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HERBAL MEDICINE ZN EGYPT
M. Younis Haggag
University of Cairo, Faculty Pharmacy, of Pharmacognosy Department, Kasr El Aini st., Cairo, EGYPT

&m

La médecine herbale a été utilisée en Egypte depuis longtemps. Les anciens égyptiens ont connu !'importance de beaucoup de plantesmédicinales et les ontutiliséespour les mêmeraisonspourlesquellesellessont recement utilisées. La flora égyptienne comprend environ2000 espèces plus certaines nouvelles, introduites et été acclimatisées récemment. Plusieurs plantes ont étudiées pour leur usage en m6dicine herbalet beaucoup de travail est accompli pour explorer d'autres espèces. Quelques plantes utilisées en médicine herbal et presentés au marché égyptien sont aussi inclues.

KEY-WORDS

EGYPT, MEDICINAL PLANTS, USES,HERBAL MEDICINE, RESEARCH PROJECTS
MOTS-CLES

EGYF'TE, PLANTE MEDICINALE,UTILISATION, MBDICINEHERBALE, PROJET DE RECHERCHE

Medicinal plants havebeenused as a source of remedies since ancient times.'Theancient Egyptians were familiar with many medicinalherbs and were awareof their usefulness in treatment of various diseases.The healing of sick persons wascarried out by priest doctors who prescribed and prepared medicaments. The first recorded prescriptions were foundin Ancient Egyptian tombs. The writing on the temple walls and in the papyri revealed that Ancient Egyptians used many herbal drugs for the same purposes as they are used today. They used drugs of animal, plant, as well as mineral origins. From the first group, they used blood, meat, horn, milk, egg, honey and excreta. Amongdrugsof vegetable origin that theyused are acacia, aloes, gums,myrrh,pomegranate, colocynth, linseed, squill, coriander, cumin, onions, anise, grapes, castor oil and wine. They usedall plant organs such as roots, rhizomes, flowers, leaves,fruits, seeds, as well as oils. They applied their medicaments in the form of powders, pills, suppositories,creams, pastes and ointments. When the Arabs came to Egypt, Arabic medicine was practiced and theart of healing made use of all available knowledge gained from different civilizations suchas the Persian, Chinese, Greek, as well as the Ancient Egyptian. The books writen by some famous workers such as Rases, Ibn Sina, Ibn El-bitar are still present and represent main references in herbal shops (known as Attars). Among these books are El-Kanoon Fil Tib (by Ibn Sina), Tazkaret Oli Albab @awood El-Antaki) and Mofradat El-Adwia (Ibn El-Bitar). Some people still go to such Attareen shops seeking herbal remedies since they are cheap and regarded more safe. as Nowadays, there is an increasing trend towards the use of herbal medicine in Egypt that reflects an increasing confidence in such remedies. Recently, there are, two companies in Egypt that are specialisedin the production of herbal drugsand herbal drug-basedmedicaments. In addition, certain extracts andor herbal drug constituents are produced together with what is called modern or western medicinein some pharmaceutical companies.

