This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The Complete Guide
PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. See http://code.pediapress.com/ for more information. PDF generated at: Mon, 05 Dec 2011 00:43:32 UTC
Ambient music 1 9 9 17 39 48 59 64 67 71 71 84 90 93 93 96 99 101 103 103 105 115 116 122 122 124 128 138 138
20th-century classical music Electronic music Minimal music Psychedelic rock Krautrock Space rock New Age music
Electronic musical instrument Electroacoustic music Folk instrument
Ambient house Lounge music Chill-out music Downtempo
Dark ambient Drone music Lowercase Detroit techno
Illbient Psybient Space music
Related topics and lists
List of ambient artists
List of electronic music genres Furniture music
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 156 160
Stylistic origins Electronic art music Minimalist music  Drone music Psychedelic rock Krautrock Space rock Frippertronics Early 1970s, United Kingdom
Typical instruments Electronic musical instruments, electroacoustic music instruments, and any other instruments or sounds (including world instruments) with electronic processing Mainstream popularity Derivative forms Low
Ambient house – Ambient techno – Chillout – Downtempo – Trance – Intelligent dance Subgenres Dark ambient – Drone music  – Lowercase – Black ambient – Detroit techno – Shoegaze Fusion genres Ambient dub – Illbient – Psybient – Ambient industrial – Ambient house – Space music – Post-rock Other topics Ambient music artists – List of electronic music genres – Furniture music
Ambient music is a musical genre that focuses largely on the timbral characteristics of sounds, often organized or performed to evoke an "atmospheric", "visual" or "unobtrusive" quality.
The roots of ambient music go back to the early 20th century. In particular, the period just before and after the first world war gave rise to two significant art movements that encouraged experimentation with various musical (and non musical) forms, while rejecting more conventional, tradition-bound styles of expression. These art movements were called Futurism and Dadaism. Aside from being known for their painters and writers, these movements also attracted experimental and 'anti-music' musicians such as Francesco Balilla Pratella of the pre-war Futurism movement and Kurt Schwitters and Erwin Schulhoff of the post-war Dadaist movement. The latter movement played an influential role in the musical development of Erik Satie.
John Cage (right) with David Tudor at Shiraz Arts Festival 1971
As an early 20th century French composer, Erik Satie used such Dadaist-inspired explorations to create an early form of ambient / background music that he labeled "furniture music" (Musique d'ameublement). This he described as being the sort of music that could be played during a dinner to create a background atmosphere for that activity, rather than serving as the focus of attention. From this greater historical perspective, Satie is the link between these early Art movements and the work of Brian Eno, who as an art school trained musician, had an appreciation of both
Ambient music the music and art worlds. Douglas Leedy's Entropical Paradise, released as a three LP set by Seraphim in 1971, consisting of six, side-long, compositions of "environmental music", in which single modular synthesizer settings were allowed to play out without further intervention. Brian Eno is generally credited with coining the term "Ambient Music" in the mid-1970s to refer to music that, as he stated, can be either "actively listened to with attention or as easily ignored, depending on the choice of the listener", and that exists on the "cusp between melody and texture". Eno, who describes himself as a "non-musician", termed his experiments in sound as "treatments" rather than as traditional performances. Eno used the word "ambient" to describe music that creates an atmosphere that puts the listener into a different state of mind; having chosen the word based on the Latin term "ambire", "to surround". The album notes accompanying Eno's 1978 release Ambient 1: Music for Airports include a manifesto describing the philosophy behind his ambient music: "Ambient Music must be able to accommodate many levels of listening attention without enforcing one in particular; it must be as ignorable as it is interesting." Eno has acknowledged the influence of Erik Satie and John Cage. In particular, Eno was aware of Cage's use of chance such as throwing the I Ching to directly affect the creation of a musical composition. Eno then utilised a similar method of weaving randomness into his compositional structures. This approach was manifested in Eno's creation of Oblique Strategies, where he used a set of specially designed cards to create various sound dilemmas that in turn, were resolved by exploring various open ended paths, until a resolution to the musical composition revealed itself. Eno also acknowledged influences of the drone music of La Monte Young (of whom he said, "La Monte Young is the daddy of us all" ) and of the mood music of Miles Davis and Teo Macero, especially their 1974 epic piece, "He Loved Him Madly", about which Eno wrote, "that piece seemed to have the 'spacious' quality that I was after...it became a touchstone to which I returned frequently." Beyond the major influence of Brian Eno, other musicians and bands added to the growing nucleus of music that evolved around the development of "Ambient Music". While not an exhaustive list, one cannot ignore the parallel influences of Wendy Carlos, who produced the original music piece called "Timesteps" which was then used as the filmscore to Clockwork Orange, as well as her later work Sonic Seasonings. Other significant artists such as Mike Oldfield, Jean Michel Jarre and Vangelis have all added to or directly influenced the evolution of ambient music. Adding to these individual artists, works by groups such as Pink Floyd, through their albums Ummagumma, Meddle and Obscured by Clouds. Other groups including Yes with their album Tales from Topographic Oceans, the Hafler Trio, Tangerine Dream, Popol Vuh, Can, and Kraftwerk have all added distinctive aspects to the growing and diversified genre of ambient music.
By the early 1990s artists such as The Orb, Aphex Twin, Seefeel, the Irresistible Force, Geir Jenssen's Biosphere, and the Higher Intelligence Agency were being referred to by the popular music press as ambient house, ambient techno, IDM or simply "ambient" according to the liner notes of Brian Eno's Ambient 1: Music for Airports:
Ambient Music is intended to induce calm and a space to think.
So-called 'Chillout' began as a term deriving from British ecstasy culture which was originally applied in relaxed downtempo 'chillout rooms' outside of the main dance floor where ambient, dub and downtempo beats were played to ease the tripping mind.  The London scene artists, such as Aphex Twin (specifically: Selected Ambient Works Volume II, 1994), Global Communication (76:14, 1994), FSOL The Future Sound of London (Lifeforms, ISDN), The Black Dog (Temple of Transparent Balls, 1993), Autechre (Incunabula, 1993, Amber), Boards of Canada, and The KLF's seminal Chill
Ambient music Out, 1990, all took a part in popularising and diversifying ambient music where it was used as a calming respite from the intensity of the hardcore and techno popular at that time. Later in the period much experimental electronica (particularly sound artists such as Pole, Mika Vainio, Ryoji Ikeda, Christian Fennesz, Aphex Twin (drukQs, 2001) and Autechre expanded the themes of 'ambient' along the lines of earlier 1970s ambient music & dub but with increasingly abstracted sample-based textures and digital electronics that ultimately began to converge with minimalist compositions and music concrete. Digital era musicians and sound artists, including Brian Eno  are notable in their attempts to create 'sonic sculptures' which interact with the physical architecture of the listening space using advanced electronic installations. Literally 'ambient' field recordings are a specialism of the Touch Music label. Forerunner of this species in Poland is Brunette Models (since 1995). The electroacoustic influence can be heard in the contemporary work of Polish artist Jacaszek (since 2008). Glitch music is a major subset of this work produced by (mainly German) labels such Mille Plateaux (Clicks & Cuts Series, 2000). Some dubstep producers, notably Burial and Kites (Bristol ambient dubstep) have nostalgically referenced the sonic 'post-rave' ambience of the nineties era.
Ambient music has been used in many motion pictures, television shows and video games, and is notable for contributing to their atmosphere, or soundscapes. Vangelis wrote the scores for the British film Chariots of Fire, and for Ridley Scott's 1982 film Blade Runner, as well as many other score albums. David Lynch's 1984 film Dune, for example, forgoes the epic sci-fi adventure style theme music popularized by Star Wars in favor of a more atmospheric music score by Toto and Brian Eno. Throughout the 1980s Tangerine Dream composed scores for more than twenty films, most notably the soundtracks for Flashpoint and Heartbreakers, both released in 1984, and Legend, directed by Ridley Scott and released in 1985. Electronic musician Paddy Kingsland is noted for the music style he brought to several serials of the television series Doctor Who which had until then relied mostly on stock music cues or minimal music for much of its history. The video game trilogy Fallout and its spinoffs use ambient music that sometimes contains gentle rumblings to portray the bleakness of the post-apocalyptic world which the games are set in. Relic Entertainment's 1999 game Homeworld uses such music to highlight the vast emptiness of the areas of deep space the Mothership often finds itself in. Another game series that uses ambient music is the Oddworld games, notably Oddworld: Stranger's Wrath. That music was composed by Michael Bross. The games featured in Valve's Half-Life series, including spinoffs such as Portal, feature ambient music soundtracks by composers Kelly Bailey and Mike Morasky. The EA Game Mirror's Edge also used ambient music, composed and produced by Magnus Birgersson under his guise Solar Fields, to give a futuristic feel or puzzling atmosphere to sections of the game. The Sci-Fi horror game Doom 3 uses an ambient soundtrack made by former drummer Chris Vrenna of the band Nine Inch Nails, instead of having a song, mainly a MIDI file, looped through the entire map.
Related and derivative genres
Organic ambient music
Organic ambient music is characterised by integration of electronic, electric, and acoustic musical instruments. Aside from the usual electronic music influences, organic ambient tends to incorporate influences from world music, especially drone instruments and hand percussion. Organic ambient is intended to be more harmonious with nature than with the disco. Some of the artists in this sub-genre include Robert Rich, Steve Roach, Vidna Obmana, O Yuki Conjugate, Voice of Eye, Vir Unis, James Johnson, Loren Nerell, Atomic Skunk, Tuu and Robert Scott Thompson.
Ambient music Some works by ambient pioneers such as Brian Eno, Laraaji or Popol Vuh who use a combination of traditional instruments (such as piano or hammered dulcimer or hand percussion, though usually processed through tape loops or other devices) and electronic instruments, would be considered New Age / organic ambient music in this sense. In the 1970s and 1980s, Klaus Schulze often recorded string ensembles and performances by solo cellists to go along with his extended Moog synthesizer workouts.
Nature-inspired ambient music
The music is composed from samples and recordings of naturally occurring sounds. Sometimes these samples can be treated to make them more instrument-like. The samples may be arranged in repetitive ways to form a conventional musical structure or may be random and unfocused. Sometimes the sound is mixed with urban or "found" sounds. Examples include much of Biosphere's Substrata, Mira Calix's insect music and Chris Watson's Weather Report. Some overlap occurs between organic ambient and nature-inspired New Age. One of the first albums in the genre, Wendy Carlos' Sonic Seasonings, combines sampled and synthesized nature sounds with ambient melodies and drones for a particularly relaxing effect. Transformation by Suzanne Doucet and Christian Buehner and the album Second Nature by Bill Laswell, Tetsu Inoue, and Atom Heart are ambient album that use processed nature sounds, with reverb and echo to create a hypnotic environment.
Dark ambient is a general term for any kind of ambient music with a "dark" or dissonant feel, but often involves extensive use of digital reverb to create vast sonic spaces for frightening, bottom-heavy sounds such as deep drones, gloomy male chorus, echoing thunder, and distant artillery. It has an eerie feel; the term "isolationist ambient" could be used interchangeably with it according to the listener or artists perspective. Some artists and releases that epitomize the style could include Bass Communion's Ghosts on Magnetic Tape and Vajrayana, Lull's Cold Summer, Controlled Bleeding's The Poisoner, and the Robert Rich/Lustmord collaboration album Stalker. Related styles include ambient industrial and isolationist ambient.
Ambient house is a musical category founded in the late 1980s that is used to describe acid house featuring ambient music elements and atmospheres. Tracks in the ambient house genre typically feature four-on-the-floor beats, synth pads, and vocal samples integrated in an atmospheric style. Ambient house tracks generally lack a diatonic center and feature much atonality along with synthesized chords. Illbient is another form of ambient house music.
Ambient industrial is a hybrid genre of ambient and industrial music; the term industrial being used in the original experimental sense, rather than in the sense of industrial metal or EBM. A "typical" ambient industrial work (if there is such a thing) might consist of evolving dissonant harmonies of metallic drones and resonances, extreme low frequency rumbles and machine noises, perhaps supplemented by gongs, percussive rhythms, bullroarers, distorted voices or anything else the artist might care to sample (often processed to the point where the original sample is no longer recognizable). Entire works may be based on radio telescope recordings, the babbling of newborn babies, or sounds recorded through contact microphones on telegraph wires. Among the many artists who work in this area are Coil, CTI, Lustmord, Nine Inch Nails, Susumu Yokota, Hafler Trio, Nocturnal Emissions, Zoviet France, Scorn, PGR, Thomas Köner, Heimkveld Kunst, Controlled Bleeding, and Deutsch Nepal. However many of these artists are very eclectic in their output, with much of it falling outside of ambient industrial per se.
Space music, also spelled spacemusic, includes music from the ambient genre as well as a broad range of other genres with certain characteristics in common to create the experience of contemplative spaciousness.   Space music ranges from simple to complex sonic textures sometimes lacking conventional melodic, rhythmic, or vocal components,  generally evoking a sense of "continuum of spatial imagery and emotion", beneficial introspection, deep listening and sensations of floating, cruising or flying.  Space music is used by individuals for both background enhancement and foreground listening, often with headphones, to stimulate relaxation, contemplation, inspiration and generally peaceful expansive moods and soundscapes. Space music is also a component of many film soundtracks and is commonly used in planetariums, as a relaxation aid and for meditation. Hearts of Space is a well-known radio show and affiliated record label, specializing in space music since 1984, having released over 150 albums devoted to the music style. Notable artists who have brought elements of ambient music to space music include Michael Stearns, Constance Demby, Jean Ven Robert Hal, Enigma, Jean Michel Jarre, Carbon Based Lifeforms, Robert Rich, Steve Roach, Numina, Dweller at the Threshold, Paul Ellis, Deepspace, Telomere, Max Corbacho, Jonn Serrie, Klaus Schulze, Tangerine Dream (as well as the group's founder Edgar Froese), and Vangelis.
Isolationist ambient music
Isolationist ambient music, also known as isolationism, can be differentiated from other forms of ambient music in its use of repetition, dissonance, microtonality, and unresolved harmonies to create a sense of unresolved unease and desolation. The term was popularized in the mid-1990s by the British magazine The Wire and the Ambient 4: Isolationism compilation from Virgin, this began as more or less a synonym for ambient industrial, but also inclusive of certain post-metal streams of ambient, such as Final, Lull, Main, or post-techno artists such as Autechre and Aphex Twin. It may be less appropriate to call isolationist ambient a genre than using it to describe the style or "feel" of particular works by an artist working in an ambient mode. This is because many artists better known for other styles of work can occasionally create pieces that "sound" isolationist. (For example, Labradford, Seefeel, Kyle Bobby Dunn, Techno Animal, Voice of Eye, KK Null, etc.) There are many labels releasing work that could be termed isolationist ambient, among these are Malignant Records, Cold Spring, Manifold Records, Soleilmoon, and The Sombient label with the "drones" compilation series. Some of the artists known for this style of ambient music include Lull, Final, Bass Communion, Deutsch Nepal, Inanna, Negru Voda, Thomas Köner, Robert Fripp, Steven Wilson, and Chuck Hammer (Guitarchitecture). Of late there has been an influx of progressive metal artists who have clear ambient influences. Bands such as Cult of Luna, Isis, Devil Sold His Soul, Porcupine Tree, and Between the Screams have pioneered the genre and are largely credited with popularizing the sound. These bands are largely known as post-metal.
Ambient dub is a phrase first coined by the now defunct Beyond Records from early 1990s in Birmingham, England. Their defining series of albums Ambient Dub 1, 2, through to 4 inspired many, including sound engineer and producer Bill Laswell, who used the same phrase in his music project Divination, where he collaborates with different musicians on each album (though sometimes the same ones are on more than one of the albums such as Tetsu Inoue and others). Laswell also presented ambient dub and ambient house music on albums by his collaboration project Axiom Dub, featuring recording artists The Orb, Jah Wobble, Jaki Liebezeit, Scorn and DJ Spooky. Ambient dub involves the genre melding of dub styles made famous by King Tubby and other Jamaican sound artists with DJ inspired ambient electronica, complete with all the inherent drop-outs, echo, equalization and psychedelic electronic effects. As writer and performer David Toop explains in an early Beyond Records newsletter, "Dub music
Ambient music is like a long echo delay, looping through time...turning the rational order of musical sequences into an ocean of sensation."
Notable films incorporating ambient music or sound design
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Forbidden Planet 2001: A Space Odyssey (especially the The Blue Danube) Clockwork Orange (especially Beethoven's Ninth Symphony) Mulholland Drive Blade Runner Donnie Darko Mister Lonely Traffic The Prestige Silent Hill Sunshine The Lovely Bones Solaris
• Crash • The Social Network
Notable ambient-music shows on radio and via satellite
• Echoes, is a daily two-hour music radio program hosted by John Diliberto featuring a soundscape of ambient, spacemusic, electronica, new acoustic and new music directions – founded in 1989 and syndicated on 130 radio stations in the USA. • Hearts of Space, a program hosted by Stephen Hill and broadcast on NPR in the US since 1973.  • Musical Starstreams, a US-based commercial radio station and internet program produced, programmed and hosted by Forest since 1981. • Star's End a radio show on 88.5 WXPN, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1976, it is the second longest-running ambient music radio show in the world. • Ultima Thule Ambient Music, a weekly 90-minute show broadcast since 1989 on community radio across Australia.
