"God's handiwork”- the world that god created.

Many people took an interest in it during the scientific revolution "natural philosophers"- medieval scientists, preferred refined logical analysis to systematic observations of the natural world. A number of changes and advances in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries may have played a major role in helping “natural philosophers” abandon their old views and develop new ones alchemy and hermetic magic- The tradition believed that the world was a living embodiment of divinity. Humans were believed to be able to use magic. B) the desire to control and dominate the natural world was a crucial force in the scientific revolution.

Ptolemaic universe- a finite universe had a fixed outer boundary in harmony with Christian thought and expectation. God and the saved souls were at one end of the universe, and humans were at the center. Aristotle- Helped contribute to the cosmological models of the late middle ages. The synthesis of ideas between Aristotle and Ptolemy created the geocentric conception; which stated, the universe was a series of concentric spheres with a fixed or motionless earth at its center. Earth was considered imperfect and constantly changing geocentric universe- universe was seen as a series of concentric spheres with affixed or motionless earth at its center. Composed of material substances of earth, air, fire, and water, the earth was imperfect and constantly changing. The spheres that surround the earth were made of a crystalline, transparent substance and moved in circular orbits around the earth. the Empyrean Heaven- The location of god and all of the saved souls beyond the tenth sphere of the Ptolemaic geocentric conception of the earth. epicycles- astronomers proposed that the planetary bodies traveled on epicycles, concentric spheres within spheres, that would enable the paths of the planets to correspond more precisely to observations while adhering to Aristotle’s ideas of circular planetary movement. Nicolaus Copernicus- (1473-1543) He was both a mathematician and an astronomer. His famous book was On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres- Copernicus’ most famous work. Copernicus hoped that his heliocentric or sun-centered conception would offer a simpler and more accurate explanation. He DID NOT reject the existence of heavenly spheres moving in circular orbits.

heliocentric universe- the universe consisted of eight spheres with the sun motionless at the center and the spheres of the fixed stars at rest in the eighth sphere. The planets revolved around the sun in the order of Mercury, Venus, the earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn and the moon revolved around the earth. What appeared to be the movement of the sun and the fixed stars was actually explained by daily rotation of the earth of its axis and the journey of the earth around the sun each year Tycho Brahe- The next step in destroying the geocentric conception and supporting the Copernican system was taken by Johannes Kepler with the material provided by Tycho Brahe. In twenty years, Brahe concentrated on compiling a detailed record of his observations of the positions and movements of the stars and planets. He rejected the Ptolemaic system, but didn’t believe earth moved. Kepler was his assistant who took on his ideas. Johannes Kepler- (1571-1630) His parents wanted him to be a Lutheran minister when he grew up. He decided to follow his passions of astronomy and mathematics. He theorized that the universe was constructed on geometric figures such as the pyramid and the cube. He focused of finding “the music of spheres”. He showed that the orbit around the sun was not circular but elliptical, and the sun was at one focus not in the center. In his second law he theorized that the speed of the planets increases when it gets closer to the sun during orbit. He lastly established that the square of a planet’s period of revolution is proportional to the cube of its average distance from the sun three laws of planetary motion- Kepler came up with the three laws of planetary motion which confirmed Copernicus’ heliocentric theory while modifying it in some ways. His first law rejected heliocentric ideas by showing that the orbits of the planets around the sun were not circular, but elliptical, with the sun at one focus of the ellipse rather than at the center. Second law demonstrates that the speed of a planet is greater when closer to the sun and decreases when further away from the sun. Third law established that planets with larger orbits revolve at a slower average velocity than those with smaller orbits. Galileo Galilei: (1564-1642) was the first European to make systematic observations of the heavens by means of telescope. He discovered mountains and craters on the moon, the four moons surrounding Jupiter, the phases of Venus, and sunspots. He did more for the view of Europeans on the universe than Copernicus and Kepler combined. The Starry Messenger- Galileo’s revelations (universe was composed of material substance similar to that of earth) were published in “The Starry Messenger”. The book stunned his contemporaries and probably did more to make Europeans aware of the new picture of the universe than the mathematical theories of Copernicus and Kepler did. Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems: Galileo’s most famous work. It was written in Italian rather than Latin. It was a work that was considered to be defending the illegal views of Copernican ideas. He was placed under house arrest for 8 years due to this literary work. During that remaining time in his life, which he spent in Florence, he made significant contributions to the field of mechanics

the Inquisition- The Roman Inquisition of the Catholic Church condemned Copernicanism and ordered Galileo to reject the Copernican thesis. Church attacked the Copernican system because it threatened not only Scripture but also an entire conception of the universe. Isaac Newton- He was born in England 1642. He invented Calculus, which was a method of calculation rates of change. He accepted his chair in mathematics at the university of Cambridge in 1669. Created the universal law of gravitation (pg.457) Principia- Newton’s most famous work. Newton spelled out the mathematical proofs demonstrating the universal law of gravitation. He defined the basic concepts of mechanics by elaborating the three laws of motion: every object continues in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless deflected by a force, the rate of change of motion of an object is proportional to the force acting on it, and to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Newton applied his theories of mechanics to the problems of astronomy by demonstrating that these three laws of motion govern the planetary bodies as well as the terrestrial objects. universal law of gravitationGalen- Late medieval teachings were dominated by the Greek physician Galen. Galen’s influence on the medieval medical world was pervasive in anatomy, physiology, and disease. Believed there were two separate blood systems: one controlled muscular activities and contained bright red blood moving upward and downward through the arteries, the other governed the digestive functions and contained dark red blood that flowed in the veins. Examination of a patient’s urine became chief diagnostic tool. four bodily humors- they were blood, yellow bile, phlegm, and black bile. Galen argued that these four humors, when imbalanced, caused disease. Paracelsus- one of the figures associated with changes in medicine in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. He and his followers hoped to replace the traditional system with a new chemical philosophy that was based on a new understanding of nature derived from fresh observation and experiment. According to his view a human being was a replica (microcosm) of the larger world (macrocosm). Paracelsus believed that the chemical reactions of the universe as a whole were reproduced in human beings on a smaller scale. Disease was not caused by an imbalance of the four humors, but was due to chemical imbalances that were localized in specific organs and could be treated by chemical remedies (LIKE CURES LIKE). "new drugs"- Were discovered by Paracelsus, which gave him much recognition in the medical field. (Self explaining)