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The flora of Egypt includes about 2000 species of plants distributed in its different localities that vary in type of soil and prevailing climatic and other environmental conditions that hence encourage the growth of awiderange of plant species. h addition, manyplantehavebeen successfully introduced and acclimatized in Egypt. About 300 drugs, mostly of local origin, can be found in Egyptian market today. The accompanying table (Table 1)showsexamples of such herbal drugs, including their local and scientific names, part(s) used, and mainactive constituents and uses.. Our Pharmacognosy Department, as well as other similar departments in Egyptian Universities and other Research Centres, have taken on the task of studying both wild and cultivated plants with view to discovering their chemical constituents, pharmacological action and hence their possible pharmaceutical USES. The accompanying list shows the names of plants that are studied mainly for both the Master andPhD. degrees, in Egypt until 1989. B is noteworthy that h e occurrence of some wild growing plants in Egypt is becoming rare, and some species are threatened with extinction for a large number of reasons such as over-collection, land reclamation and the extension of building to manymral areas. Therefore we are calling in Egypt for establishment of more protected areas to save such species from extiactioz. Moreover, we have projects aimed ai the collection of seeds of such species U d carrying out agricultural experiments to find optimum conditions for their cultivation. A study has recentiy been carried out on squill (Urginea maritima) Egyptian henbane (Hyoscyamus muticus) aná for this purpose. Beside native wild species, several medicinal plants are cultivated in Egypt such as liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Mentha species, Thymus spp., Salvia sp., rosemary (Rosmarinm oficinalis), lavander (LavanduZa osficcincclis), basil (Ocimum basilicurn), several Umbelliferous plants such as fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), anise (Pilnpimlla aniwm), caraway (Carum carvi),cnmir~ (Cuininum cyminum), coriander (Corimdrum sativum), parsley (Petroseiinum cyispum), celery (Apircrr, gt-aveolens), dill (Anethum grmeolew), ajowan (Carum copticurn) and Ammi vìsnsga and Ammi majus. Other plants include fenugreek (Trigorzellafoenum-graecum), rosel (Hibiscus sabdaTiffa), does (Aloefei-ox,A. vem), sema species (Cassia acutìfolia), species ( S a hsafsalf, S. ailm atid S. tetrasperma), Nigella satìva,Olea europea, Egyptian lupin (Eupinus termis), certain Datum and Digitalis species , belladonna (Atropa belladonna), marshmallow (Althaea oficinalis), Eucalyptus spp., Ambrosìa maritima, Cym,bopogon citratus, C.proximus, chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) sunflower (Helianthus annuus), henna (Lawsonia inermis), white and black mustard (Sinapis alba, S. nigra ), rue (Ruta graveolens), psyllium (Plantago psyllium)and others .

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I is evident that many countries bordemgtheMediterranean share many plant species in t common. It will be for the benefit of all countries to cooperate among themselves and exchange their experiences and the results of scientific workcarried out on medicinal plants.

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c
Part used

TABLE Some herbal 1: drugs found in the Egyptian market
Latin name¿ family k Local name

Contrace@ive, cosmetic, Fruits, aphrodisiac Digestive, cosmeti, Flowering antiinflammatory Carminative, tonic general Rhizomes Hypotensive, hypoglyce-mic, Bulbs anthelmiiltic cholagogue Juice Laxative, dermatitis Emollient, anticough. Leaves, roots Antidiabetic, anti-spasmodic, Herb lipotropic Spasmolytic, remove -urinary calculi Dermatitis, Iecodermia

1

l 1 Fruits

Roots tonic Aphrodisiac,

I

Cardiotonic

I

Kerb

I Diuretic, antispasmodic
rhizomes FI. FI. Dermatitis, FLheads, CN stimulant, antiarterisclerotic Anthelmintic Anthelmintic Hypoglycemic, urinary Fruits, leaves infections Laxative, contraceptive Roots
Skin diseases, Fl.heads, sun burns, emmenagogue Herb,Haemostatic,
hypotensive,diaphoretic,

ds

ads

aves roots

Acacia arabicaL. Leguminosae Acacia famesiana (L.)Willd. Leguminosae Achillea millefolium L. Compositae Acorns calamus L. Araceae Allium sativumL. Liliaceae Aloe vera L. Liliaceae Althea officinalisL. h-alvaceae Ambrosia maritimaL. Compositae Ammi visnagaL. limbelliferae Ammi majus L. Umbelliferae L Anacyclus pyrethrum Compositae Anastatica hierochuntica Crucìferae Aizetkurn gnmeokms L. Umbelljferae Anthemis cotda Compositae Apium gmveoiens L. UnlbelliJerae Amica montana L. Compositae Artmesia cinaBer. Comvositae Artemisia herba-alba Compositae Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. Simarubaceae Bryonia albaL. Cucurbitaceae Calendula oficinalis L. Compositae Capsella busa-pastoris Cruciferae
~~

Sant Fitnah

l I Qasab ad-

I Hazanbal
dharirah Thawm Sabbar
Khitmi

Darnsisa Wiia Baiady Khella shytani Asir qush
Kaffmaryam

Shibith Sheih
Kwds

.

