character of the Divine Justice. good. therefore. in creatures in God Himself. it is His Sanctity. it of the Divine Goodness in the chapter on Divine Love remains. and especially adapts the actions to the exigencies of the beings to which they refer. mercy and justice.. 86. I. expresses the moral character of It differs all including goodness. be considered as special moral virtues. justice may be defined as that is.PART I. justice. v. however. justice and truth." Taken in a narrower or. justice designates in God and creatures a virtue which observes or introduces a certain order in external actions. The Justice of God. and represent the principal directions into which the more special moral virWe have already dealt with the nature tues branch off. These three are the fundamental types of all the other moral virtues in God they are manifested in all His moral actions. because they represent special forms. and essence of . so far as it differs from created justice and is exercised in union with Divine goodness and truth. as . Definition Taken the rectitude of the will and its widest sense. other virtues spring. 241 all His CHAP. or a special exercise The moral virtues in God are of the Divine Goodness. in its . . : " sense. are never exercised separately. The ramifications of the Divine Charity can. It is precisely its inseparability from Goodness and Truth which frees the Divine Justice from the restrictions and the virtues The Divine that is. the last being taken in the sense of moral wisdom and veracity. Created justice supposes an existing order. but a conformity or agreement with the Essence and Wisdom of from justice the Divine virtues. so much so that even the two most opposed of them. which are directed to external obcan be reduced to goodjects ness. is the root from which also the root . the moral virtues : . r SECT.] The Divine His infinite Life. dependence of created SECT. condeas the Theologians express it centia divinae bonitatis et sapientiae.

and by giving each of them exactly that place in the general order of things which its intrinsic value demands. In this sense Holy Scripture often calls the Divine Justice "truth. not in order to satisfy the exigencies of the work of art. consequently and to assign to each that position in the universal order all Him make . His Wisdom things good and beautiful. involves no moral necessity of satisfying the claims of any other being whatever moral necessity it involves originates in God Himself." which implies that it is not ruled or bound by any claim existing in its object. ." viz.242 CHAP. unlike the human. but that it consists in the conformity of determinate Divine actions with the archetypes of the Divine works existing in the Divine Mind. God is just. Who is bound to act in accordance with His Wisdom. that wuT justice is prompted to act by a duty towards another being. and determines the whole order of jected. A Manual of it Catholic Theology. for personal dignity has a claim on the Divine Justice only in as far as the Divine Wisdom effects the beauty and perfection of His works by treating each being according to its own nature. on the contrary. SEcr. because to He is true to Himself. and His Excellence. II. " Architectonic Justice. have no other object than to dispose the works of God in a manner befitting His excellence and leading to His This character is best expressed by the term glory. to its action. v. Human justice and goodness differ in this. but to this reproduce and realize his own conceptions. If the Divine Artist. and requires to give each being what its nature demands. Thus the human artist works out his plans. the beings to which adapts actions are always more independent of the agent . whereas goodness acts freely on its own impulse. and with beings Hence Divine Justice can entirely dependent on Him. deals with personal beings. does not destroy the architectonic character of His Justice. His Will.86. The only real right which stands in the presence of the Divine Will. its [BOOK IT. all is the right of Divine Majesty : to the Divine Majesty it all external works of God must be sub- the beings coming within the sphere of the Divine pared Divine Justice must be directed. whereas Divine Justice deals with an order established by God. The Architectonic Justice of God.

own sake. God would appear contemptible to them. because the respect which God owes to Himself is infinitely more inviolable than any title arising from anything outside Him. 9 and xxxii. for instance. I cf.] The Divine Life. 1 1 John i. manner tending to the manifestation . for My lest thou shouldst perish. Deut. for if creatures were deceived in their confidence. is not in opposition to perfect freedom and independence. III. Such obligation. the beauty and perfection of which require that at . Nor does this latter circumstance interfere with the strict- ness of the obligation. . . because it is always founded upon an act of the Divine goodness. as distinguished from His goodness. v His sovereign Will with the dignity of the Divine Wisdom requires that the ends intended should be always attained in one way or another. and consequently that the means His excellence necessary to these ends be forthcoming Him to dispose all His works in a and dignity require . God can bind Himself to actions which in every respect are free and remain free even after they are promised. Sometimes certain acts of the Justice of God are attributed to His Justice alone. vii. they have a greater certainty that justice will be done to them than if they really " For My name's sake I will remove possessed such claims. although creatures have no formal claims on God. very intimate connection with God's Justice crowns and perfects its Good^s"' closely connected. His 'truthfulness and fidelity demand that He should not deny Himself in those acts by which He invites His creatures to expect with confidence a communication of His truth and of His possessions. and glorification of His own goodness above all. I will do it. Another consequence of the architectonic character is The Divine of the Divine Justice the Divine goodness. 9. that I may not be blasphemed " (Isai. not so the individual as towards the universe as a much towards whole. . 4 xlviii. But these acts are also acts of goodness. the punishment of sinners and the permission of sin. 9). and for My praise I will bridle thee. Hence.PART I. however. . which would be essentially imperfect if the beings called into existence by it were not disposed and maintained in the order upheld by the Divine Justice. . 243 which corresponds with the ultimate object of creation and CHAP. My For My own sake. His goodness. . wrath afar off.

God treats them as done to Himself. it is in harmony God's ce krovi d e ntiai with the nature of reasonable creatures. and maintenance of order in a community. IV. thatJustice. least incorrigible sinners should SECT 86 be reduced to order by * to the permission of sin. Nevertheless. because He makes the promise and He freely co-operates with the creature per- forming the good action. certain functions of 35). Commutative justice. with the several forms and functions of human justice. a certain interchange of gifts and services. " Who hath first given Him and recompense shall be made him? "(Rom. the Divine Justice. and that. distributive. ' A Manual of As Catholic Theology. on the ground of this mutual relation. which. If He has promised I. and are spoken of in this sense by Holy The analogy consists in the fact that God and Scripture.244 CHAP. and goodness. moreover. and judicial. because it can only be exercised between beings more or less independent of each other. creatures possess a sort of title to and He cannot withhold it without depriving them of what is their due. rational creature stand to each other as personal every beings. enforcement. There recognition of mine and thine are three functions of the Divine Justice which are better understood if considered from this point of view than from " that of providential Justice alone. bear an analogy with commutative justice. and gives the reward as a corresponding remuneration on His side. it evidently appears as a royal. legislative. as extended to mankind. viz. Rewards. embraces all the functions necessary for the establishment. distinguished from goodness. In rewarding good actions. services it it. He can claim as His own in virtue of His sovereign dominion over all . But this right and property are themselves free gifts of freely God. wisdom. in a determinate form. If we compare the Divine Justice. It is a governing and Providential. notably those which belong to justice as xi. how- ever. administrative. and a certain " are conceivable. has no place in God. v. it is quite compunishment with the perfection of the universe that free scope patible should be given to the failings of creatures and to their liberty of choice between good and evil . [BOOK II. and affords the Creator manifold opportunities for manifesting His power.

pervades and influences the whole working of the Divine Justice.. the permission of sin might be brought under 3." have their origin in the fact that creatures are nothing by themselves. V. Theologians commonly ascribe God always He . presupposes. into He manifests His own primary right as much as sin for He manifests Himself as alone owing no man anything and needing nothing from any man. therefore. is more than. more than a is in . and possess nothing but what is freely given it is a " sin them by God is. Leo beautifully observes. the guardian of the moral order in general . . it is particularly an " " God against incorrigible a necessary consequence of His wisdom. inasmuch as and. an injustice by which the sinner incurs the duty of satisfaction. Divine goodness. because He is 2. Thus He Punishments. . because the vindictive action of sinners is subject to the most varied modifications. exacts less and punishes less than He justly always could exact and punish and He permits fewer evils than He could justly permit.PART I. . the exercise of the named. From _. The punishment of evil is. as such. reaction of Providential Justice against the disturbance of order. likewise.- these explanations it follows that the Divine . is Permission Evil and leaving to each one what is his own. Himself has given us" (Sua for what "God rewards us CHAP..] The Divine Life.. but especially in the three lastand is based upon. no way a debtor to creatures. in no way dependent upon them. . The Divine goodness. When God allows the nothingness and play. so to speak. God treats sin as an offence against His dignity. gives greater rewards than justice requires ... He in nobis Dens k *^- dona coronaf). . Lastly the head of analogical commutative justice. when He punishes essentially good. whereas the exaction of satisfaction is a free exercise of His right. the defectibility of the creature to come. guards His own rights. Justice Union of and Goodness. things. a leaving the creature to what is its " own. a debt which he is bound to pay even when he Hence the Vindictive Justice of God repents of his sin. Exacting Justice by which God This distinction is important. and may therefore be considered as an act of Per" missive Justice. Justice in all its functions.V.. 245 As St. whence the permission of evil and sin on the part of God.

Loving- kindness (pietas. with the Divine Mercy in order to In the service of Mercy. including. Of all these. The Divine goodness towards names according considered. The Divine Liberality in particular must be viewed be seen in connection in its full grandeur. this influence of jyj erc God's goodness on His justice more to His SECT. intimate union of Justice and goodness in God prevents His permitting sin as a means of manifesting His vindictive Justice. Mercy. In fact.246 CHAP. [BOOK n. as it does. but especially that kind of mercy which can be shown to sinners only. that SECT. and He restricts the permission of evil in view of the misery which evil entails upon of it. 87. on account of the limited capabilities of creatures He softens His vindictive justice in view of the frailty of the sinner. God pity rewards beyond merit. A y Manual of Catholic Theology. or merc jfu i bounty. not only to those whom He preserves from sin. Liberality. Who His glorification. the last named is the most beautiful and the most comprehensive. . the meaning of all the others. and Mercy. just as He wills good in order to manifest The His retributive justice is justice. and punishes or exacts satisfaction below what is due. The first fault or sin can only be permitted Justice of God in as far as He thereby intends the maintenance of the order of the universe and of Divine and human liberty on the one hand. is able to make sin itself subservient With equal reason it might be said God permits first sins in order to manifest His mercy. and on the other the manifestation of the nothingness of creatures and of the by the to power of God. it is creatures assumes different which to the different aspects under It is called Magnificence. The manifestation .^. v. creatures. I. not only because it manifests itself even in favour of those who make themselves unworthy but also because it is chiefly determined by God's on the natural misery of the creatures. of vindictive the object of the punishment of sin it is only the object of the permission of sin in as far as the permission of continuation or increase of sin is the punishment of a first fault. the as liberality of God appears constantly relieving some . gratia]. God's Mercy and Veracity.

as taking occasion therefrom to increase its activity of its free gifts as preventing the abuse or the loss through the frailty of the receivers. sin. . When tures.creatures. but also and : . are attributable to the Divine Mercy. God formally addresses His creatures and exacts their This faith in His words. acts of God's Mercy. see mercy Wisd. I. on the one hand. xii. their object is the dispensing of a free gift to man. as well as afterwards. But the preservation from and the forgiveness of relief fault. we see that the supernatural graces bestowed upon creatures before they committed any sin.J The Divine . . God cannot that God cannot directly and positively cause error in crea. because they are especially described as imply a preservation or from an evil In this respect. any more than He can directly cause sin. and whom He will He hardeneth " (Rom. Whence . II. they imply the moral and hypothetical necessity to act in a certain manner. inasmuch as. is eminently a Divine virtue. cxliv. . xi. For according to the height : of the heaven above the earth He hath strengthened His " towards them that fear Him (Ps. merciful and plenteous in mercy. incurred through the creature's own the Divine Mercy appears as Indulgence. ness and justice of God. . Patience. not only because Veracity mendacity is incompatible with His sanctity. 8 sqq. Clemency. also Ps. cii. ix. Veracity and truth stand midway between the good.veracity. 8 The mercy of God is infinite in its essential act but its operations ad extra have limits assigned to them by the wise decrees of the Divine freedom. 247 - want on the part of creatures as undisturbed by the CHAP.). In this sense we should understand the text. in general. nay. " He hath mercy on whom He will. hath not dealt with us according to our sins nor rewarded us according to our iniquities. e ^J J worthlessness or even the positive unworthiness of the receiver of its gifts. : He not always be angry. 24 sqq. He cannot lead them into error. and Longanimity. consists in this. on the other hand.J. The Divine Veracity. Meekness. nor will He threaten for ever. Life. 18). Holy Scripture often accumulates these various names in order to excite our hope and " The Lord is compassionate and kindle our love of God. He will long-suffering Forgiving-kindness. I sqq. v. and inasmuch as.

248 CHAP. . xxiii. 13. Hath He said then. 2. the will is the determining of their external activity. " He that sent Me is true " " God is not as a man that He should (John viii. especially in the administration of the supernatural order so that in this order the simple prayers of man of grace . " in a wider sense. Power. John iii. i. being. 13). but of God faithful promises. "God. Ps. viz. infinitely it more opposed is to the God than to human nature and for a lie on God's part would be an abuse. 19. 26) lie. the Divine Will is consealso faithful in its decrees. and will He not do ? hath He spoken. [BOOK II. quent" " it He who " (Phil. . swearing however by Himself as there is no higher 33. to a certain extent. swore by Himself" (Heb. 13 Rom. promise once made by God. 88. 23 2 Tim. Heb. cxliv. is A God is irrevocable because of the Divine immutability. A Manual of is Catholic Theology. Matt. SECT. dignity not of a confidence founded on ordinary motives. 4. iii. a confidence founded on sovereign authority. 35). v. SECT^SS. has given to His chief promises the form of an oath. nor as the son of man that He should be changed. hath begun a good work in you will perfect Both forms of fidelity usually act together. vi. x. ii. possesses the highest possible efficacy in its external operations : all being and all activity proceed from it. because He had no one greater by whom He might swear. 6). . Although every word of God is equal to an oath an oath being the invocation of God as a witness of the truth still God. and Dignity. Efficacy of the Divine Will Created Wills. The same must be said of the Divine fidelity in the fulfilment of promises. the perfection of which principle is proportioned to the perfection of the will and of the I. xxiv. Cf. making promise to Abraham. Its Dominion over The Divme paredTkh rea vviiL all rational beings. and . as infallible a claim on the Divine goodness and mercy as the good works of the just have on the Divine Justice. carrying out whatever it intends. " and will He not fulfil ? (Numb. In person willing. especially because it nature ancj dignity o f . have. being in itself absolutely perfect and identical with the Divine Wisdom. condescending to human frailty. The Divine Will.

absolute excellence and dominion of God. so of the creature are in the the much so. only becomes law through the Divine Will commanding III. that the good actions same place actions of God. . v. to which we principle. the decrees of His Will impose upon the created will a law which creatures are in duty bound to fulfil. The Divine Will exhibits to the created will the r r ideal of moral perfection and sanctity to be aimed at and. Hence its active liberty or self-determination the fruit of the activity of the Divine Will. it influences upon the The is the genesis and the direction of the acts of the human will. II. the Will of the Creator. the Divine Will can move the human first For will. creatures to conform to it.PART L] The Divine Life. but also what a superior Will. commands . E 88 f^_ influence or permission. The power of in virtue of the the only power which can impose a duty in virtue excellence wherefore also every duty ought to be founded upon the power of God as upon its binding is God of its own . and internal perfection. other will The created will is essentially dependent on no and which we apprehend as us to do. our notion of duty implies that we are bound to do. Even the eternal rule of the Divine Wisdom. and no other will than the Will of God is absolutely worshipful. whereby God knows what is fitting for His creatures. can only impose obligations inasmuch as they repregivers the exigencies of our sent God and act in His name nature are binding upon us only inasmuch as they express are essentially subjected. Again. 249 - are supported by it. The Divine Will a law to the created i i i . Sovereign control over every other will is exercised by the its brightest manifestation of Divine Will. btri^s created will owes its very existence and energy to the Will of God. that is. reason. not only what we apprehend as most in harmony with the exigencies of our nature. The exercise of created liberty cannot be conceived independently of a Divine motive influence. : is the are We about to study this particular aspect of the Divine Will its general efficacy in its bearing upon the created will has been dealt with in the section on Omnipotence. On the other hand. Other lawabsolutely worshipful. the Divine Will acts on the created as to will in The Divine a such a way move it intrinsically . . so that nothing is done without its CHAP. than the Divine.

SECT'S. /. but also physically from within. The Divine Will is not overcome. St. [BOOK n. . the Divine Will has the power to prevent.. Cf. according to His good will" (Phil. . by direct influence. 2. ii. or that the latter is powerless. so as to incline or even to impel the will to certain acts. and to bring about all the acts which He desires to be performed. 12 Rom. The created will sometimes opposes the Will of the Creator. it is coml nevertheless true that. "It is God Who worketh in you. Although. absolutely speaking. because from the beginning its decree is directed upon the alternative that either the creature shall voluntarily submit to the law. not merely from without by presenting to it motives or inducements to act. in more than one respect. cf. The decrees relating to the moral order of the world We are not always fulfilled in their first and original form that as expressing the moral law which God commands His is. xxvi. does without interfering with created freedom. Dom. . v. or for ! {Secret. again. 13. Not ail that ' accom- in. 23). both to will and to accomplish. even so as to cause a complete reversion of All this God the inclinations existing in the created will. resisting it and cannot. the decrees of the Divine Will are always efficacious and can never be frusiv. not all that God wills is actually accomplished. are physically free to But by so doing they neither overcome the Divine Will nor do they prove it powerless. that the created will overcomes the Divine Will. xi. all the acts of the human will which God will not permit. He aims at and obtains the free performance of the acts in question. i. q. Nor is the Divine Will made powerless. In order completely to understand this point the decrees of the Divine Will should be considered separately in their principal features.250 CHAP. I Isai. iYiswunl ver " trated through the interference of any other will. A Manual of Catholic Theology. IV. say rendering His intentions vain. or shall be forced into submission to it by the Divine Justice. Thorn. a. xxi. Prov. post Pent). creatures to follow : for creatures refuse submission to the moral law of God. however. Hence. This should inspire us with great confidence when our praying own conversion from inveterate evil habits: "Ad Te nostras etiam rebelles compelle propitius voluntates " doctrine for the conversion of obstinate sinners.

the glorification of God through rational creatures. in as far as they express the first and original intention of the Divine Will (which is that all men should be saved. are likewise liable to be frustrated through the refusal of co-operation on the part of creatures. I Tim. Are of good e a cffect'of a decree enco^opfratfon? . But here also the Divine Will asserts its power. co-operation is infallibly secured. and which it would be rash to answer at once in the affirmative. 251 v. decrees because the permission of sin is included in these same Thus God always is the conqueror of sin and decrees. 3. good actions which actually take place the Divine decree enforcing free co-operation ? This is a question of detail. co-operation for. which cannot be solved offhand by invoking the infallible efficacy of the Divine Will. The decrees do not always include the will to enforce co-operation. 4). as to supposition. viz. But this higher object is always attained. Lastly. co-operation. because the power proper to the Divine decree is the CHAP. because its essential efficacy only consists in making salvation possible to all men nor does its sincerity require that God should procure unconditionally the co-operation of man. but His free Will. 2. an obligation which binds the The ruling or governing sinner even when he despises it. it is not want of power that prevents God from enforcing . Furthermore. The salvation of all mankind is subordinate to a higher object. God makes such incline the will of man freely to all use of His power co-operate in the Are aii desired action. Some would hold that. E imposition of an obligation.] The Divine Life. the will to save all mankind is not proved powerless by the refusal of co-operation on the part of man.PAKT I. the Divine decrees relating to the performance of acts dependent on human co-operation may also be frustrated in as far as they only conditionally intend the performance of these acts. besides the Divine effect V. Besides. The Divine decrees relating to the last end of rational creatures. either by the salvation or the just punishment of man. of the Divine Will are still less impaired by sin. but only to assist it and to render it Whenever the will to enforce possible. in this is included. ii. sinners.

butable to the misuse of freedom. the Voluntas Consequens is a velle simpliciter (= It should be noted that absolute). In theological language the above doctrine is shortly formulated as follows The Divine Will is not always be found in the treatise : fulfilled as Voluntas Antecedents. considered in its designs as they are after taking into account the actual behaviour of free creatures. it is not easy to admit that only those good deeds should really be performed which God unconditionally desires to be performed. it is always fulfilled as Voluntas Consequens. a. because same object as their term of t comparison. considered in its original designs. i) for a beautiful exposition of the doctrine here in question. The Voluntas Antecedens is a velle secundum quid (= conditional).e. See St.e. 47. on the other hand. dist. If this were the case. Considering the way in which God wills. i. there be others likewise efficacious.252 CHAP. the terms Voluntas Antecedens and Consequens are not always used they do not in all the same sense consider the by all theologians. will More on this subject on Grace. ' A Manual of Catholic Theology. Sent. . but rather a general decree (or intention) conditional at the decrees which may outset and made absolute fulfilment of the condition. [BOOK II. v. although not intended to be so infallibly. i. the frustration of the conditional decree is exclusively attri. as they are before God takes into account the actual behaviour of created wills . and renders possible the good deeds of man. by the prevision of the actual There still remains room for the display of a special mercy in the infallible prevention of abuses of freedom whereas. admit a Divine decree unconditional at the outset. God intends to be infallibly efficacious. assists. it would seem as if God were not in earnest when He renders possible a good deed without at the same time securing its actual accomTo avoid this semblance it is best not to plishment. Bonaventure (in I.

immediately. As Holy Scripture expresses the whole perfection of the intellectual life of God by calling Him "the Truth.' Holiness God the Substantial Holiness. as above described. and is united with the Divine Beauty and Goodness in every conceivable manner." beauty. xix. 2 cf. Holies." so it describes the whole perfection of the life of His Will by " " Holy." I : " the Lord your God am " . love. applicable to both the life of the Divine Will and the goodness and beauty of the Divine Substance. Life. II. Thus. and exclusively on the infinite Goodness and Beauty of the Divine Essence. The life of the Divine Will Holiness pure and : simple and pre-eminently. It is Holiness by nature contains Holiness as its proper energy. tendencies and appetites of creatures. It is evident that the eminent sanctity of God. the Divine Nature 3. that is. The Divine Will as Living CHAP V SECT. a fortiori God the . The Holiness of God. whereas created nature possesses only a capacity for holiness. the Divine Holiness is a substantial Holiness. and immutability are . 2. of all joy and delight." pure and simple. because it is directed entirely.PART L] The Divine 89. 1 6). infinity. Godis Holiness ' I. " God is the Holiness. Holiness is a constituent element of the Divine Nature. of all the their 3 Holiness. as complacency. He is the Ideal and the source of all pleasure and love. which only acquire goodness by adhering to goods outside and above . or the Holy of calling Him holy (Lev. tive the good and the beautiful it is the most intimate effecunion with the most perfect objective goodness and God is " the Holiness " as He is " the Truth." implies the three following constituents is 1. 89. and God is Holiness just as He is Truth and Life. The proposition. 253 Goodness and SECT. is more than a direction of His Will upon. the substantial Goodness. however. The life of the Divine Will is essential Holiness. and conformity with. and not merely united to them. is an attribute proper to Him alone. and fruition hence the same attributes such as simplicity. because it is essentially identical with the objective Goodness and Beauty of God. I Pet i. As God is the substantial Holiness and.

. 4). v. whose goodness consists in conformity with the life of God.254 CHAP. The Beatitude and Glory of the Divine rather is. infinite Beatitude and knowledge and and beauty a knowledge and love which confer the highest possible satisfaction. or The life of God . I Tim. lieatitude Glory. God is 90. but is acquired from without. Scripture calls Him "the Blessed God" (6 jitaica/oioe. tion from God's bounty manifests and fecundity most in the supernatural order. Life. created spirit neither possesses praise pure and simple. 1 SECT. n. I. them. The supernatural glory given by God felicity to Even the destined is 1 This doctrine will be further developed in the treatises on the Trinity and on the Supernatural Order. . [BOOK II. God is Beatitude and because He is Truth and Holiness. the activity of the Divine Life is resplendent with all the beauty of the Divine Intellect and the Divine Substance. . SECT^O. On the other hand. nor is entitled to a felicity and glory like the Divine. influence of the Divine Goodness. and. is but accidental to them it makes them godlike. A which it is naturally or supernaturally not intrinsically connected with its nature. 15) and often points out that He alone possesses glory pure and simple. but not its i. perfect essentially consists in the most love of the most perfect goodness the greatest beatitude. vi. immovable in themselves. That participation. fruition and repose that is. under the helping and sustaining influence of God. and is thereIn a word. and is the work of the life-giving created life . by power leading His spiritual creatures to a participation of His own life " partakers of the Divine Nature " (2 Pet. are the principle of all motion and of all rest in and the life of creatures is but an exhalaand a participation of the Substantial Goodness of God. For this reason Glory. i. God possesses. however. because He alone is deserving of fore the highest Glory. in the last resort. by which the blessed spirits see God face to face and are filled with His own beatitude. A Manual of Catholic Theology. by adhering to the Creator. This applies more particularly to the life of spiritual creatures. gods. f| ence G O(}'S Goodness and Holiness.

goods. in dependent by God is an element essential creatures is . The reason why the Divine Felicity is absolute is . because God is Himself. of which external goods are manifestations consequently they may not even be called accidental beatitude. His own Beatitude. v.J The Divine Life. and is. Divine Glory is also absolute. not only because the highest Glory. because they are only an external revelation of the internal beati. 1. and . God knows and loves His tude. A TheDiv!ne Beatitude. is a splendid manifestation of the "^L* Divine Glory. of God. God Himself Outside of nothing to which He owes any honour or glory the glory which creatures deserve is a free gift of His Goodness. tive. whatever can be the object of beatifying possession and fruition. to the far as The Divine Beatitude possession of external goods adds nothing they contribute to it only in so : power and dominion. the Glory of God Himself. glory. II. He is the highest good His Knowledge and Love of Himself adequately embrace Himself as the highest good. 255 to His creatures by admitting them to a participation of CHAP. The It is beatitude of created spirits is essentially rela- proportioned to their capacities and merits. and consists in the possession and fruition of external the last instance. in the last resort. Created can but imitate the glory which God draws from beings Himself. for their felicity. they rejoice in their own felicity because they know 2. but by the fact that God possesses the highest Beatitude and Glory . and possesses in Himself. Hence the glory of created spirits is purely God.PART I. and praise. which again gives God the greatest external - glory. Since the Beatitude and Glory of God are absolutely . it is that it The contributes to the Glory of God. the highest delight of the beatified spirits not caused by the fact that //^/possess the highest good. but because it finds in an object of infinite beauty and splendour. deeper insight into the Divine Beatitude and glory will be gained from the following considerations. thus c6nstitute infinite honour. on which they are To be loved and honoured to the beatitude of nay. there . is relative. and confers upon the creature the highest con- ceivable honour.

by which the fulness of God's Beatitude and Glory is communicated and revealed. He But can only communicate out of His own perfection. necessary operation within.J>O. . no Divine complete or to increase them. operation [BOOK IL ECT. v. ^ perfect themselves. this can tend When God in operates. forms the fundamental idea of the The mystery of the Blessed Trinity. communication takes place two directions without and within. A in Manual of Catholic Theology.256 CHAP.

the solution of philosophical and dialectical objections genuineness of the last two books is questioned). De Trinitate and De Spiritu St. Ambrose.. Sent. Alexander i.. 1. Augustine part goes farther than his predecessors. q.257 FART THE DIVINE THE The dealt with II. (a systematic demonHilary St. Thomas. Augustine Peter Lombard and William of Paris (opusc. TRINITY. Contra Sancto ad Amphilochium . Gregory of Nyssa.). . iv. and . Gentes.-xv. ideas. Cyril . Victor. its added many new q. viii. De Trinitate of this work (bks. ... . /. Ad Scrapionem Epistola Quatuor (on the Divinity of the Holy Ghost) St. passim. De Trin. St. Thesaurus de SS. Eunomium . Newman's annotated translation). 42 sqq. esp. The in \. Triniof Poitiers. Bonavcnture . work of the thirteenth was summed up by Dionysius the Carthusian rentury in Qq. Augustine. Dispp. Literatim. . whole doctrine of the Trinity has been extensively by the Fathers who opposed the Arian heresy. doctrine re- ceived technical completion at the hands of i. of Alexandria. Athanasius. St. De Fide stration and defence of the dogma) Trinitatis (specially the consubstantiality of the Son). St. Didymus. cc. and Son . St. Anselm first summed up and methodically arranged in his Monologium the results obtained by St. of Hales. is the foundation of De the great speculations of the Schoolmen. and and St. 27 sqq. in his remarkable treatise . classical writings are the following Contra Arianos Orationes Quatuor (on the Divinity of the see Card. in which St. Basil. and De Spiritu Sancto tate . Contra Eunomium (especially the . de Trinitate} developed them still further Richard of St. All the S . : St. C. the latter Spiritu S. St. De Trinitate. 2-26.

Among modern special authors. A i. see Canon Liddon's Bampton Cardinal Manning has written two valuable The Temporal Mission of the works on the Holy Ghost Lectures.258 in 1. see Card. and Kleutgen deserve mention. .. : we have ex- Bellarmine. De Trinitate . to penetrate into the depths of the mystery. Franzelin. vols. and We men shall treat first of the Dogma itself as contained in and afterwards we shall give some account of the attempts of the Fathers and SchoolScripture and Tradition . History of Apologetic Literature (in German). Sent. . treatises is Ruiz. De Trinitate. the Divinity of the Son. Gregory of Valentia. After the Council of Trent.. Manual of Catholic Theology. Schwane. De positive and apologetic Verbo Dei . Thomassin but the best of all the positive scholastic cellent treatises. For the history of the Dogma. ii. : On Holy Ghost . Petavius. Division. Newman's Arians . The Internal Mission of the Holy Ghost. . History of Dogma (in German). Kuhn. Werner. [BOOK II. i.

pagan.) CHAPTER 1.. THE DOGMA. possessing through Him and with Him the same Divine Nature.( 2 59 . because germ of The : . hence the same is true of the Holy Ghost. I. SECT. hence They are of the same rank and dignity. 91. . distorted the sense of heresies. The Dogma of the Trinity as formulated by the Church. the Catholic profession in three different directions. i ^_91 of the Christian religion. being the fundamental dogma CHAP. and in the Holy Ghost. all the later developments. . . each of Them.. and would obscure the manner in which the Three Persons are one God. The Antitrinitarians (Monarchians and Sabellians. THE mystery of the Trinity. the Son and the Holy Ghost must be one God with the Father. The heresies of the first centuries. the object of the same act of faith and of the same worship.. forms the kernel or I. .. would be harsh. Besides. form of the Creed is "I believe in one The original P God Father Almighty. which had Jewish. it is contained sufficiently in the assertion that they are one God with the Father. .. . Antitnnitarian . . used as the symbol of faith in the administration of Baptism.. our Lord. Being the object of faith in one God. and in Jesus Christ His only Cr eed. The Divinity of the Son and of the Holy Ghost is not expressed separately. and rationalistic tendencies... the repetition of the " formula " and in one God before the words Son and Holy Ghost.." Father and Son. Son are manifestly distinct Persons. They are.) . was reduced to a fixed formula in apostolic times. . II. and this primitive formula.

Lib. and lastly the Subordinatians. and negatively by a subjoined anathema. that of ConstanPersons : Councilor tinople with the Holy Ghost. The last-named Council was.) The letter of Pope Dionysius lays down the essential lines afterwards followed Councils of Nicaea and Constanti- in the definitions of the nople concerning the relations of the Son and the Holy Ghost to the Father. more" Anathematisms" of Pope Damasus. looking ^II91 upon Them simply as three manifestations or modalities ' (TT/ooiTWTra) 2.260 A Manual of Catholic Theology. (See Card. They held that the Son and the Holy Ghost were the effect of a Divine operation ad extra. that the Divine unity of Alexandria. We possess only the last two parts. against the Arians. guided by the which determine the whole doctrine of the Divine Trinity and Unity more in detail than the epistle of Pope Dionysius. Athanasius. positively by developing the concept of Sonship contained in the Apostles' Creed. p. (A. Alex. what is of faith concerning the Son of God. over. The Subordinatians insisted too much on the real distinction between the Persons and on the origin of the Son and the Holy Ghost from the Father. de Sent. then the Tritheists." They are to be found in St. Newman's Arians. [BOOK u. . CHAP i. relating to the unity and equality of Essence or to the " Divine Monarchy. had laid so much stress distinction of the Persons. and thus destroying the Triunity. The Councils. Dion. of one and the same Person. 3. denied the real distinction between the Persons. The Tritheists taught a system aiming at the maintenance of the distinction of Persons and the equality of " Nature and dignity. 125. The Council of Nicaea defined. 259-269). The Bishop to defeat the Sabellians. but above all other creatures. but " multiplying the nature at the same time as the Persons.D. IV. and thus were inferior to God. The Pope first confutes the Sabellians. FopeDionyCouncils of Con^ttnti- Pope Dionysius letter named heresies. in the famous which he addressed to Denis of Alexandria. on the contrary. in his zeal on the seemed endangered. dogmatic lays down the Catholic doctrine in opposition to the aboveIII. deal only with one of the that of Nicaea with the Son.

against the Macedonians. the Lord and Life-Giver (ro Trvtu/za TO aytov." founded nor the Substance divided. consubstantial (6/zoouo-tov) Lord Jesus 2L?*' things were made. because it was already implied in the procession from the Father and was not denied by the Who Macedonians." with the Father by whom . or created. in heaven and on earth. and before He was begotten He was not and who say that the Son of God was made of nothing. all . or better in Hardouin. Athanasian Creed. is : 261 [I believe] in The text of the Nicene Creed "And one CHAP." indicate the reason why the Third Person is equal to the two others. true God of true God. TO WOTTOIOV). God of God. Although the " Anathematisms " of Pope Damasus P~I* are anterior in date to the Council of Constantinople." immense. n. Who together with the Father and the Son is adored and gloriThe words. not made. or alterable. or mutable Catholic and Apostolic Church anathematizes. The procession from the Son is not defined explicitly. dating probably from the the whole dogma of the Trinity by century. See the text in Denzinger. which are Those who say there was a time when the Son of God was not. " Who profied." ceedeth from the Father.] The Dogma. The Athanasian fifth It teaches that the Persons are not to be conUnity. Like the formula of Pope Dionysius. V. still the last of them may be regarded as a summing up and keystone of all the dogmatic formulas preceding it. p. Suc L Christ. One God in Trinity. the Scwi of God. ro Kvpiov. and were taken as the basis of its definitions." etc. : Council of Constantinople defined. but that these attributes are not multiplied in . Light of light. The text is: "And in the Holy Ghost. Who spake by the Prophets. i. expounds " developing the formula. what must be believed concerning the Holy Ghost. the only begotten and born of the Father. 6. by reason of His mode of origin. 805. and especially that the " " " essential attributes eternal. VI. and Trinity VII. The First Constant!nople< proceedeth (fK7ro/>uo^uvov) from the Father. belong to each of the Persons because of the identity of Substance. it is directed against Tritheism and Subordinatianism. viz.PART n. . or of another substance (uTroorao-ewv) these the or essence." uncreated. begotten.

262
CHAP.
i.

A

Manual of

Catholic Theology.

[ROOK
"
:

II.

any more than the Substance to which they belong
three uncreated, but one uncreated."

not

Councilor

VIII.

The most complete symbol
is

of the

lated in patristic times,

that of the eleventh

dogma formuSynod of

Toledo
as
First,

(A.D. 675), which expounds developed in the controversies

the Catholic doctrine with earlier heresies.

following the older symbols, the
;

Synod

treats of the

Three Divine Persons in succession then, in three further sections, it develops and sets forth the general doctrine,
viz.

(i) the true unity of Substance, notwithstanding the Trinity of Persons (2) the real Trinity of the Persons, notwithstanding the unity of Substance and (3) the in; ;

separable union of the three Persons,

demanded by

their

The Fourth
Coundi.

very distinction. In later times the dogma received a more distinct formulation only in two points, both directed against most subtle forms of separation and division in God. IX. The Fourth Lateran Council declared, in its definition against the abbot Joachim (cap. Danmamus), the absolute identity of the Divine Substance with the Persons

as well as with Itself; pointing out how the identity of Substance in the Three Persons makes it impossible for

there to be a multiplication of the Substance in the several Persons, which would transform the substantial unity of God into a collective unity: "There is one Supreme, In-

comprehensible, and Ineffable Thing (res} which is truly Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, Three Persons together and each of Them singly."
Second
f

Lyonf
iheFiioque.