Andreas Vesalius- the new anatomy of the sixteenth century was the work of Andreas Vesalius; Vesalius’ hands-on approach to teaching anatomy enabled him to rectify some of Galen’s most glaring errors. His observations made it clear that the great blood vessels came from the heart and not the liver, but still believed there were two kind of blood in the veins and the arteries. On the Fabric of the Human Body- emphasized practical research, personally dissecting a body to illustrate what he was discussing; presented a careful examination of the individual organs and general structure of the human body William Harvey- It was not until William Harvey’s work on the circulation of blood that the Galenic misperception was corrected; his work was based on meticulous observations and experiments, led him to demolish the ancient Greek’s statements. Harvey’s theory of the circulation of the blood laid the foundation for modern physiology. On the Motion of the Heart and Blood- Harvey demonstrated that the heart and not the liver was the beginning point of the circulation of the blood in the body, that the same blood flows in both veins and arteries, and most importantly that the blood makes a complete circuit as it passes through the body. Harvey’s ideas did not gain recognition until the discoveries of capillaries. Robert Boyle- was one of the first scientists to conduct controlled experiments; his pioneer work on the property of gases led to Boyle’s law, which states that the volume of gas varies with the pressure exerted on it; was in favor of the theory that matter is composed of atoms Antoine Lavoisier- (1743-1794) invented a system of naming the chemical elements much of which is still used today. He is regarded by many as the founder of modern chemistry. Margaret Cavendish- came from an aristocratic background; participants in crucial scientific debates for her time; wrote a number of works on scientific matter and rejected the idea that through science, humans would be masters of nature Maria Sibylla Merian- (1647- 1717) was a reputable entomologist by the beginning of the 18th century. She went to the Dutch colony of Surinam in South America to collect and draw plants and insect life. Maria Winkelmann- the craft organization of astronomy gave women opportunities to become involved in science (women became apprentices to men); the most famous of the female astronomers in Germany was Winkelmann; she married Germany’s foremost astronomer and became his assistant, when he died she applied for an assistant astronomer which she was highly qualified for but was denied because women were not accepted in scientific work

querelles des femmes: basically arguments about women. Male debates were often a carryover from Medieval times and were mostly negative. Men needed to “control women”. Females emphasized that education was the key to enabling a women to succeed in the world. (see pg. 462)

Rene Descartes- one of the primary figures in the Scientific Revolution; claiming to use reason as his sole guide to truth, Descartes posited a sharp distinction between mind and matter; has been called the father of modern rationalism; His books were placed on the Papal Index of Forbidden books and condemned by many Protestant theologians; the split between mind and matter, and between mind and body, had devaststating implications not only for traditional religious views of the universe but also for how Westerners viewed themselves. Discourse on Method- the separation of mind and matter. (See page 464) "I think therefore I am"- first principle of philosophy that Descartes was seeking Descartes' deductive method- proposed a different approach on the scientific method. He emphasized the deduction of mathematical logic, as was explained int eh discourse on method. Scientific Method- proper means to examine and understand the physical realm. This development of a scientific method was crucial to the evolution of science in the modern world; was valuable in answering HOW something works Francis Bacon's inductive method- Rather than beginning with the assumed first principles from which logical conclusions could be deduced, he urged the scientists to proceed from the particular to the general. From carefully organized experiments and thorough, systematic observations, the correct generalizations could be developed. "to conquer nature in action"- the control and domination of nature became a central proposition of modern science and the technology that accompanied it Benedict de Spinoza's pantheism- (1632- 1677) god did not just create the universe; he was the universe. He thought that humans and nature were very much a part of god. The failure to understand God had led to many misconceptions- for one, that nature exists only for ones use. Spinoza also claimed that natural disasters and such were happening because God was angry at something humans had done….etc. Ethics Demonstrated in the Geometrical Manner- book about Spinoza’s philosophy of pantheism; God was not simply the creator of the universe, he was the universe; all that is in God and nothing can be apart from god

Blaise Pascal- he was a French scientist who sought to keep science an religion united. He was a brilliant mathematician and was a very abstract thinker as well. Pensees- In Pascal’s pensees he tried to convert rationalists to Christianity by appealing to both their reason and their emotions English Royal SocietyFrench Royal Academy of Sciences- received abundant state support and remained under government control, its members were appointed and paid salaries by the state; focused their primary interests on theoretical work in mechanics and astronomy; forced to continue its practical work to benefit both the king and the state Journal des Savants Philosophical Transactions-

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