Khaniq el Fahd Shih balady

I Shih

I Haglig
~~

Haleq el Shar Oqhwan

Kis er Rai
Shatt ah Karawyah
Nakhwah

I Digestive, carminative,
antispasmodic Antispasmodic, antisepticjn calculi. I renal

I Fruits
I 1 Fruits
I

Capsicum minimum Solanaceae Carum carviL. Umbelliferae Carum copticumBenth. Umbelliferae

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emmenagogue,

Carthamus tinctorius Compositae Cassia acutifolia

L. Del.

osfur
Sama makki shamber

Laxative
Legumtnosae Ceratonia Kharrub siliqua L. Leguminosae Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Chenopadiaceae Cichorium intybus L. Compositae Cinnamomum zeylanicum Lauraceae
Citmllns colocynthis Schrad Cucurbitaceae Citrus limonL. Rutaceae Commiphora mukulL. UDurseraceae Coriandrunt sativurn L. Umbelliferae Crocus sativusL.

I

Anthelmintic Tonic, lipotropic, hypoglycemic, laxative Carminative, flavouring agent antiseptic, mild astringent cathartic Cathartic, diuretic,
dcrm2titis

Leaves, fruits Roots, seeds,
Bark

I Zorbeih
Shìkowah

AdScUrbutic ,antirheumatic,disinfectant. Disinfectant, antidysenteric, dermatitis Digestive, carminative, hypoglycemic Appetizer,carminative,

Fruit pdp, seeds Fruit ,peels

Hand Laymm
MW

Oleo gum resin
Fruits CB

Kuzbarah Zafraan

herb styles &

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Carnative, antispasmo.dic Dernulcent, tonic

Foeniculum vulgare Miller Fruits Shamar Umbelliferae Glossostemon bruguieri Desf. Roots Sahlab

1 Kundus
l

'

Abbad esh shams Karkadeih Hashishet eddinar

Arar

Khuzami

Henna Ussab Kattan Termis diseases. flowers Anticough, bronchial disorders Leaves, R. bps FI. heads -4ntispasmodic, dermatitis, sedative Carminative, anti-spasmodic, antiseptic Antislimming, tonic. Antidiabetic, astringent, haemostatic Bronchial asthma, inmunostimulant, diuretic Antispasmodic, digestive, galactagogue Nutrient, antidimhoea Digestive, mouth wash, bronch.disorders, Anthelmintic, antirheumatic Diuretic, antirheumatic, emmenagogue. Carminative, sedative, mild diuretic, anti-spasmodic

1 Ii4mrubium vulggare.L. 1 kilbiatae I Mafrìcaria chammilla L.
l
Comvosttae

1 Malvaceae

i

1 Sharir I
l

I Babung

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1 Labiatae

I

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LIST OF PLANTS. INCLUDED I SCIENTIF’ICTHESES AND RESEARCH PAPERS N
1.

2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. l o.

II. 12.
13. 14. 15.

16. 17. 18. 19. 2o. 21. 22.
23.

24.
25.

25, 2 7. 28. 29. 30. 31,
32. 33. 34. 35. 3 ó. 3 7. 38.

39.
40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51.

52. 53.

Abrus precatorius L. Acacia arabica L. Acacia farnesiana L. Acacia senegalensisL. Achilleafragrantissima Sch.B.p. Achillea santolinaL. Acokanthera spectabilis Hook fil. Adhatoda vasica Nees Adonis aututnnalis L. Adonis dentataDel. Aegialophila pumila (Jusl.) Boiss. Aegle marmelos (L.) Con. Aerva lanata Juss. Aerva tomentosa Forsk. Agave americana L. var. marginata Agave decipiensBa!!cr Agave sisalana(Engelm.)0:umm. C % Prain. Ajuga iva L. Albizia julibrissin Durazz. Alhagi maurorum Medic. Allium aschersonianum Barb. Allium cepa L. Allium sativum L. Aloe grandidentata S.D. Aloe vera L. Aithea officimiis L. klthea rosea L. kmberboa tubulìjlora Murb. Ambrosia maritima L. hmmi majus L. Arnmi visnagaL. Anahasis articulafa L. Anagallis arvensis L. Anastatica hierochuntica L. Anchusa millerì Willd. hnnona cherimola Milier Annona ghbra L. Annona muricata L. Annona squamosa L. Anthemis nobilisL. Anthemis pseudocotulaBoiss. Antirrhinum majusL. Apiurn graveolensL. Argemone mexicana L. Arisarum vulgare Schott. Aristolochia elegans Mast Artemisia absinthium L. Artemisiaargentea L’Hér. Artemisia argyi Levl. & Vant. Artemisia cina Berg. Artemisia herba alba L, Artemisia judaica L. Artemisia monospermaL.

