Building holistic individual through Technical & Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for human capital development.

Rabbiatul Najua Rosman, Rohana Hamzah, Dr, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Abstract Towards achieving developed country status, Malaysia has worked hard in developing the nation ever since her own independence in 1957. Preparing first-world talent based workforce through education, it has been emphasized in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET). Therefore, the objective of this concept paper is to analyse the building of holistic individual through Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in developing human capital development for industrial demands. The issue of achieving high level of personal well-being as stated in National Philosophy Education Malaysia is expected to produce high quality skilled contributors in national economy development as well as generating individuals with high level of self actualisation. Abstrak Dalam mencapai status Negara maju, Malaysia telah bekerja keras dalam membangunkan Negara sejak kemerdekaan pada 1957 dengan menyediakan para pekerja kelas pertama melalui pendidikan teknik dan vokasional (PTV). Oleh yang demikian, objektif kertas konsep ini adalah bertujuan untuk menganalisis konsep Jasmani, Emosi, Rohani, Intelektual dan Sahsiah dalam pembangunan insan holistic dan seimbang melalui pendidikan teknik dan vokasional sepertimana yang termaktub di dalam Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan. Kesan pembangunan insan holistik dan seimbang melalui Pendidikan Teknik dan Vokasional ini bukan sahaja menyediakan individu yang mempunyai kesedaran kendiri yang tinggi tetapi juga memberi kesan kepada pertumbuhan modal insan dan ekonomi Negara

Keywords: holistic individual, technical and vocational education and training, human capital, labour market.

INTRODUCTION CONTRIBUTION OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN TENTH MALAYSIA PLAN Due to the aim of developing Malaysia towards developed country in 2015, Tenth Malaysia Plan (2011- 2015) had underline a framework of education and training in order to fulfill highly skilled workforce demands. The transformations of education accomplished throughout these several years will assure each individual obtain their rights for education. The process starts from upgrading the early childhood education through tertiary education and existing workforce adults. The improvement on teaching and learning strategies in schools drives increasing performance for student as well as the teachers. Transformation of education stressed on the improvement of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) as alternative path to assure the integration of individual potential holistically and development of human capital for industrial needs and productivity. Furthermore, the initiative of these transformation strategies also focused on the training programs for existing workforce in order to produce highly skilled and knowledgeable workforce. The increasing number of highly skilled workforce will drive the economic growth. Other than that, the internship programs involving on the job training system imitatively increased the experienced and professional graduates and thus, result in reducing amount of unemployed graduates. Saglam and Oral (2010) mentioned that manpower is one of three main components that industry needs to continue its production. The quality of the people differentiate the production of each industry, which in bigger picture, it affected national economic development. Therefore, it is crucially important that we ensure development of human capital is given serious reaction.


BACKGROUND THE CONCEPT OF PHYSICAL, EMOTIONAL, SPIRITUAL, INTELLECTUAL AND SOCIAL IN DEFINING HOLISTIC INDIVIDUAL. Most of the people assumed that the purpose of achieving knowledge is to acquire career opportunity rather than knowing the nature of human being. Each individual ought to realize that education is not only for career purposes and progression of national economic but also for developing self actualization (Bass, 1997). Each individual need to have awareness to search for the real meaning of knowledge and it purposes. Based on the holistic theory, knowledge is viewed as an understanding about the reality of mental correspondence, experience, emotional affection with objects and situations (Yang, 2004). Other than that, knowledge is acquired through learning process or activities that expand physical, emotional, spiritual, intellectual and social skills. The development of these aspects in each individual may improve their rationality skills for themselves and community (Annick, 1999). The expansion of these skills builds knowledge and deeper understanding about themselves as individuals (Escobar, 2011). The concept of Physical, Emotional, Spiritual, Intellectual and Morality is also being stressed in educating educated person. Standler (2004) stated that knowledge is something alive in a person that created and can be improved by a person. It also can be applied by a person as well as taught and pass on by a person. Through the definition, processes of acquiring knowledge can be seen much depend on how strong the development of physical, emotional, spiritual, intellectual and morality skills beneath each individual for the sake of their own needs and also society. In Islamic learning, these concepts applied as strategies in learning Al-quran where a person need to read, understand, master the meaning and apply it in daily situation. Through Al-quran, a person will be perfectly educates with every matters in life once they have consciousness about the truth or hidayah within themselves and life. The effects of self actualization in a person are significant to help them understand the main purpose of living and it develops a great holistic individual. Islamic education indicates the importance of Alquran as a medium to build awareness in a person’s heart on the purposes of living and seeking knowledge (Stanton, 1990). In Surah Al-Fathir: 642 eminences that person whom fears of Allah is a knowledgeable person (Mohamad Hisyam Mohamad, 2005).