 Though drone is now classified as a subgenre of ambient, early drone music influenced the origin of ambient: see the other note from Cambridge History of Twentieth-Century Music (Cook & Pople 2004, p. 502), and the note from Four Musical Minimalists (Potter 2002, p. 91).  "Ambient Music Definition" (http:/ / www. deepintense. com/ definition. php?id=2). Deepintense.com. .  Prendergast, M. The Ambient Century. 2001. Bloomsbury, USA  Jarrett, Michael (1998). Sound Tracks: A Musical ABC, Volumes 1–3. Temple University Press. p. 1973. ISBN 978-1-56639-641-7.  Tingen, Paul (2001). Miles Beyond: The Electric Explorations of Miles Davis, 1967–1991. Watson-Guptill. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-8230-8346-6.  Brian Eno, Music for Airports liner notes (http:/ / music. hyperreal. org/ artists/ brian_eno/ MFA-txt. html), September 1978  Potter, Keith (2002). Four Musical Minimalists: La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass (rev. pbk from 2000 hbk ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 91 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=sc61Gy3r8HAC& pg=PA91). ISBN 978-0-521-01501-1. (Quoting Brian Eno saying "La Monte Young is the daddy of us all" with endnote 113 p. 349 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=sc61Gy3r8HAC& pg=PA349) referencing it as "Quoted in Palmer, A Father Figure for the Avant-Garde, p. 49".)  Altered State: The Story of Ecstacy Culture and Acid House, Matthew Collin, 1997, Serpent's Tail ISBN 1-85242-377-3  Childs, Peter; Storry, Mike, eds (2002). "Ambient music". Encyclopedia of Contemporary British Culture. London: Routledge. p. 22.  Brian Eno's Video and Audio Installations (http:/ / www. eno-web. co. uk/ installations. html)  "Ambient House", Allmusic . Retrieved October 4, 2006.
 "... Originally a 1970s reference to the conjunction of ambient electronics and our expanding visions of cosmic space ... In fact, almost any music with a slow pace and space-creating sound images could be called spacemusic." Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, What is spacemusic? (http:/ / hos. com/ aboutmusic. html)  "Any music with a generally slow, relaxing pace and space-creating imagery or atmospherics may be considered Space Music, without conventional rhythmic elements, while drawing from any number of traditional, ethnic, or modern styles." Lloyde Barde, July/August 2004, Making Sense of the Last 20 Years in New Music (http:/ / www. backroadsmusic. com/ index. php?p=article2)  "When you listen to space and ambient music you are connecting with a tradition of contemplative sound experience whose roots are ancient and diverse. The genre spans historical, ethnic, and contemporary styles. In fact, almost any music with a slow pace and space-creating sound images could be called spacemusic." Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, What is spacemusic? (http:/ / hos. com/ aboutmusic. html)  "A timeless experience...as ancient as the echoes of a simple bamboo flute or as contemporary as the latest ambient electronica. Any music with a generally slow pace and space-creating sound image can be called spacemusic. Generally quiet, consonant, ethereal, often without conventional rhythmic and dynamic contrasts, spacemusic is found within many historical, ethnic, and contemporary genres."Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, sidebar "What is Spacemusic?" in essay Contemplative Music, Broadly Defined (http:/ / hos. com/ history. html)  "The early innovators in electronic "space music" were mostly located around Berlin. The term has come to refer to music in the style of the early and mid 1970s works of Klaus Schulze, Tangerine Dream, Ash Ra Tempel, Popol Vuh and others in that scene. The music is characterized by long compositions, looping sequencer patterns, and improvised lead melody lines." – John Dilaberto, Berlin School, Echoes Radio on-line music glossary (http:/ / www. echoes. org/ de. glossary. html#a)  "This music is experienced primarily as a continuum of spatial imagery and emotion, rather than as thematic musical relationships, compositional ideas, or performance values." Essay by Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, New Age Music Made Simple (http:/ / hos. com/ n_word. html)  "Innerspace, Meditative, and Transcendental... This music promotes a psychological movement inward." Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, essay titled New Age Music Made Simple (http:/ / hos. com/ n_word. html)  "...Spacemusic ... conjures up either outer "space" or "inner space" " – Lloyd Barde, founder of Backroads Music Notes on Ambient Music, Hyperreal Music Archive (http:/ / music. hyperreal. org/ epsilon/ info/ barde_notes. html)  "Space And Travel Music: Celestial, Cosmic, and Terrestrial... This New Age sub-category has the effect of outward psychological expansion. Celestial or cosmic music removes listeners from their ordinary acoustical surroundings by creating stereo sound images of vast, virtually dimensionless spatial environments. In a word — spacey. Rhythmic or tonal movements animate the experience of flying, floating, cruising, gliding, or hovering within the auditory space."Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, in an essay titled New Age Music Made Simple (http:/ / hos. com/ n_word. html)  " Restorative powers are often claimed for it, and at its best it can create an effective environment to balance some of the stress, noise, and complexity of everyday life." – Stephen Hill, Founder, Music from the Hearts of Space What is Spacemusic? (http:/ / hos. com/ aboutmusic. html)  "This was the soundtrack for countless planetarium shows, on massage tables, and as soundtracks to many videos and movies."- Lloyd Barde Notes on Ambient Music, Hyperreal Music Archive (http:/ / music. hyperreal. org/ epsilon/ info/ barde_notes. html)  Reynolds, Simon; Chill: the new ambient (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0268/ is_n5_v33/ ai_16462111), ArtForum, Jan, 1995  Epsilon: Isolationism Thread from Ambient Music Mailing List (http:/ / music. hyperreal. org/ epsilon/ info/ isolationism. html)  "The program has defined its own niche — a mix of ambient, electronic, world, New Age, classical and experimental music....Slow-paced, space-creating music from many cultures — ancient bell meditations, classical adagios, creative space jazz, and the latest electronic and acoustic ambient music are woven into a seamless sequence unified by sound, emotion, and spatial imagery." Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, essay titled Contemplative Music, Broadly Defined (http:/ / hos. com/ history. html)  "Hill's Hearts of Space Web site provides streaming access to an archive of hundreds of hours of spacemusic artfully blended into one-hour programs combining ambient, electronic, world, New Age and classical music." Steve Sande, The Sky's the Limit with Ambient Music, SF Chronicle, Sunday, January 11, 2004 (http:/ / sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?file=/ chronicle/ archive/ 2004/ 01/ 11/ PKGAA45D9R1. DTL)  "Star's End" is (with the exception of "Music from the Hearts of Space") the longest running radio program of ambient music in the world. Since 1976, Star's End has been providing the Philadelphia broadcast area with music to sleep and dream to." "Star's End" website background information page (http:/ / www. starsend. org/ bkgrnd. html)
• Ambient Techno in Sound on Sound (http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/1995_articles/mar95/ ambienttechno.html) • Ambient Music Guide – Comprehensive ambient music resource site (http://www.ambientmusicguide.com/) • Further examples of ambient music (http://www.knowyourgenre.com/genres/ambient) • Ambient music (http://www.dmoz.org/Arts/Music/Styles/E/Experimental/Ambient//) at the Open Directory Project
20th-century classical music
20th century classical music was without a dominant style and highly diverse.
At the turn of the century, music was characteristically late Romantic in style. Composers such as Gustav Mahler and Jean Sibelius were pushing the bounds of Post-Romantic Symphonic writing. At the same time, the Impressionist movement, spearheaded by Claude Debussy, was being developed in France. The term was actually loathed by Debussy: "I am trying to do 'something different—in a way realities—what the imbeciles call 'impressionism' is a term which is as poorly used as possible, particularly by art critics" (Politoske 1988, 419)—and Maurice Ravel's music, also often labelled with this term, explores music in many styles not always related to it (see the discussion on Neoclassicism, below). Many composers reacted to the Post-Romantic and Impressionist styles and moved in quite different directions. In Vienna, Arnold Schoenberg developed atonality, out of the expressionism that arose in the early part of the 20th century. He later developed the twelve-tone technique which was developed further by his disciples Alban Berg and Anton Webern; later composers (including Luciano Berio and Pierre Boulez) developed it further still (Ross 2008, 194–96 and 363–64). Stravinsky (in his last works) explored twelve-tone technique, too, as did many other composers; indeed, even Scott Bradley used the technique in his scores for the Tom and Jerry cartoons (Ross 2008, 296). After the First World War, many composers started returning to previous centuries for their inspiration and wrote works that draw elements (form, harmony, melody, structure) from this music. This type of music thus became labelled neoclassicism. Igor Stravinsky (Pulcinella and Symphony of Psalms), Sergei Prokofiev (Classical Symphony), Ravel (Le Tombeau de Couperin) and Hindemith (Mathis der Maler) all produced neoclassical works. Italian composers such as Francesco Balilla Pratella and Luigi Russolo developed musical Futurism. This style often tried to recreate everyday sounds and place them in a "Futurist" context. The "Machine Music" of George Antheil (starting with his Second Sonata, "The Airplane") and Alexander Mosolov (most notoriously his Iron Foundry) developed out of this. The process of extending musical vocabulary by exploring all available tones was pushed further by the use of Microtones in works by Charles Ives, Julián Carrillo, Alois Hába, John Foulds, Ivan Wyschnegradsky, and Mildred Couper among many others. Microtones are those intervals that are smaller that a semitone; human voices and unfretted strings can easily produce them by going in between the "normal" notes, but other instruments will have more difficulty—the piano and organ have no way of producing them at all, aside from retuning and/or major reconstruction. In the 1940s and 50s composers, notably Pierre Schaeffer, started to explore the application of technology to music in musique concrète. (Dack 2002) The term Electroacoustic music was later coined to include all forms of music involving magnetic tape, computers, synthesizers, multimedia, and other electronic devices and techniques. Live electronic music uses live electronic sounds within a performance (as opposed to preprocessed sounds that are overdubbed during a performance), Cage's Cartridge Music being an early example. Spectral music (Gerard Grisey and Tristan Murail) is a further development of electroacoustic music that uses analyses of sound spectra to create music (Dufourt 1981; Dufourt 1991). Cage, Berio, Boulez, Milton Babbitt, Luigi Nono and Edgard Varèse all wrote Electroacoustic music, often promoted in "happenings".
20th-century classical music From the early 1950s onwards, Cage introduced elements of chance into his music. This has resulted in various musical techniques such as indeterminacy, aleatoric music, stochastic music, intuitive music, and free improvisation. Process music (Karlheinz Stockhausen Prozession, Aus den sieben Tagen; and Steve Reich Piano Phase, Clapping Music) explores a particular process which is essentially laid bare in the work. The term Experimental music seems to have been coined by Cage who was interested in writing complete works that performed an unpredictable action (Mauceri 1997, 197), according to the definition "an experimental action is one the outcome of which is not foreseen" (Cage 1961, 39). The term is also used to describe music within specific genres that pushes against their boundaries or definitions, or else whose approach is a hybrid of disparate styles, or incorporates unorthodox, new, distinctly unique ingredients. Important cultural trends often informed music of this period, romantic, modernist, neoclassical, postmodernist or otherwise. Igor Stravinsky and Sergei Prokofiev were particularly drawn to primitivism in their early careers, as explored in works such as The Rite of Spring and Chout. Other Russians, notably Dmitri Shostakovich, reflected the social impact of communism and subsequently had to work within the strictures of socialist realism in their music (McBurney 2004, ). Other composers, such as Benjamin Britten (War Requiem), explored political themes in their works, albeit entirely at their own volition (Evans 1979, 450). Nationalism was also an important means of expression in the early part of the century. The culture of the United States of America, especially, began informing an American vernacular style of classical music, notably in the works of Charles Ives, John Alden Carpenter, and (later) George Gershwin. Folk music (Vaughan Williams' Variants on Dives and Lazarus, Gustav Holst's A Somerset Rhapsody) and Jazz (Gershwin, Leonard Bernstein, Darius Milhaud's La création du monde) were also influential. In the latter quarter of the century, eclecticism and polystylism became important. These, as well as minimalism, New Complexity and New Simplicity, are more fully explored in their respective articles. The term postmodern music is often applied to music that "reacts" to Modernism, though it is not always clear what the "reaction" precisely is.
At the end of the 19th century (often called the Fin de siècle), the Romantic style was starting to break apart, moving along various parallel courses, such as Impressionism and Post-romanticism. In the 20th century, the different styles that emerged from the music of the previous century influenced composers to follow new trends, sometimes as a reaction to that music, sometimes as an extension of it, and both trends co-existed well into the 20th century. The former trends, such as Expressionism are discussed later. In the early part of the 20th century, many composers wrote music which was an extension of 19th-century Romantic music, and traditional instrumental groupings such as the orchestra and string quartet remained the most typical. Traditional forms such as the symphony and concerto remained in use. Gustav Mahler and Jean Sibelius are examples of composers who took the traditional symphonic forms and reworked them. (See Romantic Music) Some writers hold that the Schoenberg's work is squarely within the late-Romantic tradition of Wagner and Brahms (Neighbour 2001, 582) and, more generally, that "the composer who most directly and completely connects late Wagner and the 20th century is Arnold Schoenberg" (Salzman 1988, 10).
Impressionism started in France as a reaction, led by Claude Debussy, against the emotional exuberance and epic themes of German Romanticism exemplified by Wagner. In Debussy's view, art was a sensuous experience, rather than an intellectual or ethical one. He urged his countrymen to rediscover the French masters of the 18th century, for whom music was meant to charm, to entertain, and to serve as a "fantasy of the senses" (Machlis 1979, 86–87). Other composers associated with impressionism include Maurice Ravel, Albert Roussel, Isaac Albéniz, Paul Dukas, Manuel de Falla, Charles Martin Loeffler, Charles Griffes, Frederick Delius, Ottorino Respighi, and Karol Szymanowski (Machlis 1979, 115–18). Many French composers continued impressionism's language through the
20th-century classical music 1920s and later, including Albert Roussel, Charles Koechlin, André Caplet, and, later, Olivier Messiaen. Composers from non-Western cultures, such as Tōru Takemitsu, and jazz musicians such as Duke Ellington, Gil Evans, Art Tatum, and Cecil Taylor, also have been strongly influenced by the impressionist musical language (Pasler 2001).
Modernism started as a reaction to late 19th-century Romanticism and was characterized by a desire for or belief in progress (especially in science and politics) and was often accompanied by a complete break with the past and, most particularly, a rejection of the common practice. Surrealism was an important early manifestation of this. Modernism covers most of the movements that are described below. Postmodernism was the reaction to Modernism.
Free dissonance and experimentalism
In the early part of the 20th century, Charles Ives integrated American and European traditions as well as vernacular and church styles, while using innovative techniques in his rhythm, harmony, and form (Burkholder 2001). His technique included the use of polytonality, polyrhythm, tone clusters, aleatoric elements, and quarter tones. Edgard Varèse wrote highly dissonant pieces that utilized unusual sonorities and futuristic, scientific sounding names. He pioneered the use of new instruments and electronic resources (see below).
At its conception, Futurism was an Italian artistic movement founded in 1909 by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti; it was quickly embraced by the Russian avant garde. In 1913, the painter Luigi Russolo published a manifesto, L'arte dei rumori (The Art of Noises), calling for the incorporation of noises of every kind into music (Russolo 1913). In addition to Russolo, composers directly associated with this movement include the Italians Silvio Mix, Nuccio Fiorda, Franco Casavola, and Pannigi (whose 1922 Ballo meccanico included two motorcycles), and the Russians Artur Lourié, Mikhail Matyushin, and Nikolai Roslavets. Though few of the futurist works of these composers are performed today, the influence of futurism on the later development of 20th-century music was enormous. Sergei Prokofiev, Maurice Ravel, Igor Stravinsky, Arthur Honegger, George Antheil, Leo Ornstein, and Edgard Varèse are among the notable composers in the first half of the century who were influenced by futurism. Characteristic features of later 20th-century music with origins in futurism include the prepared piano, integral serialism, extended vocal techniques, graphic notation, improvisation, and minimalism (Dennis & Powell 2001).
Expressionism was a prominent artistic trend associated especially with Austria and Germany before, during, and immediately after World War I. In some measure a reaction against the perceived passive nature of impressionism, it emphasized an eruptive immediacy of expressive feeling, often based on the psychology of the unconscious. Expressionism is primarily identified with Arnold Schoenberg’s "free atonal’ period" (1908–1921), in particular the monodrama Erwartung, the Klavierstück, op. 11, no. 3, and the first and last of his Five Orchestral Pieces, op. 16. Certain works from this same period by his pupils Alban Berg and Anton Webern are also usually included. Although this music sets out from Wagner’s chromatic harmony (especially Kundry’s music in Parsifal), it tends to avoid cadence, repetition, sequence, balanced phrases, and any reference to traditional forms or procedures, for which reason it came to be associated with a rejection of tradition. Other composers active in approximately this period such as Gustav Mahler, Alexander Scriabin, Josef Matthias Hauer, Igor Stravinsky, Karol Szymanowski, Béla Bartók, Paul Hindemith, Charles Ives, and Ernst Krenek also exhibit expressionist traits, while important stage works of the 1920s by Kurt Weill, Hindemith, and Krenek retain expressionistic textual and visual aspects even though their musical language no longer reflects expressionism's aesthetic principles. By the late 1920s, though many composers continued to write in a vaguely expressionist manner, it was being supplanted by the more impersonal
20th-century classical music style of the German Neue Sachlichkeit and neoclassicism. Because expressionism, like any movement that had been stigmatized by the Nazis, gained a sympathetic reconsideration following World War II, expressionist music resurfaced in works by composers such as Hans Werner Henze, Pierre Boulez, Peter Maxwell Davies, Wolfgang Rihm, and Bernd Alois Zimmermann (Fanning 2001).
Second Viennese School, atonality, twelve-tone technique, and serialism
Arnold Schoenberg is one of the most significant figures in 20th-century music. While starting off as a Late Romantic influenced by Wagner (Transfigured Night), he moved to Atonality (Drei Klavierstücke and Pierrot Lunaire). In 1921, after several years of research, he developed the twelve-tone technique of composition, which he first described privately to his associates in 1923 (Schoenberg 1975, 213) (Variations for Orchestra, Op. 31). He later returned to a more tonal style (Kammersymphonie no. 2). He taught Anton Webern and Alban Berg and these three composers are often referred to as the principle members of the Second Viennese School (Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven—and sometimes Schubert—being regarded as the First Viennese School in this context). Webern wrote works using a rigorous 12-tone method and influenced the development of total serialism. Berg often combined the 12-tone method method with Late Romanticism and Post-romanticism (Violin Concerto, which quotes a Bach Choral and uses Classical form). He wrote two major operas (Wozzeck and Lulu).