54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80.

81. 82. 83.
84.
85.

86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93.
94.

95. 96.
97.

98. 99. I OO. 101. 102.
103.

Arthrucnemum glaucum (Del.) Ung - Sternb. Asclepias curassavica L. Asparagus stipularis Forssk. Aster squamatusL. Asteriscus graveolensLess. Astragalus alexandrinusBoiss. Astragalus boeticus L. Astragalus cremophilos Boiss. Astragalus tomentosus Lam. Astragallustrigonus DC. Atrocarpus integrfolia Link Atropa belladonnaL. Avicennia officinalisL. Barleria cristataL. Bassiß mtu-ico-fa MUT. Bauhiaea purpurea L. Bauhinia variegata L. Beamontiagrandij7ora Wall. Bolusanthus specìosus (Bolus) Hams Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. Brassica nigraL. Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. Bryonia cretica L. Calendula arvensisE. “dendula officinalis L. Culligonum cornosum L’Heï. Callistemon lanceolatusDC. Callistemon rigidusR.Br. Calotropis procera (Aitcn) R.&. Calycodendron milnei(A.Gray) A.C.Smith. Canavalia obtusifolìaDC. Cannaflaccida Salisb. Canna indicaL. Canna orientalis Iioscoe Cannabis sativaL. Cardiospernwm halicacabumL. Carduncellus eriocephalusBoiss. Carduus getulusPorne1 Carduus nutansL. Carica papayaL. Carissa carandasL. Carissa grandifloraDC. Carthamus glaucusBiebsubsp. alexandrinus Carthamus mariuticus Del. Carthamus tinctorius L. Carum copticumBenth. Carurn carvi L. Cassìa acutrgolia Del. Cassia didymobotrya Fres. Cassiafistula L.

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104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134.

135. 136. 137. 138.
139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153. 154. 155.

Cassiajavanica L. Cassia nigricans Cassia obovata Coll. Cassia siameaLam. Cassia spectabilis DC. Catha edulis Forssk. Centaurea aegyptiaca Del. Centaureaalexandrina Del. Centaurea calcitrapaL. Centaurea cineraria L. Centaurea moschataL. Centaurea ragusina L. subsp. ragusina Centaurium pulchellum SW. Centaurium spicatum(L.) Fritsch Ceratonia siliquaL. Cerbera odollarn Gaertn. Cestrum aurantiacum i d L Cestrum diurnumL. Cestrcm elegansp r o p . ) SchJect. Chenopodium ambrosiodesL. Chenopodium murale Corchorus olitoriusL. Chrysanthemumanethijolium Brows. Chrysanthemum cinerarifolium Visiani Chrysanthemum coronariumL. Chrysanthemum manifohm Ramat. Cichorilcm inntybiisL. Cichorizcm pundum L. Cttrullus colocynthis(L.) Schrader Citrus aurantijoliaSwingle Citrus aurantiunt L. Citrus aurantiumL. var. amara Citrus aurantiumL. var. deliciosa Citrus aurantiumL. var. sinensis Citrus bergamia (Risso & Poiteau) Wight & Am. Citrus limettaL. Citrus Eimon (L.) Burm. fil. Citrus nobilisLour Citrus X paradisi Macfad. Citrus reticulata Blanco Citrus sanguineaEngl. Citrus triyoliataL. Cleistopholis patens Engl.& Diels. Cleonze amblycarpaBarr. & Murb. Cleome droserifolia (Forssk) Del. Clerodendron inermisL. Clivia miniataRegel Cocculus laurijolius DC. Coffea arabicaL. Convolvulus althaeoides L. Convolvulus awensis L. Convolvulus lanatusVahl

156.
157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174, 175. 176. 177. 178. 179. 180. 181. 182. 183. 184. 185. 186. i87. 188. 189. 190. 191. 192. 193. 194. 195. 196. 197. 198. 199. 200. 201. 202. 203. 204. 205. 206. 207. 208.