X. On the other hand, the unity of the relation by which the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the g on was Defined m ore precisely in the repeated declarations of the Second Council of Lyons and that of Florence
against the Greeks. The Greeks, in order to justify their ecclesiastical schism, had excogitated the heresy of a schism in the relations between the Divine Persons for this and
;

nothing else
of the
The
U

Holy

the import of the negation of the procession Ghost from the Father and the Son.
is

to r"nce?

XI. The compact exposition given by the Council of Florence in the decree Pro Jacobitis establishes with precision (i) the real distinction of the Persons, based

PART

IT.]

The Dogma.
; ,

263
i.

upon the difference of origin (2) the absolute unity of the CHAP.gi. SECT. ,., Persons, and Their consequent immanence and equality and unity as principles (3) especially Their diversity
,

("

Pater est principium sine principio.

.

.

.

Filius est prin-

cipium de principio," etc.). XII. Among decisions of more recent date, we need only The Bun mention the correction of the Synod of Pistoia by Pius VL,juu. in the Bull Auctorem fidei, for having used the expression " " Deus in tribus personis distinct instead of" distinct ;
'

and the declarations of the Provincial Council of Cologne
(1860) against the philosophy of Giinther. XIII. According to the above documents, the chief
points of the
1.

Summary,

the Divinity, as Substance, subsists in the form of three really distinct Hypostases or Persons, so that the Divinity, as Essence
;

dogma The one God exists truly, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost

of the Trinity are the following
really,

:

and

essentially as

that

is,

and Nature,
2.

is

common

to the Three.

of the one Divinity are not from Their common Essence and Nature, as, form is distinct from its subject They only represent three different manners in which the Divine Essence and Nature, as an absolutely independent and

The

three Possessors

really distinct for instance, a

;

individual substance, belongs to Itself. real difference exists only between the 3.

A

several

based upon the particular personal character of each, which consists in the particular manner in which each
is

Persons, and

of

Them

possesses or

comes

into possession of the

common

Nature.
4. The diversity in the manner of possessing the Divine Nature lies in this, that only one Person possesses the Nature originally, and that the two Others, each again in His own way, derive it. The First Person, however, communicates the Divine Nature to the Second Person and to the Third Person, not accidentally but essentially, and These latter receive the Divine Nature likewise essentially because the Nature, being really identical with the Three

be

Persons, essentially belongs to, in, each of Them.
5.

and

essentially

demands

to

The

diversity existing

between the Three Person?

264
CHAP.
i.
I-

A
|

Manual of

Catholic Theology.

[BOOK n.

implies the existence of an essential relation between each one anc t ie other two, so that the positive peculiarity of each must be expressed by a particular name, characterizing the Second and Third Persons as receiving, and the First
j

as giving, possession of the common Nature. 6. Although the Three Persons, being equal possessors of the Godhead, have a distinct subsistence side by side, still

They have no separate existence. On the contrary, by reason of Their identity with the one indivisible Substance and of Their essential relations to each other, none of Them can be conceived without or separate from the other two.
Technically this
is

expressed by the terms circumincessio
coh&rentia(
awafaid), and

(=

7T/>ixw/oj<"e> coinherence),

aXXrjXouxia ( 7. For the
real

= mutual possession). same reasons, the most intimate and most community exists between the Persons as to all that

This applies constitutes the object of Their possession. not merely to the attributes of the Divine Substance, but
peculiar character of each Person, viz. the Persons possess the produced Person as Their producing production, and are possessed by This as the necessary Hence, notwithstanding originators of His personality. the origin of one Person from another, there is neither subordination nor succession between Them. 8. The activity of a person is attributed to his nature
also

to

the

quod.

as principium quo, and to the person himself as principium Hence the Divine activity, in as far as it is not
specially directed to the production of a Person, is common to the Three Persons. Further, the Divine Nature being

absolutely simple and indivisible, the activity proper to the Three Persons is also simple and indivisible that
;

not a co-operation, but the simple operation of one principium quo. 9. Thus the Three Persons, as they are one Divine Being, are also the one Principle of all things, the one Lord and Master, the Divine Monarchy (juovr/ ap\i'i).
is, it is

265

CHAPTER
THE TRINITY
SECT.
92.

If.

IN SCRIPTURE.
in the

The Trinity

New

Testament.

IN the Old Testament, the dogma of one God, Creator, and Ruler of the world is the doctrine round which all
others are grouped the Trinity of Persons is only mentioned with more or less distinctness in connection with
;

the Incarnation. In the New Testament, on the contrary, the mystery of the Trinity is the central point of doctrine ; it is here, therefore, that we must begin our investigation.
shall first consider the texts treating of the three Divine Persons together, and afterwards those treating of each Person in particular. shall prove from Scripture the Personality of each Person as distinguished from the others by the mode of origin, and then the Divinity of

We

We

each,

from which the essential identity of the Three Persons flows as a consequence. I. In the Gospels the Three Persons are mentioned at four of the most important epochs of the history of Reve;

lation, viz. (i) at the Annunciation (Luke i. 35) (2) at the Baptism of our Lord and the beginning of His public life (Matt. iii. 13, sqq.) (3) in the last solemn speech
;

Lord before His Passion (John xiv., xv., xvi.) and (4) after His Passion and before His Ascension, when giving the Apostles the commandment to preach and to
of our

;

baptize (Matt, xxviii. 19). the most explicit as to the

Of

these texts, the third is distinction of the Persons ;

the fourth points out best the distinction and unity, and declares at the same time that the Trinity is the fundamental dogma of the Christian Faith. The second text

266
CHAP.
II.

A

Manual of

Catholic Theology.

[BOOK

II.

SECT. 92

At the Annunciation.

gives us the most perfect external manifestation of the Three Persons the Son in His visible Nature, the Holy Ghost as a Dove, the Father speaking in an audible Voice. 1. Luke i. 35: "The Holy Ghost (irvev/^a aytoi/) shall come upon thee, and the power of the Most High shall overshadow thee, and therefore also the Holy which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God" The " Most
:

High"
ver.

is

here

God

32

"
:

He

shall

as Father of the Son, according to be great, and shall be called the Son of

the
At
Christ's

Most High." 2. St. Matthew (iii.

16, 17), relating

the baptism of Christ,

Baptism.

says,

"And
:

the water

Jesus, being baptized, forthwith came out of and, lo, the heavens were opened to Him
:

and He. saw the Spirit of God descending, as a dove, and coming upon Him. And, behold, a voice from heaven,
saying, This
is

My

beloved

Son, in

Whom

I

am

well

At the Last
Supper.

pleased." 3. In the speech after the Last Supper, as recorded by St. John, three passages occur which may be connected

thus

"
:

/ will ask

the

Paraclete, that He of truth (xiv. 16).

may
.

Father and He shall give you another abide with you for ever, the Spirit
.

.

"But when

the Paraclete shall come,

Whom / will send you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, Who proceedeth from the Father, He shall give testimony
of

Me

(xv. 26).

.

.

.

come,

He
. .

will teach

But when He, the Spirit of truth, shall you all truth for He shall not speak
:

of Himself, but what things soever
speak. of Mine and
.

He

shall hear,

He
He

shall

He

shall glorify Me, because shall receive will declare (it) to you. All things whatsoever
;

He

the

receive of
The formula
of Baptism.

Father hath, are Mine therefore Mine and declare it to you "

I

said that

shall

(xvi. 13-15).

4.

The command
all

to

"

baptize

:

Go ye
in

therefore and

teach

nations

;

baptizing them

the

name
"

of the

(Matt, Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost The form of Baptism is here given as the first xxviii. 19).

thing to be taught to the receiver of the Sacrament. The import of the teaching is this the three subjects named, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, are They by Whose authority and power Baptism works the forgiveness of sin and confers
:

sanctifying grace, and are

They

for

Whose Majesty

the

PABT

II.]

The Trinity in Scripture.

267

baptized are taken possession of and put under obligation CHAP.II ^2^*' in other words, to Whose honour and worship they are
consecrated.

The

latter

meaning

is

more prominent

in

the Greek formula ap ro ovo/ua, the former more in the Hence (a) the Father, Son, and Holy Latin in nomine. Ghost are three Persons, because only persons possess

power and authority, (b} They are distinct Persons, because distinguished by different names, (c] They are equal in and dignity, and all possess Divine power, because power
they
all stand in the same relation to the baptized forgiving sin, conferring sanctifying grace, exacting worship and submission of the kind required in baptism, are Divine " in the name," prerogatives, (cf) The singular number,
:

indicates that the Divine Dignity

which

this

formula ex-

presses is not multiplied in the Three Persons, but is undivided, so that the one Divine principle and end proposed to the baptized is likewise but one Divine Being. Cf.

Franzelin,
II.

De

Trin., thes.

iii.

the Epistles four passages are commonly i n the Epli>tle9 selected in which the Three Persons appear at the same time as distinct and of the same Essence. The strongest

From

'

would be the comma Johanneum (i John v. 7), the authenticity of which is, indeed, disputed, but which, on Catholic See, on this point, the principles, may be defended.
exhaustive
"
1.

dissertation
I

of

Franzelin,
v. 7.

L.c

,

thes.

iv.,

and

Wiseman's Letters on

John

No man

Ghost.
Spirit ;

can say the Lord Jesus but by the Holy Now, there are diversities of graces, but the same and there are diversities of ministries, but the same
Christ, the
"

Lord [=
worketh
2.

of operations, but
all in all

the
(i

Son of God] and there are diversities same God [= the Father], Who
;

Cor.

xii. 3-6).

grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the charity of God, and the communication of the Holy Ghost " be with you all (2 Cor. xiii. 13).
"
3.

"

The

To

the elect

.

.

.

according to the foreknowledge

of

the Father, unto the sanctification of the Spirit, unto " obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ
(i Pet.
i.

God

i, 2).

"
4.

Who

is

he that overcometh the world, but he that

268
CHAP.
ii.
'

A

Manual of

Catholic Theology.

[BOOK

II.

believeth that Jesus is the Son of God ? This is He that came by water and blood, Jesus Christ not in water only, but in water and blood. And it is the Spirit which testifieth
;

that Christ

For there are three who give is the truth. testimony in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy GJiost : and these three are one. And there are three that give
testimony on earth, the spirit, the water, and the blood and these three are one. If we receive the testimony of
:

men, the testimony of God

is

"

greater
is

(i

John

v.

5-9).
It

The

sense of the context

not without

difficulty.

depends upon the question whether St. John had in view the error of the Gnostics, who attributed to Christ an apparent, not a real body or that of the Cerinthians, who
;

distinguished Christ the Son of God from the man Jesus, and taught that, at the Baptism, the Son of God descended

In the Jesus, but left Him again at the Passion. supposition, St. John had to prove the reality of the humanity of Christ and, in this case, the water is the water " that flowed from His side on the cross, and the " spirit

upon
first

;

of vers. 6 and 8

is

the spirit

(=

soul)

which Jesus gave
In the second

up on the cross

(cf.

John xix.

more probable) supposition (which is to us the point was to prove the unity, constant and indissoluble, of Jesus with the Son of God and, in this case, ver. 6 means This Jesus, Who is the Son of God, came as Son of God in the blood of His Passion as well as in the water
; :

30, 34, 35). by far the

of the Jordan, and has shown what He is by sending the Holy Ghost and His gifts on the day of Pentecost as He

had promised. In each of these three events, a testimony was given in favour of the dignity of Jesus as Son of God and Christ at His Baptism, the voice of the Father at the Passion, the affirmation of Jesus Himself; on the day of Pentecost, the Holy Ghost fulfilling the promises made
:

;

St. John points to this continued threefold Jesus. testimony as a proof of the continued unity of Christ, and he strengthens and explains the uniformity of this testimony on earth, by adding (ver. 7) that it corresponds with the three Heavenly Witnesses, from Whom it proceeded, and each of Whom had His share in it. In this connection, the unity asserted in ver. 7 need not be of the same order

by

PART III

The Trinity

in Scripture.
;

269

on the con- CHAP. IL 8, viz. the unity of testimony contains the highest reason of the latter, it must be of a higher order. At any rate, the Witnesses of ver. 7
as that of ver.
trary, as
it

appear as Persons giving testimony, whereas the witnesses of ver. 8 appear as the instrument or the vehicle of the Hence the unity of the witnesses in ver. 8 can testimony. be no other than a unity or uniformity of testimony but the unity of the personal Witnesses, affirmed without any restriction, must be taken as an absolute and essential
;

unity, in

consequence of which They act

in absolute uni-

formity when giving testimony that is, They appear as one Witness, with one and the same authority, knowledge, and veracity. This is still more manifest from ver. 9,

where the former testimonies are simply described as " the testimony of God," and opposed to the testimony of man consequently the Heavenly Witnesses must be One, because They are the one true God. III. The doctrine contained in the above texts is further strengthened and developed in the passages relating to one or other of the Three Persons. The Personality and Divinity of the Father require no special treatment, because
;

Remark,

they are unquestioned, and, besides, are necessarily implied in the personal character of the Son. As to God the Son, His distinct Personality and origin from God the Father
are so clearly contained in the

name

of Son, that only the

But both identity of Substance requires further proof. and identity of Essence must be distinctly Personality
proved of the Third Person, Whose name, Spirit, is not necessarily the name of a person, but rather the name of something belonging to a person.

SECT. 93.

The Doctrine

of the the Son.

New

Testament on God

General Testament on the Son of View. God centres in the idea of His true and perfect Sonship if true Son, He is of the same Essence as the Father if of the same Essence as God the Father, He is God just as
I.

The

doctrine of the

New

:

;

the Father

is.

texts treating expressly of the Divinity of the Son are chiefly found in St. John's Gospel and in his First

The

270
CHAP.
ii.

A

Manual of

Catholic Theology.

[BOOK

II.

SBCT..93.

and

Epistle, especially in the introduction to chap.i. of the Gospel, in three speeches of the Son of God Himself: (i) after

man who had been eight and thirty years under his infirmity (v. 17 sqq.) ; (2) in defence of His Divine authority, in the continuation of His description of the
healing the

Good Shepherd

(x. 14)

;

(3) in the sacerdotal

prayer after

the Last Supper (xvii.), in explanation of His position as mediator. Other classical texts are Heb. i. and Col. i.

13-20.
The Son of God is truly
such.

II.
.

The

Filiation of the
..

Son of God
.
.

is
.

a

filiation in
, .

the

Christ

M*

a relation founded upon the communication of the same living essence and nature. i. This first results from the manner in which the name
strictest sense of the

,

.

word

that

is,

"

is used in Holy Scripture. That name is, indeed, also applied to beings not of the same essence as the Father, in order to express an analogical sonship, based upon adoption, love, or some other analogy. In such cases,

Son of God "

however, the name is used as a common noun, and never applied in the singular, as a distinctive name to any single individual, as it is applied to the Person called Word of

God, Jesus, and Christ. On the other hand, this Person distinguished, as being the Son of God (6 IM'OC fooi)) and the only begotten (/zovoytvij'e) Son of God, from all creatures, even the highest angels and the beings most favoured by grace so that His Sonship is given as the ideal and the principle of the adoptive sonship granted to men or angels. Hence, when applied to the Son of God, the term "Son" must be taken in its strict and proper sense, there being no
is
;

reason to the contrary. In illustration of these propositions, see, for instance, " Gal. iv. 7 For to which of Apoc. xxi. 7 Exod. iv. 22. " the Angels hath He said at any time, Thou art My Son ?
;

;

etc.

(Heb.

i.

5).

The comparison

of the real with the

adoptive sonship is found in the beginning of the Epistle to the Hebrews and of the Gospel of St. John (see Heb.
i-

!>

3

5,

6

;

John
as

i.

12).

The Jews who
considered

did not acknowit

ledge Jesus

the Messiah,

as arrogance

on His part to call Himself " the Son of God " even in the weaker sense, but they treated His claim to be the Son equal to the Father as blasphemy (John v. 18), and

I'ABT II.]

The Trinity
T
i

in Scripture.
;

271

demanded His death on
xxii.

that count (Matt. xxvi. 63
\

Luke
36,

CHAP.
SECT.

n.
93.

John xix. 7). The difficulty which some
66-71
;

find

in

John

x.

35,

where, according to them, Christ claims no other sonship than that granted to creatures, vanishes if we compare Christ's words with the accusation which He was repelling.

The Jews had

"

said,

We

stone

Thee because

that Thou,

being a man, makest Thyself God." To this Jesus replies, " The fact of My being a man does not essentially prevent Me from being also God. And if God called His servants

Whom Whom He
Who,
gods.
in

gods, a fortiori, the name must be given to the Man to the Father has given power over the whole world,

has constituted the Heir of His dominions, and the Psalm quoted, stands out as God before the And if I call Myself the Son of God, it is because

I claim to be that Heir of God Who, in the Psalm, is introCf. Franzelin, De Verb. duced as the Judging God."

Incarn., th.
2.

vii-

The
it.

Filiation of the

Son of God

is

further determined

Epithets of
Filiation.

in its

true character

gives

The
"

by the epithets which Holy Scripture Son of God is called " True Son " (i

John
"

v.

20)

;

the

own

(iS/oe)

Son

"

(Rom.

viii.

32)

;

the

and

16, only-begotten Son," unigenitus, /uovoyevrjc (John i. 14); "the beloved Son" (Matt. iii. 17, and Col. i. 13); "the only-begotten Son Who is in the bosom of the
iii.

Father,'' and there alone beholds "the Son born of the Father" (Heb.

God (John
v. 5,

i.

18);
ii.

"ex utero genitus"
from God,"
If
t-yo>

7) ; (Ps. cix. 3, in the Vulg.) "proceeding jap IK TOV GEOV ifA0ov (John viii. 42).
;

from

Ps.

sometimes the Son of God is called " First-born " among many brethren, or from the dead, or of all creatures, the sense is that the Son of God, as only true Son, is not merely begotten by His Father before any creature received existence, but that He also is the exemplar, the principle, and the last end of all beings (Apoc. iii. 14), and especially of the adoption of rational beings into the Sonship of God.
classical text

magnificently set forth in Col. i. 12-19, the " on the primogeniture of Christ Giving thanks to God the Father, Who hath translated us
is
: . .
.

This idea

into the

kingdom of the Son of His

love

;

.

.

.

Who

is

the

272
CHAP.
ii.
-

A
n
pjj

Manual of

Catholic Theology.

[BOOK

II.

SECTjtt.

invisible God, the First-born of every creature : were a jj thjngg cr eated in heaven and on earth, ... all things were created by Him visible and invisible and in Him (c auroV) and He is before all, and by Him

image of the
for

m

:

:

all

things consist." On the ground of this original primo" And He is the Head of geniture now follows the other
:
:

the body, the Church Who is the Beginning, the First-born from the dead: that in all things He may hold the primacy,

because in Him it hath well pleased the Father that all fulness should dwell." These passages fully show that the formal and proper reason why Christ is called Son of God is not His wonderful
generation and regeneration as man. Texts which seem to imply this ought to be interpreted so as to agree with the above. 3. The reality and perfection of the Sonship is further
e

The Son
Father?

described

when

the

Son

is

presented as the most perfect

image of the Father, reproducing the glory, the Substance the Nature and the fulness of the Divinity of the Father, equal to the Father, and a perfect manifestation or revela"His Son tion of His perfection. Who, being the of His glory, and the figure of His substance, and brightness upholding all things by the word of His power "(Heb. 3); " Who, being in the form of God, thought it no robbery to be equal to God" (Phil. ii. 6; see also Col. 15, 20, and ii. 9 John xiv. 9). rhe son of II. The Son of God is represented in the New Testa-HisDivine ment as God just as His Father is, all the names and attributes of God being bestowed upon Him. " i. The substantive nouns God " and " Lord," are given
.
.

.

i.

i.

;

"Gjd."

Who is also named the Son of God, in such a manner that nothing but the possession of the Divine Essence can be signified by them. " God," Gtoe, besides the express affirma(a) The name
to the Person
tion that " the

Word was God
i.

least five times to the
(6 Gtocftou) renders the
;

Heb.

(John i. i), is applied at Person of God the Son John xx. 28 8, quoting from Ps. xliv., where 6 9>c
:

"

Hebrew Elohim ; " Waiting for the coming of the great God and our Saviour" (Tit. ii. 13) "That we may know the true God, and may be in His true Son Thif
;

:

(or cii. may be emphatically called God. i. Christ is called " " the only sovereign Ruler and Lord Dominator et . it would. Besides this. Where the Son is named Lord. iii. n E J ffi? These expressions are the more significant the New Testament the name 6 0toe is exclu- sively reserved for God. 27." given in the Old Testament. clearly show that this name expresses in Christ a truly in Divine excellence and dignity. 7 Heb. quoted by Mark of the i. 13). 5). and as the special sovereignty in His quality of Head generally and of mankind in particular. is not that the Son of God ought not to be called God as well as the Son are mentioned is God. and in Scripture. Luke vii. as the " unoriginated holder of the Divine God Nature. therefore. Mai.] The Trinity God. are applied to Christ For instance Heb. Lord in the New Testament is equivalent to Adonai in " the Old. the Son Lord. after what has been said above. in the New Testament. in the Hebrew) . also CHAP. xi. there are in the New Testament many quotations from the Old Testament in which texts undoubtedly referring to God. " the Father. In the Old Testament the title " the Lord had become a proper name of God . 20. . 273 the true Rom. 10-12 = Ps. When the Father and together. He manifesting in His Incarnation the dominion or of God.PAUT is II. i. repeatedly applied " to Christ. T . and the Father is called always called the Lord. xcvi. with the similar expressions. because in life eternal" (i John v. because the name Jehovah is their subject." Who is. never be applied without restriction and as a proper name to a person who did not possess the same Divine dignity. and the way in which it qualifies the same. is. ix. ci. 17 xxi. i. i. 10. Moreover. 2. ineffable . ." "Alpha " is to come (Apoc. the way which Holy Scripture applies the name of Lord to the Son of God. Whose ambassador He is. But no restriction is made on the contrary. Consequently. (b] The name Son of God than " Lord" is more commonly given to the "Lord. appears as sovereignty holder of a of creation On the other hand. just as the name God expresses the Divine Essence and Nature. 6 = Ps. 6 xxii. The explanation name Jehovah as "the First and the Last. Who was. Matt. and Who End. Beginning and " and Omega. The reason of this difference." the name God.

<d Manual of CatJiolic Theology. and the Father as the principle from Whom (ex quo. the Dominus. 17 I Cor. as John 16 . 8). 26 i John i. so the Son also giveth life to whom He will. This remark also solves most of the apparent difficulties arising from texts where Christ seems to object to certain Divine attributes being given to Him.274 CHAP. but point to the different manner in which the Son possesses the Divine Nature. do not deny the equality of the Son with the Father. these the Son also doeth in like manner" in (v. For. 10). are stated of Him. . Attributes 2. so He hath given to the Son also to have life in Himself" (John v. 16. unity of the Christian worship in opposition to the worship of many lords by the heathen (cf. 25). cf. The " of the " Lord of all necessarily extends to sovereignty all that comes from God. viii. Christ Himself (John xvi. the question is not 32 . ii. but likewise all the predicates which express attributes proper to God alone. as principium de adoration. viii. and elsewhere). the Son is described as equal to the Father the possession of that being and life in virtue of is which God side of Him the principle of all being and of all life outin the possession of the attributes con. v. and Thine are Mine" (xvii. . the Father raiseth up the dead and giveth life. 21. Matt. St' ou) all things are made. In detail. ii. that is. . . 19). vii. 5. nected with such essential being and life and particuin the Divine dignity which makes God the object of larly "All things were made by Him [the Word]. "What things soever (the Father) doeth. In Mark xiii. 19 . I Cor. The texts in which the Son is represented as the principle through Whom (per quern. principle . . . xvii. . Not only " are the substantive nouns " God " and OYione catedofthe given to the Son of God. and without . viz. 6). 15) claims " Lord " such predicates All things whatsoever the Father And again. i. and is the foundation of the . as the Father hath life in Himself. 28. Col. 6 /HOVOQ SEO-TTOTJJC KO! Kvptog (Jude 4) Lord of gi ory (! Cor. TBOOK n. 14. 6 3 John viii. as communicated to Him by the Father. " SHCT^S. are Mine. etc.)." all : are Thine. t% ov) all things are made. "All things that are Mine hath. xx. Him was made nothing that was made" (John " As i. "the Lord of Lords and " King of Kings (Apoc. 2.

De Verb. i^gne^T IV. Newman's Athanasius. if He possesses the attributes proper to God alone. . The same unity of Essence is formally affirmed by Christ " " I and the Father are one. CHAP. and " Judge when He says. th. 7. The eternity of the Son is indicated where to . . p. rlther^nd For there can be but one God. and I in the Father" (ibid. 8 Greg. Knoll. "that all may honour " the Son as (icaflwe) they honour the Father (John v. The likeness of the Essence of the Son to that of . and under the earth" (Phil. 38) is only irtpiywpriaiQ. i. 144. If the Son of God is truly such.] The Trinity in Scripture. implied in His Sonship and Divinity. . . He is said . of those that are in heaven. Controv. De Deo. On His c. on earth. 28 have existed before the world (John i. and the Son is spoken of as the God (6 9toc) consequently as one with the Father.. i. 5. 86. 23). if He is God and . The unity could not be affirmed so absolutely if it did not refer to real identity of being and the mutual immanence or of which the Saviour speaks (x. 18 John v. i. Incarn. 38). find Divine honour should certainly be paid to Him. . . u but whether the knowledge is communicable. 22). is 275 whether the end of the world known to the Son of God. 1. On the Divine attributes and works of Christ. All power is given to Me in heaven and in earth" (Matt. " In the name of And the Apostle declares that it is due : Him Jesus every knee should bow. lieve the works. Unity of the Father. See Card. De Trin. We laying claim to this honour. xvii. of Valentia. III. Divine 1 Lord. 58) heaven and on earth His omniscience by His knowledge His of the hearts of men and His prevision of the future omnipotence appears in the miracles which He worked by He His own power. necessarily consists in a perfect and indivisible unity of Essence. Divine dignity see Franzelin. I His omnipresence by the assertion that He is in viii. consult Bellarmine..PART II." \v la^v Be(John x. 10). to theSon. v. conceivable on the hypothesis of absolute identity of Essence and Nature. The whole doctrine on the Son of God is manifi: . xxviii. that you may know and believe that the Father is in Me. 3. 30). Lawgiver. ii. \. and also in the forgiveness of sin proclaims Himself the sovereign Teacher. de Christo.

or they arise from the fact that the Son of God is is commonly spoken of as God-man. of which the Word of Wisdom is . being the expression of His truth and wisdom. therefore. Who indeed came down into the flesh with the plenitude of His grace and truth. emphatically. before any created thing. and not a new being. This Word " " that is. before all creatures. but yet as the Divine Speaker. and therefore in Himself "the Life" that " \Vhom the Word the Word is and "the Light" that enlighteneth all. and hence in time. cently SECT'S. Verbum. and consequently made the subject of many new attributes which could . remained in the bosom of the Father (ver. which. the fulness of the Divine Word. anasents of dfffi. the Word is of the same Substance As a Person by Himself. In general these difficulties arise from expressions used in a symbolical. which the substantially expressed personified. is one and the same substance with God. [COOK n. It cannot be denied that the New Testament preagainst the Filiation. possessor of the Divine Nature. at the same time. Word existed "in . The the beginning" that is. and knowledge. without the article) and as truly God as the Divine Person of Whom and with is. but. a Person distinct from the God with God is Who speaks the Word but. the true literal sense of which to be determined from the nature of the subjectought matter . Divinity. As possessor of the Divine Nature. the Trinity as Incarnation. " God (Qtor. life. like the and It Divine Wisdom of which It is the expression that existed. the principle of all extra-Divine existence. but generated from of the Father as His only called "the only begotten of the Principle for uu " Father (ver. principle and which are made by Its power. of the same Substance as God.. and . the Word is that is. and the Son. all is not created or It is eternity out of the " made Wisdom Word.276 CHAP.the The Word. 14). positively and eminently "in the beginning" is. Wisdom is independently of the He is introduced as in 6 Aoyoe. i^e Evangelist represents the Second Person of viz. or God metaphorical sense. He was before and as He is in Himself. V. many difficulties identity of Essence of logical. j j in< summed up in the prologue to the Gospel of St. A Mamial of Catholic Theology. cnliveneth all. 1 8). and was Itself without beginning. n. therefore.

various interpretations. which accounts for the diversity of explanations given by the Fathers and the Theologians. or to the functions of His human nature after the Incarnation." Spirit of the Father. in general. 94. by which Spirit. n E 9H ' not be predicated of Him if He was only God. mission is entirely unlike human missions it refers to the Person of the Son either before the the Incarnation. is ~. of origin of the distinct Personality Holy Ghost. to honour Him.PART II. upon which depends and His Divinity. In the last case only such an authority can be understood as is common to Father and SOP over the human nature in Christ (cf. or in the Incarnation. receive. infra. or quality going out from God to creatures. are at work. or. predicates." etc." Scripture designates the Third Person of the Trinity. distinct from the other To this must be added the definition of the mode His I. accident. the Son is said to "receive" from the Father.. it necessary to prove that this name really designates that is. distinct from the beings to whom the Holy Ghost is given . a fIi the God-man. SECT. The impersonal character and the vagueness of the name Thesis. In way some passages. to acknowledge that Such texts admit of the Father is His Divine principle. as it were.g. " " Ghost. to obey Him. that the Holy Ghost is not merely the substantial (2) vital force or energy of the Father and the Son. but rests simply on the relation of origin between Father and Son. first /-i of the two points mentioned evident Theiioiy Ghost not a mere attribute.] The Trinity in Scripture.. . e. possessor of the Divine Substance. In first two cases the mission is not an act of authority on the part of the Father. but a and two Persons. those relating to the sending of the Son by the Father. The same reflections apply to all the texts in which 1 08). The . but a spiritual substance. " The Doctrine of the New Testament on the Holy Ghost. This Divine . 277 Other CHAP. all the above causes of difficulties to new shade or colouring in when applied and are expressed a otherwise unallowable. attributable to Him in virtue of His Divinity or of His origin from the Father. Holy make a distinct Person (i) that the Holy Ghost or the Spirit of God is not a mere attribute.

if the name Son implies a likeness of Essence to the Father. the Spirit proceeds. these things one and the same Spirit worketh. ii. Thus. and consequently as having His origin (Spirihis qui ex est. f The Substantiality and Personality of the Holy Ghost being proved. whereas the Spirit of God. the Holy Ghost is often described as a subject distinct from creatures. and which are such as can exist evident from the fact that the . that the Holy Ghost is a Person really distinct from the Father and the Son. ii. the innermost part of his whole substance.278 CHAP. indwelling. xii. His Divinity results clearly from Scripture. viz. 26) as the breath proceeds from man. ii. : : Cor. and generally acting as an intellectual Being. The proper personality of the Holy Ghost is especially characterized in the texts which represent Him as not only being in God like the spirit of man is in man. which states that the Spirit of God is as much in God and as much the holder of the Divine Life as the But the spirit of man is but spirit of man is in man. the name Spirit is still more significant. willing. 12). searching. from the fact that the Holy Ghost is represented as the "All free _ actm g cau se of all the gifts of God to man. EK Deo in the TheDivinity ' Father like the Son. I. A Manual of Catholic Theology. The classical "To us God hath revealed [those things] by His Spirit for the Spirit searcheth all things. . another Person (see texts in 92. [BOOK II. consoling. receiving and giving and being sent and from the manner in which He is mentioned together with the Father and the Son as being . dividing " to every one according as He will (i Cor. 3). Again. The second point. but being from God rou 0ov. and as distinct from the other two Persons. must be the same whole Substance as the Divine Persons from Whom III. and proceeding from the Father (John xv. He proceeds. II. 1 1). knowing. I Cor. sending. only between distinct Persons for instance. SECTJ*. and is proposed with Them as an object of from the relations to the other Persons which worship are attributed to Him. teaching. is Holy Ghost is represented as acting side by side with. The Holy disina approving. in Whom there are no parts. as it implies unity or identity of Essence with the Persons from text is I Whom 10 sqq.

penetrates the secret recesses of created spirits. E 94 fli_ of a man. I Cor.] The Trinity in Scripture. . the deep things of God. 19 Acts v. in order to characterize the supernatural of God. the Holy Ghost. He is often represented same subject which. He and eternal life of man which is founded upon a participation in the Divine Nature He dwells in man as in His temple. I Cor. But of the supernatural . of this world. . and alone. iii. no man knoweth. wo7ro*o'c) immediately after the name of Lord. 279 ' For what man knoweth the CHAP. " . . in virtue of His simplicity and immensity. etc. Who Scripture. " Although the Holy Ghost is never called God "The Holy . that we may know the things that are given us from God. and the Council of Constanti- nople added the title of Life-giver (vivificans. further confirmed Divinity of the Spirit of God. 25." of Constantinople as Instances of texts identifying the Holy Ghost with God : cf.PART II. by the following considerations. in the context or in some other as the The identity of text. Who alone can make His creatures participators of His nature. n. but the Spirit that is of God. yea. vi." The is 1. of Him. 4 xxviii. but Now we have received not the spirit the Spirit of God. represents them as the gifts and operations of Holy the Holy Ghost. " " " Lord " He is is formally asserted in 2 Cor. and especially the fulness of God . and relations predicated of the The Divine ascribecHo y Ghost. (a) Holy Ghost is set forth in operations. Spirit with the for this reason 17 . tifiedwith purely and simply in Scripture. such relations to creatures are proper to God alone. 2. characterized in the symbol Lord. For this reason the Fathers who opposed the Macedonians appealed to these attributes of the Holy Ghost more than to others. but the spirit of a man that is in him ? things So the things also that are of God. is undoubtedly the one true God. especially in relation to rational creatures. particularly the supernatural life of grace. Moreover. Ghost iden- the iii. The Divine Nature the Divine properties. and receives Divine worship. 16 . 3. as gifts a participation of the Divine Life and coming immediately from God. The attributes in question principally refer to the vivifying influence of the Holy Ghost on created spirits: dwells in the inmost part of the soul and fills it with He is the principle of life.

further. o. " Receive ye the Holy Ghost : whose sins you shall forgive. i Cor. . to rule the Church all ofGod"(/<ta/. ii. 2 Cor. xiv. " Take heed to yourselves. John xiv. 18 . 6 Rom. i i. Passages from Scripture corroborating our argument numerous J hn vi. 14 sqq. by saying " Holy Ghost spake through the prophets. v. etc. 5 .iture. Hence we have a double argument in favour of His Divinity be in self. Rom. [BOOK n. came not by the will of mail at any time but the holy of God spoke inspired by the Holy Ghost" (2 Pet. the original the mysteries hidden in likewise ascribed to the the Apostle gives for this is that the Spirit of God is in God. Giiosft'he' the Holy Ghost is in man as God alone can and He is in God as God alone can be in Himman. " Adorability entrust the Holy Ghost the inalienable right to forgive sins and to same power to others and. the Divine attribute of knowing secrets of creatures the h* Holy and their future free acts is ascribed to the that the Holy Ghost This the Creed expresses. Catholic Theology. 28). ii. A ii Manual of . . iii. Lastly.280 CHAP. to dispense all supernatural powers. 2). the Son is adored " Who " and glorified. (b) The Divinity of the cdwS. ii. 64. " " The Holy Ghost (John xx. 28. viii. Dan. 10-12. attributing to the Ghost. with 2 Cor. attributes Holy Ghost results from two other in Holy Scripture.rLtV human n. the Divine Nature of the Holy Ghost is .>cT^94. 26 Adorabiihy . 6 whatTs' n ^ men >." Moreknowledge and the communication of God and of all Divine truth is Holy Ghost. Matt. (c) Further. Separate me Saul and Barnabas for the " work whereunto I have taken them (Acts xiii. notably the mission and authorization of persons endowed with such powers. Acts Rom. The reason which over. Cor. xx. Compare also. the power . are very viii. : n o. . n . ." This is the texts which describe man as the "temple implied in all " of the Holy being the expression of Divine dignity and excellence. 2 . vi. 8 . See I Cor. iii. and to all the flock. Holy Scripture connects with it the manifestation of Divine authority. 20. "For prophecy : viz. 22). which He receives are embodied in the Creed. over which the Holy Ghost hath placed you Divine of" bishops. and which The first is that He is an together with the Father and object of adoration. they are forgiven said to them. 21) 3. x.