In neoclassicism, composers drew inspiration from music of the 18th century. The term neoclassical is applied to several movements in the arts during the 18th and 19th centuries, but the term has become the common name for music that revives earlier practices and techniques. Famous examples include Prokofiev's Classical Symphony and Stravinsky's Pulcinella. Paul Hindemith (Mathis de Maler) and Darius Milhaud also used this style. Maurice Ravel's Le Tombeau de Couperin is often seen as neobaroque (an architectural term), though the distinction between the terms is not always made.
Technological advances in the 20th century enabled composers to use electronic means of producing sound. After the Second World War, magnetic tape became available for the creation of music by recording sounds and then manipulating them in some way. When the source material was acoustical sounds from the everyday world, the term musique concrète was used; when the sounds were produced by electronic generators, it was designated electronic music. After the 1950s, the term "electronic music" came to be used for both types. Sometimes such electronic music was combined with more conventional instruments, Stockhausen's Hymnen, Edgard Varèse's Déserts, and Mario Davidovsky's series of Synchronisms are three examples.
Jazz-influenced classical composition
A number of composers combined elements of the jazz idiom with classical compositional styles, notably Leonard Bernstein, Aaron Copland, George Gershwin, Darius Milhaud, and Maurice Ravel.
Postmodernism is a reaction to Modernism, but it can also be viewed as a response to a deep-seated shift in societal attitude. According to this latter view, Postmodernism began when historic (as opposed to personal) optimism turned to pessimism, at the latest by 1930 (Meyer 1994, 331). John Cage is a prominent figure in 20th-century music, claimed with some justice both for modernism and postmodernism because the complex intersections between modernism and postmodernism are not reducible to
20th-century classical music simple schemata (Williams 2002, 241). His influence steadily grew during his lifetime. His best-known work is 4′33″ in which any instrumentalist (or combination of instrumentalists) is instructed not to play for the duration of the work. He often uses elements of chance: Imaginary Landscape No. 4 for 12 radio receivers, and Music of Changes for piano. Sonatas and Interludes (1946–48) is composed for a prepared piano: a normal piano whose timbre is dramatically altered by carefully placing various objects inside the piano in contact with the strings (a concept inspired by some of Henry Cowell's 'String Piano' techniques). Most of the styles and movements that follow can be classified as "postmodern".
In the later 20th century, composers such as La Monte Young, Philip Glass, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, and John Adams began to explore what is now called minimalism, in which the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features; the music often features repetition and iteration. An early example is Terry Riley's In C (1964), an aleatoric work in which short phrases are chosen by the musicians from a set list and played an arbitrary number of times, while the note C is repeated in eighth notes (quavers) behind them. Steve Reich's works Piano Phase (1967, for two pianos), and Drumming (1970–71, for percussion, female voices and piccolo) employ the technique called phasing in which a phrase played by one player maintaining a constant pace is played simultaneously by another but at a slightly quicker pace. This causes the players to go "out of phase" with each other and the performance may continue until they come back in phase. Philip Glass's 1 + 1 (1968) employs the additive process in which short phrases are slowly expanded. La Monte Young's Compositions 1960 employes very long tones, exceptionally high volumes and extra-musical techniques such as "draw a straight line and follow it" or "build a fire". Michael Nyman argues that minimalism was a reaction to and made possible by both serialism and indeterminism (Nyman 1999, 139). (See also experimental music)
The 20th century saw a change in the way in which classical music was heard. Advances in recording technologies, beginning with the rise in popularity of the phonograph in the early part of the century, and later with the inventions of magnetic tape, the cassette, DAT, and the compact disc. In addition, broadcasting technologies, such as radio and television have meant that the concert hall, opera house, salon, and domestic music-making are no longer the only means by which a performance can reach its audience.
A musical composition practice where compositional decisions are often informed by the analysis of sound spectra. Prominent spectral composers include Tristan Murail and Gérard Grisey, and the 'post-spectral' composers Kaija Saariaho and Magnus Lindberg.
Other notable 20th-century composers
20th-century classical music
• • • • • • • • • • • • •
Malcolm Arnold Arnold Bax Ernest Bloch William Bolcom Frank Bridge Chou Wen-Chung George Crumb Frederick Delius Franco Donatoni Henri Dutilleux Edward Elgar
• • • • • • • • •
Brian Eno Gabriel Fauré Henryk Górecki Reinhold Glière Percy Grainger Roy Harris Lou Harrison Pierre Henry Gustav Holst
• • • • • • • • •
Alan Hovhaness Scott Joplin Aram Khachaturian Zoltán Kodály György Ligeti Witold Lutosławski Gian Carlo Menotti Carl Nielsen Carl Orff Arvo Pärt
• • • • • • • • • •
Harry Partch Krzysztof Penderecki Ástor Piazzolla Francis Poulenc Giacomo Puccini Sergei Rachmaninoff Joaquín Rodrigo Ned Rorem Carl Ruggles Peter Sculthorpe
• • • • • • • • • •
Elie Siegmeister Alfred Schnittke Richard Strauss Josef Tal Michael Tippett Galina Ustvolskaya Heitor Villa-Lobos William Walton Kurt Weill Charles Wuorinen John Zorn
Harrison Birtwistle •
Morton Feldman •
Włodzimierz Kotoński •
Howard Hanson •
Einojuhani Rautavaara •
Luigi Dallapiccola •
• Burkholder, J. Peter. 2001. "Ives, Charles (Edward)." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. S. Sadie and J. Tyrrell. London: Macmillan. • Cage, John. 1961. Silence: Lectures and Writings. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. Unaltered reprints: Weslyan University press, 1966 (pbk), 1967 (cloth), 1973 (pbk ["First Wesleyan paperback edition"], 1975 (unknown binding); Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971; London: Calder & Boyars, 1968, 1971, 1973 ISBN 0714505269 (cloth) ISBN 0714510432 (pbk). London: Marion Boyars, 1986, 1999 ISBN 0714510432 (pbk); [n.p.]: Reprint Services Corporation, 1988 (cloth) ISBN 9991178015 [In particular the essays "Experimental Music", pp. 7–12, and "Experimental Music: Doctrine", pp. 13–17.] • Dack, J. 2002. Technology and the Instrument ,musik netz werke - Konturen der neuen Musikkultur. Lydia Grün, Frank Wiegand (eds.). Bielefeld: transcript Verlag. ISBN 3-933127-98-X. 39-54. • Dennis, Flora, and Jonathan Powell. 2001. "Futurism". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers; New York: Grove's Dictionaries of Music. • Dufourt, Hugues. 1981. "Musique spectrale: pour une pratique des formes de l'énergie". Bicéphale, no.3:85–89. • Dufourt, Hugues. 1991. Musique, pouvoir, écriture. Collection Musique/Passé/Présent. Paris: Christian Bourgois. ISBN 2267010232 • Evans, Peter. 1979. The Music of Benjamin Britten. London: Dent. • Fanning, David. 2001. "Expressionism". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers; New York: Grove's Dictionaries of Music. • Fauser, Annegret. 2005. Musical Encounters at the 1889 Paris World's Fair. Eastman Studies in Music 32. Rochester: University of Rochester Press. ISBN 978-1580461856 • Heyman, Barbara B. 2001. "Barber, Samuel." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers; New York: Grove's Dictionaries of Music • McBurney, Gerard. 2004. "Fried Chicken in the Bird-Cherry Trees". In Shostakovich and His World, edited by Laurel E. Fay, 227–73. Bard Music Festival. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12068-4; ISBN 0-691-12069-2. • Machlis, Joseph. 1979. Introduction to Contemporary Music, second edition. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0393090264 • Mauceri, Frank X. 1997. "From Experimental Music to Musical Experiment". Perspectives of New Music 35, no. 1 (Winter): 187-204.
20th-century classical music • Meyer, Leonard B. 1994. Music, the Arts, and Ideas. 2d ed., with a new postlude. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226521435 • Neighbour, O. W. 2001. "Schoenberg, Arnold". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. S. Sadie and J. Tyrrell, xxii, 577–604. London: Macmillan. • Nyman, Michael. 1999. Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond. Music in the Twentieth Century. Second edition. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521653835 • Pasler, Jann. 2001. "Impressionism". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers; New York: Grove's Dictionaries of Music. • Pasler, Jann. 2001. “Neo-romantic". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers; New York: Grove's Dictionaries of Music • Politoske, Daniel T. and Werner, Martin. 1988. Music, fourth edition. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-607616-5 • Ross, Alex. 2008. The Rest is Noise. London: Fourth Estate. ISBN 978-1-84115-475-6; New York: Picador Press. ISBN 978-0312427719 • Russolo, Luigi. 1913. L'arte dei rumori: manifesto futurista. Manifesti del movimento futurista 14. Milano: Direzione del movimento futurista. English version as The Art of Noise: Futurist Manifesto 1913, translated by Robert Filliou. A Great Bear Pamphlet 18. New York: Something Else Press, 1967. Second English version as The Art of Noises, translated from the Italian with an introduction by Barclay Brown. Monographs in Musicology no. 6. New York: Pendragon Press, 1986. ISBN 0918728576. • Salzman, Eric. 1988. Twentieth-Century Music: An Introduction, 3rd edition. Prentice-Hall History of Music Series. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-935057-8 • Schoenberg, Arnold. 1975. Style and Idea, edited by Leonard Stein with translations by Leo Black. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05294-3. • Schwartz, Elliott, and Daniel Godfrey. 1993. Music Since 1945: Issues, Materials and Literature. New York: Schirmer Books; Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada; New York: Maxwell Macmillan International. ISBN 0028730402 • Thomson, Virgil. 2002. Virgil Thomson: A Reader: Selected Writings, 1924-1984, edited by Richard Kostelanetz. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415937957. • Watanabe, Ruth T., and James Perone. 2001. "Hanson, Howard." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. S. Sadie and J.Tyrrell. London: Macmillan. • Williams, Alastair. 2002. "Cage and Postmodernism". The Cambridge Companion to John Cage, edited by David Nicholls, 227–41. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78348-8 (cloth); ISBN 0-521-78968-0 (pbk). • Wright, Simon. 1992. "Villa-Lobos, Heitor". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. S. Sadie and J.Tyrrell. London: Macmillan.
• Ashby, Arved Mark (ed.). 2004. The Pleasure of Modernist Music: Listening, Meaning, Intention, Ideology. Eastman Studies in Music. Rochester: University of Rochester Press. ISBN 9781580461436. • Crawford, John C., and Dorothy L. Crawford. 1993. Expressionism in Twentieth-Century Music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253314739 • Grun, Constantin. 2006. Arnold Schönberg und Richard Wagner: Spuren einer aussergewöhnlichen Beziehung, 2 volumes. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Unipress. ISBN 3-89971-266-8 (volume 1), ISBN 3-89971-267-6 (volume 2) • Lee, Douglas. 2002. Masterworks of 20th-Century Music: The Modern Repertory of the Symphony Orchestra. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415938473, ISBN 978-0415938471 • Roberts, Paul. 2008. Claude Debussy. 20th-Century Composers. London and New York: Phaidon Press. ISBN 0714835129, ISBN 978-0714835129
20th-century classical music • Salzman, Eric. 2002. Twentieth-Century Music: An Introduction, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0130959413 • Simms, Bryan R. 1996. Music of the Twentieth Century: Style and Structure, 2nd edition. New York: Schirmer Books; London: Prentice Hall International. ISBN 0028723929 • Teachout, Terry. 1999. "Masterpieces of the Century: A Finale-20th Century Classical Music". Commentary 107, no. 6 (June): 55.
• • • • • • • • • Fluid Radio , Experimental Frequencies The Avant Garde Project , free downloads of out of print avant garde music Ircam Paris  (French) MICROCOSMS: A Simplified Approach to Musical Styles of the Twentieth Century by Phillip Magnuson  Dolmetsch.com: music history online: music of the 20th-century by Dr. Brian Blood  Art of the States  Recordings of classes on 20th-Century Music given by a Dallapiccola pupil  Contemporary Music from Germany  The Genetic Memory Show (avant-garde/experimental music on Rice University radio) 
• temp’óra  - international network dedicated to the promotion of contemporary music. Data bases with thousands of links all over the world.
 http:/ / www. cea. mdx. ac. uk/ local/ media/ downloads/ Dack/ Technology_and_the_Instrument. pdf  http:/ / www. fluid-radio. co. uk  http:/ / www. avantgardeproject. org/ index. htm  http:/ / www. ircam. fr/  http:/ / academic. udayton. edu/ PhillipMagnuson/ soundpatterns/ microcosms/  http:/ / www. dolmetsch. com/ musictheory40. htm  http:/ / artofthestates. org  http:/ / www. ronsheim. org/ CEClasses. html  http:/ / www. goethe. de/ kue/ mus/ ned/ nmd/ enindex. htm  http:/ / www. vinaledge. com/ geneticmemory/  http:/ / www. tempora-site. org/
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments and electronic music technology in its production. In general a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means and that produced using electronic technology. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, and the electric guitar. Purely electronic sound production can be achieved using devices such as the Theremin, sound synthesizer, and computer. Electronic music was once associated almost exclusively with Western art music but from the late 1960s on the availability of affordable music technology meant that music produced using electronic means became increasingly common in the popular domain. Today electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from experimental art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music.
Origins: late 19th century to early 20th century
The ability to record sounds is often connected to the production of electronic music, but not absolutely necessary for it. The earliest known sound recording device was the phonautograph, patented in 1857 by Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville. It could record sounds visually, but was not meant to play them back. In 1878, Thomas A. Edison patented the phonograph, which used cylinders similar to Scott's device. Although cylinders continued in use for some time, Emile Berliner developed the disc phonograph in Telharmonium, Thaddeus Cahill, 1897 1887. A significant invention, which was later to have a profound effect on electronic music, was Lee DeForest's triode audion. This was the first thermionic valve, or vacuum tube, invented in 1906, which led to the generation and amplification of electrical signals, radio broadcasting, and electronic computation, amongst other things. Before electronic music, there was a growing desire for composers to use emerging technologies for musical purposes. Several instruments were created that employed electromechanical designs and they paved the way for the later emergence of electronic instruments. An electromechanical instrument called the Telharmonium (sometimes Teleharmonium or Dynamophone) was developed by Thaddeus Cahill in the years 1898-1912. However, simple inconvenience hindered the adoption of the Telharmonium, due to its immense size. The first electronic instrument is often viewed to be the Theremin, invented by Professor Léon Theremin circa 1919–1920. Other early electronic instruments include the Croix Sonore, invented in 1926 by Nikolai Obukhov, and the Ondes Martenot, which was most famously used in the Turangalîla-Symphonie by Olivier Messiaen as well as other works by him. The Ondes Martenot was also used by other, primarily French, composers such as Andre Jolivet.
Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music
In 1907, just a year after the invention of the triode audion, Ferruccio Busoni published Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music, which discussed the use of electrical and other new sound sources in future music. He wrote of the future of microtonal scales in music, made possible by Cahill's Dynamophone: "Only a long and careful series of experiments, and a continued training of the ear, can render this unfamiliar material approachable and plastic for the coming generation, and for Art." Also in the Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music, Busoni states: Music as an art, our so-called occidental music, is hardly four hundred years old; its state is one of development, perhaps the very first stage of a development beyond present conception, and we—we talk of
Electronic music "classics" and "hallowed traditions"! And we have talked of them for a long time! We have formulated rules, stated principles, laid down laws;—we apply laws made for maturity to a child that knows nothing of responsibility! Young as it is, this child, we already recognize that it possesses one radiant attribute which signalizes it beyond all its elder sisters. And the lawgivers will not see this marvelous attribute, lest their laws should be thrown to the winds. This child—it floats on air! It touches not the earth with its feet. It knows no law of gravitation. It is well nigh incorporeal. Its material is transparent. It is sonorous air. It is almost Nature herself. It is—free! But freedom is something that mankind have never wholly comprehended, never realized to the full. They can neither recognize or acknowledge it. They disavow the mission of this child; they hang weights upon it. This buoyant creature must walk decently, like anybody else. It may scarcely be allowed to leap—when it were its joy to follow the line of the rainbow, and to break sunbeams with the clouds. Through this writing, as well as personal contact, Busoni had a profound effect on many musicians and composers, perhaps most notably on his pupil, Edgard Varèse, who said: Together we used to discuss what direction the music of the future would, or rather, should take and could not take as long as the straitjacket of the tempered system. He deplored that his own keyboard instrument had conditioned our ears to accept only an infinitesimal part of the infinite gradations of sounds in nature. He was very much interested in the electrical instruments we began to hear about, and I remember particularly one he had read of called the Dynamophone. All through his writings one finds over and over again predictions about the music of the future which have since come true. In fact, there is hardly a development that he did not foresee, as for instance in this extraordinary prophecy: 'I almost think that in the new great music, machines will also be necessary and will be assigned a share in it. Perhaps industry, too, will bring forth her share in the artistic ascent.'
In Italy, the Futurists approached the changing musical aesthetic from a different angle. A major thrust of the Futurist philosophy was to value "noise," and to place artistic and expressive value on sounds that had previously not been considered even remotely musical. Balilla Pratella's "Technical Manifesto of Futurist Music" (1911) states that their credo is: "To present the musical soul of the masses, of the great factories, of the railways, of the transatlantic liners, of the battleships, of the automobiles and airplanes. To add to the great central themes of the musical poem the domain of the machine and the victorious kingdom of Electricity." On 11 March 1913, futurist Luigi Russolo published his manifesto "The Art of Noises". In 1914, he held the first "art-of-noises" concert in Milan on April 21. This used his Intonarumori, described by Russolo as "acoustical noise-instruments, whose sounds (howls, roars, shuffles, gurgles, etc.) were hand-activated and projected by horns and megaphones." In June, similar concerts were held in Paris.