Conyza dioscorides L.)Desf. ( Conyza linijdia Willd. Cordia myxaL. Coriandrum sativumL. Cornulacca monacanthaDel. Cotula cinereaDel. Crinum americanum L. Crinum augustum Rox. Crinum bulbispermum Milne Crotolaria aegyptiaca Bentham Crotolaria madurensisR. Wight Crucianella maritimaL. Cucumis meloL. Cucurbita maximaDuchesne Cucurbita pepo var. medullosa Alef. Cuminum cyminumL. Cupressus arizonicaGreene Ccpressus lusitanicaMiller Cupressus sempervirens L. Cumma l o . ~ g ~ L. Cyamopsis tetragonoloba Taub. Cymbopogon citratusL. Cymbopogon nardusRendle Cymbopogon proximus Stapf. Cy.wrzdropsis pentaphylla Bahus Cyperus rotundusL. Datura discolourBerth. Datura fastusa L. Datura ferox L. Datura imoxia Miller Datma metek L. Datua metelolides DC. Datma stramonium L. Datura stramonium var.inermis S afford Vatura tatula L. Datura tatula L. var. inernlis Safford Daucus carota L. var. boissieri Schweinf. Daucus glaberForssk Delphinium ajacisL. Delphinium barbeyiHuth. Delphinium belladonna Kelw. Derris ellipticaL. Digitalis lanata Ehrh. Digitalis mertonensis Buxt. & Darl. Digitalis parvifloraJacq. Digitalis purpurea L. Digitalis purpwea var. miniana Sampaio Digitalis viridifora Lindl. Dioscorea opposita Thunb. Discorea tokoroMakino Dolichoìs lablabL. Ducrosia ismaelisAschers. Duranta plumeriJacq.

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209. 210. 211. 212. 213. 214. 215. 216. 217. 218. 219. 22 o. 221. 222. 223. 224. 225. 226. 22 7. 228. 229. 230. 231. 232. 233. 234. 235. 236. 237. 238. 239. 240. 241. 242. 243. 244. 245. 246. 247. 248. 249. 250. 251. 252. 253. 254. 255. 2 56. 257. 258. 259. 260.

Duranta repensL. Ecballium elateriumA.Rich. Echiochilon,fruticosum Desf. Echium sericeumVahl Eclipta prostrata(L.) L. Emex spinosus(L.)Campd. Eminiurn spiculatum (Blume) Schott Enterolobium cyclocarpumGriseb. Ephedra alata Decne Ephedra alta C.A.Meyer Ephedra sinica Stapf Erigeron crispus P o u . Eruca sativcz Mill. Erucaria pinnataTackl. Erythraeu spicata L. = Centaurium spicatum (L) Fritsch Erythrina variegata L. Eschscholtzia caLì$obmica Cham. Ethulia conyzoidesLX var. gracilis Asch & Schweinf Eucalyptus citriodora Hooker Eucalyptus cornuta Labiii. Eucalyptus goniocalyxF.J.Muel1. Eucalyptus globulsLabill. Eucalyptus macrocarpa Hooker Eucalyptus maculata vur. citriodora Bailey Euphorbia hyperictlfaliaL. Euphorbig geniculata01%. Eupiiorbia helioscopiaL. Euphorbia heierophjrila L. E u p h d i a pwalias L. Euphorbia peplus L. Euphorbia plucherrina -Wílid Euphorbia retusa Forssk. Euphoirbia terracina L. Fagonia arabicaL. Fagonia bruguieri DC. Fagonia creticaL. Fagonia glutinosaDel. Fagonia mollisDel. Fagonia parviflora Boiss. Fagopyrum esculentum L. Farsetia aegyptia Turra Ficus benghalensis L. Ficus benjaminaL. Ficus elastica Roxb. Ficus platyphylla Del. Fuymaria densifloraDC. Fumaria judaica Boiss. Glacium9avurn Crantz Glossostemon bruguieriDesf. Glycyrrihiuzaglabra L. Gossypium barbadenseL. Haemanthus multiflorus Martyn