Spirit of Jesus or of Christ. 18 Heb. "But when the Spirit of truth the shall . 19). ix. 6. xii. He shall glorify Me : because He shall receive of . Christ expressly declares that the Holy Ghost. The origin of the Spirit from Father and Son It is implied is also clearly stated in the New Testament. rlt Trvtv^a TO IK TOV Gcou). xii. Rom. The Holy Ghost is called the Spirit of the Son. especially in the speech of our Lord after the Last Supper. dantly confirmed by Holy Scripture. is human nature of the Son CHAP. iv. in God as well as the Father. manifested by His relation to the of God. as T> e Hol y well as the Spirit of the Father. /-/ 2. Son has received from the Father and possesses in common with the Father.II. 9. indeed. 32. : The of Christ. expressions. Father (Gal. God But as the Son is (ex Deo. I Pet. 12. rection . IV. is referred to the Holy Ghost as its principle the whole of the Divine unction in virtue of which the man Jesus is "the Christ" (the anointed) . however. The relation to the Ghost the phrase "Spirit of God. as The Holy Ghost retakes and receives from the Son what ceives from ii i ." for this. crying. " Spirit of truth. ii. 31. He will teach you all truth for speak of Himself. . or from. in Christ. Holy Ghost. See Luke iv. and as both are but one God. according to Son. 1. 14. is attributed to the medium and glorification of Christ are attributed to the Ghost as well as to the Father (Rom. is not in the humanity of Christ the Holy Ghost is the own Spirit an accidental one . 281 n. n). Phil. the Spirit of God is necessarily "from" the Father and This argument is abunthe Son as from His principle. i. is equivalent to Spirit out of. Holy Christ is led by the Spirit into the desert (Luke iv. viii. be taken as referring to the indwelling of the Holy Ghost this indwelling. n. Divine and supernatural His attributes as well as His operations."' " " I Cor. i) He casts out devils in the Spirit (Matt. the Son who) the Son has with the come. Abba." may. "God hath sent the Spirit of the " Spirit of His Son into your hearts. . Matt.] The Trinity Whatever in Scripture. but what things soever He : He shall not shall hear. so as to make Him the of the Hypostatic Union and of its divinizing Hence also the resureffects upon the humanity of Christ. i. " viii. will He shall speak : and the things that are to come He show you. 28). cf.

inasmuch . as the Son stands to the Father. Father. 343. in any way whatsoever. He shall receive of Mine. which is only Holy Ghost has His eternal existence in " But when God. sends the if manner possible the Father. Basil comments on this point " Let them learn that the Spirit is named (in the form of baptism) with the Son as the Son with the Father. 26 Note that " sending " cannot be undersee also xvi. All things whatsoever My Fat her hath are Mine. Who proceedeth from the " . joined through the one Son to the one Father. and will declare it to you._94. Whom I will send you from the as the Father. Mine.) Finally.282 CHAP. tne constant order in which the Persons are named. ii. " The Son nCiyGhost. the Father cannot be sent (nor does Holy Scripture ever speak of the Father the Son and the Holy Ghost are sent by as being sent) the Father. and the Spirit proceedeth from both the relations of origin are the only conceivable foundation of missions on the part of the : Divine Persons. and declare it to you (John xvi. in the singular number. Applied to the Persons of Holy Trinity. as the Son is begotten by the Father. He also. Holy Ghost. the Paraclete shall come. 7). . . If. Therefore I said. . in the form of Baptism. and the Son to the Father. 18). and' (See infra. and in 4V> Three I ihows'ihe procession from the son. ^' can On y k ^ satisfactorily accounted for John by saying Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son. . " 1 ^Fa^her Smi. then. He shall give testimony of Me (John xv. . so the Holy Ghost stands to the Son according to the thus : that the traditional order of the formula of Baptism. Therefore. and completing through Himself the Blessed Trinity. to be " c. glorified for evermore (De Spiritu There is . stood as an act of authority. A Manual of Catholic Theology. and the Holy Ghost is sent by the Son. one Holy Ghost. Christ further declares that the Son. St. xvii. from the Son as well as from the Father. the Spirit of truth. enounced. in the same 3. it is clear that the Spirit also is joined to the Father. [BOOK n SKCT. another person to act.. p. except in the wider sense of causing. 13-15). For the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost are given in the same order. the Spirit is joined to the Son.

vii. we or Prov. The Second of the Divine Persons appears in the Old Testament in three progressive forms. and Himself bearing the name . As an instance. Paul. II. The central point. representing God. 283 CHAP. because it preJ r pares and announces the coming and manifestation of the Son in the Incarnation. distributed over to the smallest three periods. Son of God in John viii. Old The more distinct expositions of the mystery of the Trinity in the Old Testament are of more interest to the commentator on Holy Scripture. confining ourselves to the outlines. than to the dogmatic theologian. the Second Person bears the general and indefinite character of an ambassador. coming from God. in Scripture. the Spirit Who natural to expect 1 ' Morereferences to the Son than to the Holy Ghost proceeds from Him is designated. and the Judges. Where the Son is spoken of as the " Begotten Wisdom. or the the teachings of the Second Person. It is and Heb. The Doctrine of the Old Testament on the SECT - 95. by the term Spiritns sapienti<z. The first period is prelude to the future sending of the Son.. however. and rather throws light upon than receives light from the older referFor this reason we shall reduce the present section ences. SECT. in the Gospels and Epistles is not evident. John and St. and describing Him with a distinctness and fulness almost equal to anything in St." Sapientia genita. At 'this first stage.] The Trinity 95. many passages unmistakably referring to God the Son. and giving references to material for deeper studies. Testament that many texts in General Old Testament point to the Blessed Trinity. Logos as compared with on the " " more references to the Son than to the Holy Ghost in the Old Testament. and Wisd. Trinity. and is found in the theophanies in the times of the Patriarchs. although in themselves (and probably in the minds even of the inspired writers) the meaning attributed to them as quoted There are. the Spirit of Wisdom.PART II. learn from the We New the however. i. Moses. of compass. and to the historian Dogma. with sufficient clearness. who finds his demonstration perfect in the New Testament. may refer to the doctrine i. of all is Testament on the Trinity allusions to.

Still.. Ii.. are founded. 1-19 xxxi. in virtue of His Divine Sonship. is probably a created Angel. xvi. of where His Sonship is attributed to Divine generaand His eminent dignity of King and Priest is founded tion. Among the Fathers a diversity of opinion really exists as to particular theophanies. In Ps. ii. when the Messiah was prophesied as prefigured by Solomon. See Franzelin. Jehovah.g. Cf. to which Ps. A Manual of Catholic Theology. . The third form exhibits a comprehensive description of the Divine origin and essence of the Second Person. 19 . in Pss. His Divine is only mentioned a few times more in later books Sonship of Scripture. In David's time. . the Messias is represented as God and as the Divine Spouse of souls. upon His Sonship. xxx. 2 (Heb. then. and to Whom the " agree in recognizing in them manifestations of the Son of God. II. is the direct prophecy of the o f a Divine Person.284 CHAP. xliv. upon the whole. Ixxxviii. 3. the Son of David (2 Kings vii. It ought. vi. He is also marked out as Son of God : first in the prophecy Nathan (2 Kings vii. and Greek) . xxiii. upon which His threefold functions as shall spiritual man First stage: phl^esT Angel of the Lord. Gen. Exod.. on the whole. 24. belong. 7. and . 20. in a more marked form.. The signification which we attribute to the above passages of Holy Scripture i$ cix. as in Ps. Whose titles instrument the created Angel Angel of Jehovah. 13 13 . however. e. Prov.). 14 xviii. they is. De Trin. 21 . xix. xxxiii. The " in all Divine envoy is at work. and that. 3. [BOOK n. He of God. but." etc. and as the spouse of souls.ji ii. when He is mentioned as God. and Ecclus. th. xliv.). acting directly in the name of God. xiii. to be remarked that the Messias always appears as the Ambassador and as the Anointed of God hence. . . .ECT. . 14. 4 Micheas v. the theophanies make the impression that a higher I. but His Divinity is asserted very frequently. Elohim" spoken of the theophanies in question. The second form j ncarna tj on appear as King and Priest pre-eminently. He must be conceived. Second e ge pro P heS iii. xiv. . n. as a Person distinct from and originated in the God Who sends and anoints Him. 8. also xxii. 2. n. including the information that a son of David shall be at the same time Son of God and God. is similar in its typical form .

xl. and therefore existing in God and with God .] The Trinity in Scripture. God from all eternity from God Essence. sidered as a repetition or a lation. proofs of His Divinity. His Divine origin and essence with such comprehensiveness that nearly all the utterances of the New Testament may be condescribe. with John xix. . their source and ideal. E 95 fll_ them are expressly applied to Christ. similarly the Prophets three Gospels) represent the Second Person in and the God as Son of God. John and again.. In Prov. in Ps. 3-1 1. These figures are. 9 . and adduced as Cf." is represented as the substantial exhalation and the personal representative of the The Divine Wisdom. Isai. Ecclus. an introduction to distinct as splendour. how the Anointed of the Lord. i. the Priest . in Ps. 36-38 Zach. who has dominion because she has made all things (cf. 285 ' confirmed by the fact that in the New Testament many of CHAP. vii. cix. with Matt. xliv. the mediator and the initiator of that participation in Divine Life which consists in wisdom.PART II. "The Word by Whom all things were made ") in. Wisdom the beatifying Spouse of Souls. Baruch iii. who possesses the priesthood of life not of death. first Whereas the Psalms (and Third stage: under the title of Divinely begotten Wisdom. 13. is. . and hence the principle and prince of all things. and as God. summing up " of the older Reve- subject designated as Wisdom. the Sapiential books III. as from His principle. so as to set forth. 3 xii. on the one hand. with Matt. mirror and image of God. : . begotten and born of . xi. in order. 37. Wisdom appears as the born priestly Mediator between God and man. 14. in virtue of His Divine origin and essence. . with Mark i. each of them corresponds with one of the three principal passages in the Psalms. but of the same or a preparation for the fuller understanding of the Incarnation. the King pre-eminently . n. Isai. viii. . appears as the born Queen of all things. The figures of the three Sapiential books correspond with the three principal elements of the prologue to the Gospel of St.. and. John i. 10. 12. 23 . xxvii. ii. executing and governing with Him all His external works. a commentary on the words of the Psalms concerning the Divine Sonship and the Divine Nature of the Messias. on the other hand. xxiv. according to the order of Melchisedech and in Ps.

. During the last centuries before the Christian era.. or to the influence of the Greek philosophy (cf. and in one with God in essence and existence. like the Levitical priesthood ECT^ps. and Atlianasius ii. Thus. 196. the Word as Light which enlighteneth every man). Schechinah.. And. i. Newman. . as the splendour of the glory of God. xxiv. John wrote his Gospel... xxiv. the t . name of Word.. viii. Wisdom simply appears as begotten from all eternity in Ecclus. so there is a progress in the spirituality. In Prov. appears connection Bridegroom. sublimity. in Wisdom as a into the closest Wisdom. and this circumstance explains the use of See Card. 337. (cf. describing Wisdom as proceeding from the mouth of God. as in these three expositions there is an unmistakable progress of tenderness and intimacy. was well known to the Jews when St. the Jewish theology had substituted the Chaldaic name Memrah (= Word) for the name Wisdom. as the Word proceeding from the mouth of the Most High T isd. as signifying the mediator between God and the world. and completeness in the exposition of the Divine origin and essence lastly. ii. John Wisd. lent (parallel) to the several Memrah was made equivanames of the Angel of the Lord (= Maleach Jehovah. Chabod). viii.286 CHAP.. Plato's Logos}. W been due to Ecclus.. the term by the Evangelist. and who. The change may have of the Eternal . is the the Logos as Life and vii. ^^j MotJier of full . entering with souls. therefore. filling them with light and happiness (as in John i. A of grace) Manual of life Catholic Theology. [BOOK II. vii.

Sufficient proof for the primitive profession of the CHAP. The whole conflict turned on this point that the unity of God ought not to destroy the distinction of the Persons. and by the confessions ^fJsed'in of the martyrs. great number. but she also defended the absolute unity and indivisibility of the Divine Substance. The Doxology. professions of faith either in the Three Persons together or in each one of Them. The . ^fli by the Doxologies in universal use. and that the distinction of The the Persons ought not to destroy the unity of God. 96. " Glory to the Father and Sf aSS to the Son. Whenever. in. a writer used expressions that might imply such substantial distinction. in very Persons. III.( 28. protests were heard on all sides. I. 96 by the formula of Baptism. and Denis himself retracted order of his unguarded expressions by ecclesiastical literature Pope Dionysius. II. : position taken up by the Church sufficiently shows how far she was from admitting a distinction in the Substance of the Persons. Not only did the Church assert the distinction of the Persons. from which the Sabellians and their allies took the chief argument in favour of their heresy. and to (or with) the Holy Ghost. The Faith of the Church in the mystery of the Asserted dogma of the Trinity is afforded - Trinity manifested itself especially in the conflict with the hfreScL antc-Nicene heresies. ) CHAPTER THE TRINITY SECT. as in the case of Denis of Alexandria. The Ante-Nicene Tradition on the Trinity Dim ne and Unity. IN TRADITION." is an act of worship giving Divine honour to all and each of the three The "Acts of the Martyrs" contain.

however. such an error in such quarters would be III. See Card. lie in the following points i. than a superficial knowledge and inadequate exposition of the unity of Essence in the Three Persons. The special difficulties met with in the ante-Nicene sions writings. in. who As a matter of fact. Arians. known . and admit of an orthodox interpretation. incompatible with the infallibility of the Church. of course. be going too far to admit that the Fathers had. Nevertheless. ii. Holy Scripture itself. _ . howaccuracy of expression as later writers.288 CHAP. sometimes with The principal ones are to be found The dimcultiesofthe Ante-Nicenc Although the substance of the dogma was well . that they almost seem to conceive the Father alone as God pure and simple. and to attribute Divinity to the other Persons racter of the Father as source in a less perfect degree. ch. i/~. Newman. who lived before the Council of Nicaea. anterior E 96 ' fll_ A '. it is none the less to be expected that their writings did not treat the subject with the same definiteness and It would. even the orthodox. . the Council of Nicaea contains of the Catholic considerable development. . in the writings against the Sabellians and against the Gnostics of various forms. and in the Apologies against the heathen. ever. we have no greater fault to find. to . Among schismatic writers it is. occur in the writings of the most orthodox of the Fathers.. [BOOK ll. in general. and were most harshly judged by Catholic theologians. certain writers so their utterances did prepare the misunderstood the dogma that way for the Arian heresy.< the faithful.o Manual of dogma on Catholic Theology. and better still to the Catholic Fathers and Doctors. even with uncatholic writers. . All the expres- which were seized upon by later opponents of the dogma. . . if we except the Philosophumena of Hippolytus and several utterances of Origen (which are. many expositions the Trinity. quite possible to find wrong conceptions of the dogma. annulled by opposite utterances of the same author).. and God above all (Deus super omnia). afterwards became a formal heretic. hoxvever. The authors often lay so much stress upon the cha: and principle of the other two Persons. an obscure or a wrong conception of the unity in such a fundaof Substance in the Divine Persons mental dogma. from the time of Tatian.

Father alone. cc. refute Ditheism. Holy Ghost fact.g. the God (6 Gtoc. had set the example. 5. This visibility. and not a difference in the Essence. Terof the world by and through Him. a system which They do also.] The Trinity in Tradition.. especially John imperative necessity. or simply of a community of power and authority. of activity and love. 3. admits of a correct found likewise in post-Nicene writers. whilst the Father is invisible. Holy Scripture and x. Prax. : world. Instead of stating the identity of Substance. and His manifestation in the creation of the world (Xoyoc TrpofyopiKOQ^ hence Hippolytus and Tertullian verbum prolatitiuni) sometimes seem only to apply the name of Son to the Logos after His external manifestation in creating the ration of the Logos. or rather of a conception and a gene- independent of the other.) speak with more precision of a double generation. the one v. the Son and the Holy Ghost both appeared under sensible forms or symbols..-vii. eternal origin generation as . whereas the Father never so manifested Himself. they represent the generation of the Son as intended in connection with the creation But some (e. v. as principle of the Son and the Spirit. 4. they oppose to the eternal conception. " the Second and Third Persons to be sent as manifesting the need not by an officious piety arbitrarily force the language of separate Fathers into a sense which it cannot U We . which. Lastly.) for the CHAP. C. the Fathers point out that the Son and the are visible. is only intended to prove the distinction In of the Persons. or of the unity of origin. to be sent by another. etc. they often speak merely of a substantial connection. 289 nt generally uses the term God. But here. tullian. The personal characters of make it right for Them Father. 2. and is The conception is explained as the from the Father (\6jog svSmfleroe) the His temporal mission ad extra. viii. however. The generation of the Son is sometimes described as voluntary. in order to exclude from it a blind and This. however.PAST II. as a birth. or after the Incarnation. so in order to admits two Gods. Following up Prov. it being unbecoming to His character. interpretation.

The Arians. argued that the Council admitted Protestant writers. applying the human sense to the term. the Substance of the Father is communicated to the Son as it is in human generation. however. _-97 nor by an unjust and narrow criticism accuse them O f error nor impose upon an early age a distinction of terms belonging to a later. xi. In the Divine generation. in virtue of which the Father. II. [BOOK n. be gathered also from the following conConsubstanSU '" ing'from Generation. The same may. Homoousion consequent upon generation. that is. it implies only a specific identity of substance . it is communicated in its entirety. wherefore we deem it necessary to show briefly. however. Manual of Catholic Theology. in. for three or four centuries. SECT. and were used indiscriminately for two ideas which were afterwards respectively denoted by the one and the other. and even some Catholic theologians. . The Consubstantiality of the Son defined by the Council of Niccea. Franzelin." was used by the Council of Nicaea to define the identity of substance in e Father and the Son When a ppi ied to the con _ substantiality of a human father and his son. have lately repeated the Arian calumny. Newman. A . practically synonymous. 444 . the numerical identity of the one Essence in the Three Persons. th. the Son. "consubstantial. on account of the simplicity and indivisibility of the Divine Substance. The term o^toouo-toc. p. cf. and the Spirit are one and the The only same God. Arians. from the post-Nicene tradition. is I. with this difference. The words usia and hypostasis bear were naturally and intelligibly. that father and son are of a like substance. three Divine Beings or three Gods. False inof the I. The simple fact that the dogma of the Trinity admits of no other Christian interpretation than that the Three Persons are one God. that." Card. during the fourth as well as during siderations. The thus explained by the Fathers against the sophisms of the Arians. Christian tionTThat are one' God.290 CHAP. suffices to prove that the Catholic Church held the dogma in this sense. whereas the human . but are not numerically one and the same substance. 97. all other centuries.

c. mind of the Fathers.. Athan. They describe the mutual co-inherence of the Persons as consequent upon their consubstantiality. the Son possesses the same as communicated or received (St. n. and branch But. in the the end). and life of the Son. this difference. 16). and unity of root. 24).. but are His own Substance. stem. St. 37). Eunom.. specific unity. at the same Son and the Holy Ghost are . in the substance and life of the Father and the substance similar to the eternal . Or. consequently. and more like the organic unity of parts of the same whole. De Deer. at These two arguments show also that. n. far . ceived by the Son were a new life. new in life .. iv. E 97 fli substance (cf. iv. In God.PART II. the generation would not be Divine. considering the simplicity of the Divine finger.. HI. as inseparable from the Father as His own Wisdom and Holiness (cf. sqq. in God the communication necessarily consists For if the life rethe giving of the same identical life. 23. Athanasius. that the pointing out. such as the or of body. I and St. The difference. 4). no specific unity is possible in God.] The Trinity in Tradition.. Basil. Substance. . not accidents of the Father. generation implies a communication of But in man the communication consists in giving a life.. 2. Or. Contra Arianos. indivisible coherence They describe Substance. Gregory of Nazianzum. The attributes which the Fathers give to the unity 3 : The unity of the Three of the Divine Persons are such as to mark it as identity of Persons is Essence and not merely as it identity of and and inseparaabove the unity which similarity or relationship establishes between human persons. They oppose the unity of essence as it t . nn. 31 (al. De Trin. as in man. Nic. 1.. but only numerical identity of substance and life. and as being the principle of the unity of Divine actions (see Petav. 1. Syn. then. 20. it would not even be life of the Father and. in the substance of the mind time. is merely in this the Father possesses them as uncommunicated. a coherence such as described can only be conceived as the simultaneous possession of the same Substance by the Three Persons. St. The Fathers further compare the unity of the Divine Persons to the inherence and immanence of the qualities and faculties of created minds as substantial bility. 291 ' father only communicates and parts with a portion of his CHAP. ii. arm. C.

..). yet without limiting their unity to a similarity or likeness of essence (St. the Persons would be three distinct Persons of the same species. against whose bjuotovaiog (similarity of Substance) the Catholics successfully defended the bpooixnog . Greg.ucedby the Fathers irom the 3. A God to is. Manual of to that Catholic Theology. v. if the Essence itself were multiplied. c. they use the strongest terms at their disposal to describe the unity of the three Divine Persons as the most perfect possible identity of substance that (Kilber. Divine Essence appears also from the way in which they J spoke of the mystery of the Trinity. 37). Or. 14. Far from being * the greatest of all mysteries. doctrine of the Fathers holds the right .. 16). and the controversy among the Catholics themselves on question. Naz. Finally. Cat.29 2 CHAP. so that there would be no difference whatsoever. That the Fathers taught the absolute unity of the Consubsiamiaiity. I.).. Lastly. Greg. n. The De Sp. light . Basil.97. of Naz. 3). The Fathers represent the unity of Essence as admitting of no other distinction than that based upon the divers relations of origin . independently of Mind of the their origin (St. S. but also one The v7roCTTa<ne. Greg. /. which exists between human persons a specific or mental unity (see St. yet without denying the with the latter it admits the disdistinction of Persons . tinction of Persons. But... 1-11 specific unity (St. disp." Latin doctors. who translated " viroaraaiq it (and some Greeks who understood in the by substantia same sense) three hypostases. ArianConc> the controversy with the Semi-Arians.. of Nyssa. n. 4.e. [BOOK II. They the question "whether not only one ovaia. exists in suc-L. Or. . mean between the errors of the Jews and the Sabellians on the one hand. ought to be affirmed of the Trinity. the two great controversies in connection iiiMtrated ly the Semi- with the present Council .. of . 18 St. and those of the Arians and pagans on For with the former it denies the multiplicathe other. Consequences dec'. on the . 3). Greg. n. and consequently . Nicaea are throw much . tion of the Divine Nature.. it would not be a mystery at all if the unity of the Persons were not more than a . in. 31 (al." because it objected to the expression seemed to imply a trinity of Substances. except for this relation of origin and the consequent manner of possessing the Divine Essence. De Deo. of Nyssa.

notably Sophronius. 432. compenetration or inexistence : there unity of substance. therefore. is according to the teaching of the Fathers themselves. III. th. The Greeks. ix. Newman. of compenetration.] The Trinity in Tradition. Kuhn. added to such merely specific unity. as a reason why the Three Persons do not intend to give the adequate and formal reason.) This question was thoroughly debated in the seventh century. Three Per three or Substance. among could any other form of unity... If. of love. prevent the of origin. 293 a triplication of the Essence. ex. and when the discussions on the two natures of Christ and His twofold operation made a thorough investigation of the unity of the Divine Essence necessary. however. in E fl_97plained that such was not the meaning they wished to with convey by the expression used. Besides. The absolute numerical and substantial unity of the unity of Divine Essence is essentially connected with the received theVe^n of expression that the Three Persons are one God and not ofGocL*** three gods. Arians. God* We . n. and the Councils held against them. expressed in the 6/iooucnoeIV. but that they agreed their Latin opponents on the point of doctrine. They had used the words. are one God. of love. any more than perfect hence. If the Essence was divided or distributed Nor three persons. 365. leave no doubt as to what was the doctrine of the Church. the Fathers sometimes give the community of origin. (See Card. No community of operation. In consequence of the absolute identity of Essence which is.PART II. . although each of Them is " are forbidden God. and operation. where these are. 29 Franzelin. are not three Gods. will substances from being separate subprevent separate stances.CHAP. when the doctrine of Tritheism was formally brought to the fore. the absolute unity and identity of the Divine Essence. The opponents of the Monothelites. a perfect unity of operation cannot be conceived in separate substances." only because the Greek rpta irpoautra (which corresponds with the Latin tres persona) had been misused by the Sabellians to confuse the real distinction of the Divine Persons. they etc. ii. there would be three gods. but one God. the Three Persons. . "three hypostases. division of essence.

This will afford us a twofold advantage. to verbal nouns like Creator. (See therefore the Card. Thomas. however.294 CHAP. in each of the many subjects.ii.. /. so did the Greek schismatics misuse the words Who proceedeth from the Father. St. ~ ' or by the Catholic Religion to say that there are three Gods " three Lords (Athanasian Creed)." used by the Council of Constantinople to define the consubstantiality of the Holy Ghost with the other two Persons. founded all their argument in favour of the origin of the Holy Ghost from the Father and His consubstantiality with the Father. Holy Greek Ghost. II. I. Arians. net three Gods. 185 .. Just as the Arians misused the Homoousios of Nicsea against the consubstantiality of the Son with the Father. who reproach the Latin Church with making a change in the OurMethod.) SECT. 98. and of embracing the cause of the Macedonians. saving. H-i^vof the ( ireelc schismatics. symbol. of forsaking the guidance of their orthodox Fathers. 39.) The same law of language (Cf. the plural of substantive signifies not only a plurality of subjects designated by the nouns. are themselves guilty of distorting the true sense of the symbol. But in God. Judge. We shall here reproduce the doctrine of the Greek Fathers of the fourth century on the procession of the Holy Ghost. According to a rule common nouns and predicates to all languages. to whom the schismatics especially appeal. Newman. -d Manual of Catholic Theology. q. in. p. on the assumption that the Third Person proceeds from the Son. but not to applies adjective and verbal predicates like living. St. tlie The Tradition of East and West on the Consubstantiality of the Holy Ghost with the Father and Son. easy to show that the Fathers of the fourth century. This is because in all languages substantive nouns designate the substance and the subject in which it is. but also a multiplication of the substance named. Three Persons are one God. [BOOK II. 438. Thus the schismatics. They read the definition as if it excluded the Son from all participation in " the communication of the Divine Essence to the It is. At/an. . the Substance expressed by the noun God is not multiplied or distributed among the subjects who hold it .

. which would cause the Holy Ghost to be either the son of the Father and the brother of the Son. Heresy of matomacnl" 1 In order to get at a right understanding of this doctrine. by reason of His origin. iii. Franzelin. both suppositions are absurd. Serap. conceded matomachi.). SE *' between the Latin and Greek Fathers on this subject flL9 will be made clear.PART II] (i) The Trinity in Tradition. difference of conception and expression which CHAP. it follows that the Holy Ghost must have an origin similar to that of the other made through (m) the Son and therefore no consubstantiality with the Father. ought to be generated by Them. compared with the Latin conception (C) The origin and tendency of the of the procession of the Holy Ghost from the negation Father and the Son. The Pneunot a new essence. 15 sqq.. and expression. Ad. in order to be consubstantial argued either of with the Father and the Son. no Divine Nature can be claimed for the Holy Ghost (cf. consequent upon genera- but they thought that tion (at least the Homoiousios) in God. The shall divide this section into three parts (A) The doctrine of the Greek Church on the Divinity of the Holy Ghost (B) The Greek manner of conceiving and express: We Division. i. the schism. no other consubstantiality was Hence they possible but that founded upon generation.. that the Holy Ghost. howAthan. n. whether the Holy Ghost had such an origin from God that. things which are . viz. n. it is necessary to bear in mind the question at " Pneumatomachi " (or issue between the Church and the Macedonians). The Doctrine of the Eastern Church of the Fourth Century on the Origin of the Holy Ghost as the Foundation of His Consubstantiality with the Father and the Son. which is properly the "heresy of ing the procession. . I sqq. . ever. as also in man. more or less the consubstantiality . III. exists . th. and possible misunderstandings will be obviated (2) the proper value of the Greek mode of conceiving and expressing the procession of the Holy Ghost will be rightly understood. in. most of whom were Semi-Arians. xxxviii. but the Essence of God. or the son of the Son and grandson of the Father (St As.).. He received." A.

first Definition of of'consun'tinope. way. Against this heretical opinion the Divinity of the Holy Ghost could be defended in two ways. but the texts which The Symbol pl phfnius. and because the assertion of the origin of the Holy Ghost from the Father determined at once the relation of principle which the Son bears to the Holy Ghost. that. but. It was not necessary to assert here the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son. after the . The Ancoratus was written A. that is. the Father do not explicit (n. maintained it. formally teach the procession from mention the procession from the Son. proceeded! from the Father. and perhaps adopted by the Council as the basis of its definition. because the adversaries did not deny it. If it had wished to mention the Son. Moreover. though not generated. effected through It was not that Person Who proceeds from Him as Son. ii. more suited to a dogmatic definition. what the opponents denied. This way was chosen by the Council IV. according to the Pneumatomachi. and (i Cor. 12) "the Spirit Who is of God. Who even fitting or advisable for the Council to mention the The object of the Council was to put the origin of the Holy Ghost on a footing with the origin of the Son with respect to consubstantiality procession from the Son. " of Constantinople. the Council wished to found . [BOOK II. in which the Holy Ghost is said to receive This is really done in the more (take) from the Son. with the Father the opponents were imbued with Arian hence they could ideas. on the contrary. a symbol much used in the East. . as a matter of course. Besides. in. the procession of another Person from the Father was. ^e origin of the Holy Ghost from the Substance of the Father. symbol given by St. which 26)." irapa rou irarpoQ. the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father as really as the Son proceeds from Him. and then to show that. 374.D. the Council ought to have appealed to other texts. seven years before the Council. however.g. A. e. . 9 ' A The Manual of Catholic Theology. namely.296 CHAP. and denied the Divinity of the Son not be refuted by affirming the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son. It is not impossible. was to affirm directly Procession So why '' combining the texts (John xv. its definition upon Holy Scripture. Epiphanius in the Ancoratus 121)." IK row Qiov defined that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father.

fiavn/j. . Who speaketh in the Apostles and dwelleth in the Saints. viz. 297 CHAP." and to show how this origin from the Son is such that it implies This consubstantiality with the Son and with the Father. but only from the Father. KOl Iii TOV VIOV \OfJLJ3av6fJLeVOV KCU TTtOTEUO/iEVOv). and whenever the Eastern doctors were asked for fuller explanations. where the position taken up by the Pneumatomachi was not so well understood or borne in mind as in the East. the Spirit of God. V. Van der Moeren. believe in the Holy Ghost. 1 l 1 method was adopted by most of the Fathers. m. is grandson to the Father viz. Who proceedeth from the Father and receiveth [or taketh. they would have had an easy answer to the objection that the third Person. spake in the Law and preached in the Prophets and descended on the Jordan. " that the Holy or the Ghost has His origin from and through the Son. If they had denied or had not acknowledged the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son. by stating that the Holy Ghost in no wise proceeds from the Son. they accept the procession from the Son as a matter of course. \a/j. (2) in its apologetic or defensive aspect . Epiphanius made some additions to the Symbol The text is. "And we in harmony with the definition. the Paraclete. Council. the definition of the Council of 381 was soon found fault with . they could have reproved the Macedonians for admitting it. Epiphanius. 175 and 178). The line of defence taken by the Fathers is invari- ably to correctly determine the nature of the origin of the shall consider it (i) in its Holy Ghost from the Son. the perfect Spirit. owing His origin to the Son. and make a true conception of this procession from the Son the central point of the whole controversy with the Pneumato. machi.PART II] The Trinity in Tradition. Several Eastern Churches have adopted the same symbol in their Liturgy (cf. and is believed to be from the (C Son (ro SK row Trarpog tKno- pVO/UtVOV." the West. Who And this is how we believe in Him : He is the Holy Spirit.tvov (middle voice) ] from the Son. We positive aspect . But the Fathers do neither on the contrary. The second way to oppose the Pneumatomachi was ComroverSlal "^'h"* c n~ TT to argue from their own affirmation. pp. At any rate. uncreated. they gave it in the terms of the Symbol of St.

._-.. But this would be if the Substance and power of the Son were not impossible communicated to the Holy Ghost that is. ii/E/jyaa). . Ep. the Fathers illustrate their signification by comparing the Son to a flower. They further convey the notions of consubstantiality by comparing the relations of the two Persons to honey and its sweetness. the power and activity (virtus et operatic. the St. as principle of creation. an arm. Basil. opposition to the external works.). A The Manual of Catholic Theology. . The Holy to the Ghost stands Son stands to the the from the substance of the Son must be put on the same level as the origin of the Son from the Father.. and that the precedence of the Son as principle of the Holy Ghost does not destroy the equality and real unity between these two Persons any more than the precedence of the Father as principle of the Son causes any real . Petav. etc. Hence it is in and through the Holy Ghost that the Son creates. thesis of the Fathers. declare positively that the origin of .J) HoiVchost From'the Fathers first show negatively that the origin of the Holy Ghost through the Son is not like the origin of creatures through the Son. to water and its steam. The Fathers call the Holy Ghost. of which the Holy Ghost is the perfume. ECT. to fire and its heat vii. 43). [BOOK n. if the Holy Ghost were not of and in the Substance of the Son (cf. a branch. Holy Ghost (. c. to a spring and its waters. St... sanctification of creatures. 4. (cf... or as the production of a hypostasis of the same kind as its principle. 5 and 7). proceeding from the Substance of the Son. They state that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son as the Son proceeds from the Father. I. 1. the finger. 1. but should be conceived as an origin front the Son. the flower.. and sometimes These expressions are used of the Son in relation to the Father but when applied to the Holy Ghost in relation to the Son. or to a mouth. of which the Holy Ghost is the breath. 38 in (al. to a ray of light and its radiance.) The Fathers . and elevates creatures to conformity and union with Himself. i. viz.298 CHAP. in. n. also the quality (TrofoVrje) of the Son. Athan. sanctifies.. Ad Serap. and especially as principle of the supernatural ^^ The and of the conformation with Son and the union with the Father implied in the process of sanctification. . and therefore inseparably united with Him.

c. juopfr'j) of the Son all of which expressions convey the idea of consubstantiality between the Holy Ghost and the Son.. ray. as much as when they are . The Son is the Truth and Wisdom of the Father the Holy Ghost is the Spirit of Wisdom and of Truth. Procession Father* the So^ " chapter of St. the Son and the Holy Ghost are to the Father as His mouth and the breath proceeding from it. and the Cf. 299 - stress inequality between Father and Son. Etin. xxxvii. not Xoyoc). The defence is of the Fathers against the Pneumato- objection. Holy (See St.. C. so the Holy Ghost stands to the Son. urged principally by Eunomius. v.. the Countenance. and odour. . They lay so much CHAP. etc. and the Form (^apaKT^p. Basil." 2.] T/ie Trinity in Tradition. as the Son stands to the Father. In countless places they call the Holy C. the Image (EIKWV). in SE 9S ^Ii_ on this parallel that they apply to the procession of all the expressions used to the Holy Ghost from the Son describe the generation of the " " Son from the Father (except begotten and " Son "). Ad.. 19-21 and that.} founded upon the above principles. n.) .) it 1. 1.) In the third place the Fathers (*:. Basil. He none the less receives through the Son. although they are aware that this makes more difficult to answer the question why the Ghost is not the son of the Son. or as His arm and finger. Eujiom. the three Persons standing in the relation of root. the Figure. Athan. and vice versd. Ghost the Word (yerbum /oij/ua. Franzelin. though not generated like the Son. th. the Effulgence. vii.. St. inscribed. is illustrated by the comparisons given above (a).. and radiance. as really as the Son The substantial Himself. 7 show that.PART IT. the Substance of the Father. light. v. 1. in Difference fnTOi've" the Trinity involved a order in the excellence and nature of the Three descending Persons.. and an essential difference between the substances. = used of the Son in relation to the Father. The first objection. . . (See Pctav. connection of the Holy Ghost with the Father through the Son. machi (a. That. i. To this the Fathers had but one answer: that the Holy was that the order of origin no eiceifence. .. He must also proceed from the Father through the Son. the Seal. Serap. flower. since the Holy Ghost stands to the Son as the Son to the Father.