In Malaysia, the concept of Physical, Emotional, Spiritual, Intellectual and Morality are linked to the building of holistic individual that may assist the national development as stated in National Educational Philosophy (NEP): “Education in Malaysia in on-going effort towards further developing the potentials of individual in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally physically balanced and harmonious, basedon a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards, and who are well responsible and capable of achieving high level of personal wellbeing as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, the society and nation at large”. (Sidek Baba, 2009) Mohd.Fathi et al. (2011) also stressed that the aim of National education is to develop a holistic citizen with a great abilities on Physical, Emotional, Spiritual, Intellectual and Morality that may expand their self development as well as the national development. The emergence of Physical, Emotional, Spiritual, Intellectual and Morality is seen as the main strategies to develop the holistic individual not only for developing human capital that gives benefit to national economy but also building an individual with high self actualization. It is clearly defined the concept of Physical, Emotional, Spiritual, Intellectual and Morality support the process of acquiring knowledge and parallel with the development of holistic individual. The knowledge builds is important to improve their individual needs and proficiencies and become a device to integrate changes in community and encourage the national development (Bass, 1997).

BUILDING HOLISTIC INDIVIDUAL THROUGH TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING Technical and vocational education and training is one of an education stream that can be applied for life long-learning (Lynch, 2000). The interconnection of technical and intellectual skills stressed in TVET provides attentiveness to students regards on the life’s essential and challenges. During TVET process, the students learn about living skills. It enable themselves to seek for the main goals of acquiring knowledge and hence, teaching them to be more independent person towards achieving their aim of life. Ever et al. (1998) stated that developing technical and cognitive elements in TVET may assist an individual to arise their self actualization. Consequently, molding an individual with a distinctive intellectual and proficiencies and also building a spiritual and high morality person for life long application. The implication of Physical, Emotional, Spiritual, Intellectual and Morality in molding holistic individual through TVET is undoubtedly effective not only to increase self actualization but also expose students the real definition of knowledge for life long learning. To build and mold a holistic individual through technical and vocational is not an easy matter and need to through several processes. Hence, government had planned several outlines to improve education system in order to develop holistic individual. Government Transformation Plan (GTP) is one of the major frameworks that stressed on the importance of education outcomes to arise the number of holistic individual that may contribute to the development of human capital and national economic. As stated by Minister of Education, Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin (2010) on improving student outcomes: “…Raising the standards of education is the key to create a better future for our nation. We are determined to reach a greater level in ensuring that every child gets the opportunity to gain an affordable and quality education. That is our commitment to the rakyat in building a globally competitive Malaysia”. Based on the improvement outline of GTP education outcome, the awareness in developing holistic individual starts from the pre school level. Cognitivist viewed children as an entity that easily influenced by environment and surroundings. They have abilities to absorb information and knowledge and memorize it well and thus, affecting their cognitive skills and behavior (Kamran Mohamad, 2004). This approach may assist