Haloxylon salicornicum auct .non Bunge Haplophyllum tuberculatum 262. (Forssk) A.Juss. Hedera helixL. 263. Helianthus annuus L. 264. Heliotropium digynum Forssk 265. Hemerocallis aurantica 266. Hibiscus sabdarìfa L. 267. Hippeastrum vittatumL’Her. 268. Hyoscyamus albus var. desertorum 269. 2 70. Hyoscyamus muticusL. 271. Hyoseris lucidaL. 2 72. Hypecoum aegyptiacum(Forssk.) Asch & Schweinf. 2 73. Hyossopus 0J”jirtalis L. 2 74. Inula crithmoidesL. 275. Iochiomu lanceolatum 276. Iphiona mucronata (Forssk) Asch & Schweinf Iphiona scabra DC. 277. 2 78. Ipomoea batatas &.)Lam. 2 79. Iris germanicaL. var. alba 280. Jasminium mesnyiHance 281. Jasminum grandgorum L. Jasminum sambac &.)Aiton 282. Jasonia montana Wald) Botsch. 283. .Tatropha curcas L. 284. 285. Joannesia principzs VA. Khaya senegalencisA. Juss. 286. Lacturn saligna L. 287. Lagenaria brevijloraRobert. 288. 289. hgenarie sicerariu (Mol.) Standl. kantana camara L. 290. 29i. Launea mucronataForssk Launaea nudicaulis(L.) Ho0k.f. 292. Launaea resedifolia (Willd.) 293. Kuntze 294. Lunaea spinosa Forssk. Lclunaea tenrciloba Bolfss. 295. Laurus nobilis L. 296. Lavandula officinalis L. 297. Luwsonia inermisL. 298. Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk. 299. Limonium sinuatumMill. 300. Limonium tubgorum (Del.) Ktze. 301. Linum usitatissimumL. 302. Lotus arabicusL. 303. Lotus creticus L. 304. Lupinus termisForssk. 305. Lycium shawiiRoem & Sch. 306. Lycopersicum prumijormeMiller 307. Lygos raetam (Forssk.) Heywood 308. Magnolia grand$?oraL. 309. Majorana hortensisMoench 31O. Malabaila suaveolensCoss. 311. 312. Malva arboreaL. 261.

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313. 314. 315. 31 6. 317. 318. 319. 320. 321.

Malva rotundifoliaDesf. Malva sylvestrisL. Malva viscosus arborea L. Marrubium alyssonL. Mathiola livida (Del.) DC. Matricaria chamomilla L. Medicago sativa L. Melia azedarchL. Melilotus indica (L.)All. var. tommasinii Jord. Melilotus siculusTurra 322. Mentha piperita L. 323. Mentha pulegium L. 324. Mentha spicataL. 325. Mentha viridisL. 326. 32 7. Moltkiopsis ciliata Johnst. Montanoa bipinnatifidaKock. 328. Murraya exoticaL. 329. Muscari comosumMiller 330, Myrtus communis L. 331. Narcissus tazetfaL. 332. Nerium oleanderL. 333. Nicotiana glaucaR.@ Grah. 334. Nicotiana rustica L. 335. Nicotiana tabacum L. 336. 33 7. Nigella sativa L. Nitraria retusa (Forssk) A.sch. 338. Nymphaea lotus L. 339. Ocìmunz basilicurnL. 340. Ocinum ccwm Sim. 341, Ocimum gmtissimzcm L. 342. Qcimum mbrum L. 343. Ononis vaginalisVahL 344. Opuntiaficus-indica L. 345. Orchradenus baccatus Del. 346. Origanum majoranaL. 347. Oropordum alexandrinum Boiss. 348. Oryza sativaL. 349. Oxandra xylopioides Diels 350. Pancratium maritimum L. 351. Pancratium sickenbergereiAsch. & 352. Schweinf. ex Boiss. Panicum turgidumForssk. 353. Papaver argemoneL. 354. Papaver bracteatumL. 355. Papaver dubiumL. 356. Papaver nudicauleL. 357. Papaver orientaleL. 358. Papaver rhoeasL. 359. Papaver somniferumL. 360. Pastinaca sativa L. 361. Peganum harmalaL. 362. PelargoniumfragransWilld. 363. Pelargonium graveolensL'Hér. 364. Pergularìa tomentosa L. 365. Petroselinum sativum H o a . 366. Phlomis aureaDecne. 367.

368. 369. 3 70. 371. 3 72. 3 73. 3 74. 3 75. 3 76. 3 77. 3 78. 3 79. 380. 381. 382. 383. 384. 385. 386. 387. 388. 389. 390. 391. 392. 393. 394. 395. 396. 397. 398. 399. 400. 401. 402. 403. 404. 405. 406. 407. 408. 409. 41O. 411. 412. 413. 414. 415. 41 6. 41 7. 418. 419. 420. 421. 422. 423.