The 1920s to 1930s
This decade brought a wealth of early electronic instruments and the first compositions for electronic instruments. The first instrument, the Etherophone, was created by Léon Theremin (born Lev Termen) between 1919 and 1920 in Leningrad, though it was eventually renamed the Theremin. This led to the first compositions for electronic instruments, as opposed to noisemakers and re-purposed machines. In 1929, Joseph Schillinger composed First Airphonic Suite for Theremin and Orchestra, premièred with the Cleveland Orchestra with Leon Theremin as soloist. In addition to the Theremin, the Ondes Martenot was invented in 1928 by Maurice Martenot, who debuted it in Paris.
Electronic music The following year, Antheil first composed for mechanical devices, electrical noisemakers, motors and amplifiers in his unfinished opera, Mr. Bloom. Recording of sounds made a leap in 1927, when American inventor J. A. O'Neill developed a recording device that used magnetically coated ribbon. However, this was a commercial failure. Two years later, Laurens Hammond established his company for the manufacture of electronic instruments. He went on to produce the Hammond organ, which was based on the principles of the Telharmonium, along with other developments including early reverberation units. Hammond (along with John Hanert and C. N. Williams) would also go on to invent another electronic instrument, the Novachord, which Hammond's company manufactured from 1939–1942. The method of photo-optic sound recording used in cinematography made it possible to obtain a visible image of a sound wave, as well as to realize the opposite goal—synthesizing a sound from an artificially drawn sound wave. In this same period, experiments began with sound art, early practitioners of which include Tristan Tzara, Kurt Schwitters, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, and others.
Development: 1940s to 1950s
Electroacoustic tape music
Low-fidelity magnetic wire recorders had been in use since around 1900 and in the early 1930s the movie industry began to convert to the new optical sound-on-film recording systems based on the photoelectric cell. It was around this time that the German electronics company AEG developed the first practical audio tape recorder, the "Magnetophon" K-1, which was unveiled at the Berlin Radio Show in August 1935. During World War II, Walter Weber rediscovered and applied the AC biasing technique, which dramatically improved the fidelity of magnetic recording by adding an inaudible high-frequency tone. It extended the 1941 'K4' Magnetophone frequency curve to 10 kHz and improved the dynamic range up to 60 dB, surpassing all known recording systems at that time. As early as 1942 AEG was making test recordings in stereo. However these devices and techniques remained a secret outside Germany until the end of WWII, when captured Magnetophon recorders and reels of Farben ferric-oxide recording Halim El-Dabh at a Cleveland tape were brought back to the United States by Jack Mullin and others. These festival in 2009. captured recorders and tapes were the basis for the development of America's first commercially made professional tape recorder, the Model 200, manufactured by the American Ampex company with support from entertainer Bing Crosby, who became one of the first performers to record radio broadcasts and studio master recordings on tape. Magnetic audio tape opened up a vast new range of sonic possibilities to musicians, composers, producers and engineers. Audio tape was relatively cheap and very reliable, and its fidelity of reproduction was better than any audio medium to date. Most importantly, unlike discs, it offered the same plasticity of use as film. Tape can be slowed down, sped up or even run backwards during recording or playback, with often startling effect. It can be physically edited in much the same way as film, allowing for unwanted sections of a recording to be seamlessly removed or replaced; likewise, segments of tape from other sources can be edited in. Tape can also be joined to form endless loops that continually play repeated patterns of pre-recorded material. Audio amplification and mixing equipment further expanded tape's capabilities as a production medium, allowing multiple pre-taped recordings (and/or live sounds, speech or music) to be mixed together and simultaneously recorded onto another tape with relatively little loss of fidelity. Another unforeseen windfall was that tape recorders can be relatively easily modified
Electronic music to become echo machines that produce complex, controllable, high-quality echo and reverberation effects (most of which would be practically impossible to achieve by mechanical means). The spread of tape recorders eventually led to the development of electroacoustic tape music. The first known example was composed in 1944 by Halim El-Dabh, a student at Cairo, Egypt. He recorded the sounds of an ancient zaar ceremony using a cumbersome wire recorder and at the Middle East Radio studios processed the material using reverberation, echo, voltage controls, and re-recording. The resulting work was entitled The Expression of Zaar and it was presented in 1944 at an art gallery event in Cairo. While his initial experiments in tape based composition were not widely known outside of Egypt at the time, El-Dabh is also notable for his later work in electronic music at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in the late 1950s.
It wasn't long before composers in Paris also began using the tape recorder to develop a new technique for composition called Musique concrète. This technique involved editing together recorded fragments of natural and industrial sounds. The first pieces of musique concrète in Paris were assembled by Pierre Schaeffer, who went on to collaborate with Pierre Henry. On 5 October 1948, Radiodiffusion Française (RDF) broadcast composer Pierre Schaeffer's Etude aux chemins de fer. This was the first "movement" of Cinq études de bruits, and marked the beginning of studio realizations  and musique concrète (or acousmatic art). Schaeffer employed a disk-cutting lathe, four turntables, a four-channel mixer, filters, an echo chamber, and a mobile recording unit. Not long after this, Henry began collaborating with Schaeffer, a partnership that would have profound and lasting effects on the direction of electronic music. Another associate of Schaeffer, Edgard Varèse, began work on Déserts, a work for chamber orchestra and tape. The tape parts were created at Pierre Schaeffer's studio, and were later revised at Columbia University. In 1950, Schaeffer gave the first public (non-broadcast) concert of musique concrète at the Ecole Normale de Musique de Paris. "Schaeffer used a PA system, several turntables, and mixers. The performance did not go well, as creating live montages with turntables had never been done before." Later that same year, Pierre Henry collaborated with Schaeffer on Symphonie pour un homme seul (1950) the first major work of musique concrete. In Paris in 1951, in what was to become an important worldwide trend, RTF established the first studio for the production of electronic music. Also in 1951, Schaeffer and Henry produced an opera, Orpheus, for concrete sounds and voices.
Karlheinz Stockhausen worked briefly in Schaeffer's studio in 1952, and afterward for many years at the WDR Cologne's Studio for Electronic Music. In Cologne, what would become the most famous electronic music studio in the world was officially opened at the radio studios of the NWDR in 1953, though it had been in the planning stages as early as 1950 and early compositions were made and broadcast in 1951. The brain child of Werner Meyer-Eppler, Robert Beyer, and Herbert Eimert Karlheinz Stockhausen in the Electronic Music (who became its first director), the studio was soon joined by Studio of WDR, Cologne, in 1991 Karlheinz Stockhausen and Gottfried Michael Koenig. In his 1949 thesis Elektronische Klangerzeugung: Elektronische Musik und Synthetische Sprache, Meyer-Eppler conceived the idea to synthesize music entirely from electronically produced signals; in this way, elektronische Musik was sharply differentiated from French musique concrète, which used sounds recorded from acoustical sources.
Electronic music With Stockhausen and Mauricio Kagel in residence, it became a year-round hive of charismatic avante-gardism [sic]" on two occasions combining electronically generated sounds with relatively conventional orchestras—in Mixtur (1964) and Hymnen, dritte Region mit Orchester (1967). Stockhausen stated that his listeners had told him his electronic music gave them an experience of "outer space," sensations of flying, or being in a "fantastic dream world" More recently, Stockhausen turned to producing electronic music in his own studio in Kürten, his last work in the genre being Cosmic Pulses (2007).
Japanese electronic music
While early electric instruments such as the Ondes Martenot, Theremin and Trautonium were little known in Japan prior to World War II, certain composers such as Minao Shibata had known about them at the time. Several years after the end of World War II, musicians in Japan began experimenting with electronic music, resulting in some of the most dedicated efforts due to institutional sponsorship enabling composers to experiment with the latest audio recording and processing equipment. These efforts represented an infusion of Asian music into the emerging genre and would eventually pave the way for Japan's domination in the development of music technology several decades later. Following the foundation of electronics company Sony (then called Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo K.K.) in 1946, two Japanese composers, Toru Takemitsu and Minao Shibata, independently wrote about the possible use of electronic technology to produce music during the late 1940s. In 1948, Takemitsu conceived of a technology that would "bring noise into tempered musical tones inside a busy small tube," an idea similar to Pierre Schaeffer's musique concrète the same year, which Takemitsu was unaware of until several years later. In 1949, Shibata wrote about his concept of "a musical instrument with very high performance" that can "synthesize any kind of sound waves" and is "operated very easily," predicting that with such an instrument, "the music scene will be changed drastically." The same year, Sony developed the magnetic tape recorder G-Type, which became a popular recording device for use in courtrooms and government offices, leading to Sony releasing the H-Type for home use by 1951. In 1950, the Jikken Kobo (Experimental Workshop) electronic music studio would be founded by a group of musicians in order to produce experimental electronic music using Sony tape recorders. It included musicians such as Toru Takemitsu, Kuniharu Akiyama, and Joji Yuasa, and was supported by Sony, which offered them access to the latest audio technology, hired Takemitsu to compose electronic tape music to demonstrate their tape recorders, and sponsored concerts. The first electronic tape music from the group were "Toraware no Onna" ("Imprisoned Woman") and "Piece B", completed in 1951 by Kuniharu Akiyama. Many of the electroacoustic tape pieces they produced were usually used as incidental music for radio, film, and theatre. They also held concerts such as 1953's Experimental Workshop, 5th Exhibition, which employed an 'auto-slide', a machine developed by Sony that made it possible to synchronize a slide show with a soundtrack recorded on tape; they used the same device to produce the concert's tape music at the Sony studio. The concert, along with the experimental electroacoustic tape music they produced, anticipated the introduction of musique concrète in Japan later that year. Beyond the Jikken Kobo, several other composers such as Yasushi Akutagawa, Saburo Tominaga and Shiro Fukai were also experimenting with producing radiophonic tape music between 1952 and 1953. Japan was introduced to musique concrète through Toshiro Mayuzumi, who in 1952 attended a Schaeffer concert in Paris. On his return to Japan, he experimented with a short tape music piece for the 1952 comedy film Carmen Jyunjyosu (Carmen With Pure Heart) and then produced "X, Y, Z for Musique Concrète" which was broadcast by the JOQR radio station in 1953. Mayuzumi also composed another musique concrète piece for Yukio Mishima's 1954 radio drama Boxing. Schaeffer's French concept of objet sonore (sound object), however, was not influential among Japanese composers, whose main interest in music technology was instead to, according to Mayuzumi, overcome the restrictions of "the materials or the boundary of human performance." This led to several Japanese electroacoustic musicians making use of serialism and twelve-tone techniques, evident in Yoshiro Irino's 1951 dodecaphonic piece "Concerto da Camera", in the organization of electronic sounds in Mayuzumi's "X, Y, Z for
Electronic music Musique Concrète", and later in Shibata's electronic music by 1956. Following the lead of the Cologne studio established in 1953, Japan's NHK company established one of the world's leading electronic music facilities in Tokyo, the NHK Studio, in 1954, equipping it with technologies such as tone-generating and audio processing equipment, recording and radiophonic equipment, Ondes Martenot, Monochord and Melochord, sine wave oscillators, tape recorders, ring modulators, band-pass filters, and four & eight channel mixers. Musicians associated with the studio included Toshiro Mayuzumi, Minao Shibata, Joji Yuasa, Toshi Ichiyanagi, and Toru Takemitsu. The studio's first electronic compositions were complete in 1955, including Mayuzumi's 5-minute pieces "Studie I: Music for Sine Wave by Proportion of Prime Number", "Music for Modulated Wave by Proportion of Prime Number" and "Invention for Square Wave and Sawtooth Wave" produced using the studio's various tone-generating capabilities, and Shibata's 20-minute stereo piece "Musique Concrète for Stereophonic Broadcast". Ikutaro Kakehashi founded a repair shop called Kakehashi Watch Shop in the late 1940s repairing watches and radios, and then in 1954 founded Kakehashi Musen ("Kakehashi Radio"), which eventually grew into the company Ace Tone by 1960 and later the Roland Corporation by 1972. Kakehashi began producing electronic musical instruments since 1955, with the aim of creating ones capable of producing monophonic melodies. During the late 1950s, he produced theramins, Ondes Martenots, and electronic keyboards, and by 1959, a Hawaiian guitar amplifier and electronic organs.
American electronic music
In the United States, sounds were being created electronically and used in composition, as exemplified in a piece by Morton Feldman called Marginal Intersection. This piece is scored for winds, brass, percussion, strings, 2 oscillators, and sound effects of riveting, and the score uses Feldman's graph notation. The Music for Magnetic Tape Project was formed by members of the New York School (John Cage, Earle Brown, Christian Wolff, David Tudor, and Morton Feldman), and lasted three years until 1954. Cage wrote of this collaboration: "In this social darkness, therefore, the work of Earle Brown, Morton Feldman, and Christian Wolff continues to present a brilliant light, for the reason that at the several points of notation, performance, and audition, action is provocative. Cage completed Williams Mix in 1953 while working with the Music for Magnetic Tape Project. The group had no permanent facility, and had to rely on borrowed time in commercial sound studios, including the studio of Louis and Bebe Barron.
Further information: Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center In the same year Columbia University purchased its first tape recorder—a professional Ampex machine—for the purpose of recording concerts. Vladimir Ussachevsky, who was on the music faculty of Columbia University, was placed in charge of the device, and almost immediately began experimenting with it. Herbert Russcol writes: "Soon he was intrigued with the new sonorities he could achieve by recording musical instruments and then superimposing them on one another." Ussachevsky said later: "I suddenly realized that the tape recorder could be treated as an instrument of sound transformation." On Thursday, May 8, 1952, Ussachevsky presented several demonstrations of tape music/effects that he created at his Composers Forum, in the McMillin Theatre at Columbia University. These included Transposition, Reverberation, Experiment, Composition, and Underwater Valse. In an interview, he stated: "I presented a few examples of my discovery in a public concert in New York together with other compositions I had written for conventional instruments." Otto Luening, who had attended this concert, remarked: "The equipment at his disposal consisted of an Ampex tape recorder . . . and a simple box-like device designed by the brilliant young engineer, Peter Mauzey, to create feedback, a form of mechanical reverberation. Other equipment was borrowed or purchased with personal funds."
Electronic music Just three months later, in August 1952, Ussachevsky traveled to Bennington, Vermont at Luening's invitation to present his experiments. There, the two collaborated on various pieces. Luening described the event: "Equipped with earphones and a flute, I began developing my first tape-recorder composition. Both of us were fluent improvisors and the medium fired our imaginations." They played some early pieces informally at a party, where "a number of composers almost solemnly congratulated us saying, 'This is it' ('it' meaning the music of the future)." Word quickly reached New York City. Oliver Daniel telephoned and invited the pair to "produce a group of short compositions for the October concert sponsored by the American Composers Alliance and Broadcast Music, Inc., under the direction of Leopold Stokowski at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. After some hesitation, we agreed. . . . Henry Cowell placed his home and studio in Woodstock, New York, at our disposal. With the borrowed equipment in the back of Ussachevsky's car, we left Bennington for Woodstock and stayed two weeks. . . . In late September, 1952, the travelling laboratory reached Ussachevsky's living room in New York, where we eventually completed the compositions." Two months later, on October 28, Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening presented the first Tape Music concert in the United States. The concert included Luening's Fantasy in Space (1952)—"an impressionistic virtuoso piece" using manipulated recordings of flute—and Low Speed (1952), an "exotic composition that took the flute far below its natural range." Both pieces were created at the home of Henry Cowell in Woodstock, NY. After several concerts caused a sensation in New York City, Ussachevsky and Luening were invited onto a live broadcast of NBC's Today Show to do an interview demonstration—the first televised electroacoustic performance. Luening described the event: "I improvised some [flute] sequences for the tape recorder. Ussachevsky then and there put them through electronic transformations." 1954 saw the advent of what would now be considered authentic electric plus acoustic compositions—acoustic instrumentation augmented/accompanied by recordings of manipulated and/or electronically generated sound. Three major works were premiered that year: Varèse's Déserts, for chamber ensemble and tape sounds, and two works by Luening and Ussachevsky: Rhapsodic Variations for the Louisville Symphony and A Poem in Cycles and Bells, both for orchestra and tape. Because he had been working at Schaeffer's studio, the tape part for Varèse's work contains much more concrete sounds than electronic. "A group made up of wind instruments, percussion and piano alternates with the mutated sounds of factory noises and ship sirens and motors, coming from two loudspeakers." Déserts was premiered in Paris in the first stereo broadcast on French Radio. At the German premiere in Hamburg, which was conducted by Bruno Maderna, the tape controls were operated by Karlheinz Stockhausen. The title Déserts, suggested to Varèse not only, "all physical deserts (of sand, sea, snow, of outer space, of empty streets), but also the deserts in the mind of man; not only those stripped aspects of nature that suggest bareness, aloofness, timelessness, but also that remote inner space no telescope can reach, where man is alone, a world of mystery and essential loneliness." In 1958, Columbia-Princeton developed the RCA Mark II Sound Synthesizer, the first programmable synthesizer. Prominent composers such as Vladimir Ussachevsky, Otto Luening, Milton Babbitt, Charles Wuorinen, Halim El-Dabh, Bülent Arel and Mario Davidovsky used the RCA Synthesizer extensively in various compositions. One of the most influential composers associated with the early years of the studio was Egypt's Halim El-Dabh who, after having developed the earliest known electronic tape music in 1944, became more famous for Leiyla and the Poet, a 1959 series of electronic compositions which stood out for its immersion and seamless fusion of electronic and folk music, in contrast to the more mathematical approach used by serial composers such as Babbitt at the time. El-Dabh's Leiyla and the Poet, released as part of the album Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in 1961, would be cited as a strong influence by a number of musicians, ranging from Neil Rolnick, Charles Amirkhanian and Alice Shields to rock musicians Frank Zappa and The West Coast Pop Art Experimental Band.