them to build holistic manners time by time through effective teaching and learning process. Furthermore, according to government strategies in Tenth Malaysia plan (20112015), technical and vocational education and training is reliable to make student realize their self potential towards achieving career opportunities. The strategy of National Dual Training System (NDTS) is distinguished to improve the development of highly skilled worker in Malaysia by 2015 in order to become a developed country. Thus, the increasing numbers of highly skilled workers in labour market affect the growth of national economy and transform Malaysia as a high income nation through specialization (The Economic Planning Unit, 2010). Vocational College (VC) proposed in NDTS for secondary students is one of the strategies to develop individual with the abilities to arise human capital development (Pillay,2005). Students in Vocational College are encouraged to improve their competencies and knowledge through several phases of industrial training. The real workplace environment give student opportunities to apply the concept of Physical, Emotional, Spiritual, Intellectual and Morality while acquiring skills and gather information (Savage, 1999). It consecutively develops their self actualization and hence, developed them to be a successful holistic individual. Other strategies proposed in Tenth Malaysia Plan is the Polytechnic Transformation (HTP) where it introduced polytechnic as an integrated technical and vocational institution for tertiary students to expand their knowledge, improve their industrial skills and building the holistic awareness from within in order to increase human capital development for individual and national economic goals. Polytechnic Initiative Transformation enable students a path to be a holistic individual with great skills of physical, emotional, spiritual, intellectual and morality and thus, creating a distinctive human capital that contribute to self and national development (Higher Education Ministry, 2009).

HOLISTIC INDIVIDUALS AS CATALYST FOR HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT The holistic individual built through Technical and vocational education and training may distinctively improve development of human capital. Abdullah Haji Ahmad Badawi (2004) mentioned that: “…human capital is defined as knowledgeable workforce, confident with high moral values, ethical, discipline, dynamic, innovative, creative, healthy, patriotism, rational, progressive and competitive. They are people that determine the vision and mission of Malaysia in the future” Human capital is defined as valuable human being or workforce with knowledge, expertise and skills accumulated through education and training that invested in labor market for the purpose of economic growth. The Model of Human Capital Theory refers human capital as the productive human being for producing productive goods and services. The relationship between learning and human capital are distinctive for the productivity and earning growth. The opportunities given for education and training to an individual benefits their skills and competencies in every aspect that build up the productivity of human capital development as well as organizational economic growth (Swanson and Holton III, 2001). Based on the definition, holistic individual is much linked to the development of human capital development. The high level of self actualization within an individual increased through Technical and Vocational education and training effect the individual growth. Without the sense of self actualization, they can hardly accomplish the needs of individual and also organization. It may occur because they don’t understand the truth about being a valuable human being. Each individual is not only characterizing as valuable human being because of their contribution for organizational economic growth but also acknowledge for their development of fullest potential in every aspect of life. The great awareness of self actualization in each individual will be the main catalyst for human capital development and thus, increase the national development in productivity and economics. Bierema (1996) in Swanson and Holton III (2001) stated that: “…a holistic approach to the development of individuals in the context of learning organization produces well-informed, knowledgeable, critical-thinking adults who have sense of fulfillment and inherently make decision that cause an organization to prosper.” Former Prime Minister, Tun

CONCLUSION A holistic individual develop their self actualization through technical and vocational education and training. The awareness gives them a realization that the main quest of seeking knowledge is to know The Creator and the nature of human being as universal career or khalifah. Through self actualization, it guides human towards becoming individual with noble characteristic and realized importance of knowledge holistically (Stanton, 1997). Knowledge is not only applied for career development nor national economic growth. It is important to expose student periodically the truth meaning of acquiring knowledge in life in order to assist them to be a great holistic individual and great human capital that give contribution to themselves and the arise of national economic growth. Throughout strategies implemented by government for technical and vocational education and training, the progression in building holistic individual seem to increase parallel with the development of human capital. Within several years, Vision 2020 will be successfully achieved with strengthened human capital and high skilled workforce. National industry will be fulfilled with holistically knowledgeable workforce that may arise economic growth towards achieving developed country. National economy is mainly driven by industry as well as technology developments. Thus, it is very crucial to ensure that our workforce is ready to face the challenges in fully developed industry and continually grow at high pace. With that, it makes human capital is highly important, consequently ensuring development of knowledge, skills, talents and potentials for each individual to be harnessed in labour market.

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