. through the Son. an indefinite e.") They only point out that human relations cannot be unreservedly applied to God that the expression Son of the Son leads to absurd consequences. generation is not kind of origin." not mean quite the same as when applied to human i. 3Ecr_9 Ghost was no more inferior to the Son for proceeding from jjrj m t j lan t j le g on wag m fer j or to t he Father for being and that the difference of origin generated by Him implied no other difference whatsoever. (&) objection was that.. " : called the Son of the Son ? Why is the Holy Ghost not Not because He is not of God . [BOOK 11. 1. He Eunom. to series of generations is possible that each Person in the Trinity must be as unique and individual in His personality . th. the Holy Ghost ought to be the son of the Son. "through the 16. Basil treats this point expressly in the beginning of his third book against Eunomius.. whereas the Son of God can only in unity with His Father. C. Athan. The Holy fheg'randlon t-ather. (<.) when applied to the origin of the Holy Ghost. . and not by any relaon the contrary. as . the supposition that in God.. The second possesses the same Substance. (St. See Franzelin. in. wherefore also Holy Scripture the only compares the origin of the Holy Ghost to the origin The essential differof the breath from the mouth. He ought to be the son of the Father and the brother To this the Fathers answered that the Holv of the Son. they expressly affirm that the Holy Ghost is really from the Father through the Son. " " as the Divine Substance that. as in man. relations.g.) The . lastly. : that of man generates as an isolated substance independent his own progenitor. ence between Divine and human generation lies in this . and so communicate the Divine Substance common to Father and Son. and the grandson of the Father. Basil. The Holy the brother Sod third objection ran thus: If the Holy Ghost from the Father as really and truly as from the proceeds Son. v. Hence the expression. ence of origin itself. St. Serap. except the differ. The Fathers do not evade this difficulty by stating that the Holy Ghost is only related to the Son inasmuch tion of origin (St. does Son. work Ad. A ^ Manual of Catholic Theology. xxxv.300 CHAP. if the Holy Ghost stood to the Son as the Son to the Father.

(Cf. xxxvi. but through the Son from the Father and from the Father through the Son which formula is. especially St." " " Nay. as who had most proved by the fact that Greek Fathers. "from the Father through the Son " the latter. the standing and self-evident commentary on the words of the Symbolum. 301 >8- Ghost does not proceed from the Father in the same way as CHAP. would have no relation to the Holy Ghost. IK rou irarpbg Sm TOU ut'ou. the older Greeks. From Summary." the formula proceedeth from the Father" would be deprived of its natural sense as it presented itself to the mind of the Fathers. (Franzelin. "from the Father and the Son. E fU the Son does and that He does not proceed from the Father alone and in every respect directly. " from the Father alone? is a falsification as bad as and akin to the Protestant interpretation of the words. use the Latin formula times out of number.) B. The interpretation. .PABT II.) who is the line of argument followed by the Fathers Second Council (A. Epiphanius and St. " Man is justified by faith without the works of the law. underlies these different expressions. St. but through the Son the Holy Ghost being not only the Spirit of the . however. but also the Spirit of the Son. The former commonly the formula. . 381). with . from the Father." are not intended to mean from the Father alone. Ep- 38. Cyril of Alexandria. " Who proceedeth lived at the time of the VI. in that case. Father. " Charity which worketh through faith. and the Holy Ghost ought either to be a son of the Father. For. It is well known from the Western cession that the Eastern Fathers differ The two formulas. it evident that the words of the Symbol. by suppressing through the Son. in. ex Patre Filioque.D. th. occasion to express the dogma in short formulas.] The Trinity in Tradition. the Father." leaving unheeded the other words. in their way of expressing the Pro- of the Holy Ghost." No real difference of use meaning. as Father. Basil. The Eastern manner of conceiving and expressing the Procession of the Holy Ghost compared with the Western. and is sufficiently . or the Father ought to have another personal character besides that of Fathership. II.

" and which has to be expounded by the addition of " tanquam ab uno principio. Greek con- IX. whenever it mentions the Divine operations. be described as organic. the Greek formula has a sound sense and a natural origin. . but as two principles operating one in the other. or as one and that it sets forth the particular position of the Father and the Son as principles of the Holy Ghost.302 A Manual of Catholic Theology. The special stress which the Greek Fathers laid on the formula &' vlov has a deeper reason in their manner a conception of conceiving the dogma of the Trinity. to the fact that Holy Scripture. ov) all things are made." Its sole disadvantage is principaliter that it does not point out as clearly as the Latin formula the parity of the participation of Father and Son in the Spiration of the Holy Ghost. but attributed a correct sense to it. not as two principles acting separately. mind of the VIII. Latin doctors." and "licet pariter ab utroque. and the Son as the principle through or by means of which {per quod. represents the Father as the principle out of which (ex quo. frequently use the Greek expression. like Tertullian and St. Generation and Spiration. Besides. e ou) all things come. origin and meaning of the Greek formula. It clearly unfolds tive advantage of the Greek formula. the meaning which lies hidden in the "ex Patre et Filio. The sound meaning of the formula is that it represents the Father and the Son. As a matter of fact. a Patre " or "originaliter. or as the way by which all Moreover. that the Son produces the Holy Ghost only as prin" from a principle (principitim de principle). the course which the controversy with the Pneumatomachi t' took. although it might lead Latin scholars to a misunderstanding far from the Greeks. whereas ciple " " :he Father is principle without a principle {principium sine principle!) and "principle of a principle" {principium principle . and has even a certain It owes its origin advantage over the Latin formula. things come from and return to the Father. To the Greek Fathers which might the two productions in God. Hilary. From this appears the relaprincipii) of the Holy Ghost. " viz. rendered the frequent use of this exposition natural. the Western Church never objected to the formula used in the East. [BOOK n.

the production of the distinguished from the generation. The deeper reason for this conception is. and the production of the Holy Ghost as a manifestation of the sanctity of God which is founded upon His wisdom. and Son. they chose their illustrafrom analogies in organic nature. In other words they considered the Holy : Ghost (according to John xv. 303 ' appear as a motion proceeding tion originating in the Generation. Son as the Son stands to Father. Spirit of Truth Who Holy was attributed to the Father. root. and being intimately "f^l98 and essentially connected with not only does it. tends towards it. conjointly with the expression used the expression tic (from the Son). but the Generation virtually contains the Spiration. stem.g. For &a (through).) as the proceedeth from the Father. through the tions of the this view. Ghost. and so passes. All the terms used exclusively to characterize either the generation of the Son or the spiration of the are explained and accounted for by the above Holy Ghost. the Spira. remarks on the organic conception of the productions in It was the more necessary for the Greek Fathers to hold fast to a terminology based upon their " " conception. because any deviation from it organic " with their formula that the Holy Ghost stands (coupled the Trinity. this might have conveyed the meaning that the Holy Ghost is of the Son to the .CHAP.PART II. however. in as far as it From this point of view. so that the Spiration essentially presuppose the Generation.] The Trinity in Tradition. in a straight line." viz. that the Greek Fathers considered the production of the Son as a manifestation of the wisdom of the Father. in mystery which one production leads to another. but Hence it was termed. and would have made the Holy Ghost the grandson of the Father. as it weie. Trpo/BoA?? or eWe/ui^e (a sending forth). as Word and Image) would easily have led to a misconception of the organic coherence of both productions. by which the Divinity passes first from the Father to the Son and then to the Holy Ghost. and has in its complement in it. to be found in this. e. HI. appeared as carried on by means of the generation of the Son. In harmony with flower. they had if. as going beyond this generation. They consider the productions the Trinity as a motion of the Divinity.

pure and simple. whereas the Father was designated as the only principle pure and simple. of the Holy Ghost. by reason of His unity and equality with His principle. communicate what is Here the Holy to Them to the Holy Ghost. through which the Holy Ghost received His personality. or between the original model and its From this point of view. in virtue of His Sonship. in the production of the Holy Ghost. brings into play His personal union with His principle: common both. to see the Greeks put the Holy Ghost " in immediate relation with the Son alone as image of the Son " . is and remains anc j i in say. however. as a human son does. as developed after St. meant only that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son inasmuch as the Son Himself. ^. Jerome. from which the Holy Ghost proceeded as well as the Son. It does not. Ambrose and St. It would seem equally strange copy. Therefore the Son was usually represented as only an intermediate principle. in. exactly as the Son is of the Father. viz. by generation. like the Greek. CHAP. but as an act in which the Person produced by generation. nothing was more natural than to say that the Holy Ghost proceeds from Father and Son. For the same reason it was deemed incorrect to call the Son the principle (air/a). may be termed the "personal" conception of the productions in the Trinity. Ghost is the bond and the pledge of mutual love between Father and Son. to separate the Son from the Father in the production of the Holy Ghost. at t'ronof the Father. but only indiThe " from " seemed rectly. but . and was looked upon as inconvenient because it does not represent the Holy Ghost as the Spirit which is equally the Spirit of the Father and the Son.304 Ecr^ 9 8. which the Latin Fathers express when they " Son and Father are but one principle of the Holy Ghost" K the Trinity. acting side by side as equals. because this seemed to imply that the Son.The Latin conception. consider the production of the Holy Ghost as a continuation of the production of the Son. [BOOK n. acted as a principle separate from the Father. and to find fault with a formula which made no mention of the Son. conse q uent v tnat fj e s not directly. This mode of expression. A Manual of i Catholic Theology. produced by the Father.

XII. thought the grandson of the Father. and even Theodoret)." lest He should be it Holy Ghost . the Son.Latins." a separation of the Two Persons in the act of producing the Third. as the latter." they factory issue.PART II. in. If Photius had any forerunners. 692 sqq. The only objection of the Latin Church to the formula. into the For the history of the introduction of the word Filioque Symbol. p.] The Trinity in Tradition." lest the Holy Ghost should appear to be the Son of the Father and of the Son whereas the Greeks avoided the formula. XL From what has been said. indeed. xli. 99). The former taught the Catholic doctrine as decidedly The difference of expression was. like the former " " and misunderstandings concerning the terms hypostasis " could easily have been brought to a satispersona. St. they certainly were Greek heretics.. misunderstandings but. viz. created or generated through In fact. see Hergenrother. Cyril of holdthe views of the Macedonians. Photius. tweenGreefcs ana . The Heresy of the Schism. A formal their opponents. it is evident that there was no contradiction between the older Eastern and the Western Church as regards the Procession of the Holy Ghost. therefore. In Joan. 305 " ' ex CHAP. i. of finding in the expression." was that nobody would think might lead to the notion of the Son as the mother of the The (cf. had it not been for the schismatic jealousy of the Greeks. " from the Son.? f the ochistA. The Monothelites. the Nestorians accused St. Franzelin. x . on ing Theodore of Mopsuestia. who by degrees advanced from a mutilation of the Latin formula to the negation of the Eastern likely to lead to doctrine. who dragged this point into the controversy in order to cast suspicion on C.. E 9 Patre et Filio. . " through the Son. and absolute denial of the Procession of r te!n. " Latin Fathers. ^f^. avoided the formula through the Son. Nestorians and Monothelites. is most probable that they rejected the " through the Son " in the same sense as the Fathers had rejected it in the Macedonian controversy. Augustine. thes. the Holy Ghost from God the Son is to be found nowhere among the older orthodox Fathers of the Greek Church. tract. . As to the Nestorians (especially Nestorius it himself.

vol.D. ii. xxxviii.. in the pretended interest of the Himself. were the first to openly Photius. of his schism. in98 ' fl_ the contrary. K A Manual of Catholic Theology." () It destroys the perfect unity of Father and Son. . Photius. On the Nestorians and Theodoret. exists in the Trinity. As the e the pho tian the and most enduring of Photian schism has been the greatest all the schisms that have rent the Sin God> Church. [BOOK II. we are not surprised to find that the heresy which it invented should carry schism and division even into God All schisms. 808). according to the Greek and Latin Fathers. Historical Sketches. (c) It tears asunder the indi: . interest of the character of the rends. by the deny the ancient doctrine (A. by dividing the character of Paternity from the character of Spirator. in the pretended of the Church. and so giving Him a double Personality. disregarding the tradition of proclamation the Greek not less than of the Latin Church. . p. On the audacious 32 and Franzelin. see Hergenrother. visible unity of the Father. 400 sqq. Maximus refuted them. Theological r XIII. (d] It annihilates the fixed order and succession. Newman. The divisions and rents which the heresy of the schism introduces into the Trinity are the following (a) It destroys the immediate and direct union of the Holy Ghost with the Son. and destroys the living unity (economy) which. or TrpojSoAiue. and The Photian heresy. monarchy of Christ. sophisms of Photius. made the negation of the Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son his fundamental dogma. except Paternity. iii. in virtue of which the Three . have rejected His visible representative have thus destroyed the economy (oiKovo/um) on earth. rejects the Son as principle but in so doing it tears.306 CHAP. in virtue ot which the Son possesses everything in common with the Father. jealous of the Franks. monarchy of God the Father. to show that the Western Church favoured Macedonianism perhaps they also misinterpreted the Greek formula but St. . Certain monks of Jerusalem. th. see Card. for this union can only consist in the at the same time it deprives the Holy relation of origin Ghost of His attribute of "own Spirit of the Son. attempted by their criticisms of the Latin formula. Kuhn.

the heresy of the schism curtails For the and mutilates the Trinity in its very Essence. 9 ^I_ the organic coherence of the two productions in the Trinity so much insisted upon by the Greek Fathers themselves. on the other hand. Ep. so that. in. is only conceivable as perfect Spirit and as a distinct Person if the Son is His principle. Father is Father only inasmuch as He gives the Son what- Himself possesses and can give by generation.PABT II. the Greek Fathers point out the intermediate position ol the Son between the Father and the Holy Ghost the Son : goes forth from the Father. St.. For it is an axiom ever He accepted by the Fathers. it destroys the perfect concatenation of the Divine Persons. the Spirit of the Father is communicated to Him by the very act of generaThe Holy Ghost.] The Trinity in Tradition. describe the Holy Ghost as the exhalation of the mutual love of Father and Son. and if. exist only between the principle and its product. tion and not by a new act of the Father. Fathers. Basil." (g) Lastly. if He is equal and like to the Father in the Spiration only of the Holy Ghost. including His entire fecundity. 38. . the Holy Ghost would remain in the Son and be identical with Him if He did not proceed from the Son. the Father is in The Latin relation with the Holy Ghost and vice versd. being founded upon the relations of origin. with the exception of the The Son is perfect Son special character of Paternity. " vinculum. n. And as. (e) It destroys CHAP. 4). too. which binds Them together like a band. (/) Above all. according to the Greek Fathers. in particular. through the Son. the Father produces the Holy Ghost only through the Son and not side by side with the Son. in virtue of which each of Them stands in the closest relation to the other two and forms a connect- Thus ing link between them (cf. and sends forth from Himself the Holy Ghost. 307 fc ' Persons form one continuous golden chain." " osculum amplexus. No distinction is conceivable in God which does not include the most intimate union of those that are distinct. that all personal differences in God.

like Holy Scripture itself. it also became necessary to determine for the three Subjects (Whose unity of essence was asserted) a name which should express in a convenient manner Their relation to the Substance. became general only with the Fathers of the in St. Hence. when used concretely.308 CHAP. p. anzum often uses circumlocutions. and Holy Ghost and when the collective noun r/otac (the Three) is used. " They in whom is the divinity. when heresy had made it . and fourth centuries repeat the names of Father. etc. in a word. however. Both forms are found in St. On the controversy concerning the terms Hypostasis and Substantia. P tasis general something existing in designates in and for itself. 432. Newman. Tradition. as a unity of substance.JJ9. [BOOK n.. necessary to assert the unity of God as a unity of essence (oiKr/a. Hypostases and Persons Definition of Hypostasis and Person as applied to God. Persona. no name is added to designate the Three generally. Gregory of Nazifourth century.g. SECT. the favourite term of Latin writers). Card. however. used almost exclusively by the Greek Fathers) and of nature (nattira. iv. by the Schoolmen in the abstract sense of subsistence) and by suppositum. an . This usage. I. viz. and conse- "Sup- " per'soA. 1. SECT. A Manual of Catholic Theology. and by slow degrees. Ambrose but the second only became general in the schools of the Middle Ages. the terms. Origen used for this purpose the term vTroorao-te. the third century. Divine 99. Harmony of expression and thought was obtained by translating the Greek vircxrratng by subsistentia (used by the Fathers in the concrete sense of subsistent. III. Son. see Petav. and Holy Ghost. Kuhn. . and Tertullian. In the course of time." Many controversies preceded the universal Even acceptance of the two terms their full etymological sense and the relation they bear to each other were only fully understood after they had come into general use. General sig- II. e. Son. ." quently having and supporting in itself other things. that They are distinct bearers and holders of one Essence and Nature. or. 29 . of which it is the substratum or suppositum. 4 . c. Arians. History of Hyposusis. had at first no common name for the three Subjects which are distinguished Even the dogmatic definitions of the third in the Deity. The Father. 'Y7roaTucnc.

PART II. SECT. 01 i_ i_ not every substance is an hypostasis." Persons. the hypostasis has the nature. 99. the most perfect of all. no free use of them. for the substantial essence does not exist in itself. IIL hypostasis is a substance and not a mere accident. for instance. Nor is the hypostasis the substantial essence in as far as this is common to the species (substantia secundd). attributes. an individual rational substance. that of substances wholly or The perfection which distinguishes a partially spiritual. If we consider a substance formally as . personal hypostasis from a material one consists not only in the perfection of the substance itself but also in the manner of possessing it a person is more than the bearer. the concept of hypostasis implies an individual substance several individuals of the same kind or separate and distinct from kind. viz. : " he is. is the holder of his substance and is " sui juris " that right and power. it is. on the contrary. is. if we consider it as possessed. the arm of the body. are individualized and incommunicable the hypostasis is always the bearer (subject relations . it is identical with the hypostasis . own . Impersonal hypostases have no proper right over their " " parts. The or suppositum) of the nature in other words. and (substantia prima Integra in se totd}. between an hypostasis and its essence and nature are that the essence and nature. Person that essence. in the hypostasis. They are but things without a "self. when and because possessed by the hypostasis. have." the hypostasis of an intellectual nature and is defined " Pers <> The note " intellectual or " rational. a higher dignity which commands respect. as. possessing energies which are in itself it all other substances of the same and all the parts. possessing itself. and thus gives them a right over what they possess they are conscious beings and are thus able to enjoy their various properties and to dispose of them for their own in his . in virtue of their spiritual nature." restricts the concept of hypostasis to one kind of hypostasis. Hence but in the individuals of which it is predicated. but only substances which constitute a total or a whole in themselves. are not so designated. Substances which are parts of a whole. like essence and nature. 309 But CHAP.] The Trinity in Tradition.

and making it the end and object of his actions equal to and not absorbable by the other holders of the same nature. their principle and they last end being outside of and above them . the Trinity is perfectly undivided. substance imperishable and cannot . '- A is Mamtal of Catholic Theology. excluding the possibility of multiplication. substances sons is hence the distinction between created per(c~) independent of their origin one from the other. do not possess numerically one nature.310 CHAP. and are not liable to be absorbed by others. i. possessing his property immutably. must be excluded from Him. purposes. but rather the bearer and holder of a complete substance. . but only similar natures so that the distinction of created persons implies a distinction and separation of their . it is clear that they can only be applied analogically whatever perfection they express is whatever imperfection they eminently present in God imply. The imperfections of created hypostases are (a) that are not absolutely independent. : . The Holy Ghost. All this is eminently applicable to the Father. . things and means although they can be made subordinate they never can be treated as mere lastly. Besides. in. and does not of necessity imply a connection based upon mutual esteem and love. [BOOK II. perfection of a hypostasis consists in its not forming part of a whole or being an attribute of a substance. the Divine Persons are (a) absolutely independent. As to the applicability of the terms Hypostasis " " and Person to God. Their perfection and dignity being absolutely the highest (b} the unity of substance in . so that the difference of Persons is merely a distinction of the Persons themselves and not of Their . and the essence. A person is an hypostasis endowed with dignity and conscious power. the Son. possess the same nature. and entitled to be respected by them in the same measure as he is bound to respect himself. persons have a greater independence or self-sufficiency than impersonal hypostases. Their per- mustbe to'Siml and nature. " " III. Their spiritual be absorbed by another hypostasis to other persons. on account of the respect which These terms amorously one person owes to another. In opposition to this. they are kept more apart than other hypostases of the same kind. still . () persons who 2. their imper- excluded.

: communicability of a single indivisible object to distinct In other words the notions of subsistence and individuality must be so modified as to agree with the form or manner in which the one Divine Substance is possessed by the three Divine Persons. V.PART II. IV. HI. and causes Them to be essentially bound together. they are essentially related to each other that is. eminently individual. Hence. by reason of its unicity. but in opposition to the . the subsistence (that is. 311 ' the distinction between the Divine Persons CHAP. the Divine Substance exist essentially. we cannot understand the subsistence and indiNot only does viduality of the several Divine Hypostases. but not so the definition of a hypostasis as a subsisting and individual substance. Although the Divine Persons are Persons in the holders. The notion that a person is the bearer and to the Deity. Divine Nature only inasmuch as He stands to another in . the independence and self-possession) must be conceived. Further. each of them separately possesses the . but only be possessed by itself.] The Trinity . not in opposition to the dependence of partial substances. In consequence of these differences. so that it can be in no manner part of another substance. is applicable to the uncreated as well as to the created person . the concepts The modi- of Hypostasis and Person must be modified when applied nece'^y. distinct from other bearers and holders. but it also essentially exists in itself and for itself. holder. as in creatures. only in opposition to the notion of a common genus. in Tradition. but in that peculiar form in which it exists in the individual holders of the Divine Substance and the individuality must not be conceived. In a certain sense. even apart from the distinctions between the Three Persons. if the notion of "sub" be used to characterize sistent and individual substance the Divine Hypostases. of a rational nature. The Divine "l"bst?ng re highest sense of the term. being unique in its kind and excluding multiplication. it also is. SE 99 and exclusively founded upon Their relations fIi_ essentially of origin. Without supposing this. and necessitates the most intimate mutual esteem and substance is (V) love. it must be said of God that His Substance subsists and is individual.

and Holy Ghost (i. Otherwise there would be no distinction of the Persons. that is the unity and unicity of the Divine Essence and particularly the unity and unicity of one Person. 3. in.. a. but the thing signified by the term is determined relation a subsisting relation or the substance under a the proper names of the Persons Father.) SECT." that is. Son. and conse- quently each single Person possesses the Divine Nature for Himself only in as far as He possesses it at the same time for and from the other two Persons. distinct manner. Thomas. it may be said that the Persons are the one Divine Substance under a determined relation that is. 29. because the relations of the Persons to each other are the one thing which determines the difference in the possession of the same Divine Nature.e. q. the differentiation (ceconomid) of the Divine Persons presupposes the Monarchy. these mutual relations in God are not only. as having. From what has been said. I. in whom the Divine Essence is present originally. Moreover. of the Divine Persons is not indeed expressed relativity by the term person. as in created persons. through the relation of origin. in fact . Distinction unity. [BOOK u CHAP. The Divine Persons are more than simply related to each " other They are nothing else but subsisting relations. not as communicated or The differentiation is brought about by the First Person being essentially a producing and communicating received. St. nor would the Persons have that intimate union among Themselves which is required by their absolutely perfect personality. . a distinctive attribute of each Person. and representing it as subsisting or appertaining to itself in a . but they constitute the fundamental character of the personality of each Person. Conversely. (Cf. the specific notion of the Divine Persons may be completely determined as follows. 100. and their Distinctive Divine Persons in Marks. Spirit of the Father and the Son) clearly express their relations. This essential three particular forms of possessing Itself.312 ' A Manual of Catholic Theology. According to Tertullian. The Distinction of the particular. /. relations identical with the Divine Substance. the relation of principle to product or vice versa.

distinguishing personal characters (i<j>tw/uara of the three Persons from vTrooraruca. patemitas). The Father generates the principle of the second. which has . The active production and communication of the TWO ProFirst Person is twofold. and consequently the corresponding .] The Trinity . in Tradition. TT communicating His essence to Ihem. which has its foundation in the First Person c and the procession in a narrower sense (spiratio. existing side by side with Paternity and Filiation. The Active Spiration is not a personal.. Of these latter the one is distinguished from the other inasmuch as it partakes of the communiThese three fundamental forms are the three cating form. as principle of the first production in the Deity. 100. 313 Person. II. foundation in the First and Second Persons. in. and the is Son Son The Father one with the Father in Spiration as in all other things as Father being also Spirator. The Father. as Spirator (Pater general Filium Spiratorem}. . its when expressing the action prowhen considered passively). because it is not a fundamental form of possession. but is only an attribute of these. EKTro'ptucrte. viz. constituent character like Paternity and Filiation. cJiaracteres personates et constituentes}^ which they also take their names the Father from (irarpoT^g. and CHAP. (i)communicating possession. is an attribute in such a manner that contained in the complete concept of Paternity and Filiation. the generation alone . the Son from the and the Holy Ghost from the Spiration (irvfixng. and is a communicating that the Son is principle of only one comprinciple only .PART II. it follows that the Father is principle of all communications. and unfolds the full signification of these two characters. <-!-. producing the other Persons from Himself. the Fathership Sonship (uto'rijc. namely. common III. spiratid]. filiatio}. threefold positive fundamental Hence a form of Three sio form. SECT. or possession for self and from others. is also But Active Spiration is it . is also principle of the second production and the Son. as product of the first production. procession (TT/OOO^OC) is also twofold. (2) two forms of receiving possession. and the Son as Son being likewise Spirator. . or 7r/oo/3oXr) irvtixriQ cessio. or possession for self and for others . possessing the Divine Nature (rjooVot virdp&oq).

314 CHAP.. and of the relation of the Holy . Manual of is . Distinguishing and . the four relations " as positive notions. This also applies to the relation of Father and Son to the Holy Ghost for although They are Father and Son on account of the Spiration. a\t<Kig). and Son Ghost to Father and Son. And of these real relations there are four. still without the Spiration They would not be all that They are . or iSmjree and con" sidered as objects of our knowledge. at Catholic Theology. not merely logical." " " or Innascibility of the Father as a negative notion. IV. viz. iStw^uara. in the twotai or yvwpiG/LiaTa BiaKpiTiKO. because they are founded upon a only real production. As from the twofold production in God results a threefold form of possession. Personal Notions " (notiones distinguentes and personates^ . in. and o-uoraroca) language of the schools they are termed simply notiones divince or notiones. the Persons dis. not by Fiv-8 essence. are called in theology proprietates. and the conor rather. Each production gives rise to two relations. or two mutual relations. and so bind Them together. The relations are real. This last characterizes the peculiar position of the Father more . [BOOK n. A . Whence they have the differentiation of the essentially a twofold function : terminus a quo and the terminus ad quern.. 100. and the same time a receiving and com- mumcating FourReia- principle. to which is added the Ingenerateness. because the spiration proceeds from Father and Son as from one principle. These notions are five in number. SECT. so that Father and Son bear to the Holy Ghost one indivisible relation.so from thesame there result four real relations (relationes. they only distinguish. The special marks or characters which distinguish each of the three Persons from the other two. and are the condition of the real being of the principle and of the product. V. that if one ceased to be. necting of both terms in as far as at the same time they represent. viz. munication. of principle to product and vice versd : generation is the foundation of the relation of Father to Son and of Son to Father spiration is the foundation of the relation of Father to the Holy Ghost. tinguished as appertaining one to another. the corresponding one would likewise cease.

the notion of paternity. ." or as generation in its active or passive sense. because they do not complete the notions of Filiation and Spiration. m. 315 distinctly as First Principle in the Deity. . e. Thus there are in God : Summaiy. and Active Spiration . two to the Son Filiation and Active Spiration . one to the Holy Ghost 1. Productions Three Persons Four Relations . that the Son is not Father. VI.] The Trinity in Tradition. The negative notions that might be predicated of the Son and of the Holy Ghost (viz. The positive notions may be conceived and " expressed in a variety of ways. 3. Three of the five notions appertain to the Father Ingenerateness. the Sonship as being spoken as a Word. Two 4. and the Holy Ghost is not Spirator) are not taken into account. These differences of expression. One Nature . and thus completes CHAP. and Five Notions. Paternity. however. but result at once from these notions. 5. Passive Spiration. 2. do not alter the number of notions. .g.PART II.

II.3i 6 A Manual of Catholic Theology. THE EVOLUTION OF THE TRINITY FROM THE FECUNDITY OF THE DIVINE SECT. of the CHAP. That prinstarting from at least one revealed principle. is certain from Revelation. 101. we must . It is likewise certain from Revelation. Distinction the inner fecundity of the Divine Life. [BOOK II. The Divine 5 manner of possessing the Divine Nature is necessarily founded upon the distinction between giving and receiving. CHAPTER IV. as the Divine Substance cannot be multiplied. . acts of HI. The Divine Nature the prtncipivm QUO. and life can only be communicated by a are li^g" of living principle. For the products are living Persons. generated and spirated. that the Divine productions are essentially acts life. Since the nature of a being is the principle of the its life and of the communication of life. ' The Origins in God resultingfrom the Fecundity Divine Life as Absolute Wisdom. LIFE. the distinction of the Divine Persons necessarily rests upon the distinct possession of the same Substance and a difference in the . and evident to reason. and (given the real distinction of the Persons) is also evident to reason. iv. That the plurality of Persons is brought about and can be brought about only by the production of two of Them from the First Person. sible scientific explanation of the Trinity is imposthe only possible explanation is a theological one. As regards reason we observe that." the deteris the object of the present portion neceSSSy upon origins. I. A PURELY ciple is " mination of which of our treatise. hold that in God the principle (Jtrincipium quo} of the inner . The teaching of Revelation is already known to us.

. iv. and is itself a combination of the Living Truth with the Living Holiness. the foundation of the Divine fecundity or productivity is the superabundant fulness of the Divine Life and. CHAP. by reason of this very manifestation of itself ad intra. and only two. Knowledge and Volition. distinct forms of life-activity. From this also appears Roman doctrinal formula : the deep meaning of the old " The three Persons are one D more concrete determination as 'Tine Lj f lecund of the productivity of the Divine Life. and that the products are but the inner manifestation and it Spirit" (Iv V.PART II. In order to arrive at a the adequate expression or outpouring of the substantial Wisdom of God. and complete the Divine Knowledge and Volition.j : produced. The communication of life being the essential out. Hence . its form is necessarily different from any form of productivity observable among creatures it is neither a reproduction of the Divine Essence in the Persons . Now. communications of life is His Divine Nature EC IOI_H.] The Evolution of the Trinity. Wisdom contains two. nor a production of organs destined to enlarge and develop the sphere of life. communicates itself to the Divine Persons.f e Divi " activity of God. The form of the Divine productivity can only be conceived as an immanent radiation and outpouring of the force and energy of the Divine so that the Life. the perfect Love of the highest Good. we must consider as the absolute and substantial Wisdom that is. the most perfect Knowledge of the highest Truth and the most According to this. communication of life in God must be effected by means of acts of the Divine Intellect and Will in such a manner that the products of the communication manifest. the Divine Nature as formally identical with the acts of knowing and willing. is. IV. that is Life itself. expressing itself in distinct subjects Divine Life.Im >nanent productivity come of the absolutely actual and purely spiritual life. 317 that is. represent. as God His fecundity is the absolute Spirit. infinitely productive. must be distributed between these two forms of life in such a manner that one . . viz. unlike that of any being outside of Him. Hence the two productions which we know by Faith to exist in God.