An important new development was the advent of computers for the purpose of composing music, as opposed to manipulating or creating sounds. Iannis Xenakis began what is called "musique stochastique," or "stochastic music", which is a method of composing that employs mathematical probability systems. Different probability algorithms were used to create a piece under a set of parameters. Xenakis used graph paper and a ruler to aid in calculating the velocity trajectories of glissandi for his orchestral composition Metastasis (1953–54), but later turned to the use of computers to compose pieces like ST/4 for string quartet and ST/48 for orchestra (both 1962).
In 1954, Stockhausen composed his Elektronische Studie II—the first electronic piece to be published as a score. In 1955, more experimental and electronic studios began to appear. Notable were the creation of the Studio de Fonologia (already mentioned), a studio at the NHK in Tokyo founded by Toshiro Mayuzumi, and the Phillips studio at Eindhoven, the Netherlands, which moved to the University of Utrecht as the Institute of Sonology in 1960. The score for Forbidden Planet, by Louis and Bebe Barron, was entirely composed using custom built electronic circuits and tape recorders in 1956. The world's first computer to play music was CSIRAC which was designed and built by Trevor Pearcey and Maston Beard. Mathematician Geoff Hill programmed the CSIRAC to play popular musical melodies from the very early 1950s. In 1951 it publicly played the Colonel Bogey March of which no known recordings exist. However, CSIRAC played standard repertoire and was not used to extend musical thinking or composition practice which is current computer music practice. CSIRAC was never recorded, but the music played was accurately reconstructed (reference 12). The oldest known recordings of computer generated music were played by the Ferranti Mark 1 computer, a commercial version of the Baby Machine from the University of Manchester in the autumn of 1951. The music program was written by Christopher Strachey. The impact of computers continued in 1956. Lejaren Hiller and Leonard Isaacson composed Iliac Suite for string quartet, the first complete work of computer-assisted composition using algorithmic composition. "... Hiller postulated that a computer could be taught the rules of a particular style and then called on to compose accordingly." Later developments included the work of Max Mathews at Bell Laboratories, who developed the influential MUSIC I program. Vocoder technology was also a major development in this early era. In 1956, Stockhausen composed Gesang der Jünglinge, the first major work of the Cologne studio, based on a text from the Book of Daniel. An important technological development of that year was the invention of the Clavivox synthesizer by Raymond Scott with subassembly by Robert Moog. In 1957, MUSIC, one of the first computer programs to play electronic music, was created by Max Mathews at Bell Laboratories. Also in 1957, Kid Baltan (Dick Raaymakers) and Tom Dissevelt released their debut album, Song Of The Second Moon, recorded at the Phillips studio. The public remained interested in the new sounds being created around the world, as can be deduced by the inclusion of Varèse's Poème électronique, which was played over four hundred loudspeakers at the Phillips Pavilion of the 1958 Brussels World Fair. That same year, Mauricio Kagel, an Argentine composer, composed Transición II. The work was realized at the WDR studio in Cologne. Two musicians perform on a piano, one in the traditional manner, the other playing on the strings, frame, and case. Two other performers use tape to unite the presentation of live sounds with the future of prerecorded materials from later on and its past of recordings made earlier in the performance.
These were fertile years for electronic music—not just for academia, but for independent artists as synthesizer technology became more accessible. By this time, a strong community of composers and musicians working with new sounds and instruments was established and growing. 1960 witnessed the composition of Luening's Gargoyles for violin and tape as well as the premiere of Stockhausen's Kontakte for electronic sounds, piano, and percussion. This piece existed in two versions—one for 4-channel tape, and the other for tape with human performers. "In Kontakte, Stockhausen abandoned traditional musical form based on linear development and dramatic climax. This new approach, which he termed 'moment form,' resembles the 'cinematic splice' techniques in early twentieth century film." The first of these synthesizers to appear was the Buchla. Appearing in 1963, it was the product of an effort spearheaded by musique concrète composer Morton Subotnick. The theremin had been in use since the 1920s but it attained a degree of popular recognition through its use in science-fiction film soundtrack music in the 1950s (e.g., Bernard Herrmann's classic score for The Day the Earth Stood Still). In the UK in this period, the BBC Radiophonic Workshop (established in 1958) emerged one of the most productive and widely known electronic music studios in the world, thanks in large measure to their work on the BBC science-fiction series Doctor Who. One of the most influential British electronic artists in this period was Workshop staffer Delia Derbyshire, who is now famous for her 1963 electronic realisation of the iconic Doctor Who theme, composed by Ron Grainer. In 1961 Josef Tal established the Centre for Electronic Music in Israel at The Hebrew University, and in 1962 Hugh Le Caine arrived in Jerusalem to install his Creative Tape Recorder in the centre. In the 1990s Tal conducted, together with Dr Shlomo Markel, in cooperation with the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, and VolkswagenStiftung a research project (Talmark) aimed at the development of a novel musical notation system for electronic music. Milton Babbitt composed his first electronic work using the synthesizer—his Composition for Synthesizer—which he created using the RCA synthesizer at CPEMC.
For Babbitt, the RCA synthesizer was a dream come true for three reasons. First, the ability to pinpoint and control every musical element precisely. Second, the time needed to realize his elaborate serial structures were brought within practical reach. Third, the question was no longer "What are the limits of the human performer?" but rather "What are the limits of human hearing?
Israeli composer Josef Tal at the Electronic Music Studio in Jerusalem (~1965). On the right - Hugh Le Caine's sound synthesizer the Special Purpose Tape Recorder.
The collaborations also occurred across oceans and continents. In 1961, Ussachevsky invited Varèse to the Columbia-Princeton Studio (CPEMC). Upon arrival, Varese embarked upon a revision of Déserts. He was assisted by Mario Davidovsky and Bülent Arel. The intense activity occurring at CPEMC and elsewhere inspired the establishment of the San Francisco Tape Music Center in 1963 by Morton Subotnick, with additional members Pauline Oliveros, Ramon Sender, Anthony Martin, and Terry Riley. Riley's overdubbed recording A Rainbow in Curved Air (1967) employed various electronic keyboard instruments, all played by the composer-improviser. Later, the Center moved to Mills College, directed by Pauline Oliveros, where it is today known as the Center for Contemporary Music.
Electronic music Simultaneously in San Francisco, composer Stan Shaff and equipment designer Doug McEachern, presented the first “Audium” concert at San Francisco State College (1962), followed by a work at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (1963), conceived of as in time, controlled movement of sound in space. Twelve speakers surrounded the audience, four speakers were mounted on a rotating, mobile-like construction above. In an SFMOMA performance the following year (1964), San Francisco Chronicle music critic Alfred Frankenstein commented, "the possibilities of the space-sound continuum have seldom been so extensively explored". In 1967, the first Audium, a “sound-space continuum” opened, holding weekly performances through 1970. In 1975, enabled by seed money from the National Endowment for the Arts, a new Audium opened, designed floor to ceiling for spatial sound composition and performance. “There are composers who manipulate sound space by locating multiple speakers at various locations in a performance space and then switching or panning the sound between the sources. In this approach, the composition of spatial manipulation is dependent on the location of the speakers and usually exploits the acoustical properties of the enclosure. Examples include Varese’s Poem Electronique (tape music performed in the Phillips Pavilion of the 1958 World Fair, Brussels) and Stanley Schaff’s Audium installation, currently active in San Francisco.” Through weekly programs (over 4,500 in 40 years), Shaff “sculpts” sound, performing now-digitized spatial works live through 176 speakers. A well-known example of the use of Moog's full-sized Moog modular synthesizer is the Switched-On Bach album by Wendy Carlos, which triggered a craze for synthesizer music. Pietro Grossi was an Italian pioneer of computer composition and tape music, who first experimented with electronic techniques in the early sixties. Grossi was a cellist and composer, born in Venice in 1917. He founded the S 2F M (Studio de Fonologia Musicale di Firenze) in 1963 in order to experiment with electronic sound and composition.
CSIRAC, the first computer to play music, did so publicly in August 1951 (reference 12). One of the first large-scale public demonstrations of computer music was a pre-recorded national radio broadcast on the NBC radio network program Monitor on February 10, 1962. In 1961, LaFarr Stuart programmed Iowa State University's CYCLONE computer (a derivative of the Illiac) to play simple, recognizable tunes through an amplified speaker that had been attached to the system originally for administrative and diagnostic purposes. An interview with Mr. Stuart accompanied his computer music. The late 1950s, 1960s and 1970s also saw the development of large mainframe computer synthesis. Starting in 1957, Max Mathews of Bell Labs developed the MUSIC programs, culminating in MUSIC V, a direct digital synthesis language
In America, live electronics were pioneered in the early 1960s by members of Milton Cohen's Space Theater in Ann Arbor, Michigan, including Gordon Mumma and Robert Ashley, by individuals such as David Tudor around 1965, and The Sonic Arts Union, founded in 1966 by Gordon Mumma, Robert Ashley, Alvin Lucier, and David Behrman. ONCE Festivals, featuring multimedia theater music, were organized by Robert Ashley and Gordon Mumma in Ann Arbor between 1958 and 1969. In 1960, John Cage composed Cartridge Music, one of the earliest live-electronic works. In Europe in 1964, Karlheinz Stockhausen composed Mikrophonie I for tam-tam, hand-held microphones, filters, and potentiometers, and Mixtur for orchestra, four sine-wave generators, and four ring modulators. In 1965 he composed Mikrophonie II for choir, Hammond organ, and ring modulators. The Jazz composers and musicians Paul Bley and Annette Peacock performed some of the first live concerts in the late 1960s using Moog synthesizers. Peacock made regular use of a customised Moog synthesizer to process her voice on stage and in studio recordings.
Electronic music In 1966–67, Reed Ghazala discovered and began to teach "circuit bending"—the application of the creative short circuit, a process of chance short-circuiting, creating experimental electronic instruments, exploring sonic elements mainly of timbre and with less regard to pitch or rhythm, and influenced by John Cage’s aleatoric music [sic] concept.
Popularization: 1970s to early 1980s
Released in 1970 by Moog Music the Mini-Moog was among the first widely available, portable and relatively affordable synthesizers. It became the most widely used synthesizer in both popular and electronic art music. In 1974 the WDR studio in Cologne acquired an EMS Synthi 100 synthesizer which was used by a number of composers in the production of notable electronic works—amongst others, Rolf Gehlhaar's Fünf deutsche Tänze (1975), Karlheinz Stockhausen's Sirius (1975–76), and John McGuire's Pulse Music III (1978). The early 1980s saw the rise of bass synthesizers, the most influential being the Roland TB-303, a bass synthesizer and sequencer released in late 1981 that would later become synonymous with electronic dance music, particularly acid house. One of the first to utilize it was Charanjit Singh in 1982, though it wouldn't be popularized until Phuture's "Acid Tracks" in 1987.
IRCAM in Paris became a major center for computer music research and realization and development of the Sogitec 4X computer system, featuring then revolutionary real-time digital signal processing. Pierre Boulez's Répons (1981) for 24 musicians and 6 soloists used the 4X to transform and route soloists to a loudspeaker system.
Rise of popular electronic music
In the late 1960s, pop and rock musicians, including The Beach Boys and The Beatles, began to use electronic instruments, like the theremin and Mellotron, to supplement and define their sound. By the end of the decade, the Moog synthesizer took a leading place in the sound of emerging progressive rock with bands including Pink Floyd, Yes, Emerson, Lake & Palmer, and Genesis making them part of their sound. Instrumental prog rock was particularly significant in continental Europe, allowing bands like Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream, Can, and Faust to circumvent the language barrier. Their synthesiser-heavy "Kraut rock", along with the work of Brian Eno (for a time the keyboard player with Roxy Music), would be a major influence on subsequent synth rock. Electronic rock was also produced by several Japanese musicians, including Isao Tomita's Electric Samurai: Switched on Rock (1972), which featured Moog synthesizer renditions of contemporary pop and rock songs, and Osamu Kitajima's progressive rock album Benzaiten (1974). The mid-1970s saw the rise of electronic art music musicians such as Jean Michel Jarre, Vangelis, and Tomita, who with Brian Eno were a significant influence on the development of New Age Music.
Keith Emerson performing in St. Petersburg in 2008
Electronic music After the arrival of punk rock, a form of basic synth rock emerged, increasingly using new digital technology to replace other instruments. Pioneering bands included Ultravox with their 1977 single "Hiroshima Mon Amour", Yellow Magic Orchestra from Japan, The Human League and Tubeway Army from the UK, and Devo from the US. Yellow Magic Orchestra in particular helped pioneer synthpop with their self-titled album (1978) and Solid State Survivor (1979). The definition of MIDI and the development of digital audio made the development of purely electronic sounds much easier. These developments led to the growth of synth pop, which after it was adopted by the New Romantic movement, allowed synthesizers to dominate the pop and rock music of the early 80s. Key acts included Duran Duran, Spandau Ballet, A Flock of Seagulls, Culture Club, Talk Talk, Japan and the Eurythmics. Synthpop sometimes used synthesizers to replace all other instruments, until the style began to fall from popularity in the mid-1980s.
Sequencers and drum machines
Music sequencers began being used around the mid-1970s, with Tomita's albums being early examples. In 1978, Yellow Magic Orchestra were using computer-based technology in conjunction with a synthesiser to produce popular music, making early use of the microprocessor-based Roland MC-8 Microcomposer sequencer.  Drum machines, also known as rhythm machines, also began being used around the mid-1970s, with an early example being Osamu Kitajima's progressive rock album Benzaiten (1974), which used a rhythm machine along with electronic drums and a synthesizer. In 1977, Ultravox's "Hiroshima Mon Amour" was one of the first singles to use the metronome-like percussion of a Roland TR-77 drum machine. In 1980, Roland Corporation released the TR-808, one of the first and most popular programmable drum machines. The first band to use it was Yellow Magic Orchestra in 1980, and it would later gain widespread popularity with the release of Marvin Gaye's "Sexual Healing" and Afrika Bambaataa's "Planet Rock" in 1982, after which the TR-808 would remain in continued use until at least 2008.
Birth of MIDI
In 1980, a group of musicians and music merchants met to standardize an interface by which new instruments could communicate control instructions with other instruments and the prevalent microcomputer. This standard was dubbed MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) and resulted from a collaboration between leading manufacturers Roland, Yamaha, Korg, Kawai, Oberheim, and Sequential Circuits. A paper was authored by Dave Smith of Sequential Circuits and proposed to the Audio Engineering Society in 1981. Then, in August 1983, the MIDI Specification 1.0 was finalized. The advent of MIDI technology allows a single keystroke, control wheel motion, pedal movement, or command from a microcomputer to activate every device in the studio remotely and in synchrony, with each device responding according to conditions predetermined by the composer. MIDI instruments and software made powerful control of sophisticated instruments easily affordable by many studios and individuals. Acoustic sounds became reintegrated into studios via sampling and sampled-ROM-based instruments. Miller Puckette developed graphic signal-processing software for 4X called Max (after Max Mathews) and later ported it to Macintosh (with Dave Zicarelli extending it for Opcode) for real-time MIDI control, bringing algorithmic composition availability to most composers with modest computer programming background.
In 1975, the Japanese company Yamaha licensed the algorithms for frequency modulation synthesis (FM synthesis) from John Chowning, who had experimented with it at Stanford University since 1971.  Yamaha's engineers began adapting Chowning's algorithm for use in a digital synthesizer, adding improvements such as the "key scaling" method to avoid the introduction of distortion that normally occurred in analog systems during frequency modulation. However, the first commercial digital synthesizer to be released would be the Australian Fairlight company's Fairlight CMI (Computer Musical Instrument) in 1979, as the first practical polyphonic digital synthesizer/sampler system. In 1980, Yamaha eventually released the first FM digital synthesizer, the Yamaha GS-1, but at an expensive price. In 1983, Yamaha introduced the first stand-alone digital synthesizer, the DX-7, which also used FM synthesis and would become one of the best-selling synthesizers of all time. The DX-7 was known for its recognizable bright tonalities that was partly due to an overachieving sampling rate of 57 kHz. Barry Vercoe describes one of his experiences with early computer sounds: At IRCAM in Paris in 1982, flutist Larry Beauregard had connected his flute to DiGiugno's 4X audio processor, enabling real-time pitch-following. On a Guggenheim at the time, I extended this concept to real-time score-following with automatic synchronized accompaniment, and over the next two years Larry and I gave numerous demonstrations of the computer as a chamber musician, playing Handel flute sonatas, Boulez's Sonatine for flute and piano and by 1984 my own Synapse II for flute and computer—the first piece ever composed expressly for such a setup. A major challenge was finding the right software constructs to support highly sensitive and responsive accompaniment. All of this was pre-MIDI, but the results were impressive even though heavy doses of tempo rubato would continually surprise my Synthetic Performer. In 1985 we solved the tempo rubato problem by incorporating learning from rehearsals (each time you played this way the machine would get better). We were also now tracking violin, since our brilliant, young flautist had contracted a fatal cancer. Moreover, this version used a new standard called MIDI, and here I was ably assisted by former student Miller Puckette, whose initial concepts for this task he later expanded into a program called MAX.
Late 1980s to 1990s
Rise of dance music
In the late 1980s, dance music records made using only electronic instruments became increasingly popular. The trend has continued to the present day with modern nightclubs worldwide regularly playing electronic dance music. Nowadays, electronic/dance music is so popular, that dedicated genre radio stations and TV Channels (e.g., NRJ Dance, MUSIC FORCE EUROPE) exist.