Phoenix dactyliferaL. Physalis peruvianaL. Phytolacca americanaL. Pimenta acrisKostel. Pimenta dioica (L.) Men. Pimpinella anisum L Pituranthus triradiatus(Hochst.) Asch. & Schweinf. Pituranths tortuosrus(Desf.) Benth. Plantago albicansL. Plantago coronopusL. Plantago crypsoidesBoiss. Plantago cylindrica Forssk. Plantago majorL. Plantago notataLag. Plantag9 ovataFOrSsk. Plantago psyllium L. Plumbago capenisThunb. Plumeria rubra L. Polianthus tuberosa L. Foiycarpaea repens Forssk. Polycarpon alsinifolium(Biv.) DC. Polygonum sa1ici;foliumL. Portulaca oleraceaL. Pseudorlaya pumila (L.) Murb. Psidium guajava L. Pulicaria crispa Forssk. Pulicaria dysenterica L. Pdicoria incisa (Lm.) DC. Puiicarïa unddata L. Ranunculus sativusL. Ranuncuhs sczleratus L. Rauwolfia cmescens i. Reseda pruirosaDel. Reaumuria hirtella Jaub be §p. Ricinus communisL. Rosa rugosa Thunb. Rosmarinus oficinalis L. Rubia tinctoriumL. Rumex confertusWilld. Rumex crispusL. Rumex dentatus L. Rumex obtusgoliusL. Ruscus hypoglossum L. Ruta graveolensL. Saccarum oficinarum L. Salix babylonica L. Salk safsafL. Salix tetrasperma Roxb. Salvadora persicaL. Salvia aegyptiaca L. Salvia farenaceae Benth. Salvia lanigera Poir . Salvia oficinalis L. Salvia trilobaL. Salvia verbenacaL. Sambucus nigraL.

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CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes

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Sansevieria cylindrica Bojer. Santolina chainaecyprissusL. Saponaria oficinalis L. Schinus molleL. Schinus terebinthifoliusRadd. Scrozonera alexandrina Boiss. Scrophularia desertii Del. Securinega sufSncticesaRehd. Senecio coronopifoliusDesf. Senecio desfontaineiDruce Senecio vulgarisL. Sequoia sempervirens Endl. Sesbania aegyptiacaPers. Silene succulentaForssk. Silene villosaForssk. Solenostemma argei (Del.) Hayne Solanum aviculareForst. Solanum laciniatumAit. Solanum macranthum Dun. Solanum macrocarpum Pers. Solanum melongenaL. Solanum nigrumL. Solanum oLeraceum L. Solanum pseudocapsicum L. Solanum. sodomeumL. Sonchus macrocarpusBoulas ¿ k Jeffrey Sophora,flavexens Ait. Sophora japonica E. Sophora secundiflora Ortega Sterculia diversifoliaDon Sylibum marianum6.1 Gzertn. Tcbebuia guayacctn Eeml. Tabebuia pentaphylla(L.) Hemsl. Tabemaemontana coronariaWilld. Tabebuia chrysotricha (Mart.ex DC.) Standl. Tabebuia argentea @W.& §chum)
Britt.

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Terminalia chebula Retz. Teucrium polium L. Thea sinensisL. Thymelea hirsuta E. Thymus bovei Benth. Thymus capitatus (L.) Hofiìngg. & Link Tithonia diversifolia Gray Tradescantia bracteataSmall Tribulus alatus L. Trifolium alexandrinum L. Trigonellafoenum-graecumL. Trigonella maritimaDel. Trigonella stellata Forssk Urginea maritimaL. Urginea maritima var. pancratium (Steinh.) B&. Urospermum picroides L. Valeriam offcinalis L. Varthemia montanasWahl.) Boiss. Verbena oficinalis L. Vemonia amygdalina Del. Vicia calcarataDesf. Viciafaba L. Vicia sativaL. Vinca roseaL. Vitex agnus-casfus L. Witharzia somaifera LWrightia coccineaSims. Xanthium occidentaleBert. Xanthium pungens W&J. Xanthiunt spinoswnL. Xylopia aethiopicaA.fiich. ZiZla spinosa (Turra) Prantl Ziziphus spina-Christi L.. Zygophyllum albumL. Zygophyllumm coccineumL. Zygophyllum decumbensDel.

Tcgetes erectaL. Tanacetum santolinoides (DC.) Feinbr. Tecoma stans(L.). HBK

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