A Manual of Catholic Theology. They are even more intimately connected in God than knowing and willing in created minds. St. 8 sqq. set forth in Holy The Second Scripture with all possible distinctness. iv. Scripture Thus. The expression of Knowledge is essen- tially the expression of a Knowledge which breathes holy Love and the outpouring of Love is essentially of a Love . xxvi. alone are applied " the " terms "image" radiance. Holy Scripture indicates this clearly enough. Verbum\ " and the name "Wisdom is appropriated to Him to Him . can mirror. the whole of the Divine Wisdom is maniAug. " " the Word Person's proper name is (Aoyoe. " 1. "figure" " splendour (airavof God. of such a degree of certitude that would be temerarious and erroneous. of them must be the expression and completing terminus of the absolutely perfect Knowledge. It it is. different fested. In this manner the first production was conceived and declared even in ante-Nicene writers. are not distributed in such a way as to be independent of one another. xv. but more especially by the Fathers of the fourth century.) VI. and which. taken in conjunction with the names Aoyoc and Wisdom. in both productions." and " imply no other meaning. which would nappen if the one manifested only the Knowledge of truth and the other only Love and Holiness. of life in based upon a twofold manifestation of the Divine A Wisdom. although in a manner. terms which in themselves imply an expression of the Divine Knowledge. th." (aca>v). De ' Trin. [BOOK II. n. pouring and terminus of the absolutely perfect Volition and manifestation of the Holy Love or the absolute Holiness of God. and claims the character of a fixed principle for the declaration and the evolution of the dogma.. character of the first The production is as inner expression of the Divine Knowledge. The communication .318 CHAP. or the manifestation of the Living Truth and that the other must be the out. Franzelin. however. The productions. . full of wisdom. to Thefirst production s through the Intellect. and Iradhion on this point. deny j from the very commencement treated it as therefore.. and Tradition has God such.." The is proposition." is more than a working hypothesis it is the only admissible one.. (Cf.

views is best expressed thus " : The Father loves in the Son. Supreme . by the non-application of therewith names of the intellectual production to the Third Person. IT. the character of the production of the Holy Ghost is only hinted at in the fourth century it received a certain amount of development during the controversies on the Divinity of the Holy Ghost. The Sanctity." . character of the second production as a mani. viz. is be analogous to the the other form of life also.] The Evolution of the Trinity. Son " He is the " Spirit of Mutual Subsisting Union. the Goodness. production negatively and indirectly. positively in necessarily a manifestation of God. from which the Holy Ghost proceeds. The unity of the two . The exposition of the Greek Fathers is slightly different from that of the Latins. which must first. which all characterize Him as the representa- tive of Divine Love. Still it forth in Holy is sufficiently indicated. is the Love of the supreme goodness and beauty of the Divine Essence. On the other hand. the mutual Love of Father and Son is Love of their communion in the possession of the supreme goodness and beauty hence this Love is but Sanctity conceived in a more concrete manner. In Scripture and in early Tradition alike. first of these names (Word) whence the second production." or These two views differ only on the surface." The Latin Fathers represent Him as the hypostatic manifestation of the Love of the Divine Will existing between Father and . And and directly.CHAP.PART 2. in the two elements of the of the Third Person (" Holy." " Ghost "). of the Divine Will. iv is not so formally set Scripture. and Subsisting Holiness. 319 The festation of the Divine Volition." . and in the description of the many functions and operations attributed name to Him. common to Father and Son. The Greeks represent the Holy Ghost as a manifestation of the absolute sanctity of the Divine Will. as in the resplendent image of His Goodness. and by the appropriation of the to the Son . the Supreme Beauty and the Son loves in the Father. and as such includes Love of the Persons Who possess that Essence. as in the principle of His Beauty. Love and Unity. as the " Spirit of Holiness.

designates the product formally as the expression of the knowledge. all productions are the actuality. The inner manifestation and expresfittingly pointed Word and i . The Prodtictions in God are True Productions of an Inner Manifestation (i) of the Divine Knoivledge through Word and Image . Difficulty of real and Gift. in virtue of the superabundant fulness of the actuality of the Divine Knowledge. sion of knowledge is called Word and Image in analogy with the external word and image which manifest our . but must be learned from Revelation.J02. SECT. by a transition from potenThe First Person does tiality to act). The duction in the Divine Intellect and Will is to be conceived. not acquire His wisdom through the Generated Wisdom. and the Divine Will essentially their entire actual perfection. but possesses in His own Essence Wisdom in its fullest Intellect The Divine In the created mind. 1 02. IV.The character of the first production in God as a manifestation and an exercise of the Divine knowledge is knowledge. This is the element which Revelation adds to our natural knowledge of the perfection ot Divine Life. rh n first * manifesu" L>i"ine II. and are identical with possess the acts of knowing and willing. [BOOK n. the Divine Essence.). i. The only conceivable form of a Divine Production is that. and (2) of the Divine Love through Aspiration. "the Image" designates it as the expression or copy of the object of the Divine knowledge that is.320 CHAP. Heb. is impossible in God. produc- chief difficulty of the doctrine of the Divine Productions consists in clearly determining how a real proI. this being impossible in God. This is also the reason why the reality of the Divine Productions cannot be known by reason alone. A Mamtal of Catholic Theology. and which connects the doctrine of the Trinity with the doctrine of the Nature of God. we cannot conclude from His acts of thought and volition that these acts result in the production of any reality. Hence a production by the acts of knowing and willing similar to that which takes place in the created mind (viz. out in Holy Scripture by the names ot " " The Word " mage (John i. SECT. result of a faculty passing from potentiality into actuality . a manifestation of it is brought about and a fruit produced. Pledge.

i? " " and " image to the act of knowledge itself ^ZLL because our mental representation is distinct from its prinin God. in as far as In like manner the internal effusion of love. But. the expression of the Divine knowledge as well as of the Divine Essence. must be considered as an internal aspira- and pledge. of his love. Holy Scripture applies the names of and pledge to the Holy Ghost only in relation to creatures but we have to determine the operation of the Divine Love independently of creatures. Moreover. can only be applied to the manifestation of the knowledge and to the expression which results from the manifestation. Himself as the supreme Goodness and Beauty. and by the by gifts which pass from the lover to the beloved as pledges . so love naturally desires to pour itself forth the external out-pouring of love is manifested an aspiration or sigh coming from the heart. and must therefore study tion. in I. this way of designating the intellectual production illustrates how the Divine knowledge itself. own essence. the terms " Word " and " Image." "splendour and radiance" of this Light is necessarily names "word . The Divine Love must be viewed Y . The product of the Love in this sense does not yet appear as a pledge or gift. Whose actual knowledge ciple and from its object is identical with its principle and its object.] The Evolution of the Trinity. gift . the effusion can and ought to be distinguished from love itself.PART II." in their proper sense. but rather as an aspiration or as a sigh of love. Holy in essential fecundity. especially inasmuch as He is the substantial Truth that is. gift. Just as thought naturally craves to express itself. by representing God as a manifestation its and exercise of His " and as an " Aspiration product aTactof "Gift" or "Pledge" of Love. indicates the character of the second The Scripture its production Love. it in its in a threefold manner : and above all. as God's complacency with First. 321 *' knowledge externally. but by virtue of III. . The sense of both names is contained in the representation of the intellectual product as radiation and splendour of the Divine Light for God is Light. necessarily produces an expression of not from any second 011 want. whereas in man we apply the CHAP. the " adequation of the highest and hence the knowable with the highest knowledge.

but at the same time it conveys the notion of a bond or link. liberality.).322 CHAP. as a gift to others. the term Gift supposes the existence of a receiver. whereas the self-giving Love of God cannot pour out its entire plenitude on its product without making this the object and the subject of the communication. Hence the manifestation of Love in at first sight . Good . is not quite adequate. fruit In this respect the Divine Love acts as giver. of the Liberality of Divine Love is called This name. by loves Himself as the infinitely St. 6 " final act In this respect the manifestation of Love appears as the or complement of the living communion of Father : and Son the manifestation still bears the character of an aspiration. in analogy with the odour of incense or of plants. which. and M " kiss " (osculuni) and embrace 3. Aug. because it signifies only that the inner product of the Divine liberality should manifest it ad extra. as a bond (vincuhtm. hapas a bright burning flame rising from piness. iv. a breathing of Love and a flame of Love. the effusion of the Divine Love appears as an effusion of Divine delight. is called "Pledge" (pignns. Divine Love may be considered as the mutual love of Father and Son for each other. viii. whereas the communication of Love in God produces both Receiver and Gift. . and the Gift. nexus] of love. however. or gives himself to be possessed by the beloved). It is in this sense that the Greek Fathers conceive the Holy Ghost when. as founded upon their common possession of the supreme Goodness and Beauty. In other " " words. k A Manual of : Catholic TheoCogy. or as the Put me as a seal upon thy heart "). knowledge is a radiation of know- . " communicable His Self-Love contains a consequently readiness to communicate His goodness that is. In every one of these three ways. its [BOOK n. God is as much as the manifestation of ledge. 2. supreme and diffusive God (awplexus. which Love breathes forth seal of love (Cant. and suavity the fire of Divine Love as the burning breath escaping from a loving heart. inasmuch as in the pledge the lover possesses the beloved. arrJia. 102 ' ^Il- ardour and energy. they describe Him as the odour of the sanctity of God.

The Perfect Immanence of the Divine Productions . effusion and love are not only intimately connected. the substantial expression of the Absolute Truth. representation) : the Divine Knowledge as and shines forth it does in itself. The inner Word the Divine Word and Spiration of Love. And the life of the Divine Will being not a tendency to what is good. 103.PABT IL] The Evolution of t/ie Trinity. and God'helwlen g< the effusion of love from love itself. in its expression exactly so produced in its expression as to identity just described constitutes the supreme Substantialityofthe ithe unique reality and absolute immanence of Divine Properfection. its expression. the Substantiality of their Products as Internal Expression of the Substantial Truth and Internal Effusion of the Substantial Sanctity. God which have their principle and their terminus in God Himself. therefore. the Love of God is in its inner effusion not only as a force in its effects or as human love in an external pledge. but are identical. its inner effusion. Hence the Divine Knowledge are one and the same tiling. identical with itself. Word of knowledge and the Spiration of love are not . SECT. I. SECT. 103. and is this Holiness itself.e. . but in such a way that it burns and flows in its effusion as it does in itself the effusion being such as to completely contain the outpoured Love. it is equally necessary andTts e not to separate or divide the expression from the knowledge As we are dealing with proor the effusion from the love. being completely pass into it. and is this Truth itself. However necessary it may be to distinguish in God NO real aisthe expression of knowledge from knowledge itself. is also a Substantial Spiration and outflow of the Absolute Goodness the and Holiness. ductions in is not only in in its external word is (i. but Substantial Goodness and Holiness. is also a Substantial Word. identical with itself. In like manner. inner word as the thought of man is in the as in its sign). 323 CHAP. r The 111 is more than a Word eminently full of life and and the Divine Spiration of Love is more than a wealth.e. In God. Spiration full of life and holy delight the Divine know- of God : ledge being not a reflex of truth but Substantial Truth. or as the idea of the artist as in its his work lives (i. II. expression and knowledge. IV.

it is identical with the formal object of the Divine Intellect. between the principle and the terminus of a production in God is that they each possess and represent the Absolute Truth and the Absolute Goodness in a different manner. not a mere word or that it some image of is. As essential . the Divine Essence. with the Divine Intellect itself. but the Divine Nature and Essence itself. on the one hand.. the Divine not only an affective surrender to the object of love and liberality.^103. and not only an ideal representation of the Divine Essence. containing not only a manifestation of.324 CHAP. not only the knowledge. And the internal speech of God is a real radiation of His own Nature and Essence. identical with the Divine Nature as principle of the Divine Will on the other hand. not only the Love. Hence the essential life and reality of the particular products : can be further determined as follows Life and i. identical with the Divine Nature as principle of knowledge that is. the life of the Divine Will. immanent way human tcr. Hence the effusion of but the Supreme Goodness itself. Consequently the effusion of Divine Love must contain. but the Divine Essence Hence the expression of the Divine knowledge is itself. on the other hand. but (a) a spiration. viz. -A in Manual of the same Catholic Theology. with the goodness and holiness of the Divine Essence as the formal object of the Divine Will. or Love. Love is not only an expression of the affection. a manifestation of the knowledge but a real and substantial image of nature and essence. m j ncj way them in as accidents in their subjects). . . on the one hand. but in such a as to be identical with the substance that produces ^g g . but also the Will of God and their nature 2. as they are in the [BOOK II. and substantial Goodness and Holiness. iv. i reality of the first pro- As duction Di v ne Intellect and substantial Truth. not only an affective union with the Supreme Goodness. ofths and essence.. just as His external speech gives to created things item. Consequently the expression of the Divine knowledge must re-produce. but also the knowing intellect. is. much are the substance and they in the substance as they also have the substance Hence the only difference conceivable themselves. they are not so itself. wherein the Divine heart pours . III. the Life of the is.

01 ing subject (the principle which acts. and hence possessors of the Divine Nature and Essence. the product must be really distinct from the producing. . If the internal tions and ductions their products are substantial products. I." 104. Where there are productions there is also a produc- Proof 1. i i their whole life and their whole goodness are really. on the other hand. that Liberality itself that is." in the same manner as God is the " Good all goods. that subject and as it communicates the whole perfection of the producer to the produced is. The production can only tend to communicate the perfection of the producer to another . of of all gifts. The Divine Productions as Communications of the Divine Products as Hypostases Divine productions are true prod ucThe Divine ar t or Persons. 325 out its own Life and its whole Essence () a pledge of love. wherein the loving persons are united. likewise requires that this manifestation SlSl^i! 1 " ject should not take place by producing a perfection in a subalready existing. the . not only symbolically. SECT. of the Essence and power of God which therefore is the " Gift principle and the source of all other Divine gifts. consequently as productions of other subjects. In eeneril1 which the nature (the principle by or through which the subject acts. truly. . which p r0offrcm requires that its product be nothing but a manifestation of oflmemS " its wealth of life. or Divine Hypostases and Persons. . to JSaSSC. the promust be conceived as communications of the hypos"* prod " c " . the latter are necessarily true receivers. [f Divine Nature from one subject to another. 104. principium quod). but really and in the most intimate manner. SECT.PART IT. The perfect actuality of the Divine Life. containing. the Divine Will and its life. because .] The Evolution of the Trinity. and (c) a fruit of the and essentially contained therein Divine Liberality. the whole riches of the real goodness that is. and. . in every production hypostasis. who are put in full possession of the Divine Nature and thus are Divine Hypostases and Persons. 2. principium quo] belongs consequently there is a On the other hand. the essence and nature subjects. CHAP iv. on the one hand. 1. Essence and Nature .

lastly. because. in a different manner. not only in one.Assuming that the internal productions in God are tne resu lt of His active cognition and volition. in this case. [BOOK n. tial of the Divine productions are substanproducts they are the Divine Substance itself. therefore.526 CHAP. or the productions would not be perfect and adequate manifestations of knowledge and volition or. the acts of knowing and willing would . be multiplied as well as the products. that in each of Them different manner : the Substance appertains to itself. their Nature the most spiritual of all natures. The Trinity of the Divine Persons is. the noblest of There must all essences. Consequently the Divine productions essentially tend to multiply the modes of subsistence of the Divine Substance. the three Hypostases in God are also essenand Persons of the most perfect kind. by 3. it can only be that the Substance is possessed by each of Them in a in other words. it can be strictly demonstrated a priori that there are necessarily tJiree Divine Persons. if either the intellect or the Nor can there be more than three will remained barren. or subsists. . by reason of the Divine simplicity. There cannot be less than three because the communication and manifestation of the Divine Life would be incomplete. which would be manifested incompletely in less than . . but based upon the nature of the Divine fecundity. reason of the productions. a difference must still then. H. and to make the Divine Substance subsist. iv. either other productions would take place besides those admitted by the internal manifestation of knowledge and will. Proof from theProducts. Moreover. The products exist between the product and its principle. but in three modes. Consequently the internal productions in God must result in such a distinction between the producers and the products as will oppose ties in the products to the producers as hypostases to distinct hypostases. because their Substance is the most self-sufficient of all substances. tcr-o 4 principle. there his no sucn rea distinction between the producer and products as would entail a composition of several reali- the same subject or hypostasis. their Essence tially Persons. If. jpe/^. A Manual of j Catholic Theology. But. not accidental.

in the above hypothesis. dignity still it is no less a dignity for the produced Persons to be the end and object to which the communicative activity of the others is directed essentially.oahe* P< sons" mined by their origin as revealed in Scripture. at the same time. the Three Persons Order of 5' wealth. before or without what stands last . because. For the production by knowledge supposes. For. and cannot be manifested in more than CHAP. tends to give fecundity to the love which proceeds from the knowledge. or rather constitutes the personal and personal being of the Persons Who possess it. and as the producing Persons are related to their Products as the Products are to just as necessarily Them. presupposes the existence of two persons. IV. in God. because in kind and in number there is but one Nature. and takes the form of a gift of two persons to a third. nor can the first production be conceived without the second. from its nature. iv. SECT I0 *because in three it manifests and exhausts its full Likewise. In general. love can only be fruitful in as far as it proceeds from a fruitful knowledge. 327 - three Persons three.] The Evohition of the Trinity. The production by love from its very nature. which is consequent upon it . the subordi- nation and dependence otherwise existing between Product and Principle is here obviated. or Substance of the Persons. or even is possible. III. Essence. or that the last first. appear essentially in the fixed order of succession deter. But the order of origin does not imply an order in the Nature. but one knowing Person as principle. or that the whole being of the Producers is as essentially for the Products as the . the order of origin does not imply that what stands first in the order actually exists. through the intermediation of the fecundity of the knowledge. There can be no question of an order of dignity NO order w between the Divine Persons. subordinate to the is in any way dependent on or For the producing Persons cannot be conceived in their particular being without the relationship to their Product.PART II. although the character of principle is a true dignity (at'w/za). is essentially mutual love between the first Person and His Image. as if the producing Persons dlgmty> possessed either a higher dignity than their Product or authority over it. yet.

and adequately contained and represented. but generation in the purest and highest sense of the word. As as a building up regards the mode of operation. [BOOK IT. is The second all the production elements which stamp the first production as true generation are taken precisely from the specific character of this first production. because it is free from all the imperfections of material generation. ." because . generation the inconveniences that would arise from applying the same name to both productions. the essence of its principle. viz. whole being of the Products is essentially from the Proj ucers j n O th cr W ords. in the most perfect manner. not named "generation. and. but upon the various ways. iv. viz. the likeness rests upon this. considered as a natural operation (pperatio per modum naturce\ and " " " and " representative operation. in as far as in it the communication of life is effected by the expression of an intellectual word and the imthe first force of the Divine Nature. it is not only generation really and truly. and is effected through the fundamental life- the part of its tendency the specific type of generaproduction possesses tion. All the others may be termed " of the Godhead. being carried out by the intellect. that the first production. in God there is no order founded upon degrees of personal dignity. most of all. of all what perfectly realizes the fundamental idea generation. It produces. On pression of a real image. the essential possession tion' Eilione enetion. in the most sublime because it sense of the word. and are not found in the second." in which the whole Essence of the Progenitor is substantially. A Manual of Catholic Theology. it proceeds from its principle spontaneously and essentially. in a more special sense. as opposed to operation by free will . a " Speaking Likeness. Again. of possess( ing the same supreme dignity. and consequently it has essentially the tendency to express and represent. vitally. is similar to the mode of operation of nature.328 CHAP. V. why the first production in God is alone " Some are taken from are manifold. determined by the relationships of origin. the attestation or representation of the progenitor is. The reasons reduced to the fact that the first production alone has a special likeness to the generation of bodies.

The first production. ethereal state. being alone a generation. so that all being." in the sense of animal breathing. not 17-24. the stem." analogy of the blossom or flower further illustrates is so The " why or Holy Scripture represents the Son " as the " Figure of the Father. 104. through which all other Divine productions go forth. the transitive (Patrts in Filiiun. its CHAP. in as far as this indicates partly the mode of operation of the second production (processio sive impnlsus amoris. and especially the odour or perfume of the plant which is at the same time an ethereal oil and the breath of the plant. and therefore it. viz. viz. we understand why the Son often called the " Strength (virtus} of the Father. and the analogy of the fruit explains why the Son. because He is the original mani. on the other hand. In order to determine its signification they combine it with the term "Spiration. second production in God they use it for want of another expressing a more definite character. : festation of the Divine power . as manifesting the Divine beauty and glory and the Fruit. and is effected by the plants themselves and is effected.PART II. use the term tKTropeuo-tc to designate a special form of substantial emanation. form. is represented as the "Food" or "Bread of life" of created spirits. 329 . and the Fruit of ^S plant g the Divinity the Germ. viz. . such as . partly the nature of the act by which it name mutual love of two Persons Patrem}. . as concentrating the whole fecundity and the wealth of Divinity. the Flower. Cf. VII. Filii in their products. the Flower. the emission of the vital sap or spirit of life in the form of fluid. The Greek Fathers. is called in Latin robur. Ecclus. and perfection in creation are virtually contained in As that which first springs from the root. oily substances in a liquid or balsam and incense. The dogmatic name "Procession" by the Latin doctors : Processuw (imiroptvaig) is considered for the as the specific Spiration. analogous to the emanation which takes place in plants side by side with generation. VI. the Trinity. produces and supports all the other products. product may be illustrated in many ways by a comparison with th2 product of plant generation.] The Evolution of . wine and oil. viotus ab anima). and the Son alone. The eternal Word production is at the same time the Germ. Face " xx iv. iv SECT.

the name " Procession " (iicTropeua-te). This the Greek doctors convey by the terms effusion TTjoojSaAAetv..jo. in His quality of Effusion and Gift of the Divine Love. to breathe) . besides its principal meaning which refers to the form of the procession as a motion directed outward. and especially represents the all-filling and all-penetrating power of the Divine Love (Rom. the of His Substantial Holiness essentially flows through His Substantial Truth from the principle of the latter. and as the completing act of the fluids Divine fecundity within. A Manual of Catholic Theology. so also in God. and the crown and complement From its analogy with the emission from plants. Trpoxsav. which is at once Substantial Goodness. 5). [BOOK II. The two conceppressions ifci^otrav. For. with the corresponding intransitive extKirtjUTTuv. receives a twofold secondary meaning. as the fluids emitted by a plant proceed immediately from the product of generation (the stem. the emission of an affection and of a (spirare. but originally from the principle of generation (the seed or root). : gift. bears a particular relation to the outward diffusion of Divine Love and donation of Divine gifts. And just as the emitted by plants have a particular facility and tendency to spread and diffuse themselves outward.. of a mere affection and an empty gift. v. 3fc. but the most perfect and most real outpouring of the sub- stantial love of Holiness.330 CFTAP. the one relating to the principle. God. viz. however. and Happiness. and is also applicable to the Holy Ghost. and fruit). so also the Holy Ghost. Hence. and consequently pass through the product of generation. flower. Trnydfciv.cr. IK-ITS. ava/3Auftv. iv. to designate the active production of the Holy QJIOS ^ fa e Greek doctors seldom use the name TTV. tions complete and illustrate each other they show that the procession in God is an emission in the highest sense of the word. This secondary meaning shows the emission as a transmission. the other to the terminus or object of the motion. fjiiruv and tKTroptvtaOai. of the entire Divine Life.'HV they prefer the expressions irpofldXXtiv. . not.

of the Divine Persons. exclusively by His own power. in God. nature. And the Sonship of the Eternal Son God is the ideal and type of all sonship. is the proper active principle of generaand the son. Communications of Life in analogy with Generation and The Personal Names Spiration in the Animal Kingdom and Holy Ghost The Economy (oiKovo^im) Father. communication of in The second production . has no analogue has. human is nature. The Divine Father transfers His life into His Son... is the sole and adequate of the perfect Son. which consists in the creature being made by grace partaker of the life which belongs to the Son by II.] The Evolution of the Trinity. Thus the Eternal Father is. to It analogue the tendency and this to another person." communicate one's own . 105.. an life Ghost. is accomplished through the influence of a higher vital principle. . or a production of one person from another. heaven and on earth" (Eph. Moreover. because it is a true communication of intellectual life to another subject. IV SECT The Special Names of the Divine Productions as SECT. which." is given to the first producGod. "generation. the proprius) of the Father. 331 CHAP. as such. "the emission of the breath from the heart. as far as it is a real The in Holy life to another person. whereas the human father only prepares a communication of life. the Divine Father does not the cooperation of a maternal principle in order to require His generation is absolutely virginal. but particularly of the sonship of adoption. however." whence also its Principle is termed " Father " and its Product "Son. 15) that is. is the product of . The paternity in the generation perfectly like the father. the father. in reality. Divine generation is not only real but is paternity in the highest sense.. not the daughter. perfect His Product : the Father. the own " Father (Pater proprius} In short : God of His Son. same reason the Paternity and type of " all paternity iii. and I. - IOS - The name Divine Paternity tion in andSonship tion not the mother. Son. principle " in the strictest sense. For the of the Eternal Father is the ideal in "own" Son (Films. and the eternal Son. of any paternity of among respecting creatures and of all paternity creatures.PART II." In mankind.

Hypostasis or Person. cannot be His proper name." or " Ghost. and consequently must tend to communicate life to a Third Person. it has the double advantage of being more . More than this is not reshow that the corresponding act in God is a real communication of life. as the Spirit or Breath of God not only awakens and fosters. impersonal and receives its personal signification in God by being conceived as " Spiritus de Spiritu" the life-breath of the purest Where the spirating subject is a pure spirit. to manifest and enact their abso- lute unity of life. apparent and visible. its Spirit. spiritus] in man. because it does not produce a new person but." ia the sense of immaterial being.332 CHAP. of the Third Person whole substance and life are necessarily contained in the substantial breath (spirit) which it emits and thus this breath is not only something spiritual. By reason of this analogy of origin there can be no human personal name designating the Third Person in the " " Son designates the Second. to creatures. and of standing in closer connection with the higher life of the human soul. notably with love. munication of common to two Persons. [BOOK II. and that its Product is a real Person. The proper name is taken from the emission of breath (TTVEV^O. iv. and quired to What in the creature is a powerless tendency or striving. but flows from one heart. but gives . but is a Spiritual . ' I05 expression which. the name " Spirit. gives a most real to the tendency of love towards intimate communion of life." because the . however. On Trinity as the name the other hand. is in God an efficacious operation wherefore. is The relation of the Spirit of its God to the spiritual Nature of expressed by the name Principle and its Essence " Holy Ghost. on the other hand. so also the internal emission of this Spirit is necessarily a real com- This becomes still more evident if we consider that the emission of the Divine Spirit of life is not destined to bring about a union of love between two loving hearts existing separately. "' A real Manual of Catholic Theology. The emission of the human breath is inferior to generation as an analogue for a Divine communication of life. life when emitted and imparted life. notably in the act of kissing. distinct from the First and Second. because in this sense it is common to the Three Persons.

that the Third Person is properly called "Spirit. the Holy Ghost as the soul of the two Persons united in love. following St. Holiness of the Divine Life. applied to the Third Person. considering. other hand. The analogy is easily understood if the bride be con. like the name Son. as it were. I. The connection of the name " Ghost " or " Spirit " with Its the human breath is generally taught by the Fathers. that is as the Spirit of Somebody. whose communion of He is. ethical position in the human family. origo per emanationem substantialem ex principid]. iv. The Greeks lay more stress on the genitive of origin (viz. the spirituality of the spirating (breathing) especially pointed out by the Greek doctors. common Analogue r^ the * III. Although no human r person furnishes an adequate analogue for the Third Person in the Blessed Trinity J still we can point to one who approaches as near as the This diversity between Divine and human nature allows. human person is no other than the bride. . ought. SECT-JOJ. stands between father and son in the communication and representation of human nature. 333 purest spirituality of God culminates in the Substantial CHAP." because the other Two.T^* J Bride member sidered in her ideal. essentially the third the connecting link of the human community. do not lay much stress on the original meaning spirit. although they more frequently use the term spiratio. and son as the focus in which the mutual love of father and son centres as love sentative of the union of father . as the Holy Ghost is the Third Person in the Divinity. who as spouse and mother. are commonly so called. They used to say. it is always noted that the name Spirit. By both Greeks and Latins.1 The Evohition of the Trinity.PART II. . whereas the Latin doctors rather point out the genitive of possession. as wife and mother. but give great prominence to the idea of the osculum (kiss) as a bond of union. and is as ' / Holy in ihe Ghost human family. Augustine. . Here she stands out as the repre- . or between father and son. to be taken relatively. relation to is person although they do not describe the origin as spiration as it often as the Latin writers corresponds with their of the Holy Ghost as the "Perfume" organic conception " The Latin Fathers. however. on the and " Oil of the Godhead.

a virginal partner. ruach. the proper name which Adam gave to the wife taken is from his side to signify her maternal character. like anima jn Latin). . not as supplying a want of their nature. just the as name Eve. the. but as a Gift He is the bridal partner of Both. is not the mother of the Son. The constituents of the analogy in question are foSSn anakTy bhde. find their analogue in the relations of the Holy Ghost to the external products of Father and Son. same 3. and of being the centre where the love of father and child meet. because this Person not a co-principle with Him. with respect to her relationship of ii. because He is with Father and Son. . is Him. was derived from that of man (Gen. because He bears the He is . " 2. because in virtue He constitutes a substantial unity with them . remark that the name Holy Ghost is derived from the name Ghost common to the other Two Persons. of their love He the original and bridal partner of a bridal partner. 103. The differences r arising from the diversity of Divine and human nature are : (a) In the Trinity the Personified Love is only a bond not a mediator between Father and Son. relationship of origin to the Father and to the Son. cherishing and quickening. of " " expressed by the name Holy Ghost (which is of the feminine gender n-n. CHAP. human names cannot of Both. () The Person of Love cannot be considered as the wife of the Father. A Manual of i Catholic Theology. Considering the wide differences between the Person of Love" in God and in mankind. Morenot only over. iv personified and as the soul of the family. hence.334 SECT. We may further chaste. to created natures. [BOOK n. consequently. and virginal. The names "mother" or "wife" must be excluded altogether. inasmuch as it designates the Third Person of the Trinity precisely as the focus of a mutual love that is sufficiently ^ n Hebrew purely spiritual. 23). viz. the name "bride" might be applied in the restricted sense that the Holy Ghost is is Father and Son. as regards origin. origin. fostering. Son comes between the Father and the Substantial Love The intermediate position of the human mother between principle and product her function of nourishing. be unreservedly applied to the Holy Ghost. and. but only proceeds from (V) The Person of Love stands in the same relation to the Son as to the Father .

2) this form is hinted is the symbol of love and fidelity. the outflowing life. Eve from the side of Adam. which bears the closest relation to the emission of the breath from the heart IV. can only signify an origin by loving donation on the part of Adam. under the symbol of an animal being. the origin of Eve was the type of the origin of the Church. and by virtue of His own vital force through the effusion of His life's Blood. and. iii. being the bride of Christ. in general. to do away with its inherent oflhTHolj imperfections and to point out the elements which do not appear in it. from the side of her Bridegroom. But. more properly. the Dove. And expressed the ideal essence of the universal of the first woman (" And Adam called the name mothership of his wife Eve. because she was the mother of all the living ").PART II. . i. but quite for name Ghost Eve (mn) signifies synonymous with the life. Now. wherefore " this respect is called the Fostering r. or. i. that is. at the same time. In order to preserve all the force of this human The Dove analogy.'oman. 335 CHAP. and the Church. quickens and fosters by its warmth. an to origin different completed by the origin of the first from generation but similar the origin of the Holy Ghost. the virginal bride of Christ. The dove. iv analogous construction. by reason of her moral union with the Holy Ghost.e. the effusion of the Blood of Christ being the vehicle and the symbol of the effusion of the Holy Ghost. from his heart.] The Evolution of in . with regard to this origin and position. He appeared in the form of a dove on the Jordan (Matt. the breath. in analogy with the breath. Revelation itself represents the Holy Ghost. but already in the narrative of at. by the supernatural intervention of God. was endowed with life. from His very Heart. that which. the Trinity. viz. on the other hand. and symbolizing the For the "taking" of origin of the mystic bride of God. we have here an illustration of the character of the eternal procession of the Holy Ghost Himself. according to all the Fathers. although this donation only gave the matter which." Ghost as principle of Holy Ghost in This analogy is all the life of creation . creation (Gen. 16). nay. so also it expresses the characteristic of the Holy as herein is also the Spirit.

the and Coin- I. ii. SECT. 1 06. and being Himself the pledge of the Love which sends Him and of the love which He and lastly. especially of chaste. His Holiness. and. Inseparability herence r. Equality. no t only J for their personal characters but also for their r perfect unity. their Principle. resulting Complete Unity of the Produced Persons ivitfc from their Immanent Origin : Similarity. In short. which is commonly considered under the five different forms mentioned in the title of this section.jentityof Lssence. the Holy Ghost ascends from the heart of Father and Son. the Church. whilst in Him they breathe their Love and Life or Soul. Life and external operations . from Father and Son and uniting Them. in His character of Their virginal Bride. The same image also represents the Holy Ghost in His relation of "Virginal Mother" to creatures. that is. and comprehends their Essence. He hovers over them. Identity. bringing down with Him the Divine Love and its gifts. SECT. and generally to all pious souls (Cant. that is. as the Spirit proceeding Like a dove. like a dove. in the supernatural order." " Embrace.. patient. But the Divine Dove represents also the Holy Ghost as the Spirit of God that is. vii. . and innocent iove. and manifesting by His sigh the infinite felicity and holiness of Their love.336 CHAP. The intellectual origin of the Divine Persons accounts germ of all other unities. A Manual of Catholic Theology. in one word. penetrating inspires into the creature as into His temple to such a degree that . establishing the most intimate relations between God and them. crowning and completing their union. penetrating creatures with His warming. with outspread wings and quiescent motion. As a dove He descends from the heart of God upon the creature. quickening. described in Wisd. and the virgins of Christ. this image shows the Holy Ghost " " of the as the hypostatic " Kiss. the creature in its turn becomes the virginal bride of God and the virginal mother of life in others. and' refreshing fire. meek. [KOOK u. 10). and go ^ illustrates nearly all the attributes of the Spirit of Wisdom.J iv. and thus receives a name applied especially to the itself the name of dove Blessed Virgin Mary." and Sigh Father and the Son.

though not quite in sense. Perfect the produced Persons are. the relation of II.PAST II. in etymology. viz. Essence that is. and gives to these other forms of unity in God a perfection which they have nowhere else. as there are no accidents in the Divine follows.] The Evolution of the Trinity. 370). is but partial and very impenect. 337 iv. on the family. first of all. an exhaustive manifestation of their Principle. further. In this sense the Greeks apply to creatures the term TUVTO-TIQ. 64). to justify the expression* . and diffuses Itself in Them. in ^J tinction to the relationes reales. origin. The identity. and Perfection. which. e. or. in contradistheir Dignity. (cf. The unity of identity CHAP. intrinsic and universal agreement. of the members of the same In God. we have as a consequence the equality (identity of quantity) between the Divine Persons.. Quantity in God is not a material quantitative greatness. . there 1. But these relations are of a different kind from the relations of origin. however. even in creatures. ii.. but the virtual internal greatness of perfection and power. but all perfections are contained in its Essence. . Newman. Power. . . of which they result. . that is. From the fact that in God similarity Dissimi- M a similarity entailing more than a mere of qualities. Similarity in kind. Card. Theologians term them relationes rationis. generally speaking. (6//Oorrjc Kara ovcriav cnrapaXXaKTOQ. z . a similarity extending to the agreement very Essence and. identity m . 2. A than. are but so many inadequate conceptions of one and the same essential identity. the similarity is perfect in all and excludes all dissimilarity Cf. combined with equality of quantity." viz. Nature. oneness of Substance " The one is what the other is. inseparability and interpenetration.. The several forms of unity express certain relations between the Divine Persons. is equivalent to identity. which 3. of creatures. they are something more than similar and equal. which completely expresses As mail. is infinite . is sufficient. the absolutely simple unity of the Divine Essence itself contains the germ of the other forms.g. In detail the several forms of unity of the Divine Persons are originated and formed as follows : the produced Persons are the innermost manifestation of His Nature and Life. Similarity and equality.

itself. eternal. The Greek Trept^pricng. 4' ^ ne i nse P ara ble connection of the Divine Persons with one another is brought about in the most perfect manner by Their relations of origin. not by reason of like qualities and quantities possessed by Them. They remain within the Divine Substance and are one with It. but by the Essence of para the notion of intrinsic the notion of this concompletes buu the Three Persons being one and undivided. and as a distinct Person. it penetration. The notion of identity. The at its highest perfection intimate unity of the Divine Persons appears J rr when conceived as interpenetration and mutual comprehension. Further. The Divine Persons are similar and equal. the notion of intimate connection . quently. perfect. and the Latin circuminsessio (better circumincessio). or intervene- inasmuch as He produces the other and These. as to similar. The producing Principle. which may exist between separate things. and legitimate quantity of one Substance. and. at the same time presenting them under a form peculiar to God. being the immanent manifestation of a substantial cognition and volition. equal. iv contrary. [BOOK ll. being the immanent Product of His are as inseparable from their Principle as His life . except Persons Life. and is therefore consepresent in all and is identical with each of Them of the Divine Nature . the identity of Essence adds to simple similarity. what They are. likewise. but are purely and simply the same. and to simple equality in quantity. without destroying the distinction of the Persons. The produced Persons cannot even be conceived otherwise than in connection with their Principle. nepixuptiv has a fourfold construction: Trtptvw/mv tie aAA>jA> tv aAA?'- . are the technical terms for the Divine interpenetration. is not a multiplication but a communication of It to the produced Persons. not by some combination or union. the identity of the Three Persons is absolutely 106 E< ill_ For the internal and exhaustive manifestation perfect. Co-inherence. completes the notions of similarity and equality. 5. but by reason of the possession in all alike of the quality and essential. cannot be conceived as such. CHAP.338 ' A Manual of Catholic Theology. nection and penetration by representing them as effected. the Persons are not only and related. On the other hand.

are in each other. and in the full sense of the word. which " the unity of Essence. Athan. idea. it follows that it is one and the same . vades each other Person inasmuch as each Person is in each other Person with His whole Essence. the the Trinity. cf. and identical with that of the other Persons. and Holy Ghost. in each other. unattainable. and also Their operations ad As and consequently in is exercised so that all the Persons operate together. therefore. III. and the various elements concurring in its exercise (viz. Son. the Three Who speak to us from heaven is simply. th. not only external union. Franzelin. inasmuch as each Person comprehends each other Person in the most intimate and adequate manner by knowledge and love." of three correspond CHAP. xiv. and possesses the Essence of each other Person as His own and again. act of . the in its Divine Persons constitute a society unique in the most perfect kind : a society whose equal. inseparately and inseparably. the activity of each Person is in the most perfect manner similar. execution). in all its forms. or comprehensive interpenetratiou.. Members are manner and which. being one and the same Spirit and Being. implies Each Person penetrates and perthe following notions. as a statement.). 72 reason of these several forms of unity arising from By is . is the essential ideal of all other societies." The circumincession. so as to be but one absolutely simple activity.. embraces as subject-matter Their inner Being and Life. and aXXrjXct the meanings "invade. decree. the with its meaning of "hold" or "comprehend. and as each Person finds in each other Person His own Essence. and connected. eternal. yet there is but one God this truth. and Oneness of external operation. p. extra." "pervade. Newman. knowledge and love by which one Divine Person " Each of comprehends and embraces the other Persons. ii. related. ' unity of the Divine Persons. God. the doctrine of the Trtpi\wpr)aiQ (Card. equal. The regards the power necessary to these operations. is enunciated most intelligibly when we say Father. EC -^wptlv.PART JlJ The Evotiition of . The absolute simplicity of the Divine activity is not impaired by the scriptural and traditional expression " that . but intrinsically. first 339 iv with last &' aXX'')Awv.

by reason of the unity of Substance. Whatever is appropriated is not even more the property The only object of approof one Person than of another. not only its owner but also its representative. The Appropriation of the Common Names. called Appropriation (icoAArjme). by showing their conthis purpose it is sufficient that the Person Person or the attributes nection. The them it appropriations are so indispensable that without would be impossible to give a vivid picture of the Trinity. [BOOK 11. and operations to particular Persons so as to serve to disThe process by which tinguish one Person from another. it is. course. and is. viz. For by reason of His personal character. nevertheless. the constant style of Holy Scripture and Tradition to ascribe certain names. but is possessed by each of Them in a particular manner. and operations Although which do not refer to the personal relations of the Divine I. SECT. in the same manner in which they possess the prindpium quo of action that is. to something peculiar to common to all is the Persons is attributed as one of Them. Persons are.340 " > ^ Manual of Catholic Theology. or to bring out more common attributes particular in question." This expression is intended to convey the meaning that the Divine operation or activity is perfectly common to the Three Persons. so as to illustrate either this to lay special stress on. does not exclude the other Persons from the possession of what is appropriated to one. attributes. the names. since we always perties and operations associate separate persons with separate prothey are especially useful and . Another signification of the same formula will be explained in the following section. prfa' ' and Operations all to Particular Persons. in question. 107. the Divine Nature. bears a special relationship to the attribute. necessary to bring out the Persons of the Father and the . therefore. of distinctly. A ttributes. They are useful and indispensable to represent each Person as distinguished from the other Persons. attributes. io " ^ 1C -^ V1 ne P era tion proceeds from the Father through the Son in the Holy Ghost. the possession of some of the by one Person. common them all. priation is Such appropriation.