In the 1990s, interactive computer-assisted performance started to become possible, with one example described as follows: Automated Harmonization of Melody in Real Time: An interactive computer system, developed in collaboration with flutist/composer Pedro Eustache, for realtime melodic analysis and harmonic accompaniment. Based on a novel scheme of harmonization devised by Eustache, the software analyzes the tonal melodic function of incoming notes, and instantaneously performs an orchestrated harmonization of the melody. The software was originally designed for performance by Eustache on Yamaha WX7 wind controller, and was used in his composition Tetelestai, premiered in Irvine, California in March 1999.
Electronic music Other recent developments included the Tod Machover (MIT and IRCAM) composition Begin Again Again for "hypercello", an interactive system of sensors measuring physical movements of the cellist. Max Mathews developed the "Conductor" program for real-time tempo, dynamic and timbre control of a pre-input electronic score. Morton Subotnick released a multimedia CD-ROM All My Hummingbirds Have Alibis.
In recent years, as computer technology has become more accessible and music software has advanced, interacting with music production technology is now possible using means that bear no relationship to traditional musical performance practices: for instance, laptop performance (laptronica) and live coding. In general, the term Live PA refers to any live performance of electronic music, whether with laptops, synthesizers, or other devices. In the last decade, a number of software-based virtual studio environments have emerged, with products such as Propellerhead's Qlimax, a large electronic music event that occurs Reason and Ableton Live finding popular appeal. Such tools each year in the Netherlands, celebrating the Hardstyle subgenre of electronic music provide viable and cost-effective alternatives to typical hardware-based production studios, and thanks to advances in microprocessor technology, it is now possible to create high quality music using little more than a single laptop computer. Such advances have democratized music creation, leading to a massive increase in the amount of home-produced electronic music available to the general public via the internet. Artists can now also individuate their production practice by creating personalized software synthesizers, effects modules, and various composition environments. Devices that once existed exclusively in the hardware domain can easily have virtual counterparts. Some of the more popular software tools for achieving such ends are commercial releases such as Max/Msp and Reaktor and open source packages such as Csound, Pure Data, SuperCollider, and ChucK.
Chiptune, chipmusic, or chip music is music written in sound formats where many of the sound textures are synthesized or sequenced in real time by a computer or video game console sound chip, sometimes including sample-based synthesis and low bit sample playback. Many chip music devices featured synthesizers in tandem with low rate sample playback.
 "The stuff of electronic music is electrically produced or modified sounds. ... two basic definitions will help put some of the historical discussion in its place: purely electronic music versus electroacoustic music" (Holmes 2002, 6). Probing for "bends" using a jeweler's screwdriver and alligator clips.
 "Electroacoustic music uses electronics to modify sounds from the natural world. The entire spectrum of worldly sounds provides the source material for this music. This is the domain of microphones, tape recorders and digital samplers … can be associated with live or recorded music. During live performances, natural sounds are modified in real time using electronics. The source of the sound can be anything from ambient noise to live musicians playing conventional instruments" (Holmes 2002, 8).  "Electronically produced music is part of the mainstream of popular culture. Musical concepts that were once considered radical—the use of environmental sounds, ambient music, turntable music, digital sampling, computer music, the electronic modification of acoustic sounds, and music made from fragments of speech-have now been subsumed by many kinds of popular music. Record store genres including new age, rap,
hip-hop, electronica, techno, jazz, and popular song all rely heavily on production values and techniques that originated with classic electronic music" (Holmes 2002, 1). "By the 1990s, electronic music had penetrated every corner of musical life. It extended from ethereal sound-waves played by esoteric experimenters to the thumping syncopation that accompanies every pop record" (Lebrecht 1996, 106).  Rosen 2008  Russcol 1972, 67.  Anon. 2001.  Orton and Davies n.d.  Busoni 1962, 95.  Busoni 1962, 76–77.  Russcol 1972, 35-36.  Quoted in Russcol 1972, 40.  Russcol 1972, 68.  Composers using the instrument ultimately include Boulez, Honneger, Jolivet, Koechlin, Messiaen, Milhaud, Tremblay, and Varèse. In 1937, Messiaen wrote Fête des belles eaux for 6 ondes Martenot, and wrote solo parts for it in Trois petites Liturgies de la Présence Divine (1943–44) and the Turangalîla Symphonie (1946–48/90).  Russcol 1972, 70.  Crab 2005.  Anon. n.d.(1).  Tyson n.d.  Anonymous 2006.  Engel 2006, 4 and 7.  Krause 2002, abstract (http:/ / www. aes. org/ e-lib/ browse. cfm?elib=11304).  Engel and Hammar 2006, 6.  Karen Crocker Snell 2006 (http:/ / www. scu. edu/ scm/ summer2006/ sound. cfm).  Angus 1984.  Hammar 1999 (http:/ / mixonline. com/ mag/ audio_john_mullin_man/ ).  "The Wire, Volumes 275-280" (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=lvo4AQAAIAAJ), The Wire: p. 24, 2007, , retrieved 2011-06-05  Holmes 2008, 156–57  "Musique Concrete was created in Paris in 1948 from edited collages of everyday noise" (Lebrecht 1996, 107).  NB: To the pioneers, an electronic work did not exist until it was "realized" in a real-time performance (Holmes 2008, 122).  Snyder (n.d.) (http:/ / csunix1. lvc. edu/ ~snyder/ em/ schaef. html).  Eimert 1972, 349.  Eimert 1958, 2; Ungeheuer 1992, 117.  (Lebrecht 1996, 75). "... at Northwest German Radio in Cologne (1953), where the term 'electronic music' was coined to distinguish their pure experiments from musique concrete..." (Lebrecht 1996, 107).  Stockhausen 1978, 73–76, 78–79.  "In 1967, just following the world premiere of Hymnen, Stockhausen said this about the electronic music experience: '... Many listeners have projected that strange new music which they experienced—especially in the realm of electronic music—into extraterrestrial space. Even though they are not familiar with it through human experience, they identify it with the fantastic dream world. Several have commented that my electronic music sounds "like on a different star," or "like in outer space." Many have said that when hearing this music, they have sensations as if flying at an infinitely high speed, and then again, as if immobile in an immense space. Thus, extreme words are employed to describe such experience, which are not "objectively" communicable in the sense of an object description, but rather which exist in the subjective fantasy and which are projected into the extraterrestrial space'" (Holmes 2002, 145).  Holmes 2008, 106  Holmes 2008, 106 & 115  Fujii 2004, 64–66.  Fujii 2004, 66.  Holmes 2008, 106-7  Holmes 2008, 107  Fujii 2004, 66–67.  Fujii 2004, 64.  Fujii 2004, 65.  Holmes 2008, 108  Holmes 2008, 108 & 114-5  Reid 2004.  Johnson 2002, 2.  Johnson 2002, 4  "Carolyn Brown [Earle Brown's wife] was to dance in Cunningham's company, while Brown himself was to participate in Cage's 'Project for Music for Magnetic Tape.'... funded by Paul Williams (dedicatee of the 1953 Williams Mix), who—like Robert Rauschenberg—was a former
student of Black Mountain College, which Cage and Cunnigham had first visited in the summer of 1948" (Johnson 2002, 20).  Russcol 1972, 92.  Luening 1968, 48.  Luening 1968, 49.  Kurtz 1992, 75–76.  Anonymous 1972.  Holmes 2008, 145–46  "The RCA Synthesizer & Its Synthesists" (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=0WkJAQAAMAAJ), Contemporary Keyboard (GPI Publications) 6 (10): p. 64, October 1980, , retrieved 2011-06-05  Holmes 2008, 153.  Holmes 2008, 153–54 & 157.  "From at least Louis and Bebbe Barron's soundtrack for 'The Forbidden Planet" onwards, electronic music - in particular synthetic timbre has impersonated alien worlds in film" (Norman 2004, 32).  Doornbusch 2005, .  Schwartz 1975, 347.  Harris n.d.  Kurtz 1992, 1.  Gluck 2005, .  Tal and Markel 2002, 55-62.  Schwartz 1975, 124.  Bayly 1982–83, 150.  "A central figure in post-war electronic art music, Pauline Oliveros [b. 1932] is one of the original members of the San Francisco Tape Music Center (along with Morton Subotnick, Ramon Sender, Terry Riley, and Anthony Martin), which was the resource on the U.S. west coast for electronic music during the 1960s. The Center later moved to Mills College, where she was its first director, and is now called the Center for Contemporary Music." from CD liner notes, "Accordion & Voice," Pauline Oliveros, Record Label: Important, Catalog number IMPREC140: 793447514024.  Frankenstein 1964.  Loy 1985, 41-48.  Begault 1994, 208.  Hertelendy 2008.  Doornbusch 2005, .  Mattis 2001.  Stockhausen 1971, 51, 57, 66.  "This element of embracing errors is at the centre of Circuit Bending, it is about creating sounds that are not supposed to happen and not supposed to be heard (Gard, 2004). In terms of musicality, as with electronic art music, it is primarily concerned with timbre and takes little regard of pitch and rhythm in a classical sense. ... . In a similar vein to Cage’s aleatoric music, the art of Bending is dependent on chance, when a person prepares to bend they have no idea of the final outcome" (Yabsley 2007).  "In 1969, a portable version of the studio Moog, called the Minimoog Model D, became the most widely used synthesizer in both popular music and electronic art music" (Montanaro 2004, ).  Morawska-Büngeler 1988, 52, 55, 107–108.  Vine, Richard (15 June 2011). "Tadao Kikumoto invents the Roland TB-303" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ music/ 2011/ jun/ 15/ tadao-kikumoto-roland). The Guardian. . Retrieved 9 July 2011.  Aitken 2011.  Schutterhoef 2007 (http:/ / knorretje. hku. nl/ wiki/ Sogitec_4X).  Bussy 2004, 15–17.  Unterberger, 2002, pp. 1330-1.  Jenkins 2007, 133–34 (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=c3EHIpo0DKwC& pg=PA133).  Osamu Kitajima – Benzaiten (http:/ / www. discogs. com/ release/ 1303605) at Discogs  Holmes 2008, 403.  Maginnis n.d.  Anon. n.d.(2).  Piero Scaruffi (2003), A history of rock music 1951-2000 (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=04KtwVkHNv0C& pg=PA234), iUniverse, p. 234, ISBN 0595295657, , retrieved 2011-05-26  Russ 2004, 66.  Scaruffi 2003, 234–35.  Anon. 1979.  Yellow Magic Orchestra – Yellow Magic Orchestra (http:/ / www. discogs. com/ release/ 453067) at Discogs  Sound International, Issues 33-40 (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=Sj5LAAAAYAAJ). 1981. p. 147. . Retrieved 21 June 2011.  Anderson 2008.
 Holmes 2008, 227  Ozab 2000 (http:/ / www. atpm. com/ 6. 05/ barline. shtml).  Holmes 2008, 257  Chowning 1973.  Holmes 2008, 257-8  Roads 1996, 226.  Holmes 2008, 258-9  Vercoe 2000, xxviii–xxix.  Dobrian 2002, Automated Harmonization of Melody in Real Time (http:/ / music. arts. uci. edu/ dobrian/ research02. htm)  Emmerson 2007, 111–13.  Emmerson 2007, 80-81.  Emmerson 2007, 115; Collins 2003.  23rd Annual International Dance Music Awards: (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20090218224051/ http:/ / wintermusicconference. com/ events/ idmas/ winners2008. php) Best Audio Editing Software of the Year - 1st Abelton Live, 4th Reason. Best Audio DJ Software of the Year - Abelton Live.  Chadabe 2004, 5–6.
• Aitken, Stuart. 2011. " Charanjit Singh on How He Invented Acid House … by Mistake (http://www.guardian. co.uk/music/2011/may/10/charanjit-singh-acid-house-ten-ragas)". The Guardian (10 May). • Anderson, Jason. 2008. " Slaves to the Rhythm: Kanye West Is the Latest to Pay Tribute to a Classic Drum Machine (http://www.cbc.ca/news/arts/music/story/2008/11/27/f-history-of-the-808.html)". CBC News website (28 November) (Accessed 5 June 2011). • Angus, Robert. 1984. "History of Magnetic Recording, Part One". Audio Magazine (August): 27–33. • Ankeny, Jason. n.d. " Yellow Magic Orchestra: Biography (http://www.allmusic.com/artist/ yellow-magic-orchestra-p5886/biography)". Allmusic.com (Accessed 5 June 2011). • Ankeny, Jason. . " Kraftwerk: Biography (http://www.allmusic.com/artist/kraftwerk-p4706)". Allmusic.com (Accessed 5 June 2011). • Anonymous. n.d.(1) " Inventing the Wire Recorder (http://www.recording-history.org/HTML/wire2.php)". Recording History: The History of Recording Technology. www.recording-history.org (Accessed 5 June 2011). • Anonymous. n.d.(2) "Synth pop" (http://www.webcitation.org/5x6RaN2Dj), Allmusic, archived from the original (http://www.allmusic.com/explore/style/d18) on 10 March 2011 • Anonymous. 1972. Liner notes to The Varese Album. Columbia Records MG 31078. • Anonymous. 1979. " Artists and Producers Strive for Inroads Overseas (http://books.google.co.uk/ books?id=_iQEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PT61#v=onepage&q&f=false)". Billboard (26 May): J-14, J-31. • Anonymous. 2001. " Theremin (http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A520831)". Guide ID A520831 (Edited). BBC h2g2 encyclopaedia project (2 April) (Accessed 20 May 2008). • Anonymous. 2006. " 1935 AEG Magnetophon Tape Recorder (http://mixonline.com/ TECnology-Hall-of-Fame/aeg-magnetophone-recorder-090106/)". Mix: Professional Audio and Music Production (mixonline.com, accessed 5 June 2011). • Bassingthwaighte, Sarah Louise. 2002. "Electroacoustic Music for the Flute". DMA dissertation. Seattle: University of Washington. • Bayly, Richard. 1982–83. "Ussachevsky on Varèse: An Interview April 24, 1979 at Goucher College," Perspectives of New Music 21 (Fall-Winter 1982 and Spring-Summer 1983):145–51. • Begault, Durand R. 1994. 3-D Sound for Virtual Reality and Multimedia]. Boston: Academic Press, 1994. ISBN 978-0120847358. Online reprint (http://www.cse.yorku.ca/course_archive/2005-06/W/6335/feb20/ Begault_2000_3d_Sound_Multimedia.pdf), NASA Ames Research Center Technical Memorandum facsimile 2000. • Brick, Howard. 2000. Age of Contradiction: American Thought and Culture in the 1960s. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8700-5 (Originally published: New York: Twayne, 1998)
Electronic music • Bush, John. n.d.(a) " Tomita: Biography (http://www.billboard.com/artist/tomita/25745#/artist/tomita/bio/ 25745)". Billboard.com website (Accessed 5 June 2011). • Bush, John. n.d.(b) " Snowflakes Are Dancing: Electronic Performances of Debussy's Tone Paintings, Isao Tomita (http://www.allmusic.com/album/ snowflakes-are-dancing-electronic-performances-of-debussys-tone-paintings-r108784/review)". Allmusic.com (Accessed 5 June 2011). • Bush, John. 2009. " Song Review: 'Blue Monday' (http://www.allmusic.com/song/t1003217)". Allmusic website (Accessed 13 January 2010). • Busoni, Ferruccio. 1962. '"Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music". Translated by Dr. Th. Baker and originally published in 1911 by G. Schirmer. Reprinted in Three Classics in the Aesthetic of Music: Monsieur Croche the Dilettante Hater, by Claude Debussy; Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music, by Ferruccio Busoni; Essays before a Sonata, by Charles E. Ives, 73–102. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. • Bussy, P., 2004. Kraftwerk: Man, Machine and Music. London: SAF, 3rd end. ISBN 0-946719-70-5. • Chadabe, Joel. 1997. Electric Sound: The Past and Promise of Electronic Music. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. • Chadabe, Joel. 2004. "Electronic Music and Life". Organised Sound 9, no. 1: 3–6. • Chowning, John. 1973. "The Synthesis of Complex Audio Spectra by Means of Frequency Modulation". Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 21, no. 7:526–34. • Collins, Nick. 2003. "Generative Music and Laptop Performance". Contemporary Music Review 22, no. 4:67-79. • Crab, Simon. 2005. " The Hammond Novachord (1939) (http://120years.net/machines/novachord/index. html)". 120 Years of Electronic Music website (Accessed 5 June 2011). • Dobrian, Christopher. 2002. "Current Research Projects" (http://music.arts.uci.edu/dobrian/research02.htm). Accessed 29 June 2007. • Donhauser, Peter. 2007. Elektrische Klangmaschinen. Vienna: Boehlau. • Doornbusch, Paul. 2005. The Music of CSIRAC, Australia's First Computer Music, with accompanying CD recording. [Australia]: Common Ground Publishers. ISBN 1-86335-569-3 • Eimert, Herbert. 1958. "What Is Electronic Music?" Die Reihe 1 (English edition): 1–10. • Eimert, Herbert. 1972. "How Electronic Music Began." Musical Times 113, no. 1550 (April): 347 & 349. (First published in German in Melos 39 (Jan.-Feb. 1972): 42–44.) • Emmerson, Simon. 1986. The Language of Electroacoustic Music. London: Macmillan. • Emmerson, Simon (ed.). 2000. Music, Electronic Media, and Culture. Aldershot (Hants.), Burlington (VT): Ashgate. ISBN 0-7546-0109-9 • Emmerson, Simon. 2007. Living Electronic Music. Aldershot (Hants.), Burlington (VT): Ashgate. ISBN 0-7546-5546-6 (cloth) ISBN 0-7546-5548-2 (pbk) • Engel, Friedrich Karl. 2006. " Walter Weber's Technical Innovation at the Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft (http:// www.richardhess.com/tape/history/Engel--Walter_Weber_2006.pdf)". Richardhess.com (Accessed 18 June 2010). • Engel, Friedrich Karl, and Peter Hammar. 2006. " A Selected History of Magnetic Recording (http://www. richardhess.com/tape/history/Engel_Hammar--Magnetic_Tape_History.pdf)", edited by Richard L. Hess. Richardhess.com (Accessed 18 June 2010). • Frankenstein, Alfred. 1964. “Space-Sound Continuum in Total Darkness”. San Francisco Chronicle (October 17). History of Experimental Music in Northern California (http://o-art.org/history/LongDur/Shaff/aboutAudium. html) • Fujii, Koichi. 2004. "Chronology of Early Electroacoustic Music in Japan: What Types of Source Materials Are Available?" Organised Sound 9:63-77. doi:10.1017/S1355771804000093 • Gard, Stephen. 2004. "Nasty Noises: ‘Error’ as a Compositional Element". Sydney Conservatorium of Music, Sydney eScholarship Repository (http://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/handle/2123/894).
Electronic music • Gluck, Robert J. 2005. "Fifty Years of Electronic Music in Israel". Organised Sound 10, no. 2:163–80. • Griffiths, Paul. 1995. Modern Music and After: Directions Since 1945. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-816578-1 (cloth) ISBN 0-19-816511-0 (pbk) • Hammar, Peter. 1999. John T. Mullin: The Man Who Put Bing Crosby on Tape (http://mixonline.com/mag/ audio_john_mullin_man/). Mix Online (1 October). (Accessed 13 January 2010). • Harris, Craig. n.d. " Tom Dissevelt: Biography (http://www.allmusic.com/artist/p409417)". Allmusic.com (Accessed 28 March 2010). • Hertelendy, Paul. 2008. " Spatial Sound’s Longest Running One-Man Show (http://www.artssf.com/ audium11042.html)". artssf.com Dec.7,2008 (Accessed March 3, 2011) • Holmes, Thomas B. 2002. Electronic and Experimental Music: Pioneers in Technology and Composition. Second edition. London: Routledge Music/Songbooks. ISBN 0-415-93643-8 (cloth) ISBN 0-415-93644-6 (pbk) • Holmes, Thom. 2008. Electronic and Experimental Music: Technology, Music, and Culture, third edition. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-95781-8 (cloth); ISBN 0-415-95782-6 (pbk); ISBN 0-203-92959-4 (ebook). • Johnson, Steven. 2002. The New York Schools of Music and Visual Arts: John Cage, Morton Feldman. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-93694-2 • Krause, Manfred. 2002. "The Legendary 'Magnetophon' of AEG". Audio Engineering Society E-Library. AES Convention 112 (April), paper number 5605. Abstract (http://www.aes.org/e-lib/browse.cfm?elib=11304). • Kurtz, Michael. 1992. Stockhausen: A Biography. Trans. by Richard Toop. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-14323-7 • Jenkins, Mark. 2007. "Analog Synthesizers: Understanding, Performing, Buying: From the Legacy of Moog to Software Synthesis". Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 9780240520728. • Lebrecht, Norman. 1996. The Companion to 20th-Century Music. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80734-3 (pbk) • Loy, Gareth. 1985. " About Audium - A Conversation with Stanley Shaff (http://www.audium.org/omhpp. cgi?src=article.cmj.hpp)". ‘’Computer Music Journal’’ Summer 1985, Volume 9, Number 2, pgs. 41-48. • Luening, Otto. 1964. "Some Random Remarks About Electronic Music", Journal of Music Theory 8, no. 1 (Spring): 89–98. • Luening, Otto. 1968. "An Unfinished History of Electronic Music". Music Educators Journal 55, no. 3 (November): 42–49, 135–42, 145. • Macon, Edward L. 1997. Rocking the Classics: English Progressive Rock and the Counterculture. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509887-0. • Maginnis, Tom. n.d. " The Man Who Dies Every Day: Ultravox: Song Review (http://www.webcitation.org/ 5x6MRJwaq)". Allmusic.com (archived copy, accessed 19 June 2011). • Mattis, Olivia. 2001. "Mathews, Max V(ernon)". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrell. London: Macmillan. • Montanaro, Larisa Katherine. 2004. " A Singer’s Guide to Performing Works for Voice and Electronics (http:// www.lib.utexas.edu/etd/d/2004/montanarolk042/montanarolk042.pdf)". DMA thesis. Austin: The University of Texas at Austin. • Morawska-Büngeler, Marietta. 1988. Schwingende Elektronen: Eine Dokumentation über das Studio für Elektronische Musik des Westdeutschen Rundfunk in Köln 1951–1986. Cologne-Rodenkirchen: P. J. Tonger Musikverlag. • Norman, Katharine. 2004. Sounding Art: Eight Literary Excursions through Electronic Music. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0-7546-0426-8 • Orton, Richard, and Hugh Davies. n.d. " Ondes martenot (http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/ article/grove/music/20343)". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (Subscription access; accessed February 2, 2011).
Electronic music • Ozab, David. 2000. " Beyond the Barline: One Down, Two to Go (http://www.atpm.com/6.05/barline. shtml)". ATPM (About This Particular Macintosh) website (May). (Accessed 13 January 2010). • Peyser, Joan. 1995. The Music of My Time. White Plains, N.Y.: Pro/AM Music Resources Inc.; London: Kahn and Averill. ISBN 0-912483-99-7; ISBN 1-871082-57-9 • Rappaport, Scott. 2007. " Digital Arts and New Media Grad Students Collaborate Musically across Three Time Zones (http://currents.ucsc.edu/06-07/04-02/collaboration.asp)". UC Santa Cruz Currents Online (2 April). • Reid, Gordon. 2004. " The History Of Roland Part 1: 1930–1978 (http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/nov04/ articles/roland.htm)". Sound On Sound (November) (Accessed 19 June 2011). • Roads, Curtis. 1996. The Computer Music Tutorial. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-18158-4 (cloth) ISBN 0-262-68082-3 (pbk) • Rosen, Jody. 2008. " Researchers Play Tune Recorded before Edison (http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/27/ arts/27soun.html?_r=1&oref=slogin)". New York Times (27 March). • Russ, Martin. 2009. Sound Synthesis and Sampling, third edition. Amsterdam and Boston: Elsevier; Oxford and Burlington: Focal. ISBN 0240521056. • Russcol, Herbert. 1972. The Liberation of Sound: An Introduction to Electronic Music. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. • Russolo, Luigi. 1913. L'arte dei rumori: manifesto futurista. Manifesti del movimento futurista 14. Milano: Direzione del movimento futurista. English version as The Art of Noise: Futurist Manifesto 1913, translated by Robert Filliou. A Great Bear Pamphlet 18. New York: Something Else Press, 1967. Second English version as The Art of Noises, translated from the Italian with an introduction by Barclay Brown. Monographs in Musicology no. 6. New York: Pendragon Press, 1986. ISBN 0918728576. • Scaruffi, Piero. 2003. A History of Rock Music 1951–2000 (http://books.google.co.uk/ books?id=04KtwVkHNv0C&pg=PA234). New York: iUniverse. ISBN 0595295657. • Schutterhoef, Arie van. 2007. " Sogitec 4X (http://knorretje.hku.nl/wiki/Sogitec_4X)". Knorretje, een Nederlandse Wiki over muziek, geluid, soft- en hardware. (Accessed 13 January 2010). • Schwartz, Elliott. 1975. Electronic Music New York: Praeger. • Snell, Karen Crocker. 2006. " The Man Behind The Sound (http://www.scu.edu/scm/summer2006/sound. cfm)". Santa Clara University Online Magazine (Summer) (Accessed 13 January 2010). • Snyder, Jeff. [n.d.]. "Pierre Schaeffer: Inventor of Musique Concrete" (http://csunix1.lvc.edu/~snyder/em/ schaef.html). Accessed May 2002. • Stevenson, Joseph. . " Tomita: Biography (http://www.allmusic.com/artist/tomita-q6265/biography)". Allmusic website (Accessed 5 June 2011). • Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 1971. Texte zur Musik 3, edited by Dieter Schnebel. DuMont Dokumente. Cologne: DuMont Buchverlag. ISBN 3-7701-0493-5 • Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 1978. Texte zur Musik 4, edited by Christoph von Blumröder. DuMont Dokumente. Cologne: DuMont Buchverlag. ISBN 3-7701-1078-1 • Tal, Josef, and Shlomo Markel. 2002. Musica Nova in the Third Millennium. Tel-Aviv: Israel Music Institute. ISBN 965-90565-0-8. Also published in German, as Musica Nova im dritten Millenium. Tel-Aviv: Israel Music Institute. ISBN 965-90565-0-8 • Tyson, Jeff. n.d. " How Movie Sound Works (http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/movie-sound1.htm)". Entertainment.howstuffworks.com (Accessed 28 March 2010). • Ungeheuer, Elena. 1992. Wie die elektronische Musik "erfunden" wurde: Quellenstudie zu Werner Meyer-Epplers musikalischem Entwurf zwischen 1949 und 1953. Kölner Schriften zur neuen Musik 2. Mainz and New York: Schott. ISBN 3-7957-1891-0. • Unterberger, R. 2002, "Progressive rock", in V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, eds, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn. ISBN 0-87930-653-X.
Electronic music • Vercoe, Barry. 2000. " Forward (http://www.csounds.com/vercoe/index.html#HISTORY)," in The Csound Book: Perspectives in Software Synthesis, Sound Design, Signal Processing, and Programming, edited by Richard Boulanger, xxvii–xxx. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. • Watson, Scott. 2005. " A Return to Modernism (http://metmagazine.com/mag/return_modernism)". Music Education Technology Magazine (February). • Weidenaar, Reynold. 1995. Magic Music from the Telharmonium: The Story of the First Music Synthesizer. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, Inc. ISBN 0-8108-2692-5. • Yabsley, Alex. 2007. " Back to the 8 Bit: A Study of Electronic Music Counter-Culture (http://www. gamemusic4all.com/backto8bit 4.html)". Gamemusic4all.com (February 3). (Accessed 5 June 2011). • Zimmer, Dave. 2000. Crosby, Stills, and Nash: The Authorized Biography. Photography by Henry Diltz. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80974-5
• Bogdanov, Vladimir, Chris Woodstra, Stephen Thomas Erlewine, and John Bush (editors). 2001. The All Music Guide to Electronica: The Definitive Guide to Electronic Music. AMG Allmusic Series. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 0-87930-628-9 • Cummins, James. 2008. Ambrosia: About a Culture - An Investigation of Electronica Music and Party Culture. Toronto, ON: Clark-Nova Books. ISBN 978-0-9784892-1-2 • Heifetz, Robin J. (ed.). 1989. "On The Wires of Our Nerves: The Art of Electroacoustic Music". Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses. ISBN 0-8387-5155-5 • Kahn, Douglas. 1999. Noise, Water, Meat: A History of Sound in the Arts. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-11243-4 New edition 2001, ISBN 0-262-61172-4 • Kettlewell, Ben. 2001. Electronic Music Pioneers. [N.p.]: Course Technology, Inc. ISBN 1-931140-17-0 • Licata, Thomas (ed.). 2002. Electroacoustic Music: Analytical Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-31420-9 • Manning, Peter. 2004. Electronic and Computer Music. Revised and expanded edition. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514484-8 (cloth) ISBN 0-19-517085-7 (pbk) • Prendergast, Mark. 2001. The Ambient Century: From Mahler to Trance: The Evolution of Sound in the Electronic Age. Forward [sic] by Brian Eno. New York: Bloomsbury. ISBN 0-7475-4213-9, ISBN 1-58234-134-6 (hardcover eds.) ISBN 1-58234-323-3 (paper) • Reynolds, Simon. 1998. Energy Flash: A Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture. London: Pan Macmillan. ISBN 0-330-35056-0 (US title, Generation Ecstasy: Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture. Boston: Little, Brown, 1998 ISBN 0316741116; New York: Routledge, 1999 ISBN 0-415-92373-5) • Schaefer, John. 1987. New Sounds: A Listener's Guide to New Music. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-097081-2 • Shanken, Edward A. 2009. Art and Electronic Media. London: Phaidon. ISBN 978-0-7148-4782-5 • Shapiro, Peter (editor). 2000. Modulations: a History of Electronic Music: Throbbing Words on Sound. New York: Caipirinha Productions ISBN 1-891024-06-X • Sicko, Dan. 1999. Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk. New York: Billboard Books. ISBN 0-8230-8428-0 • Wells, Thomas. 1981. The Technique of Electronic Music. New York: Schirmer Books; London: Collier Macmillan. ISBN 978-0028728308.
• A timeline of electronic music (http://www.music.psu.edu/Faculty Pages/Ballora/INART55/timeline.html) • A chronology of computer and electronic music (http://www.doornbusch.net/chronology) • Pioneers of electronic music (http://www.beatportal.com/tags/tag/pioneers+of+electronic+music) - A series of articles highlighting pioneers of electronic music • History of electronic musical instruments (http://www.obsolete.com/120_years/) • Art of the States: electronic (http://artofthestates.org/cgi-bin/genresearch.pl?genre=electronic) - Small collection of electronic works by American composers • CSIRAC homepage (http://www.cs.mu.oz.au/csirac/music/) – From the Computation Laboratory at the University of Melbourne's Dept of Computer Science and Software Engineering • Partynews.hu (http://www1.partynews.hu) Electronic Music Partynews, Historys, Programs, Events • AlternativKultur (http://www.alternativkultur.se) Electronic Music News & Chronicles. • Technotika.de (http://www.technotika.de) Elektronische Events in Frankfurt a.M. (Germany) • Explore electronic music genres (http://resonantvibes.com/genres) - Primer on some of the types of electronic popular music • XLR8R.com (http://xlr8r.com/) - Leading voice for electronic music in the United States • Electronic Music Foundation (http://www.emf.org/) • • • • Computer Music Center (http://music.columbia.edu/cmc/) Australian Electronic Music Portal (http://analogik.com/) Read more about Swedish Techno (http://swedishtechno.com) new Russian electronic music (http://wearerussians.com)
Stylistic origins Cultural origins Typical instruments Experimental music, twelve-tone music, serialism, process music, Indian classical music United States Piano, orchestra, tuned percussion, electronic musical instruments, electronic postproduction equipment
Mainstream popularity Low, except in the Experimental field Derivative forms Postminimalism, totalism Subgenres Drone music 
Fusion genres Repetitive music
Minimal music is a style of music associated with the work of American composers La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, and Philip Glass.   It originated in the New York Downtown scene of the 1960s and was initially viewed as a form of experimental music called the New York Hypnotic School. Prominent features of the style include consonant harmony, steady pulse (if not immobile drones), stasis or gradual transformation, and often reiteration of musical phrases or smaller units such as figures, motifs, and cells. It may include features such as additive process and phase shifting. Minimal compositions that rely heavily on process techniques that follow strict rules are usually described using the term process music. Starting in the early 1960s as a scruffy underground scene in San Francisco alternative spaces and New York lofts, minimalism spread to become the most popular experimental music style of the late 20th century. The movement originally involved dozens of composers, although only five (Young, Riley, Reich, Glass, and later John Adams) emerged to become publicly associated with American minimal music. In Europe, the music of Louis Andriessen, Karel Goeyvaerts, Michael Nyman, Gavin Bryars, Steve Martland, Henryk Górecki, Arvo Pärt, and John Tavener exhibits minimalist traits. It is unclear where the term minimal music originates. Steve Reich has suggested that it is attributable to Michael Nyman, a claim two scholars, Jonathan Bernard and Dan Warburton, have also made in writing. Philip Glass believes Tom Johnson coined the phrase.  
The word "minimal" was perhaps first used in relation to music in 1968 by Michael Nyman, who "deduced a recipe for the successful 'minimal-music' happening from the entertainment presented by Charlotte Moorman and Nam June Paik at the ICA", which included a performance of Springen by Henning Christiansen and a number of unidentified performance-art pieces. Nyman later expanded his definition of minimalism in music in his 1974 book Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond. Tom Johnson, one of the few composers to self-identify as minimalist, also claims to have been first to use the word as new music critic for The Village Voice. He describes "minimalism": The idea of minimalism is much larger than most people realize. It includes, by definition, any music that works with limited or minimal materials: pieces that use only a few notes, pieces that use only a few words of text, or pieces written for very limited instruments, such as antique cymbals, bicycle wheels, or whiskey glasses. It includes pieces that sustain one basic electronic rumble for a long time. It includes pieces made exclusively from recordings of rivers and streams. It includes pieces that move in endless circles. It includes pieces that set up an unmoving wall of saxophone sound. It includes pieces that take a
Minimal music very long time to move gradually from one kind of music to another kind. It includes pieces that permit all possible pitches, as long as they fall between C and D. It includes pieces that slow the tempo down to two or three notes per minute. Already in 1965 the art historian Barabara Rose had named La Monte Young's Dream Music, Morton Feldman's characteristically soft dynamics, and various unnamed composers "all, to a greater or lesser degree, indebted to John Cage" as examples of "minimal art", but did not specifically use the expression "minimal music". The most prominent minimalist composers are John Adams, Louis Andriessen, Philip Glass, Steve Reich, Terry Riley, and La Monte Young. The early compositions of Glass and Reich are somewhat austere, with little embellishment on the principal theme. These are works for small instrumental ensembles, of which the composers were often members. In Glass's case, these ensembles comprise organs, winds—particularly saxophones—and vocalists, while Reich's works have more emphasis on mallet and percussion instruments. Most of Adams's works are written for more traditional classical instrumentation, including full orchestra, string quartet, and solo piano. The music of Reich and Glass drew early sponsorship from art galleries and museums, presented in conjunction with visual-art minimalists like Robert Morris (in Glass's case), and Richard Serra, Bruce Nauman, and the filmmaker Michael Snow (as performers, in Reich's case).