" tions ." Divine name. iv. The appropriations : in use in in the language of the Church. Hence the Son is commonly " Son of God. viz. Holy following categories 1. 4." "good. e." properties of the Divine Life are distributed among the Three Persons Being and either in the form of adjectives ("one. xii." Spiritus sanctus. is in itself a substantive Divine name. essential being. be taken as an appropriation on a " however. eternity. * Holy Ghost us in a sively as distinct from the Son Who appeared among human nature with properties and operations excluHis own they further serve to distinguish the . and especially to represent the Divine Unity as essentially The living II. Who. whereas to the Father. 341 CHAP." "true. appropriations also help to illustrate and represent the Divine attributes and operations in life-like form. may Scripture and The approbe grouped under the clarified. also power . in this respect.g. the Divine Substance reveals in its spiration the full energy called of its Spiritual Nature. as the natural heir of the Father. has received from the Father a peculiar dominion over creatures. Lord the Son. Of the substantive names. In I Cor. like the air in the wind. in a certain sense. "Spirit" " line with God " Approattributes." "truth.") or of nouns ("unity. and." Filius sapiens. The The names designating Second and Third Persons receive only positive predicates. so as to correspond with their active or passive relations of origin. if not considered as expressing His relationship to Father and Son. Lord. inasmuch as. "God" is appropriated " " Father as the " Principle of Divinity Lord " to to the .PART IL] The Evolution of the Trinity. and working in distinct Persons. To the Father are appropriated." "goodness"). may and 2. because His proper name appropriated (Spirit). only becomes a proper name by appropriation. God. in the Incarnation. as Ingcnerate or Unbegotten. "^J 07 Divine Persons from other and imperfect beings bearing this is notably the case in the appellathe same names " " " Pater aeternus. negative predicates are likewise appropriated. then eternity and simplicity." " The Holy Ghost bears no other or Spirit of the Lord. because the special nature of Their origin is always taken into account." and the Holy Ghost " Spirit of God.

and appropriations receive various forms and directions. regards the power. unity of equality to the Son. and beatifying 74). as the Word and Beauty. unity may be considered under many respects. In connection with these. power.342 CHAP. sanctifies spirits and distributes the charismata. and Gift of the eternal Love. and unity of connection to the Holy Ghost. and guides all things. and goodness manifest in As all Divine operations. in analogy with created activity. the felicity. there are other appropria- tions ?5atimof to ^. as exemplar cause. bounty. Appropri!. and especially on the relations of intellectual creatures with their Creaton As all things exist o f t h e Father in the through the Son Holy Ghost. 3. is appropriated sense of what is perfect. Image of the Father. to the Son and goodness. so intellectual creatures are made the children of the Father through the they are likened. unity pure and simple is ascribed to the Father. such as miracles .tures founded upon the general relation of the creature to God. wisdom. With regard to the Divine operations ad extra. the decree (= resoluthe tion. iv. the Father is said. To the Son. dour in the Unbegotten Principle of the Trinity. vivifies. amiable. and goodness in the sense of productive and radical fecunbecause these attributes shine forth with more splendity. to the Holy Ghost. moves. 7 ' A Manual of Catholic Theology. as final cause. as efficient cause. to produce the substantial being (= the subtion to the stance) and the unity of all things by creation. tion. will) to operate is appropriated to the Father the execution and preservaof the work to the Son plan . the Holy Ghost likewise to confer dignities and functions . intellectual appropriated Truth (objective and formal. Holy Ghost. the Son is said to give all things their form and to enlighten all minds. as in the formal sense of Appropriaexternal operations. Considering. . in the Holy Ghost with Son to Whom Whom they are filled. as well holiness. Pledge. As. Thus they also can direct their worship to .n fou nded 4. by appropriation. however. the order or evolution of the Divine operations. in its objective ( Goodness. is appropriated to the Father wisdom. [BOOK IT. . With regard to the hypostatic character of the individual Persons. is 73) and reas the Aspira- splendent To the Holy Ghost. and to perform works of power. .

of and into His Himself to." Divine mission free r . the perfect coinherence or interpenetration (TTtptxw/oTjo-tc) of the Divine Persons excludes the idea of any separation of the Person sent from PI is Sender. is spoken of as a "Mission. I. . . none of the imperfections inherent in human .. 343 CHAP. the Father through the Son in the Holy Ghost. any influence of the Sender on the Sent other than the relation of origin. however. In consequence of this. and it is represented so as to make this temporal procession appear as a continuation of Their eternal procession. Again. See also St. /. The Father especially is God SECT. arts. and enter the domain of the mission of the Divine Persons. at the same time. and of any separate activity or operation in the mission. Here. The Temporal Mission of in the Divine Persons. is found at the Religet ergo end of nos Augustine's De Vera " Religione. and. This coming and in- m Divine dwelling is especially set forth in connection with the two Divine Persons Who have Their eternal origin from another Person. ofimper- The perfect equality of the Divine Persons excludes the notion of authority in the Sender. SECT. religio. etc. io& represented as receiving the Divine worship offered to God by the Incarnate Son as High-priest. the Son and Holy Ghost being not only the object of worship.] The Evolution of the Trinity. Lastly.PART II.. the Person from Whom One Who proceeds the same position as exists between a human sender and his envoy and for this reason the procession ad extra of a another proceeds assumes towards the . and dwelling God creatures. q. mediators of the worship offered to the Father from Whom They originate and Whose glory They reveal. general terms of a coming and of a manifesting them. General ' Revelation often speaks to in. 7. the immensity and omnipresence of the Trinity exclude ." 1 08. although the sacrifice of Christ is offered to Himself and to the Holy Ghost as well as to the Father. A beautiful exposition of appropriations St. missions. of which we shall speak in the following section. iv. but. Divine Person II. 39. and with Whom They receive the same worship because They are one with Him. in general. The r external mission of Divine Persons admits of . we go beyond simple appropriations. 8. Thorn.

. Internal Mission. It must not be thought that the whole mission consists in a Divine Person coming down to the creature merely as representative of an operation appropriated to Him but common to the Three Persons. and assert the existence of another. manner. that He dwells in it. . . for instance. which makes the Person Himself and His presence in the creature appaor the this is called a Visible or External Mission rent.344 CHAP. every supernatural influence of God on the soul is ascribed to a coming of the Son or the Holy Ghost.. In His Incar- . and vivid manner. in the spiritual order. Such is the case. where. gives Himself to it. operation in the creature. thus infusing not Himself but merely His operation into the creature. ad extra of a Divine Person. takes place in a twofold Either the Divine Person appears in a sensible . and takes this is called an Invisible or special possession of it. .-. . form or image really distinct from Himself. The manifestation Kinds and forms of mission. iv. III. in properly so called. and consequently by a new operation taking place in the creature. the mission of Divine Persons implies no more Scripture than that They reveal themselves in creatures as bearers of an activity appropriated to Them and as Principle of an . The procession ad extra Animperfect notion of a Divine mission. Divine Person really enters into an intellectual creature. But the theologians of all times agree in considering this kind of mission as an improper one.. and consequently not proceeding ad extra in the character of a Person distinct from His Principle as well as from His As a matter of fact. uniting Himself with it in such intimate. ' 1 the possibility of any local change caused by the temporal mission of one of the Persons. [BOOK n. real. Both forms are found in their greatest possible perfec- tion in the Incarnation of the Son of God. in many texts of Holy operations. to which the name of mission properly belongs. To lay too ~ great stress on what we have J just said might lead to a false notion of the missions of Divine Persons. s< -d Manual of Catholic Theology. can be brought about only by a new manifestation of the substantial presence of the Person sent. whereby the Divine Person reveals Himself externally or enters into union with the creature.. IV. a mission .

to the souls of the just. . The invisible mission of God the Son and God the invisible sou?*. Holy Ghost. otherwise the mission or coming would be personal only in a As. It is not enough that the Person should come as principle of a new operation it is necessary that His Substance should become present to the soul in a new manner. in the proper and soul strict sense of the word. Besides. as far as possible. activity are common the Substance of a Divine Person us to say that to all the Persons. iv. visible missions are not real but symbolical the invisible ones .II. The Incar- In other nation stands alone as a pre-eminent mission. the Incarnation was at the same time a mission of the Son of God in His own human nature and to all men. not figuratively but really. exclusively of the other Divine Persons. 345 ' nation the the Son same time God intellectual contracts with a created nature. but invisible missions are not always accompanied by visible nected.] The Evolution of of the Trinity. excepting the Incarnation. at CHAP. here we have the hypostatic presence of the Divine Person in the life of the creature. making them. especially the latter. but is His own body. the Divine Substance and figurative sense. visible mission. h( ^ ^ and visible. In order that the may . Besides. it is of the utmost importance to gain a clear conception of it viz. however. two things are required. the presence of is not sufficient to enable He is present as a distinct Person. among whom He dwelt visibly. or as . better. never takes place without an invisible one. coming of a Divine Person to the be really personal. belong to each other mission is termed " Missio secundum gratiam" or. missions the visible and invisible are not necessarily con- do they exist in the same perfection. nor manifestations. " secimdiim gratiam gratum facientem" V. and by reason of which the visible body in which He appears is not only a symbol of His Person. being such a consoling mystery. a union which is proper to Himself alone. A but whilst in the Incarnation we have an hypostatic union with the substance of a created nature. to understand . how in this mission a Divine Person enters the soul. wherefore this kind of as it were. which presence includes an intimate relation are real : between the Divine and the created person. indeed.

then. the relation We of the Divine Person to the supernatural its life its of the soul: final object. [BOOK II. distinct from so that. God . are closely connected. the personal mission of the Divine 16). . but must be considered as an approMoreover. in virtue of which the Divine Person gives Himself to the soul and at the same time takes possession of it Holy Scripture constantly speaks of an intimate. must approach the soul in His Substance in a more special manner. and in a taking possession of the soul their personal presence in the soul implies a relation of most intimate and . in its inmost a participation in the Divine Life that is. on the basis of Holy Writ. in f Ur supernatural life of the soul consists. iii. in the communication of supernatural life by means of sanctifying grace (gratia gratum faciens). and ought to be considered together in order to arrive at an adequate conception of the personal presence and relations. when (= exemplar) communicating supernatural life. HOW to mission by VI. or (2) as however. . and beatifying union as the consequence of the coming of a Divine Person into the soul the Person the soul and the soul becomes His temple (cf. if He were not every other Divine influence already substantially present as Creator. He would become Himself. its root and Hence. therefore. is The demonstration may be effected in to be conceived. -P^ S ^ Sauii 1 Per~ essence. in a and love of such an exalted kind as is proper knowledge i. it has. is given to v. two directions. and a personal relationship of the Divine Person to the soul. iv. have. to show how. If the hypostatic character of Sender. holy. 5 . God. Rom. considering. mutual appurtenance between the Divine and the human person. The only to the Divine Nature ideal in . distinct the Person sent the soul must be conceived from the point of view of a living union of the Person with the soul. His mission is not strictly personal. (i) as exemplar principle. A from Manual of Hi's is Catholic Theology. the coming of a Divine Person into priation. Hence. Both relationship. not brought to the fore.346 CHAP. or of an intimate presence of the Divine Person in the supernatural life of the soul. Persons consists in a donation of themselves to the soul i Cor. a personal presence in the soul.

your hearts" (Eph. 347 iv. so also the Products of the Divine Life impress themselves on the soul in an innermost presence. (U] labour again. Thus " But you are not in the flesh. " communication of God's own life to the soul appears as an imitation> a continuation. : " The charity of Holy Ghost God is poured forth in our hearts by the Holy Ghost Who " " is given to us In this we know that we (Rom. Now. so present as Giver of supernatural life. until Christ be formed in " That Christ may dwell by faith in 19) . just as the supernatural life results from an internal and permanent impression of the Divine Substance on the soul as from the impression of a seal. manifestation arid communication of the and an extension of that life which produces Son and the Holy Ghost. if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. : Him and He . but also as to their personal only characters. Hence. as if He were the breath of our life. and impression of this Divine Image upon. of whom " I am in you (Gal. manifest extra. and thus implies an effusion of the Divine Spirit into the soul. abide in in us. To these must be added all the texts which represent the Holy Ghost as living in us. but in the spirit. v. 5) The mission of the . because He has given us of His Spirit" (i John iv. Consequently. enter into Their personal glory in it. inasmuch as They permeate the life of the soul.II. the Persons proceeding ad natural a living relationship with the soul. into the soul The is irradiation of super- essentially an imitation knowledge and an extension of the internal radiation of Divine knowledge terminating in the Eternal Word and Image. They are personally united to the soul. and so implies a speaking of His Divine Word into. is alluded to in the little Son " : My children. not as to their Substance. and live in This view of the Divine missions following texts : (a) The mission of the < it. if any man have not the Spirit of Christ [= the Spirit of Love]. iii. 13). this CHAP. The infusion or inspiration of supernatural love is an imitation and an extension of the internal effusion of Divine Love terminating in the Holy Eternal Spirit. the soul.] Tke Evolution of the Trinity. iv. Moreover. 17). or us as living in Him.

whereby we cry. . so in the superis of the soul. . becomes an object of intimate possession and fruition to the soul. as the personal osculum Dei." which the soul receives as the adopted daughter of the Father and bride of the Son. and must therefore be sub- manner not required by This presence attains its perfection only in the Beatific Vision and in beatific charity. the Divine Essence the object of possession the natural and life fruition. as He in the Divine Life. but the Spirit constitute supernatural is of God " (i Cor. And the Holy Ghost is given as the Effusion and the Pledge of the infinite Love that unites Father and Son. have received not the that o?vine Perent n a spirit ii. 15) .. 14. A Manual of " Catholic Theology. but it already exists in an obscure and imperfect man-ner in our present state of cognition and chanty For if the Divine Substance (cognitio et caritas vice}.348 CHAP. Abba. iv. original characters. and of God's Fatherly love for His creatures as the Blossom of the Divine sweetness and loveli" ness. both Persons are and the created gift of sanctifying grace has precisely this object to enable the soul to receive and to enjoy the uncreated Gift. them Consequently. . [BOOK II. knowledge and and They The Son is given to the enter the soul as such object. Father" (ibid. 12). and I in . " That the love wherewith Thou hast loved Me may be in them. the Divine Persons Themselves. As the object of supernatural knowledge and love. This is the deeper sense of the words. given to the soul as an uncreated Gift. soul as the Radiance and Image of the glory of the Father. he " For whosoever are led 9) by the Spirit of God. you have received the spirit of adoption of sons [= in filial "We love]. they are the sons of God. each with His stantially present to the soul in a of the soul. in order that in Him and through Him. of this world. 26). likewise possession and fruition by become the object of the soul's love. the soul may know and possess the Father. the " (John xvii. viii. 2- FinIT ^e (^ke the Divine knowledge a c Py) nave f is in Himself. For you have not received the spirit of bondage again in fear but is none of His (Rom. and which is the food and the fuel of the soul's love to God. natural life r T^ e knowledge and love which and love of which they are Sa'nait* As their proper object God Himself.

nevertheless each of Them does so in This indwelling is especially a manner peculiar to Himself. and take possession of it and live in it as in Their cation. can claim an . We . r rom this it follows that our concep. present hardly any difficulty.] The Evolution of the Trinity. and the modern Rationalists pretend to detect in the mystery of the Trinity. because He is the representative of the Divine sanctity and the model of the sanctity of the and further because. . . . I. conconceptions of the Divine Essence and Nature. each Divine Person. . . the love SECT. and sometimes impossible.I'ABT II. is also the Holy Lord and Master Who transforms it into His temple and takes possession of it in the name of the Father and of the Son. correct and accurate con. character. but show that no evident contradiction exists between Most of the contradictions which the Arians. The Holy " Ghost being pre-eminently the " Sweet Host of the soul. Now. or the end. and a special manner of dominion over creatures hence. 30 . iv. but JjJ 09 which likewise claims from the soul honour and glorifiin His hypostatical honour especially directed to Himself. Manning's two works on the Holy Ghost). because they are based either upon misrepresentation or misconception of the dogma. proper to the Holy Ghost. being pre-eminently the personal soul Gift of the Divine Love. in which the soul finds rest and beatitude. also to them. 109. the Socinians. and Card. by which the soul gives itself to God. However. a matter of course that our reason should find sequently. 349 ' Divine Persons are also the final object. The Trinity a Mystery but not a Contradiction* have shown (in 57) that the real existence of Cause of tin the Three Persons in one God cannot be demonstrated by conceiving the mystery -r. SEC the soul. and even more obscure and imperfect than our It is. ceptions of the analogical notions enable us not only to see the necessary connection between several attributes. of CHAP. . to comprehend the possibility of the several Divine attributes and of their coexistence in God.of the tions of the Trinity of Persons can be but analogical and imperfect. it always difficult. .. although the Three Persons always enter the soul together. He naturally receives and accepts . (See Scheeben's Mysteries. created reason. consecrated temple.

. and thus.-ECT. Solution of difficulty. [BOOK II Our modern t j ie j r Rationalists are far more superficial than . each Person is identical with the Essence. and essential to both principle and Essence but this being admitted. is and Essence first difficulty is " solved thus Although Person in God are One Supreme Thing. it is not at all evident that the produced possession ought not to be likeis only identical as a special . If. on the axiom Things identical with the same thing : are identical with each other . They think they raise a serious objection when they say that one cannot be equal to three As if the dogma stated that one God is three Gods or one ! Person three Persons ! Most of the difficulties of detail be met by an accurate statement of the dogma. These difficulties are in reality but two real distinction of the Persons. of an act identical with its principle as well as with the Divine Essence. and the second on the : principle that origin implies inferiority. A Manual of Catholic Theology. it not absolutely inconceivable that a substance as wealthy as the Divine should possess Itself in several ways and if so. from the axiom. iv. as such. p reci ecessO rs. are no more identical among Themselves than the forms of possession are identical. It must also be able to manifest Itself in several Possessors." it only follows that They all possess the same Essence through identity with the same and not that They are also identical in the form of possession. Hence . II. Person and Essence no more represent the same side of this " Supreme Thing " than cognition and " " Person is the Supreme Thing as volition.JOO. (i) the notwithstanding their identity . 2. with one and the same absolutely simple Essence and (2) their perfect equality in every perfection." still. not of an accidental. . "Essence" is It as object of possession. He Jhe second difficulty. i. such We only touch here as we have been attempting to give. The altogether simple. "Things which are identical with the same thing are identical with each other. notwithstanding rests The first difficulty the origin of one Person from another. Who. viz. The second difficulty is solved thus: An origin in * God is the result. may Difficulties upon the chief difficulties which may still remain. further. Bunion of form of possession of the Essence.350 CHAP. possessing itself. but of an essential act that is.

110. the revelation of the Trinity has. the dogma of the Trinity has a certain philosophical * nce of the J dogma. or merely by connec. in general.] The Evolution of tfie Trinity. The Position and Importance of of the Trinity in Revelation. its revelation cannot be said to be necessary. inasmuch as it adds clearness and precision to our notions of a living and personal God. (pbjcctum friiitionis beatificans. and manifests this power equally in the Three Persons. Moreover.PART II. it shows God as He is in Himself. a substantial value inasmuch as of God. but merely accidental. II. the greater the knowTrinity in-" r their knowledge of God and upon such knowledge. the Mystery I. objcctnm glorifica tion is) I. The dogma thus prevents pantheistic and Still. which essentially tends to subsist not in one but in three Persons. the communication of the Nature by the Father does not from a power and wealth founded on His personality.CHAP. SECT. iv ia ":LJ tion and not by identity with the Divine Essence. however useful it may be from this point of view. because. 351 wise essential. importance. unlike natural knowledge. superficial deistic theories on God and the world. and vice versa. power. as such necessity would destroy the transcendental (supernatural) character of the dogma. although result in a different form in each. by Faith an anticipation of and introduction to the immediate vision of the Divine Essence and a pledge of its reality. but from the power of the common Nature. Hence ledge the greater the beatitude. operating ad extra with supreme freedom. and wisdom. and discloses His internal life and activity. The revelation of the Trinity further leads us into the . The revelation of the Trinity has its proper and essential significance in relation to our supernatural knowledge of God (i) as object of beatific fruition. Considered in relation to our natural knowledge of Philosophical importGod. The beatitude of intellectual creatures consists inTheknowin the love of God consequent Wherefore. thus making the knowledge fruition of '" life. (2) as object of glorification . It it essentially increases our knowledge has also a special value. perfect and selfsufficient.

2. knowledge of an a SECI. [COOK n. a love full ol unknown to natural man. the delight. beatitude and glory. love which tion of it God begets. In the trinitary origins especially. for the right understanding of the supernatural works of God in the world. delight of sharing one's happiness with others. The knowledge of God. whereas the unity of the Three Persons reveals the beatitude of God as possessing in a wonderful manner the element which is the flower and condiment even of created happiness that is. self-glorification. Our knowledge of the Trinity increases God's external glory. in the Holy Ghost.35 2 CHAP. /- i i . even in this life. These works bear such a close and essential relation to the internal productions in God. far above anything that external manifestations could teach us. be to the Father.. and thus to complete their finite worship by referring it to an infinite This is done especially in the formula " Glory worship. revelation of the internal Divine self-glorification renders it possible to creatures to join in the honours which the Divine Persons receive from each other. that their essence. the Divine fecundity and tendency to communication appear as objectively infinite. which represents God as the highest Good in quite a new light. coupled with the admiring r . real. and object can be understood only . .. The influence which the knowledge of the Trinity exercises on the perfection of God's glorification by creatures affects very essence. and so enables us to worship the Divine Persons separately it reveals in God an infinite. reason. . constitutes also the external glorificae by His intellectual creatures the glorification : increases in perfection with the perfection of the knowledge. it proposes for our worship not only the Divinity as a whole.. but each of the Holders and Possessors of the Godhead. ^ internal manifestation of God's greatness and therefore producing. the Divine Persons as Principle or Product glorifying . power. through the Son. goodness and love. A Manual of Catholic Theology." in the each other in the most sublime manner Son as : The dogma Trinity \\\. the Father glorified His perfect Word and Image. The revelation of the Trinity is of great importance on God's supernatural works. It discloses the internal greatness and glory of God as an object of our admiration and adoration its . and Both in the Holy Ghost as the infinite Effusion of their Love The infinitely more than in any external manifestation. iv.JIO.

just as in God the tive Holy Ghost is communion of God with His He is Love between Father and Son. by gratuitous love. that urge Him to multiply His Son's extra. viz. and not from His creative power. ' when they are considered as an external reproduction. adoptive sonship has its ideal. the ground of its possimotive. we gather the possibility of a participation in the Divine Nature. It is God's love of His only-begotten Son. of the internal productions and relations of God. God. Thus He intends to bring into existence His adoptive children in order that they may glorify His In the adoptive paternity and His only-begotten Son. as such.] The Evolution of the Trinity. a real revelation ad extra. It is also the foundation of the possibility of adoptive filiation . and CHAP. From this point of view. As in human relationships we cannot conceive adoptive I. (2) by the Incarnation. and the delight He finds in His possession. is a reflex of the Trinitarian productions and relations. the Pledge and Seal of As the grace of adop- sonship. Hence the natural Sonship in God is the ideal of all adoptive sonship on the part of God. 353 iv. filiation we must consider also the manner in which it is image ad brought about. is admitted by grace to a participation in the dignity and glory of the natural Son. as a communication by means of the purest love and liberality. so it has the effect of introducing the creature into the most intimate communion and fellowship with the Divine Persons " : That our 2 fellow- A . it bears to the Person of the bility. and its final object in the procession of the Holy Ghost. The supernatural works which here come under consideration are the union of God with His creatures (i) by Grace. Grace elevates the creature to be the adoptive son of The Trinity The adopted son. The natural filiation in God must likewise be considered as the proper God motive and object of the adoptive filiation.PART II. sonship without referring to natural sonship. its Holy Ghost this essential relation. Further. for only from the fact that in there exists a substantial communication of His Nature. considered in its origin. so likewise in the supernatural order the adoptive sonship of the children of God cannot be rightly understood without referring to the Sonship of the only-begotten Son of God. that the the Pledge and Seal of the adoptive sons.

For the same reason. the Incarnation is first of all and in the strictest sense a continuation ad extra of the eternal origin of the Son of the Incarnation must not be conceived merely as God or any one of the Divine Persons taking flesh. where the life of grace first appears in its fulness. in . no. Hilary. Holy Ghost. naturally called to be. . Senn. but as the incorporation of a Person gone forth from God.354 CHAP.. SECT. can bring the Holy Ghost. governs the world is . His humanity. in special connection with His mystical body. . ii / T i N Christ (i John i. . : The Trinity be the Father of His only Son. [BOOK n. is the born internally and externally heir of His kingdom through Whom God reigns over and . Whereas in grace we have first an invitation and then. A this Manual of Catholic Theology. c. lastly. Who proceeds from Him. as Son of God. Who. the naming of the Three Persons is as essential in the Sacrament of regeneration and adoption as the faith and confession of the Trinity are the normal its Hence also the Fathers pointed reception. 1. to God ^ration."" secondarily.. and that a full and perfect development of the life of grace is impossible without the knowledge of the Trinity. St. St. God and The of His relation to the Father and and precisely of that Person Who.. sqq. Dom. 68 (in Orat.) : " Behold how soon thy profession as soon as thou hast confessed of faith has been rewarded condition of . Hence in the New Testament. the head of the whole universe Who. and thus make the "seal and bond of the Trinity" the seal and bond of transfigured creation. x. ship may be with the . Father and with His Son Jesus From of the life it follows that the triune God is the God of grace." 2. i.-. thou thyself hast been adopted as a son of God the Father. as Word and Image of God. as the First-born of all creatures. through His hypostatic mission ad extra. out that the faith of Christians in God the Father transcends reason and opens the way to adoptive sonship. a continuation of the Trinitarian productions and relations.. Peter Chrysol. the relations of man to God and man's communication with God are always attributed to one or other of the Divine Persons. iv. Cf. is the living testimony by which He reveals Himself Who. De Trin. 3).

CREATION AND THE SUPERNATURAL ORDER .BOOK III.

. and man composed of both matter and spirit. One in Substance and Three in Person. God raised them passing to a supernatural order of existence. speak of the Supernatural Order to which angels and men were raised. In the first part. infinite!) perfect and infinitely happy in Himself of His own goodness and almighty power. entitled Creation. making them not merely creatures but His adopted children.Division of GOD. Hence this book will be divided into two parts. we shall speak of the origin and the natural end and endowments of creatures. however. not to acquire but to manifest His perfection freely made out of nothing spiritual and material beings. and destining them to a supernatural union with Him. In the second part we shall natures. received gifts far surall that their nature could claim. These creatures He endowed with every perfection required by their various Angels and men. not to increase His happiness.

i. v. . under They may three heads We shall spiritual.) and for God (ch. as already noticed. God have God for their origin and be grouped. CREATION.) Angels (ch. outside : : .).). and composite. iv. the Material World (ch. material.357 ) PART I. iii. therefore divide this part into five chapters The Universe created by God (ch. and Man (ch. ii. things ALL end.).( .

Anselm. Fathers treat of Creation in their writings against the pagans and Manichseans. . Dist.q.. i. says. necessarily.. of His own goodness and almighty power. "If any one doth not confess (sess.. 20 Kleutgen. Among the Schoolmen.-4 Manual jj Catholic Theology. c.. ix. 45. things outside : . and Contra Gentes. . Suarez. [BOOK in. in.. produced out of nothing by God to God. AII finite beings owe their existence to God. Our conception of God . . both spiritual and material. SECT.. . i). Thorn. The Origin of all things by Creation out of nothing. . as the only Being existing other beings must. cc. and the commentaries thereon by /Egidius and Estius St. It also implies that these other beings owe their whole substance. have been.. .. .. in some . i. ii. indivisible. : . with all its accidents and modifications. . Hi.. 5-9 Peter Lomb. the Divine Substance being simple and God cannot be produced from or made out of it they can only be called into existence out of their nothingness. "This one God. I sqq. diss. all . chap.. .. Again. I. . THE UNIVERSE CREATED BY GOD. that the world and all things contained therein. Phil. . following the Fourth Lateran Council. ." Thus the Vatican Council. T way or other. owe their existence to Him. CHAPTER THE I.. 3. by the power of God.\\. CHAP. " God exists of Himself" is the fundamental dogma concerning God the fundamental dogma concerning all things else is that "they are produced out of nothing by God. Metaph. .. see St. mediately or immediately..... as to their whole sublet him be stance. spiritual and corporal And again. at the very beginning of time made out of " nothing both kinds of creatures. .. MonoL. implies that I. disp...

Ixxxviii.g. If God in His external works were dependent on pre-existing matter. both in the Old and in the New Testament. in Hebrew the verb N?3 already had the fixed signification which the Latin creare afterwards acquired. by the Greek Fathers. by which. scripture. gives abundant and decisive testimony to the dogma 1. He . could not be described as Being pure and simple. nothing are made. of the creation of This dogma is things out of nothing. 69. i. of all things visible Church confessed the of heaven and and invisible. II. often. matter already existing yet this operation is described as . never mentioning any exception. 26). 5). of course. xi. as entirely self-sufficient God would not be "the First and the Last. indeed. no such specific name. which. whereas When out " of. 2." or.g. . can be understood of the fashioning of unformed . Pre-existing matter. Many scriptural expressions. The formula is also amplified into. not. tion of the first This definition is merely an explana. 359 i anathema "(can. iic / urja//oi KOI /ur]oa/xw ovrav. He is the Founder (e. from the very Almighty God earliest ages. 12. starting from absolute non-being and replacing it by being. or ! OUK ovrwv). is nowhere spoken of. the matter out of which things "out of no matter. Ps. The Latin Church 7rotrjr//C) has always attached to the verb creare the meaning of " the Greek Church possessed "production out of nothing .] The Universe Created by God. and Conservator of heaven and earth He is the Author of the spiritual as well as of the material world (Col. of anything. earth. Productio rei ex nihilo sui et subjecti . and of God's absolute dominion over the world.CHAP. the Supporter. cii. of all things if outside of Him anything existed independently of Him. 16). Over and over again Holy Writ represents God as the Principle of all that is. would be impossible." pure and simple that is. as Almighty pure and simple. "not out means." "the Beginning and the End. Heb. in the case of simple beings like spirits.PART I. of the Divine Power." or. Ixxvii. the to be the Maker. 3. Creation " is is nothing (de nihilo or ex nihilo. e. the It described as a production from. E< 11 ^jJ words of the Apostles' Creed. implicitly contained in the scriptural all descriptions of the Divine Essence. Holy Scripture.

3." This clearly indicates that before the creation of heaven and earth no finite thing whatever existed. " In the beginning was the Word. we are told that the earth "was void and empty. viii. In the narrative of Gen. we are forced to conclude that time itself began with the creation of heaven and earth. personal God. the Hebrew verb &O3. 21. is undoubtedly expressed correctly by the mother of the Machabees when speaking to her son " Look upon heaven and earth. Word " of In the beginning God created. Yet the production of heaven and earth is given as the first creative action. from the fact that they do not exist necessarily. and all that is in them and consider that God made them out of nothing (t OVK ovTfuv. The two notions are correlative. "* entering into the very substance." and also with Prov. i. i. jjj p o t ie un p rejudiced mind the dogma of creation is as plain as the dogma of a self-existing. and infinity. i. Things outside of God must. r ' A Manual q/ Catholic Theology. the subsequent operations except at the creation of man.. and. 28). j . Again. depend for their existence on some other being. is never used except to express an action proper to God alone. the product of water and air but of the almighty If we compare the first words of Genesis. possibly to indicate that the animals are not God. notably the operations of His sovereignty. vii. so that it supposes a dominion over matter which can belong to none but its Creator. Hence the sense of Gen. this verb is used to describe the it does not occur again in the account of first production . as the foundation of the subsequent operations. i. 2 Mach. although not necessarily designating a production out of nothing. absolute independence. [BOOK ill. it besides. . 22 sqq. John. ought certainly to have been mentioned. ver. and in ver. before this creative act.360 CHAP. 27. The narrative purto give a full account of the origin of the world poses had any matter existed previously to the Divine operation. Creation is further clearly contained in the narra- tive of the first chapter of Genesis. : : Reason. nothing whatsoever existed outside of God." with the first words of the Gospel of St. because the soul of man is produced out of nothing. and consequently that.

Cf. IV. a." It is also certain that no creature has the power to theologically create. and explicitly Time and J 'the universe over and over again. 4. and hold that matter endows itself with life. Simultaneous Beginning of the World and of Time. Consequently. we admit. ought to be is The axiom. Scientists who reject the true axiom. 361 which can be no other than the self-existing God.. even acting as : . because there existed nothing together.. the Creator of all things visible and invisible. q. 3. that all things created have a be sa " & ' beginning in time. SECT. . free from plainly tells us that creative of God. whereas every other notion concerning the origin of things involves a contradiction. made). na. Active creation. 45 . See Bannez. as it does. The best authorities and the best arguments are in favour of the negative. O. . When the world was first called into being time was not yet. states Holy Scripture implies throughout. but it is certainly not proved that no being whatever can produce things out of nothing. .PABT l. that by nature or art nothing can be made out of nothing. because this power has ever been asserted by the Church and by the Fathers to be an exclusive attribute of God. is The c CHAP. Godaione * can create is an attribute of God alone. I. was defined by the Fourth Council of the Lateran " There is one true God. in creature. or production out of nothing. i. It is. I. It is true. Ex the last to raise such an objection. notion of creation. nothing cannot be urged against the dogma of creation.nine vivum ex vivo. implying. without any yet our reason analogy in the operations of creatures . Book II. indeed. That no .J Ttie Universe Created by God. SECT. The " question whether a creature could be used as an instrument in the act of creation " is answered differently by different theologians. all beings outside of God are created directly by Him and by Him ' alone. in the same way as eternity and omnipresence. has ever actually created anything. without the intervention of any other creature. even a shadow of contradiction.. De Pot. quite a peculiar conception. 76. 112. q. an instrument of God. power is a necessary attribute nihilo nihil fit (Out of nothing. St. Thomas. infinite power.

"in the beginning" evidently mean the i. This meaning is an obvious one j it is admissible and is often it fits in with the context (cf. viii. because it is part of the Divine Life but it is also an act of the free Will of God. [BOOK III. i. . . E. e. especially in order to contrast it with the eternity of God. a thing does not exist necessarily. receive existence. is nothing call the world into existence." the temporal beginning of the world. 5 4. is It possible." Things not existing of themselves and " things not yet existing or not " Holy Scripture points out existing before. iii. Ixxxix. A j. opinion. " made both kinds of creatures (Vat. 22). Hence time and the world " or. had a beginning." as it is usually expressed in the " God. had like- From this. . Ps. of the Word of God. Gen. time. considered as existing in God. and of the election by grace. as it is in God. under which His works are can evidently determine a time for the beginning of their existence. i. Prov. John i. the words very beginning of time. Council. i. if . i). that the creative act itself. ECT. the external efficacy of the Divine act which caused it to be. realization. it is certainly not necessary to demonstrate the impossibility of the opposite is enough to show that a beginning in time and that the necessity of eternal existence These two propositions are evident cannot be proved. k e g an a ^e same moment . II. sess. . still less does necessarily exist always and God. the world was created the beginning of time. to be In the narrative of Creation. III.JLI2.362 CHAP. however. as a matter of fact. the i) (John . i. To defend the Catholic dogma that. If the World came into being with time. begin to be. Eph. it does not follow wise a beginning. 9 John " " In the beginning was the Word xvii. the world had a beginning. insinuated in other texts.g. The creative act. c. . in Whose power it for.. and therefore God is absolutely free to fix a time for its but the Divine decree to . it is to determine all the conditions to exist. This act is necessarily eternal. i. Word was before things began that is. Thus the formula "production out of nothing" has the twofold meaning. Thecreative etcniai. capable of undergoing change. at the very beginning of language of the Church in .g. Manual of Catholic Theology.

SECT. proposes an intermediate opinion. The Catechism of the Council of Trent.. art. 2 most modern theologians. Capreolus in I Sent. it merely negative. such that. and the generality of theologians things explain the dogma by two familiar analogies of : existence on the preserving depend influence of God in the same manner as a non-luminous body depends for its light on the source of light. 46. r i. /. ii. q. if this influence were withdrawn. and as for their continued the life of the We body depends on the influence of the soul. implies a direct action of the Divine Power and the immediate presence . and goodness . just stated remains intact whichquestion be answered. Can our reason conceive a creation from 363 IV. Pot. d. all eternity ? CHAP. it is all just as by His supreme power.J The Universe Created by God. Again.. iii.. Greg. of eternal creation. amply debated 1. we leave it to creation the disputations of philosophers... like creation.. Conservation. i. this positive conservation is not indirect mere protection against i. a. The 17 . . and q. : God The Divine Conservation is is xatureot conserva- not not to destroy creatures He must exercise some active influence on them. c. i. 2. of Valentia. d. De I. 31.. when the things made by Him could continue to exist without the action of His infinite power. Hence the Divine Conservation affects even the incorruptible substances of spirits it affects matter and form. Hi.. disp. reader will find I. i.. must not believe that God is the Creator and Maker as to consider that. a. but positive for not enough God . Cajetan in These maintain the following deny it : Estius in 2 Sent. the creature at once would return into nothing. God the Conservator of all things. it MemJty an question. No created beings can continue to exist unless sustains and preserves them. 13. . and the connection of both in short. q. sqq. Thomas. : God in all things that He conserves. a required for the continuance of created existence. Henry of Ghent. Contra Gentes. q.e.. As the Catholic dogma ever way this vexed in St.l. 1 in I. The possibility Albertus Magnus. destructive agencies but a direct Divine influence on the very being of the creature. For. it is co-extensive with the creative act. 46. wisdom. that is to say. . I. of all things in such a way work was completed.

at least as nor by a positive action . My St. can influence. much for its continuous as for its initial existence. . . does not being. 21. it ciii. pt. and I work" (John v. if not called by Thee ? (See also Roman or Catechism of the Council of Trent. Not to conc serve the necessity and nature of this Divine follows that God. And xi. i. From this point of view. Ps. The "derivative existence" of creatures stands to the "selfexistence " of God in the same relation of dependence as the rays of light to the source of light. 29) nothing. Necessity serva'tion. Catechism. and shall return to their dust" " Last of all hath spoken to us by His Son. in the " " words. 28). But if Thou turn away Thy question face they shall be troubled Thou shalt take away their breath. Father worketh until now. the being upheld. 3) things by the word of His power (Heb. n. E i. . 17). it does not exist necessarily. and they shall fail. can anything endure. A itself : ence. and move. . ciii. Paul refers to the passive relation. absolutely speaking. . cannot give itself The fact that a creature actually exists. all i. 29). and as the acts of the soul to the substance of the soul. . cannot or any other creature as to its whole subdestroy stance neither by suspending a positive conserving influ- From action (cf. if Thou wouldst not ? " or be preserved. In Him we live. II. 26). which the creature regards the substance of things does not possess. A Manual of Catholic Theology. [BOOK ill. the preserving influence of God on His creatures at once appears as a continuous creation. " How . they would at once fall back into that this Scripture declares when it says (Wisd. (Ps. and be (Acts xvii. but depends on an external cause as . ^_ IIo< all things have been brought into being: in like manner. by Whom He made the world.. creature. on the contrary.. unless His continuous providence aided and conserved them with that same force whereby they were originally produced. : . Other passages of Holy Scripture bearing on the 2. change its contingent character although it exists. chap. The necessity of positive Conservation and its peculiar character of a preserving activity result from the fact that the existence of creatures can in no way be due to the creatures themselves what is not. destroy His creatures by simply suspending Hii> creative III.) " are the following.. upholding " " 2. .364 CHAP.

God could annihilate His creatures. so that all positive reality caused by the activity of creatures owes its being directly to the action of God co-operating and The absolute and universal dependence God implies that they can no more act as of creatures on co-producing with the created cause. 14) 14. the nations of the earth for health in . 3. which consists " " natural in inducing another person to perform an action or "general. neither hath He pleasure in the destruction of the for He created all things that they might be and living . E 114 ^i_ action. "immediate" or "direct. and not merely upon their substance . : . 13. . however. our reason only necessity leads us to presume that the Divine Will.PART I. God. causes without a positive Divine influence than. Conthe (concursus) to signify a . Cf. q. God ceases His conserving influence. which gave them existence and conserved them until now. 3. - opposed to and more powerful than the Divine conserving CHAP. Who conserves their substance. i." because the Con. it can be demonstrated that their eternal conservation by God is a moral as to material things. art. without such influence.. it is most probable that He never will destroy any of the direct and immediate products of His creative power. to distinguish it from moral co-operation. also concurs in their operations. 365 i. God the Principle of all Created Action. will never change no reason being known why it should." as opposed to the supernatural and special concurrence required to elevate our actions to the supernatural order. a. He made SECT. Some notion of this men on ^ e from an explanation of the technical terms in Divine gathered i l which the Schoolmen describe currence " it. /. Created forces can only change the conditions upon which the preservation of substantial forms depends when these conditions cease. Divine co-operation may be T^ SchoolI. and there is no poison of destruction 1 them " (Wisd. participation in motion (cnrsus) of another being " physical co-operation. and De Potentia. they can begin or continue to exist. Of spiritual creatures. : Although. q. speaking absolutely. They call " it " COilCUfSliS. 104. currence in question directly bears upon the energy and action of creatures.] The Universe Created by God. St. 5. " God made not death. Thomas.

The intrinsic reason for the necessity of the Divine Him we .. . and. God the creature. without hindering the operation of secondary causes. and by Him." embraces both the act and the effect of the and cause. 22). 6). 36). working at the same time through and with The expression " " the action of God in every thing that acts conveys the idea that God intrinsically animates the created cause. however much soul animates the body. i. i A faculties. Manual of It is Catholic Theology. Divine soul of its own powers and faculties. n. He reacheth from end to end mightily. pt. the above notion of the Divine Concurrence is admitted by all theologians. giveth to all life. "My " 17) . and ordereth all things sweetly. and I work" (John and all things. development. side by side with the creature. Although He be not far from every one He Who of us. working with and by it as the Proofs from r d an d s'c'rtlire> The Divine Concurrence must be thought of as a force added to.. ii. 28) (f . He (as it were) goes before it (pr&veniat\ since His hidden might belongs to each thing. Rom. however. but as the animating. xi. Father worketh It is . "There are diversities of operations. Who xii. but the same God " worketh all in all (6 t vfpyuv TO. when preaching to the Athenians the God Whom they worshipped unwittingly He is not far from " every one of us. 2. it and it is thing that exists : the things that are intrinsic moved and that act He in also impels by power to motion and action such a way that. for in 25. and " further described as effects "a Concurrence 4 in the operations it because of the secondary causes. until now. . iravra tv iraaiv. for in Him we live and move and be (Catechism of the Council of Trent. or which ' ' : ' directly attribute to Him the effects of created activity. Holy Scripture refers to the Divine Concurrence in the texts which ascribe to God the operations of creatures. live and move and be" (Acts xvii. " Not only does God watch over and administer every they find may in differ as to its further . and in Him are all things " avroC KUI ot' aurot cai ttc ctvrbv ra iravra.366 CHAP. I Cor. and breath. v. The Fathers a necessary consequence Holy Scripture of the relation of dependence of the creature on God. [BOOK III. ch. IUpon the whole. "Of Him. or operating not. as the Wise Man testifies.' Wherefore it was said by the Apostle.

2. but not the imperfection. St. not the lameperfect motion of a lame foot.] TJie Universe Created by God. sin comes from God in as far as it is a positive act and a real being. Everything that exists. In the production of physically or morally defective. inordinate. As to the nature of the in manner qSol co-operation. most clearly in the generation of living things. be independent of Him. Nothing in the creature that deserves the name of being can possibly be independent of the But if the effects of created activity were not Creator. CHAP. 2 . This appears to some extent. 367 in co-operation with secondary causes lies. The principle which proves the necessity of the Divine Concurrence. II. whatever is not-being connected with the effects produced or with the action of the created cause is not attributable to the Divine Concurrence the defect or defi: ciency in either the act or its effect must be ascribed to some defect or deficiency in the secondary cause which God does not prevent or remove. and the commentators on HowfarGod fre^tliu Divine Concurrence and the which God influences the activity of creatures. The burning question is how God influences free will. But whatever is defective. that they cannot be conceived independently of Him. Thomas. God co-operates in the way that the soul co-operates in the imThe motion. iii. speaking generally. Essential Being. defines also its measure and its extent. Cf. the commencement and continuation of which are so peculiarly and eminently the work of God. or morally wrong in other words. De Malo.PART 1. in like manner. all manifestations of a power good in itself. the Divine Concurrence is a mere 2 Sent. are dependent for existence on the direct operation or co-operation of God. being or reality to which an imperfection attaches. I. but not in as far as it is a deviation from justice. is the work of God. q. Extent of the Divine concur*. great controversies exist among Theologians. they would. Here new and substantial beings receive an existence. Thus. . According to the followers of Molina. effects somewhat . all positive and real being. or an influence acting side by side with the . the positive is the work of the soul ness. dist. directly and immediately attributable to God.. i "* the absolute dependence of all derivative being on the Reason. a. 37.

for the same difficulty and mystery are met with when we pass from a mere machine The only serious objection against to a living organism. q. Thomas holds that it is a true moving of the creature that is. an impulse given to the creature before it acts (impulsus ad agendum}. is really the foundation and necessary condition of this power. The application by God of the created power to its object differs greatly. . its is that it seems to destroy the self-determining and self-acting power of creatures.. iii. as He conserves this power . 105. like the motion of a tool but organic. The mystical depth of the Thomistic theory and the difficulty of expounding its innermost nature in set sentences tell in favour rather than against it. and (4) " powers act (De Pot. The Divine motion is not external and mechanical. appears at first sight more in harmony with the language of Revelation and of the Church. plant by the action of its root. and expresses better the dependence of the Creature on God.368 A Manual of Catholic Theology. whereas is internal and proceeds from God as its life and better analogy is afforded by energizing principle. Thomas himself resolves the Divine Concurrence into these " four elements God is the cause of all and every action : (i) inasmuch as He gives the .. a. To enter into a detailed discussion of the two conflicting systems would be beyond the scope of the present work. The theory of St. 7). The school of St. q. far from destroying the self-acting power of the being to which it gives an impulse. But this objection draws all its force from a misconception. St.. as originally proposed by A him. The latter action is power to act (2) inasmuch inasmuch as He applies it inasmuch as by His power all other . Thomas. the impulse which the root gives to the life of the plant. (3) tion of a tool to saw the former its merely external and accomplished by local motion. like the motion imparted to a living Such an organic action. from the application of a tool to its work. however. created cause. the theory .. from the applicato the action its work (" as the carpenter applies his to divide a log "). Further information may be found in the commentaries on /. [BOOK m. He borrows the notion of applying the power to act to the action.

THE UNIVERSE CREATED FOR GOD. first. and in which they find their rest. 5). in a way. or tend to be good . Creatures are either good SECT "shas. Essential relation of Creatures to God as the Final Object of t/ieir Being. let sess. does not expressly of God is the final object but this is . God cannot be other than the highest and final object. define that the glory self-evident. are. For all its that is. n. I. we find. and Tendencies. three respects the manifestation of the Divine glory 2 B is God .( 369 ) CHAPTER II. dogma and reason alike show that the highest and final object of creatures as such is creatures- " If not in themselves. that the good to which they ultimately In each of these tend. c. for the glory of If tures to are ordained to represent. Whose property they and on Whom they depend . The council. all its particular ends and objects must be subordinate to this one great end.. its end in itself. At the same time. SECT. Besides. r 1 5. they possess and enjoy the ^ea Uthe end already - WE good which is in them. thirdly. that they means of their own goodby ness and beauty. him be anathema" (Vat. may here take it for granted that every creature CHAP. 'but in the glorification of the Creator. Council. any one shall say that the world was not created for the glory of God. and find the fulfilment of their tendencies in the union with the good to which they tend. indeed. . I. iii. we consider in God as their detail the essential relation of crea- Creator secondly. that they exist for the service of God. the supreme goodness and beauty of the final object. with purely and simply component parts and elements is made if the " world " God. A ctivity. can. however.

xvi. tional creatures. They. is in God. saith the Lord God" (Apoc. I Cor. even their own beatitude. everything " The Lord hath made all things for Himself. shine forth in the union of . Their final or highest object. and by Him. and. their submission to accrue to creatures Him and the majesty and glory which from His being the good of all that is good and the centre of all being. Travra. This doctrine "I abundantly set forth i. applies with greater force to rational creatures. Him with Him is as the resting-place in of all their tendencies. and For Whom and by Whom all things (&' bv TO. ii. Without some relation to Him rational life would necessarily be imperfect. as it were. . God's actual destination of for His own purpose is expressed in Prov. Heb. so as to be used for its sole benefit. appears in a particular form the majesty of God's inner perfection and beauty is reflected in the being of creatures the majesty of His power and dominion is manifested in . [BOOK in. and they use for their own purposes belong what they are and possess the beatitude towards which fore. ." The 4 accomplishment and fulfilment of His purpose is that all should be most intimately united to Him " Afterwards the end. thereentitled to everlasting duration. but have a dignity of their own. the beginning and the end. are all things" (Rom. 24-28). then the Son also Himself shall be subject unto Him " that put all things under Him. Holy Scripture. Scripture. iravra iceu things. 10). that God may be all in all in (unto) all Him. must be referred to the glory of . W'hat we have said of the relation of creatures generally to God as their Final Object. besides. are xi. have in These. ii. the possession of God constitutes the beatitude of rational Their whole being. to themselves. TTCKTIV. 8). : : . . and are. and when all things shall be subdued unto Him. they tend is a perfection connatural to them. xv. their life and activity. &' ov TO. The salient point of their perfection consists in the fact that they cannot be subjected purely and simply to any other creature. however. II. am Alpha and Omega. cannot be used as mere means for the benefit of other creatures. (ra iravra Iv Especially of creatures. "Of Him. A Manual of Catholic : Theology. even more than irrathemselves a final object they . and beings. 36) " " .370 CHAP.

precisely by the consciousness that their knowledge and love of the internal beauty of God are the means of His external glorification. and with Him. are compelled to glorify is. n. however. i. and to in end creatures serve Besides glorifying God their imperfect way. i. through their own fault. III. The glory of this God all irrational then. " Thou art worthy. to publish. 371 Creatures endowed with reason ought. Him by . The beatitude to be attained by the rational creature really consists in a perfect union with God by means of knowledge and love. and for iv. the beauty of their Prototype. Jesus Christ unto Himself. felicity which union contains at the same time the highest of the creature and the most perfect glorification of the Creator the highest happiness of the blessed is afforded . thee . according to the purpose of His " unto the praise of the glory of His grace (Eph. glory and honour and power.. and name. and that the fruition of God is a means thereto. xxvi. and glory" (Deut. God. Thy n). to receive 5. Filled with the fruit of justice. that the felicity of the creature is the highest object. O Lord our God. to Holy " Scripture. n). the final object of others are subservient. by means of their natural and supernatural likeness to God. thee higher than all He hath created to His 18. "Who hath predestinated us unto the adoption of children through will. Nothing shows better that the an object subordinate to the glory of God. imply the possession of God.] The Universe created for God. life all their aspirations should be spent in the service of their ought to tend to union They alone are able to give Him true honour and worship. The supreme felicity of rational creatures consists in This does not. own " praise. through Jesus Christ. 6) . based upon true knowledge and love. ' Their whole Master. .. more than CHAP. fail to glorify Him by obtaining eternal felicity for themselves. things. 15 ^tll! others. all . unto the glory and praise of God" (Phil. This doctrine also is expressed in countless passages of Scripture. than the fact that those who. . will they were and have been felicity of creatures is created" (Apoc. The Lord hath chosen nations which make 19). manifesting His justice.PART I. because all Thou hast created things.

known to man and angels would still manifest the glory Maker and attain the final object of all things. and represent the Divine perfections just as a work of art itself represents and reveals the ideal of the artist. and of the ends of beautifully expressed by Lactantius.) of the world by God it is the function of Divine Providence." he says. We worship Him that we may earn immortality. being made like unto the angels. vii. [BOOK ni. 2). " (Ps. xviii. 1 ' A Manual of Catholic Theology.II! ii. The Providence of God. and conducted by Him to its final He owes it to His wisdom so to govern the destination. God watches rules the 1 1 6. we may serve our Father and Lord for ever and be the eternal kingdom of God " (Instit. material things have also to serve rational creatures in the attainment of their perfection and final felicity. world as to attain the end which He Himself has ordained for it. we may worship Him. necessary consequence of the absolute dependence of the world on its Maker is that the world must be I. man may use it for the glory of his Creator." that kingdom of man." must not be understood of Creatures reflect in themselves rational creatures only. but also to the " The world is made for man. "^. and the firmament dcclareth the work of of their His hands particular. Our reason. II.372 CHAP. man in " The We We know Him that were born that we might know God. The existence of an all-governing Providence is a fundamental article of Faith. that we might be born. A governed by God. cannot separate the idea of an all-penetrating Providence . The expression "All things in creation are made to reveal or manifest the glory of God. 6). " The heavens show forth the the glorification of God. We are rewarded with immortality that. The government all (Supra. The hierarchy is of creation. 219 224. whether Hence worlds unit be taken notice of by men or not. They belong not only to the kingdom of God. pp. glory of God. " world was made. our conscience. SECT. inasmuch as things to their end of Reason and Scripture. consists in conducting for by providing each and all them the good to which they ultimately tend.

is governed by God The general 2.. This. does not interfere with the free will of rational creatures. all perfect certainty. He permits and . Although God. We . wills & & . but also regulates and arranges the particular circumstances and conditions under which every creature to act. 373 ' from the idea of God. preordained. and Matt. because their freedom is and nothing of what itself in part of the Divine plan and harmony with its nature. good higher than that individual. He not only establishes general laws and provides the means for obeying them.. or is with by Divine Providence.. of His He virtue Wisdom and Infinite Power. i r of the Divine bearing upon the natural HowDivin. things : He absolutely intends fails to happen. reaching from end to end mightily and ordering all things sweetly " (sess.. however. n 16 SEC almost on every page. Zi^ vi. still. . God's Pn>vidence both general and as well as every creature in particular. III. iii. end In is takes a special care of personal beings whose supreme felicity and whose duration is everlasting. and promotes the good of every single creature.) " outline God watcheth over and govcrneth by His : Providence all things that He hath made. and thus to suffer for the general good. or not in harmony the general plan of the universe. even intends individual creatures not to attain their own particular object. in the government of the world. Even the greatest of evils. 1. that is of the world by God is both general to say. leads. cxxxviii. in general as well as in particular and events ultimately procure the glory of God. Hence God's government of the world attains its end unerringly. which is in direct opposition . it affects the world as a whole ..g. characteristics in its order of things. i). governslhe world. c.PAET I. e. 25 The Vatican Council has also defined it in sqq. sin.. with at least permitted.. subjoin some Government of the World. nor does anything happen which He absolutely intends to prevent. i The government and special .. in order to attain the great final object of all. Ps. and controls every single thing and its every motion. . Thus no creature can be placed in a position or subjected to circumstances not foreseen.] The Universe created for God. Holy Writ speaks of Providence CHAP. (Cf. It is not carried out by intermediate agents: God Himself directly watches over.

It is not so well seen in the government of personal 3. however. . and Justice. filial SECT. the best disposition for receiving the full benefit of God's loving Providence. with the intention. The world because God created it according to a well-conceived plan. Si. we can hardly account. is the realization of an artistic ideal. they must be good and beautiful but as they also come from nothing. and image of the Divine Majesty and Beauty. the representation II. The World tJie Realization of tJie Divine Ideal. Hence like aii God. J The Permission because free will is a disturbing element which prevents us from discerning uniform laws of conduct.ji7. their goodness and possess . The greatest difficulty arises from the permission of beings. the former are a real image of . the spiritual and the material. HI. . therefore. viz. The Divine e 1 17. I. because and to glorify Himself by punishing Material nature.374 CHAP ii. TT Divine Ideal. . it. A Manual of Catholic Tfaology. action of God's Providence appears most strikrr in the organization and harmonious working of material ingly nature. cases we fail in particular to see the reason of God's government. We know. Although. can be permitted by jjj e j g a kj e to ma k e j t subservient to His ends Him. Hence all things bear some likeness to God. for knowledge and permission. Realizing the ideal in immense beauty are necessarily imperfect they are perfect only as far as God has endowed them with being. but of producing a work good and beautiful in itself. Of the fundamental forms of being known to us. 4. to the glory of God. [BOOK ill. and some degree of goodness and beauty. is God Himself. each of which reproduces . in our limited sphere of knowledge. and manifests something of the infinite perfection of God. Such humble submission and Goodness.cr. confidence are. we must none the less bow down before His infinite Wisdom. which. ft e wo rid. In as far as they come from God. No single creature can adequately express the _. But the Divine ideal is. not of deriving profit from it. in rational creatures. that all events are in the hand of God and that nothing happens without His evil. Hence the almost infinite variety and multiplicity of created forms. its external representation therefore.

that. and thus attains its and.. 375 of their ideal. that this world is better than . by means of the Incarnation. the best of possible worlds ? In the treatise on God. multiplicity and Theunivene itself has a up into one whole. we may safely say which a creature could any Still excogitate that. Is this world. EC 17 ' Zl! it. . and together representing a harmonious picture of the Divine Ideal. the arrangement of things and their government end better than any other . taken as a whole. and offers it a wide field for The soul of man animating the display of its activities. Notwithstanding variety. we have already shown that God was not bound to create the best of possible worlds. by God are the best conceivable. all. the fecundity of man. but in man it is more complete and com- prehensive. . Moreover. and perfected by the higher. their immense . resulting in the construction of a new being of God.] T/ie Universe created for God. spiritual creatures. given the final preordained by God and the component parts of object the world. V.PART I. it affords God the highest possible glorification. In man the two forms of likeness to the Divine ideal are combined and concentrated in such a manner that the lower is completed are conscious of their likeness to God. unlike material ones. and that a world than which no other could be is the world world" more perfect is an absurdity. . represents the inner fecundity In pure spirits the likeness to God is purer and more sublime. the body is an image of the action of God on the world .. whilst the latter only contain obscure vestiges CHAP. like unto himself. IV. all created beings are bound tending as it were in a mass to the one final object of . fin** object. n. lastly.

De Substantiis \. . 91-101 Suarez. De Angelis (Dogm. although In this way the term absolutely dependent on God. 2 Sent. William of Paris. may dist. are applicable also to God. Dispp. summarized by Petavius. 46-55. is the most comprehensive Separatis. because it represents them as standing between God and the rest of the universe.376 A Manual of Cathode Theology. Thomas. (very complete and deep) Alex.. 8. Bonaventure on the Lombard.. of the Fathers has written a complete treatise on The work De Ccelesti Hierarchia. cc. above man and nearer to God on account of their spiritual nature. and the Church have appropriated this name to them. . xv. THE ANGELS. 2. 1 i i Of these the speculations of the Schoolmen. ii." or " pure spirit. " Existence.. In order . TermiI." ayyeXoc. Authorities.. and taking a share in the government of this world. . and Opusc. is the only one which deals with the subject. p. par. " " is even more expressive of their nature than the Angel terms " spirit. however. Holy Scripture. The doctrine of the Fathers is work on the subject. and it is the source and the model of all . Contra Gentes. [I:OOK in CHAPTER III. . and St. iii. . St. sulted with advantage Petr. the Angelic doctor. that is. office Angel. if not further determined. Lomb. De Spirit. ii. qq. SECT. in.). I. . 118. messenger or designates an office rather than a nature and this not peculiar to the beings usually called Angels.. 1 1 torn." because these latter. The Nature. be con2 sqq. 50-64. De Universo. /. Qq. CHAP. qq.e.. and Origin of the A ngels. 19-40. Creaturis . De Angelis. NONE to the Angels. attributed Dionysms the Areopagite.. The name is envoy.. SECT. of Hales.

CHAP. I likewise an article of Faith that the Angels were created by God. However. 16 . in. but pressly St. or Zebaoth Evil spirits. 30. and more like to God not belonging to this visible world. because this is the privilege of the but were Infinite. C. pages everywhere bear witness to the existence and activity into It is most probable that their existence was part of the primitive revelation. Nor can they be eternal or without origin. Principalities and beings From Genesis to the Apocalypse the sacred Powers. Dominations. of the Angels. . i. Cf. ii.PART L] The Angels. divides these " invisible Thrones. Col. and " The exist- ence of Angels. Ps. i. All other modes of are inconsistent with the spiritual nature of God origin and of the Angels themselves. inasmuch as the real reason why Angels . conceive the Angels as spiritual beings of a The nature II. the documents of Revelation. in Holy Writ. 377 1 ' to prevent the belief that all superhuman beings are gods. always style them Angels. Matt. c. the distorted remains Unaided reason can of which are found in polytheism. but composing an invisible world. because they resemble God only in knowledge. III. q. and only offer knowledge to men in order to seduce them. a certain influence on our world. 46. Thomas. being sufficiently distinguished of God. xxii. 50.. The existence of Angels is an article of Faith. exclusively to the spirits of wickedness. Scripture does not exmention the Angels in its narrative of Creation." " bad and wicked The Greek name spirits. army " from God by their wickedness. higher kind than man. We under God. St. Cf. Paul (Col. It is Angels are cr ' tion.. with and . from which they exercise. 2 sqq." and sometimes also " angels. when speaking of these higher "^jj that is." oa/^uwy (" the knowing or knowledge- giving ") is applied. IV. are often called spirits. 1 6) enumerates them among the things created through the Logos. ethereal and heavenly. or the result of any act of generation or forma/. a. 1. cxlviii. set forth alike in innumerable passages of Holy Scripture and in the Symbols of the Church. made out of nothing. the beings. . it can show the fittingness of their existence. but neither prove nor disprove the existence of pure spirits . They are not emanations from His Substance. Gentcs.

any place. . When Scripture makes heaven their abode. The Fourth Lateran and the Vatican Councils have defined that Angels were not created from all eternity. are not by generation i their immateriality. 119. . and the definition of the Lateran Council was directed against errors not bearing The directly on the time of the creation of the Angels. angelic and mundane" (sess. are to be determined by a comparison with the attributes of God on the one hand." according to St. a beginning? an article of Faith. Incorruptibility and The attributes of the Angels. like the nature of their substance. and with the attributes of man on the other. iii. it is As they are not bound or vain to imagine where they dwell. That the creation of the Angels was contemporaneous with the creation of the world.. therefore. is is [BOOK ill. but j-^jg ancj nasmuc h mma teriality " that they had a beginning. Attributes of the Angels Relation to Space. they partake is substance physical ly simple that is. the Angels partake of as pure spirits. Although their spiritual substance requires no : where were the Angels createa? bodily (corporeal) room.. it is probable that they were created within the limits of the space in which the material world tied to is contained. is not a matter of Faith.). creatures. God . ning spiritual and corporal. i).. V. . Thomas (Opusc. however. The words " simul and. it might be expected that all its parts were created together. is not defined so clearly. still. xxiii. It is not easy to decide where the Angels were created. VI.3/8 A Manual procreated as j of Catholic Theology. at the very beginof time made out of nothing both kinds of creatures. it follows that we are bound to believe that no Angel has been generated. but that is the whole of the universe open to them. probabilities. like man. point in the direction of a simultaneous creation the universe being the realization of one vast plan for the glory of God. considering that they are part and parcel of the universe. this only implies that they are not tied to the earth. SECT. admit of another interpretation. c. ab initio temporis. As the imperfections of man of the perfections of God..

The whole substance of an Angel is alive. however. that their destruction is in itself an impossibility. unlike from place to place. It is. is. as it were. nor can any created cause destroy them. Angels can acquire and lose Observe. without animal or vegetative functions. however. of the two natures in Christ. 33 sqq. in man. or even the other hand. essentially immutable or incorruptible Angels cannot perish by dissolution of their substance. cannot occupy a place so that Relation to sp the different portions of space correspond with different portions of their substance. having like parts. 1. Cf. that they can be present in only one place at a time. The assumed body /. or an instrument for a transitory purpose. whereas. . When they assume a body. Life of tin The life of the Angels is purely intellectual. their union with it is neither like that of soul and body. nor can any such space enclose them. that of man probably it is as swift as thought. they differ from . The Natural Life and Work of the Angels. Angels. composed of indeed. when once created. I. cally simple. 379 - different parts but it is not metaphysi. not. and that a loss of perfection can only consist in a deviation from goodness. As them. and thus can move Their motion is. Thomas. . 51 . moreover. II. Angels differ from the human soul in this. perpetual conservation is to them natural. that the knowledge they once possess always remains. nor do they require a corporal space to live in. St. and therefore more like any the Divine Life than the life of the human soul. instantaneous. iv. nor like the hypostatic union to accidental perfections. that they neither are nor can be substantial forms informing a body.PART I] not The Angels. As regards God no extended relation to space. that the Angel's life is not identical with its substance and also in this.. For this reason they are essentially immortal. SECT.. On God in this.CHAP. that it is . . only an outer garment. life is inferior to the Divine in this. q. Suarez. and also of accidents ( 63). 1 20. in ~E ^_120 because it admits of potentiality and actuality. but because their substance and nature are such that. one The angelic part is life-giving and another life-receiving.

we can only gather from Revelation that it naturally possesses the perfection of the human will. Compared to the Divine Know- ledge. we shall here only touch on the few points in which anything like certitude is attainable. much less man Christ says that even the Angels do not know the time of the last judgment. except those which are peculiar to man Q ^ accoun t o f his composite nature. protect. moreover. Cf. and decrease in perfection. This much can fall revealed on the of the acdvityof the Angeis. move. the imperfection of the angelic. but at the same time also shares to The some extent in the imperfections of the latter. beings possessed xiii. intelligentias. that the Angels cannot naturally see God as He is. enlighten. e. whence the superiority of angelic . exhort. much decrees. or of the hearts of man. 32. Angels. The Fathers call the angels voa^. and essentially less perfect than the Divine Intellect. Thus Scripture makes the knowledge of Angels the measure of human knowledge. directed to fall what is morally good be gathered from what External its choice may is on evil. and is able to perform moral actions and to enjoy true happiness.380 ' A Manual of Catholic Theology. So far But they differ very considerably that is. by virtue of its nature. how and what they think and will. and so forth. also beyond doubt that the power of Angels is superior to : . : knowledge is manifest. as to how Angels live intellect and knowledge of the Angels. or of each other less do they know future free actions. 69 and 80. rationalis the most part inferential but man they call knowledge a being whose knowledge is for is. II. by immediate. It is evident that the Angels are able to perform all the actions of man. angelic will is free as to the choice of its acts. . 20 and in Mark t . Revelation. susceptible of increase 20 "uJ all Theologians agree. in. T^AngdL HI. But it is not.g. introduces Angels acting in various ways they It is speak. As to the will of the Angels. consists in this. according to Scripture and the Fathers. of immediate intuitive that Aoytk-oc. 2 Kings xiv. It is certain from Revelation that the natural intelA -n lect of Angels is essentially more perfect than the human. direct vision that they cannot penetrate the secrets either of the Divine . . IV. [BOOK ux CHAP. Leaving aside the abstruse speculations on this subject. that is.

our souls or upon other spirits. As this power belongs to the angelic nature it is common to both good and bad Angels. V. and feed it with various fancies and lastly. and also move the sense-organs internally they can act on the imagination. and thus to influence their action. man cither for .1 TheAngels. Angelic speech would seem to consist simply in this. They can propose various objects to the senses. we know but little will. exercise a great influence on the lower life of the soul. man ^ - however. their power is circumscribed within narrow limits.. These advantages enable them to produce effects supernatural in appearance. As to the mode of action. Angels over matter exceeds that of man as regards the greater masses they are able to move and the velocity and exactness or appropriateness of the motion. and directs their attention puts an object before them The power of towards it. like with certainty. that the speaker allows the listener to read so much of his Hence Angels thoughts as he wishes to communicate. by their power over matter. although entirely owing to a higher knowledge of the laws of nature and to superior force. Bodies are moved from place to place locally. The Angel acts by means of his God but he neither creates out of nothing. 381 that of man. Angels are enabled to . because the mind of man is unable to grasp things purely But. as the intellect takes its ideas from the imagination. They cannot speak to man as they speak to each other. nor . can converse at any distance the listener sees the thought of the speaker. man the same power Over the human mind. the Angel who wishes to act upon intentionally . they can spiritual. Angels have over the body of as over other material bodies. spirits or minds are only moved " " that is. ^If". The only immediate effect an Angel generates like man.PART 1. can produce by an act of his will. and thus all possibility of error or deception .I_" and on man himself. is to move bodies or forces so as to bring them into contact or separate them. both as regards influence on material things. guide and direct the noblest faculty of better or for worse. CHAP. and thus indirectly on its intellectual life also. . IIL EC . is excluded.

A We is Manual of Catholic Theology. . how6. 10). The Fathers have divided the Angels into nine Orders or Choirs. Virtues ($vva/j. that these names designate various Orders of Angels whence it follows that there are at least nine such Orders not. Writ 1 the five two orders are often named in Holy others are taken from Ephes. 24). however. It is impossible to determine we are the differences between the several Orders of Angels with anything like precision. The i. 2 (cf. Archangels and Angels. It . especially if we take into account the all but unanimous testimony of the Fathers. Number and Hierarchy of the . from Revelation. or are each of a different kind or species. like man. Number of are certain. 21 and Col. Ps. forming an army worthy of the greatness of God. [BOOK in. first two and the . " (Matt. then in the vision of Daniel (vii. justified in accepting it as correct.382 CHAP. i2i. the names of which are taken from the Angels. founded upon differences in natural perfections. The nine 1 1 1. likelihood. that the number of exceedingly great. 153. see infra. > might and power generally.ug) Powers (loit Principalities (ap^ai). HOW many H. each angel has his own personality. (icvptor/j-ec). SECT. that for the last thirteen centuries the number nine has been accepted as the exact number of angelical Choirs. vi. ever. there must exist kmdi? between them at least personal differences that is to say. Considering. Seraphim. Cherubim. is a question upon which Theologians differ. On the supernatural life of the Angels. xii. or constitute several kinds. as if these Angels formed especially the heavenly court. 18). Scripture speaks of "the prince of demons and applies some of the names of angelic Orders to bad fallen angels The as the good I angels (Eph. This army of the King of heaven is mention in Deut. Angels . the three lowest express relations to man the three middle ones only point to . if the Angels can be numbered. Thrones. probably retain the same distinctions because these distinctions are. that there are only nine. last seems clear enough. The three highest Orders bear names which seem to point to constant relations with God. But whether they are all of the same kind. and in many other places. They are : Dominations o-/at). HI. xxx. Scripture. in all ones. 121 I. 12). Angels. Ixvii. i. SECT.

are. their differences. THE MATERIAL UNIVERSE. their position and functions in the universe. . The general truths revealed. The general iv. Who perpetuate species. itself by producing individuals of the same This doctrine is most expressly contained in the narrative of creation in Genesis. and has received the power to whole. the direct work of God. which now propagate themselves by means of generation. far as they are the work of God. . and have thus become the subject-matter of Theology. in as far as they express the relations of natural things to God or to man as their end and object. according to a well-defined plan. and Him and with man. upon the . Organic beings.CHAPTER IV. 122. I. the nature. and the end or its final object of the material world. . truths bearing on this matter may be found out even by natural reason but they have also been revealed to us. SECT. the several species of things. especially in Genesis. act of The God Material world owes existence to a creative The origin teriai world. refer to the origin. THE Theology only in as have relations with things of this world come within the domain of CHAP.. owe their existence neither to spontaneous generation nor to unconscious evolution of inorganic matter and forces each species has been created to represent a Divine exemplar. But Theology is concerned with the natural truths in question only in as far as they have a religious significance that is. has made them Neither the angels nor mere natural evolution made the world what it is. -Theological Doctrines concerning the Material World generally.

. 123. . made it good. and are perfectly adapted to good the ends for which they were created. ^' "^ e to discussion. . That God created the world. SECT ' A The in Manual of Catholic Theology. God. and they were very good 1 r Ibw' en d or object of material beings is the glory of God and the service of man. iv. and the between commencement of the regular government of the world by I. Wisd. but even bad. On this point the words of Genesis are plain enough dogma opposed " : God saw " all (i. xi. This is the Catholic II. [BOOK ill. the history of the formation and ornamentation of this visible universe. The work of . lies _ the creation of the chaos.. SECT. besides these three points.crmation. 1 8). or second creation " the making of the world out of formless : matter" (icrietv rov Koa/uiov e vArjc afjioptyov. Paul By faith we understand that the world was framed by the word of God that from : invisible things visible things might be made pfjfiaTi " (7rtor Ka-rjpTiadai TOUC aluvaQ Geov. and how far it is simply rhetorical or poetical. how far the Mosaic narrative. material beings composing the universe are substance and nature. " and alluded to by St. what appears In the following section we shall state briefly to us to be the better opinion. or first creation. ' 123* 4ood.tvov ytyovtvat. Man is in no wise the servant of the inferior world his will is not deprived of freedom and ruled by the laws of nature.. .. The Doctrinal Portions of Hexahemeron. is contained in the narrative of But the the origin of the world in the Book of Genesis.. of which the earth is the centre and man the king. the Hexahemeron. 3). and consequently has left open . the Mosaic the six days. and made it for the service of man. Heb. The work of '.384 CHAP. He had made. In this sense the Hexahemeron is properly a " Cosmogony. It is not a . things that 31). which held the things of the material world to be not only imperfect. xi. The scope of the present work forbids us to enter into a detailed discussion of this subject. viz. It is described as the work of formation. is of a doctrinal character. Church has never defined. to Manichaeism." in the ancient meaning of the word. H TO /uij EK TO (3\tTr6/j.

but by the Word of God. . the atmospheres. and spans the roof of the house. because it does not deal CHAP. and the work of ornamentation. iv. and gives it a solid floor here He places the vegetable kingdom as an ornament and as a storehouse for the food of living creatures then an inexnext come the haustible supply of light is shed abroad destined for the service of man. has been in favour since the Middle Ages. The production of plants forms the transition between the work of formation . . in the order observed by Moses. in fact. They are disposed in concentric beginning with the outermost: light. The general plan of the Cosmos centres in the idea The Divine that the world is a dwelling-place for man. the adorning and filling in of this framework : the heavenly bodies shed their light on it living things appear. sphere. in the second half. which lay latent in the fluid chaotic mass. we must expect to find the particular productions represented as And.PART L] The Material Universe. because it deals only with the external cosmogony . Who is the expression and image of the Divine Power and Wisdom. . the work of each day appears as part of a magnificent picture in which all the things of this visible world find their place. hands. is a genetic explanation of the work III. made not with wori^oTart.The Cosmos Cosmos as a Divine work of art. a work of art combined with the usefulness of a dwellingorder of the place such is the character of the Cosmos. K 2 C . aspect of the earth. The first half of the narrative describes the formation and placing of the chief components of the Cosmos. Then follows. The division of the six days' work into the work of separation during the first three days. The narrative Architect . SEC 123 _I_ with the formation and ornamentation of other worlds than ours nor a Geogony. first produces the raw material in an obscure and formless mass He afterwards creates light. and the solid earth. beginning with the lowest and closing with man. 385 in the modern sense. the animals which in the waters and in the air The beauty of dwell in the same house as man himself. . having their abode beings and lastly. and the work of ornamentation during the three last days. II. parts devised for the perfection of the whole work. sent the The object of the Mosaic narrative being to rep re.

orcj er n w hi c h one another. At etymologically equivalent to the very beginning of the narra- . De Gen. s' question are so persuaded that the intention of the writer of Genesis was to give a genetic account of the architectonic order of the world. April.. made visible. Zahm. In language it before the reader a vivid and true. found few followers.. The Hebrew words for evening and morning are confiisio and apertio. i. Dr. not make them otherwise than in the order which their nature requires if He made them in one moment of time. q. Geology and Revelation . 1883. ad Lit. chap.. Without exi). its [BOOK ill of creation an enumeration of parts in the SECT^S. the order of nature must be If God made things successively. Bp. the better study we see how they fit into each other. See Reusch. Thomas thinks it highly probable (I. v. Aug. The best Catholic authorities on the present .). IV. its aim is to show how the component parts of the cosmos were brought by the Creator from darkness to light. is and Faith. V. that they deem it admissible that the whole act of creation occupied only one instant of time. xi. 66. and St. t}ie Catholic Theology.386 CHAP iv. puts sublime picture of the artistic work of the Creator. Molloy. Dublin Review. Augustine. This poetical conception finds expression in the "evening and morning" of which the days are composed. Clifford. Then according to Heb. until lately. 1. the separate parts of the Divine work. y necessarily or naturally succeeded Whether we consider the work of the six TheCreation a be Ji ve i'n- days as six separate creations or as six tableaux of one instantaneous creative act. we may notice that St. He could observed. It narrative quite possible and even probable that the Mosaic is simple and of a highly poetical character. Science. 3. and how exactly the narrative gives to each the place it holds in nature. a. Such is the opinion of St. The Bible and Nature .e. and that the division of it into six days is but a way of " presenting to the reader the order according to the con" rather than the order " according to nection of causes the intervals of time" (St. A j Manual of that is. the Sacred Writer had no other foundation for a successive The more we narrative than this same order of nature. amining what may be said for or against it. The Mosaic 7 possibiy'be Bible. iv. Augustine has.

not as a narrative. Theology takes in this natural history of Creation is purely apologetic. his : character mind. it him to number and name to.] The Material Universe. possible inspiration by means of a prophetic vision. are placed by them in the times between Adam and the Flood. but take the " days to be long . See Dublin Review. Elaborate attempts have been made to reconcile the two accounts. periods. iv E< a3 :3jj and seems to point out that in all other works the same idea is adhered the Creation led by the periods of the that the writer received his Lastly. Holzammer. Westermaier.<. however. 1883. and consequently does not come within our province.PART I. Again. have induced the theologians of all times to allow a very free interpretation of the six days' duration. the remains of which are now found in the crust of the earth.before the Hexahemeron. but as a hymn in which various of plants existence. 387 - tive the opposition between darkness and light appears. April. Vosen. Veith and Bosizio held that the six days were days of twenty-four hours the destructions of flora and fauna. in the third edition of his work. sdenS. because natural science admits the simultaneous origin and animals. and their continued simultaneous Bishop Clifford and other Catholic writers cut the knot by considering the so-called Mosaic cosmogony. These and similar considerations. Natural Science has also undertaken to give an The interest which account of the origin of things. Others. Wiseman. . Creation ai. as Pianciani. and Molloy admit the destruction of a world . Reusch. place the catastrophes within " the six days of creation. acknowledges the impossibility of thus establishing a harmony between natural and supernatural cosmogony. visions of his VI. Hettinger. and Reusch. the writer's intention of making week the model of the human week may have give to the periods of the former the same as those borne is narrative would naturally be of a poetical the divisions he adopts and the name of days which he applies to them may be no more than a means of conveying to the reader the number and splendour of the If so. quite independently of natural science. Buckland. CHAP. latter. in which the several phases of Creation were pictured before his mind.

too. portions of creation are commemorated on the days of the week. [BOOK m.. and not according to actual And St. It is best. p. A Manual of Catholic Theology. . did not wish to teach men " matters which in no way concerned their salvation (De Gen. 20). Proph* xxviii. and the Old Testament. ix. ad Litt. Deus\ "The Holy Ghost. A however. letter viii. II. 123. I. St. iv. 56. Augustine (quoted by Leo XIII. Jerome.). Thomas disfact (In Jerem. declares that many things are related in Scripture according to the opinions prevalent at the time.e. 3 rd Lect. and therefore followed what seemed to be true See supra. . in the Encyc. speaking through the Sacred Writers. SECT. a.. See the DiMin Review. On this question. see also Proteus and madeus.388 CHAP. Providentissimiis tinctly states that Moses suited his narrative to the capacity of his readers. to state frankly that it is not the In the object of Revelation to teach natural science. Historical 70. Criticism (i q. Lagrange. i). words of St.

. characteristics of man's SECT. to Our image and likeness" of phrase from " Let there be to Let Us is about to create man. 26: "Let Us make " " man The change make. diss. perf. V.. Bonav. Thorn. Ambrose and St. De in iii. 1. 1.. Genesim. not like philosophers. ad Lit.. /. William of Paris.. iv. 1. .. man's nature. qq. The notion of man as the image of God is the perfect theological idea of man. It affords a basis for a deeper conception of human nature in itself. Kleutgen. especially St. C. esp. 75-93 sqq. viii. but as His own likeThis idea exhibits man's essence and destiny in ness." when God I. commentaries of the Fathers on the Hexahemeron. SEC ia4 _Ii_ St. B. Suarez. . op. v. and the description of man as the image of the Creator. ' - THE Petr.. dist.. sqq.. 1. i. 2 Sent. The theological doctrine on three heads : Man may be treated under A. vi. of St. Gent. 16 sqq... Benedict Pereyra. CHAP. ^Egidius. Interpretation of Gen.. and De Anima. De Anima .. Opif. St. and in his writAug. God Himself looks upon man. De Duabus Animabus Lomb. with comm. Philos. ii. sqq. ings against the Manichseans. as the origin image and likeness of God.. as an animal endowed with reason.CHAPTER MAN. Cont. and substantial character of life. Gregory of Nyssa. Authorities De Gen. and also as regards ' its natural and supernatural evolution and final perfection . direct relation to God. Man The The 124. give to this last and crowning creation a special solemnity. 56 sqq. and Estius .

From this we are enabled to determine the precise : Man essen fmage*" sense of the text in the following manner " I. v. God created man to His own image. Catholic Theology. shall v. (Gen. v. [BOOK in. The Hebrew Zelem like . " The conjunc- tion of the terms image and " likeness " is found nowhere else in Holy Scripture. i describes the ideal man. in short. (Elohim) created He him man He made him to the likeness of God (B'Demut/i) . i. 26) is so full of meaning explanations of it are given by the Fathers and gians. A it j Manual of Adam. II. Indeed. something a shadow it is also used to concrete. The " many by Theoloa different text runs : Let Us make man Sept. well-rendered by 6//oi'w<ne contrary. be shed ix. in the Septuagint " a similitude or likeness. : likeness and let him and over the fowls of the air. He them. Wherever the same idea is expressed in other passages. on the designate the idols of false divinities. It is evident that the expression image and like" a distinct perfection belonging to ness of God signifies the nature of man. originally meaning Demuth. 3. or rather constituting man's specific essence as distinguished from all other visible beings. to the image of God " " God created (Gen. And God created man to His own image. nst } tut i on n The text (Gen. and not merely has this image in him. and to the image of God created He him male and female created ('3D-1ECQ a/cova KCU have dominion over the ." our word image. is. is described in the same terms before and after his man fall. as realized by Divine that SECT. except Gen. i.J24. is 6). and the whole earth.390 CHAP. icar' to Our image (W??) and ica0' ojuotaxnv) fishes of the sea. each seeming to view the text under aspect and to find in it a new meaning. only one of the two terms is employed a clear proof that they are con" sidered as synonymous by the sacred writers. : (Gen. . is something abstract. and the beasts. and over every creeping creature that moveth upon the earth. and therefore not capable of being lost by sin. i). "Whoso sheddeth man's blood. his blood " for man was made to the image of God The Hebrew text evidently shows that man Expiana- the image of God. 27).

As visible and living image of God. or the living effigy of the living God. i. however. " words " image and " likeness. not what he ought to become. he is the living image and likeness. His power to attain his natural destination a moral life is part of the nature which God has created in him and. but remains as long as human nature itself. by his body. The words a whole . God either by following the good inclinations of his nature or by yielding to a supernatural influence. give a definition of man as for they apply to the soul afterwards described. by his spiritual soul he bears a real as animated body. Sin. man is an image. 391 literal sense of the text contains no more than this. 4). 2. in their fullest meaning. which is the organ and temple of the soul. "to make to the image. 26. and also the Ideal. of Gen. I. his aptitude to lead . . Gen. The first readers of Genesis. lacrum) of likeness to God . the also refer to the supernatural likeness of man to God. may suspend or impair man's moral faculty. is God's absolute and perfect Image 2 Cor. it is not lost by sin. 3 3. CHAP. neither acquired nor freely accepted. His higher destiny is a necessary consequence of his being an image to ." Thus. man is the crown of . be granted that. The expression. simuhis face the breath of life ." especially the latter. it is Although man is really the image of God. certainly were unable to detect in it any but the natural and literal sense for given above. a shadow (Zelem. formed man of the slime of the earth. after which man is made (Heb. v SECT "* must. : compound of body and " And the Lord God 7 and breathed into and man became a living soul. iv. still he is an image only The Son of God alone in a relative and analogical sense. Him and . It - The Those Fathers who expound the " likeness " in the sense of a supernatural similitude to God. yet only an imagf . ii. whom the book was primarily written. inasmuch as of God. however.PABT Tj Man. and not merely destined to become such. that is." may also not merely be understood of a destination of man to become similar fm ge. But such is not the literal and proper sense the text declares what man is. or Exemplar. speak from the standpoint of the New Testament.

being enjoy happiness. SECT. Gen. position.J2S. the terms ajcwv and imago. For this reason. viii. 125. had received a fixed meaning. The image of God is seen in man from the fact that man is able and is destined to rule the whole visible world and to turn it to his service. The soul is created a spirit in order to be like to God . with the limitations that necessarily distinguish the rule of a creature from that of the Creator (Ps.) This attribute of regal dignity and dominion essenNone but a personal tially implies Personality in man. its spirituality . Again. Arian controversies. as being itself a body. I. when heresies arose. The definition of man given in Genesis shows better than any other the excellence and dignity of his essence. 9). v. the Image of the Father. 2. from which all others spring. the custom prevailed of insisting almost exclusively on the likeness which the The reasons for this change are soul bears to God. anthropomorphic considered man's body as In the fourth century. it is . the Fathers find the likeness of man to God expressed most itself vividly in these two faculties. The ante-Nicene Fathers the image of God. 6 and James . Man the ' Diverse! I. The body is the image of God only in as far as informed. and use other things for its own ends. Holy Scripture points out in several places the dignity which accrues to*man from his being the image of God His Soul. A ^ ^ . ix. a likeness such as exists only between the Persons of the Trinity. as applied to the Son of God.392 CHAP. Man the Image of God. however. The human soul bears a further likeness to God in the spirituality of its substance and this is the principal point of similarity. III. visible creation (the Cosmos of the Cosmos. and destiny among and above the rest of creation. in the obvious.. iii. animated. Apost. can possess itself. can be the end of other beings. there was danger of conceiving the Ideal after whose likeness man is made. viz. j^ SECT. Manual of Catholic Theology. ag suc lj even animals j must revere and The Fathers I'mageo'f fear him. [BOOK m. His dominion is an imitation of Divine Providence. v v j-^ ^ anc Const. The excellence of personality is founded upon intellect and will. (cf. and worked by the soul besides.

no fruition except the fruition of God can fill the soul . 2. a privilege also denied ." says St. Hence the Apostle said. and the Divine man has several points in his favour. that is to say. xiv. Just as God.the Angels ' 1-1 comparison of man with the Angels as to the Maninsomt respects ness of his Maker than even the Angels. and immortality. 1. Augusthe very fact that he is capable (De by of God and can be a partaker of Him. of course. soul. The same attribute is the reason why the soul 23). receives immediately from God its being and life. soul . so also it has in God alone its direct final object and its rule of life . gives being and activity to all things by a continuous act of creation. so does the soul of man. in several respects. 393 placed above ii. by which it is CHAP. In fact. thus possessing a plastic activity not given to the Angels. except the will of God. As the All-present Creator breathes life into His creatures. 3. and generate new human organisms. cannot be procreated by generation. and disposes the new life . tine Himself. organisms for the reception of to the Angels. hold together and develop its organization. " " (Acts xvii. Divine prototype and to be united God Himself. v material and perishable. represent the Divine Substance intellectual life in greater perfection but . then. Lastly. 29) to Being. the offspring of God point out the substantial likeness of the soul to God.. intrinsically present in his body. the tive human soul communicates life to the vegetaand animal organs of the body.PART I] implies incorruptibility all Man. m re than God 1 r shows that. and the ^ same Inte '~ object as the life of enabled and destined to its and so to apprehend with Him. man is a more perfect like. can bind the free will of the II. the same final is direction. and parthings takes of the Divine immutability and eternity (see Wisd. the intellectual life of man has the same contents ( = subject-matter). know and to love God the soul God's image. The latter. A like perfection of representing the image and likeness of God. 8). intrinsically present in all things." As the soul is " Man after " Trin. but is the direct product of an act of creation. sion of the human ' no one but God can claim the possesno will.

the material world to the Angels is merely external they the soul is. 26).394 CHAP. human as it relation with God. is imaged in the concursus or co-operation of the soul with the body most actions of the body are so intimately bound up with those of the soul that they form but one action attributable to the soul. all the Author of that is : bodies from without as something distinct from themselves. Angels. the image and To man alone this title is given purely likeness of God. Lastly. v. consecrated and brought into spirit of man is not only the The relation of king. just as the same title places man above all visible creatures. more than the Angels. is also called the Image of above God all (2 Cor. and they bear no intrinsic relation to the : internal beauty of their authors. in virtue of which God is done by His creatures.J2S. but also the priest of the world. -A Manual of . Thus the . man a relative. ECT. The works of the Angels. bears a relation to the human soul. Man is. have no other point in common than that they are created by. In the later books of the Old Testament (Wisd. [BOOK in. vii. however. in order to place Him in dignity creatures whatever. and in the New Testament. on the contrary. therefore. and especially of their moral actions. 3. iv. and for the glory of. is the the Image of the Father in a deeper sense than man Son is an absolute. a microcosm. and simply in Holy Writ. 5. The beauty of the world manifests the beauty and g rancj eur o f Q O(J so the noble form and beauty of the human body reproduce and manifest the beauty of the soul. Not- : . Catholic Theology. containing in itself a compendium of all other organisms hence the whole : material world. But the human body is the highest and most perfect organism of the material world. likeness. so the soul of man is the final object of man's body the : body exists entirely for the soul. on the contrary. the same God. as the Son of God. have but the power to move 4. are only works of art is they are not their own in the same way as the body the soul's own. and through the medium of were. in and through the human body. as God is the final object of all that is. Christ. and has no dignity or worth except in as far as it is subservient to the soul. The Divine Concurrence. 4). The Son of God.

because he is the image and glory of God but the woman is the glory of the man. The question whether the Trinity is copied in man Man an . a reproduction of the Word. the For the man was not created for the for the woman. 26 Our image. . The Likeness to God in Man and Woman. but the woman of the . the Word. man Man more thali '"' and woman are the image of God the both possess woman same human nature. having received human nature only mediately through man. true that of man alone Scripture says. no wise an image of God. the external image. considered as is. In the Incarnation the Internal Image entered the external and the external image was drawn into the Internal by hypostatic union. affirms this the woman is distin- guished from the animals as being a help meet for man that is. t : speech certainly does not exclude a likeness of man to the . 27. and to be a helpmate to man.PABT L] Man. explicitly . it is clear that man is the image of God by reason of his peculiar nature. i. of the same nature. thus achieving the most astonishing of Divine Works. directly and formally." which is commonly understood as having been . Paul teaches " The man indeed : ought not to cover his head. . 395 withstanding this essential difference. From what has been said.spoken between the Three Divine Persons. Woman. The ii. in a position of subjection and dependence. text Gen.. Hence St. 126. v. is not an image of God in the same full sense as man.-. but then. that he is made to the likeness of God. as it were. man. Holy Scripture suggests two further questions on this subject. CHAP.. viz. This form of wife is that in . but rather a type of the relation which the creature bears to the Creator and Lord. that man is. evident that both in as far as i. Woman.. 7-9). woman man" (i Cor. Are man and woman in the same degree the image of in God I. ? Is the distinction of ? Persons in it is God reproduced His created Image As to the first question. corresponds so perfectly with the internal image. 2 EC J:J man. ^ rr image of the " T Let Us make man to Trinity. xi. For the man is not of the woman. II. SECT. originates from the text Gen. like unto or nevertheless. 18-20. It is. and in Gen.

attributes God are not each of them Secondly. especially when they are concerned with God.J26. one nature of God. duces acts of knowledge and love which. his mind proTrinity. In the image of God created He them. for it admits the sense. On the other hand. but are merely appropriated. they conclude the unity of substance and nature in God. words. i. man's mental acts show forth the identity of Nature in the Trinity. 26. and the production of the first woman out of the side of man. here man offers a twofold similarity to the First. 27. Now. the three so-called faculties of the soul memory. has this meaning. Man's likeness to the Trinity cannot be of such perfection that a single human nature is common relations. in because the three corresponding The peculiar to a Person. common to three persons. In other as considered in their hypostatic character. But does the human image of the Divine Nature bear also a likeness to the Trinity ? As the Divine Persons are not distinct substances but only distinct relations." As a matter of fact. it is safe logical grounds to say that. once more shows man in the centre of creation as the complete image of God. be represented only by some The text of Genesis is silent on the existence of such If. Scripture adds directly.396 A Q Manual of Cathohc Theology. likeness must be found in some productions of human nature. to three distinct persons. but not as to their hypostatic. understanding. they can analogous relation in man. " [BOOK in. and will do not present a sufficient likeness. in common with the Angels. character. v. . SECT. on theowe can show that they do exist. while his generative act shows forth the This twofold likeness to the Trinity distinction of Persons. the text Gen. in the intention of God. the production of sons by generation. represent the origins and relations of the Divine Persons as to their spiritual and immanent. man to ur j ma g e by giving him a nature like unto Our " own. however. Let Us make CHAP." The post-Nicene Fathers have found no other sense in this text on the contrary. afford a likeness to the origins and relationships in the Trinity. from the fact that one man is the copy of a nature .

in which the creation of the contain the essential constitution described. but it is no evidence whatsoever of a successive transformation of the lower into higher organisms. 397 Man. nature " And the Lord God formed man from of Gen. basing her revealed origin. As to the Man's body its . sound philosophy will Even apart from Revelation. Essential Constitution of ii. its faculties. and its substance. breath of life. for the soul and the soul for the animation of the body : from the union of both results a living nature. : the slime of the earth. possesses a spiritual life of its own. but is formed after a clearly defined Divine Idea. As to the other component part of man. viz. akin alike to the living things on earth and to the living God. like the life-prin. ing unity in the immense variety of organisms is conclusive evidence of the Divine Wisdom of the Creator. never admit that such a transforma- tion of the types of organic beings is possible as would be The astonishrequired to arrive at the human organism. even supposing that God directly created the soul when the organism had acquired a sufficient degree of perfection. the Church. 127. man. . either directly by Divine action. and man and breathed into his face the became a living soul. doctrine on body of man. It is neither a body nor matter composed of extended parts its existence and activity are not. or dependent on union with an organism. Over and above the life which it imparts to the body.PART L] Man. Revelation confirms the teaching of natural reason. soul." Man is of a body taken from the earth. ciples of animals. SECT. as in the case of the first force of generation. the mens. that the soul of Man's soul man essentially differs from the vital prin- ciples of animals in its acts. The words first of man human is 7. and of a spiritual composed The body is made soul breathed into the body by God. teaches that it is composed that its organization as a of earthy or material elements human body is not the result of either chance or the comI. the soul. as vovg. bined action of physical forces. or indirectly through the plastic Hence we cannot admit the descent of man from ape-like ancestors by a process of gradual organic modification. II.

being easily conceived. because it has no parts. or by separation from a substratum necesto its existence. more simple or and altogether more perfect.. is substance. shall be deemed a " heretic (Council of Vienne against the errors of Peter of Soul and body one nature. is the popular The immortality and being of immediate practical importance.. the life-giving principle] of the body. of life whatever in man. characteristic of its substantial character. Whoever shall is presume to assert that the rational or intellectual soul not directly and essentially (per se et essentialiter) the form [that is. spiritual substance. which is the life-giving of the body. pretended that the life of the flesh was dependent on another principle unity of the vital principle in distinct from the rational soul." in " " " opposition to corporal creatures. OllVa). either by decomposition. The soul is a spirit." even as in the Vatican Council God is called a " spiritual substance. there is no other principle III. more independent or self-sufficient. in the two first-mentioned Councils. IV. the life of the body. called is asserted in a definition of the Fifth Lateran soul. The Church has upheld the against the Apolliin order to defend their doctrine that in Christ narists. " and " spiritual creature. The spirituality of the soul has been defined in the Fourth Lateran Council and repeated in that of the Vatican the immortality of .. The spirituality of its substance causes it to be naturally independent Its immortal it cannot perish. Catholic Theology. entirely incorporeal and immaterial. and different from. man " . who. [BOOK in. v.398 CHAP.. and consequently it The Fifth Council its ordinary sense. unlike that of other vital principles. being the principle of animal and vege- . Compared to lower vital principles. \ The .. is also the sole principle of all life principle in the body besides the soul. the soul Council. of the soul. The soul. A Manual of of. the human : soul is refined in substance.. The soul the the entire life of man." The word spirit is The " spirit not explained by the Councils. because it is independent of such sary substratum. the Logos took the place of the rational soul. of the Lateran condemned as heretical the doctrines of Averroes and his school concerning the mortality of the is is to be taken in soul.

presupposes a union of both substances by which they become real parts of one whole. man for it is precisely to its place in the nature of that the soul owes its dignity in the human hypo- stasis. CHAP. determining principle. and when separated. life it may be said that. and the body the passive element. and body together a " living a living thing or animal and. however. the Schoolmen this doctrine " is expressed by the formula. the perfection they had when united. Whence the soul is the dominating principle. which could not be done unless body and Soul and soul together constituted one nature and essence. the soul can exist and live independently of the body. Body and soul. crap) to it calls the soul . quoted above. tion of the soul in the The prominent posihuman person ought not. as Bishop Butler has done in his Analogy . This unity. to be urged to the extent of destroying or endangering the unity of the human nature. at the same that is. . of the functions of the animal and vegetative life of man." See the definition of the Council of Vienne. at least in a certain respect. the whole man. constitutes with the body one nature. or subject.J Man. the substantial form of the body. v. 399 tative life in the body. Soul and body united form one complete nature in which the soul is the vivifying. become dependent on each other. and therein consists the unity of nature. however. V. also All the attributes of constitute one hypostasis. not less than in the human nature. yet personality belongs more properly to the soul. although man as a whole is a person. " " frequently applies the term flesh (caro. In the human person. In the language of lose.PABT i. The soul is Holy Scripture clearly indicates the unity of nature in man when soul " it time. the common ^jj^ and direct principle. united so as to form one nature. besides. belong to the complete and entire essence of which they are the parts. or person. Soul and body are. man which give him the dignity of personality spring from and reside in his soul . active. whereas the organization and of the body are entirely dependent on the soul.

according to the sense suai dis- man and II. a unity in keeping with the Divine images existing in the parents and in their offspring. therefore. however. The formation of the first the first indicates that God Thus the production of Eve founded the diversity of sexes. intended by the Creator as belonging to the concrete constitution of human nature. from the text (Gen. Distinction I. the lesser of two evils. The creation of Eve. with a special Divine co-operation. 27. The words in Gen. given by God as means to the end expressed " in Gen. i. as some heretics have asserted.400 CHAP. III. /- 1*1 <T->< s> of Holy Writ and generally received opinion. by evidently has a far-reaching significance. permitted or ordained by the Creator in : order to avoid a greater one. are of a much higher order than but h^s a* 6" those of animals. A 128. Production of the First Woman The Essence of Marriage. 28 Increase. the distinctinction comThe sexual montoman tion of sexes is common to man and animals. Their object in man is the production. but also laid down the constitution of the ordinary principle . and fill the earth. created at the same time and from the same earth." not a difference of nature. Union of 1 refers to the yet. so fully and solemnly described (Gen. . the reason why man and woman were not. relations of man. acknowledged Adam himself and confirmed by the explanations in given first the New Testament (Matt. 4) sense. in the sexual relations ." This higher consideration is. Male and female He created them. it and primary of man." It is not. ii. This further implies that the distinction of sexes is a natural good. and multiply." are sufficient proof that the distinction of sexes and the corresponding organization of the human body were. [BOOK m. from the very beginning. Considered externally and materially.). " i. " i. To the image of God 27).' woman out of a rib of intended to give to the man. Again. He created them . V. of a new " image of God. male and female clearly appears that the sexual distinction constitutes merely a difference in the nature of it He created them. xix. like the animals of different sexes. union of man and woman a higher unity than that of the male and female of animals. Manual of Catholic Theology. woma'n. SECT. Kin.

a law which determines the moral essence of the first and of all other marriages. ii. the ground all the beasts of the earth. I. Wherefore a man shall leave father and mother. and cattle of the field : and filled up flesh for it. and (2) from the Divine We command expressed in the act. 40 1 arrive at this conclusion (i) from CHAP. and shall cleave to his wife and they shall be two in one flesh" (Gen. Adam and when he was fast asleep. v of propagation. : of being produced independently. that is. instead The proone of his ribs. And the Lord God built the rib which he took from Adam into a woman [" And He took one of his ribs and closed up the flesh instead thereof. because she was taken out of man. And Adam said This now is bone she shall be called of my bones. and all the but for Adam there was not found Then the Lord God cast a deep a helper like himself. "And the Lord God said It is not good for man to be alone let Us make him a help like unto [meet for or answering : : And the Lord God having formed out of to] himself. Both these considerations acquire more force from the fact that Eve was formed from the bone. The fact that Eve was formed out of Adam. The Fathers. we give the full text upon which the demonstration is based. 18-24). commenting on this. befitting . : : .] and brought her to Adam. the communication of nature proceeds from one principle just as in the Trinity. from his inmost self. brought them to Adam to see what he would call the them same their : for is its whatsoever Adam called any living creature." R. not simply from the flesh. name. who is the likeness of the triune God.PART L] Man. Again. the origin of Eve shows that in man. the communication of the Divine Nature proceeds from the Father. And Adam called all the beasts : all the fowls of the air. Before we proceed to demonstrate this.V. and all the fowls of the air. the effects of the Divine act itself. of Adam. and flesh of my flesh woman. D . establishes between the S 5 parents of mankind a substantial and radical unity. Eve made her radical) one with man as the image and representative of the one God in the dominion over material nature. He took sleep upon by names. point out that it proves the identity of nature in man and 2 . and the rib which the Lord God had taken from the man builded He into a woman.

402 CH *P. tion must be a lasting one. of or Eve and handed her over to Adam rather as united to him by Divine inmost essence of marriage consists. The relation between this ideal and spiritual bond on one side. just as though they were naturally members of the This mutual transfer and appropriation of bodies. . and ought to urge us to fraternal love as being all f oi the same kindred. is determined. as manifested by the peculiar production of Eve. : where the appropria- . and can make it morally own. the bodies of the progenitors a union. A . The Divine Law. in the moral union of man and woman. and man's dignity as image of God on the other side and. . The will of God that such union should exist is manifested by the in The Divine fact that He Himself planned and executed the formation as flesh of his flesh. SECT. [BOOK 1 ill. is seen to be necessary if we consider that a moral being like man can dispose and make use of nothing but what belongs to him by some same body. 128. further. . siderations. .. by which the union of the sexes is consecrated as a conjugal union and by which the essence of marriage : The physical union must be preceded byajuridicai union. woman. the possibility and necessity of this bond. neither can dispose of his body in favour of a third person. that is. as such. expressed in the fact. . of the sexes in the act of generation should be preceded by and founded upon a moral. v. right especially in the present case. which is sanctioned by God as the sovereign ruler of nature. and. will appear from the following con. possess moral liberty and dominion over the members of their bodies. Hence. . . right over the body of the other. rendered possible by the power of disposal which their owners have over them. and holy union of . The act and will. idea of such an union is sufficiently expressed the act of producing Eve from the substance of Adam as it were. each of them can acquire a right his of disposing of the other's body. juridical.. so that. . (a) The parties are themselves images of God. therefore. 2. Manual of Catholic Theology.. during their union. is that the physical union . In this manner the two bodies belong to one mind. a new member of the same body. and gives to each of the parties an exclusive and inviolable . contains the following elements (#) The idea and will of the Creator.

to any act on their part He intervenes indirectly previous or mediately in subsequent marriages. () It is evident that the procreation of children and nountiST b The m riLgc!' carnal pleasure are not the sole objects of marriage.PART I. manner the moral and ceives. The intervention of God is needed. and consequently as something consecrated into existence as the property of God to Him . how. and Generation cannot be dissolved by the mere will of the parties. making each of them an organ of the spirit of the other. and Eve He intervened directly. union a solidity which almost puts it on a level conjugal with the union of members of one and the same body. a religious consecration and the unity of members resulting therefrom is endowed with the It is. The Divine intervention gives sanctity as well as inviolability to the contract. like character of holiness and inviolability. the natural unity of the members of the same body. . v.] Man. both bodies. spiritual union of man and woman He intervenes as the absolute master of in matrimony. very essence. that the carnal action of the parents cannot attain its object without a special creative co-operapart. This entails. as He established the natural union of members in the body. in its juridical transfer of the bodies re. 403 From this moral and juridical point of view alone. so also estabby mutual lished the indivisible. and ought