The music of Moondog of the 1940s and '50s, which was based on counterpoint developing statically over steady pulses in often unusual time signatures, had a strong influence on many early minimalist composers. Philip Glass has written that he and Reich took Moondog's work "very seriously and understood and appreciated it much more than what we were exposed to at Juilliard". In 1960, Terry Riley wrote a string quartet in pure, uninflected C major. In 1963, Riley made two electronic works using tape delay, Mescalin Mix and The Gift, which injected the idea of repetition into minimalism. In 1964, Riley's In C made persuasively engaging textures from layered performance of repeated melodic phrases. The work is scored for any group of instruments. In 1965 and 1966 Steve Reich produced three works—It's Gonna Rain and Come Out for tape, and Piano Phase for live performers—that introduced the idea of phase shifting, or allowing two identical phrases or sound samples played at slightly differing speeds to repeat and slowly go out of phase with each other. Starting in 1968 with 1 + 1, Philip Glass wrote a series of works that incorporated additive process (form based on sequences such as 1, 1 2, 1 2 3, 1 2 3 4) into the repertoire of minimalist techniques; these works included Two Pages, Music in Fifths, Music in Contrary Motion, and others. By this point, development of a minimalist style was in full swing.
Minimalism in pop music
Minimal music has also had some influence on developments in popular music. The Psychedelic rock act The Velvet Underground had a connection with the New York down-town scene from which minimal music emerged, rooted in the close working relationship of John Cale and La Monte Young, the latter influencing Cale's work with the band.
During the 1970s progressive rock, experimental rock, art rock, krautrock and avant-prog genres demonstrated the influence of experimental music, including minimalism, for example acts such as Soft Machine, King Crimson, Brian Eno, Robert Fripp and Mike Oldfield. In the 1980s and 1990s, artists working in alternative rock, shoegazing, post rock, and other genres, including the bands Spacemen 3, Experimental Audio Research, and Explosions in the Sky, continued in a similar vein.  Following the minimal electronic music of Brian Eno and the krautrock band Tangerine Dream, 1990s electronic dance music was influenced by changes in technology that lead to the use of production methods based on repetition,
Minimal music especially the genres of trance, minimal techno and ambient. Well-known artists include The Orb, Orbital, Underworld and Aphex Twin. Sherburne (2006) suggests that the noted similarities between minimal forms of dance music and American minimalism could easily be accidental. Much of the music technology used in EDM has traditionally been designed to suit loop based compositional methods, which may explain why certain stylistic features of minimal techno and other forms of electronic dance music sound similar to minimal art music. One group who clearly did have an awareness of the American minimal tradition is the British Ambient act The Orb. Their 1990 production Little Fluffy Clouds features a sample from Steve Reich's work Electric Counterpoint (1987). Further acknowledgement of Steve Reich's possible influence on EDM came with the release in 1999 of the Reich Remixed tribute album which featured reinterpretations by artists such as DJ Spooky, Mantronik, Ken Ishii, and Coldcut, among others. 
Minimalist style in music
Leonard Meyer described minimal music in 1994: Because there is little sense of goal-directed motion, [minimal] music does not seem to move from one place to another. Within any musical segment there may be some sense of direction, but frequently the segments fail to lead to or imply one another. They simply follow one another. David Cope (1997) lists the following qualities as possible characteristics of minimal music: • • • • • Silence Concept music Brevity Continuities: requiring slow modulation of one or more parameters [implying length] Phase and pattern music, including repetition [implying length]
Consonant harmony is a much noted feature: it means the use of intervals which in a tonal context would be considered to be "stable", that is the form to which other chords are resolved by voice leading. The "texture" of much minimalist music is based on canonic imitation, exact repetitions of the same material, offset in time. Famous pieces that use this technique are the number section of Glass' Einstein on the Beach and Adams' Shaker Loops. These traits have precedents in the history of European music—Richard Wagner, for instance, opened his opera Das Rheingold with several minutes of static tonality on an E-flat chord, with a linear crescendo of figurations.
Critical reception of minimalism
Ian MacDonald claimed that minimalism is the "passionless, sexless and emotionally blank soundtrack of the Machine Age, its utopian selfishness no more than an expression of human passivity in the face of mass-production and The Bomb". On the other hand, Kyle Gann, himself a minimalist composer, has argued that minimalism represented a predictable return to simplicity after the development of an earlier style had run its course to an extreme and unsurpassable complexity. Parallels include the advent of the simple Baroque continuo style following elaborate Renaissance polyphony and the simple early classical symphony following Bach's monumental advances in Baroque counterpoint. In addition, critics have often overstated the simplicity of even early minimalism. Michael Nyman has pointed out that much of the charm of Steve Reich's early music had to do with perceptual phenomena that were not actually played, but resulted from subtleties in the phase-shifting process. In other words the music often does not sound as simple as it looks. In Gann's further analysis, during the 1980s minimalism evolved into less strict, more complex styles such as postminimalism and totalism, breaking out of the strongly framed repetition and stasis of early minimalism, and enriching it with a confluence of other rhythmic and structural influences.
Notable minimalist composers include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • John Adams (born in the US) Louis Andriessen (born in the Netherlands) David Behrman (born in Austria) Barbara Benary (born in the US) David Borden (born in the US; and his ensemble Mother Mallard's Portable Masterpiece Company) Gavin Bryars (born in the UK) Joseph Byrd (born in the US) Tony Conrad (born in the US) Julius Eastman (born and died in the US) Ludovico Einaudi (born in Italy) Brian Eno (born in the UK) Frans Geysen (born in Belgium) Jon Gibson (born in the US) Philip Glass (born in the US) John Godfrey (composer) (born in the UK) Karel Goeyvaerts (born and died in Belgium) Henryk Górecki (born in Poland) Michael Harrison (born in the US) Christopher Hobbs (born in the UK) Terry Jennings (born and died in the US) Scott Johnson (born in the US) Douglas Leedy (born in the US) Angus MacLise (born in the US, died in Kathmandu) Richard Maxfield (born and died in the US) Robert Moran (born in the US) Phill Niblock (born in the US) Michael Nyman (born in the UK) Mike Oldfield (born in the UK) Pauline Oliveros (born in the US) Charlemagne Palestine (born in the US) Rabinovitch-Barakovsky (born in Russia) Steve Reich (born in the US) Terry Riley (born in the US) Arthur Russell (born in the US) Howard Skempton (born in the UK) Dave Smith (born in the UK) Ann Southam (born in Canada) Yoshi Wada (born in Japan) John White (born in the UK) La Monte Young (born in the US)
Other more current minimalists include: • Australia • Andrew Chubb • Robert Davidson • Nigel Westlake • Belgium • Wim Mertens • Canada • Peter Hannan • Kyle Bobby Dunn (based in the United States) • Estonia • Arvo Pärt • Finland • Petri Kuljuntausta • Erkki Salmenhaara • France • Yann Tiersen • Germany • Peter Michael Hamel • Hauke Harder • Hans Otte • Ernstalbrecht Stiebler • Walter Zimmermann • Hungary • Zoltán Jeney • László Melis • László Sáry • László Vidovszky • Italy • Fulvio Caldini • Roberto Carnevale • Giovanni Sollima • Japan • Jo Kondo • Yoshi Wada (based in the United States) • Yasunori Mitsuda (freelance game music composer, most noted for his works in the Chrono series) • Latvia • Armands Strazds • Netherlands • Simeon ten Holt • Poland • Henryk Górecki • Zygmunt Krauze
Minimal music • Tomasz Sikorski • Russia • Vladimir Martynov • Anton Batagov • Serbia • Vladimir Tošić • United Kingdom • Joe Cutler • Graham Fitkin • Orlando Gough • Steve Martland • Andrew Poppy • United States • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • John Adams John Luther Adams Glenn Branca Harold Budd Lawrence Chandler Richard Chartier Rhys Chatham (based in France) Philip Corner (based in Italy) Kurt Doles Arnold Dreyblatt (based in Germany) Daniel Goode Rafael Anton Irisarri Tom Johnson (based in France) Ingram Marshall Meredith Monk Tim Risher Frederic Rzewski Wayne Siegel (based in Denmark) Stars of the Lid (Adam Wiltzie & Brian McBride)
A number of composers showing a distinctly religious influence have been labelled the "mystic minimalists", or "holy minimalists": • • • • • • • Henryk Górecki Alan Hovhaness (the earliest mystic minimalist) Giya Kancheli Hans Otte Arvo Pärt John Tavener Pēteris Vasks
Other composers whose works have been described as precedents to minimalism include: • Jakob van Domselaer, whose early-20th century experiments in translating the theories of Piet Mondrian's De Stijl movement into music represent an early precedent to minimalist music. • Alexander Mosolov, whose orchestral composition Iron Foundry (1923) is made up of mechanical and repetitive patterns • George Antheil, whose 1924 Ballet Mecanique is characterized by much use of motoric and repetitive patterns, as well as an instrumentation made up of multiple player pianos and mallet percussion • Erik Satie, seen as a precursor of minimalism as in much of his music, for example his score for Francis Picabia's 1924 film Entr'acte which consists of phrases, many borrowed from bawdy popular songs, ordered seemingly arbitrarily and repetitiously, providing a rhythmic counterpoint to the film. • Colin McPhee, whose Tabuh-Tabuhan for two pianos and orchestra (1936) features the use of motoric, repetitive, pentatonic patterns drawn from the music of Bali (and featuring a large section of tuned percussion) • Carl Orff, who, particularly in his later theater works Antigone (1940–49) and Oedipus der Tyrann (1957–58), utilized instrumentations (six pianos and multiple xylophones, in imitation of gamelan music) and musical patterns (motoric, repetitive, triadic) reminiscent of the later music of Steve Reich and Philip Glass • Yves Klein, whose 1949 Monotone Symphony (formally The Monotone-Silence Symphony, conceived 1947–1948) is an orchestral 40-minute piece whose first movement is an unvarying 20-minute drone and the second and last movement a 20-minute silence,  predating by several years both the drone music works of La Monte Young and the "silent" 4'33" of John Cage. • Morton Feldman, whose works prominently feature some sort of repetition as well as a sparseness • Alvin Lucier, whose acoustical experiments demand a stripped-down musical surface to bring out details in the phenomena • Anton Webern, whose economy of materials and sparse textures led many of the minimalists who were educated in serialism to turn to a reduction of means.
 Young, La Monte, "Notes on The Theatre of Eternal Music and The Tortoise, His Dreams and Journeys" (http:/ / www. google. com/ search?q=cache:www. melafoundation. org/ theatre. pdf) (original PDF file (http:/ / www. melafoundation. org/ theatre. pdf)), 2000, Mela Foundation, www.melafoundation.org — Historical account and musical essay where Young explains why he considers himself the originator of the style vs. Tony Conrad and John Cale.  Mertens, W. (1983), American Minimal Music, Kahn & Averill, London, (p.11).  Michael Nyman, writing in the preface of Mertens' book refers to the style as "so called minimal music"(ibid p.8).  "The term 'minimal music' is generally used to describe a style of music that developed in America in the late 1960s and 1970s; and that was initially connected with the composers La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, and Philip Glass." Sitsky, L. (2002), Music of the twentieth-century avant-garde: a biocritical sourcebook,Greenwood Press, Westport, CT. (p.361)  Kostelanetz and Flemming 1997, 114–16.  Kostelanetz and Flemming 1997, 114.  Bernard 1993, 87 and 126.  Warburton 1988, 141.  Nyman 1968, 519.  Johnson 1989, 5.  Rose 1965, 58, 65, 69.  Potter 2001; Schönberger 2001.  Bernard 1993, 87 and 126.  Glass, P. (2008) Preface. In: Scotto, R. (2008). Moondog: The Viking of 6th Avenue. New York: Process  Unterberger, Richie (1942-03-09). "John Cale" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ p3818/ biography). AllMusic. . Retrieved 2010-11-08.  "Explore: Experimental Rock" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ explore/ style/ d4437). AllMusic. . Retrieved 2010-11-08.  "Dreamweapon An Evening of Contemporary Sitar Music by Spacemen 3 @ ARTISTdirect.com - Shop, Listen, Download" (http:/ / www. artistdirect. com/ nad/ store/ artist/ album/ 0,,271068,00. html). Artistdirect.com. 1988-08-19. . Retrieved 2010-11-08.  http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ p182845/ biography
 Post-Rock. "Explore: Post-Rock" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ explore/ style/ d2682). AllMusic. . Retrieved 2010-11-08.  Sherburne, Philip. "Digital Discipline: Minimalism in House and Techno," in Audio Culture, New York: Continuum, 2006, (p.322).  Emmerson, S. (2007), Music, Electronic Media, and Culture, Ashgate, Adlershot, (p.68).  Reich Remixed: (http:/ / www. discogs. com/ release/ 27570) album track listing at www.discogs.com  Meyer 1994, 326.  MacDonald 2003, .  Gann 1997, 184–85  Nyman 1974, 133–4  Gann 2001 (http:/ / www. newmusicbox. org/ article. nmbx?id=1536).  Perlein and Corà 2000, 226 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=baJPAAAAMAAJ& q="This+ symphony,+ 40+ minutes+ in+ length+ (in+ fact+ 20+ minutes+ followed+ by+ 20+ minutes+ of+ silence)"& pgis=1#search_anchor): "This symphony, 40 minutes in length (in fact 20 minutes followed by 20 minutes of silence) is constituted of a single 'sound' stretched out, deprived of its attack and end which creates a sensation of vertigo, whirling the sensibility outside time."  See also at YvesKleinArchives.org a 1998 sound excerpt of The Monotone Symphony (http:/ / www. yveskleinarchives. org/ works/ works14_us. html) (Flash plugin required), its short description (http:/ / www. yveskleinarchives. org/ works/ works14_texte_en. html), and Klein's "Chelsea Hotel Manifesto" (http:/ / www. yveskleinarchives. org/ documents/ chelsea_content_us. html) (including a summary of the 2-part Symphony).
• Bernard, Jonathan W. 1993. "The Minimalist Aesthetic in the Plastic Arts and in Music". Perspectives of New Music 31, no. 1 (Winter): 86–132. • Bernard, Jonathan W. 2003. "Minimalism, Postminimalism, and the Resurgence of Tonality in Recent American Music". American Music 21, no. 1 (Spring): 112–33. • Cope, David. 1997. Techniques of the Contemporary Composer. New York, New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-02-864737-8. • Fink, Robert. 2005. Repeating Ourselves: American Minimal Music as Cultural Practice. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24036-7 (cloth). ISBN 0-520-24550-4 (pbk). • Gann, Kyle. 1997. American Music in the Twentieth Century. Schirmer. ISBN 0-02-864655-X. • Gann, Kyle. 1987. "Let X = X: Minimalism vs. Serialism." Village Voice (24 February): 76. • Gann, Kyle. 2001. " Minimal Music, Maximal Impact: Minimalism's Immediate Legacy: Postminimalism (http:// www.newmusicbox.org/article.nmbx?id=1536)". New Music Box: The Web Magazine from the American Music Center (November 1). • Gann, Kyle. 2006. Music Downtown: Writings from the Village Voice. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22982-7. • Garland, Peter, and La Monte Young. 2001. "Jennings, Terry". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan. • Gotte, Ulli. 2000. Minimal Music: Geschichte, Asthetik, Umfeld. Taschenbucher zur Musikwissenschaft, 138. Wilhelmshaven: Noetzel. ISBN 3-7959-0777-2. • Johnson, Timothy A. 1994. "Minimalism: Aesthetic, Style, or Technique? " Musical Quarterly 78, no. 4 (Winter): 742–73. • Johnson, Tom. 1989. The Voice of New Music: New York City 1972-1982 – A Collection of Articles Originally Published by the Village Voice. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Het Apollohuis. ISBN 90-71638-09-X. • Kostelanetz, Richard, and R. Flemming. 1997. Writings on Glass: Essays, Interviews, Criticism. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press; New York: Schirmer Books. • Linke, Ulrich. 1997. Minimal Music: Dimensionen eines Begriffs. Folkwang-Texte Bd. 13. Essen: Die blaue Eule. ISBN 3-89206-811-9. • Lovisa, Fabian R. 1996. Minimal-music: Entwicklung, Komponisten, Werke. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. • MacDonald, Ian. 2003. "The People's Music". London: Pimlico Publishing. ISBN 1-84413-093-2.
Minimal music • Mertens, Wim. 1983. American Minimal Music: La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass. Translated by J. Hautekiet; preface by Michael Nyman. London: Kahn & Averill; New York: Alexander Broude. ISBN 0-900707-76-3 • Meyer, Leonard B. 1994. Music, the Arts, and Ideas: Patterns and Predictions in Twentieth-Century Culture, second edition. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-52143-5 • Nyman, Michael. 1968. "Minimal Music". The Spectator 221, no. 7320 (11 October): 518–19. • Nyman, Michael. 1974. Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond. London: Studio Vista ISBN 0-289-70182-1; reprinted 1999,Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65383-5. • Perlein, Gilbert, and Bruno Corà (eds). 2000. Yves Klein: Long Live the Immaterial! Catalog of an exhibition held at the Musée d'art moderne et d'art contemporain, Nice, April 28 – September 4, 2000, and the Museo Pecci, Prato, September 23, 2000 – January 10, 2001. New York: Delano Greenidge Editions, 2000, ISBN 978-0-929445-08-3. • Potter, Keith. 2000. Four Musical Minimalists: La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass. Music in the Twentieth Century series. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-48250-X. • Potter, Keith. 2001. "Minimalism". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers; New York: Grove's Dictionaries of Music. • Rose, Barbara. 1965. "ABC Art". Art in America 53, no. 5 (October–November): 57–69. • Schönberger, Elmer. 2001. "Andriessen: (4) Louis Andriessen". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers; New York: Grove's Dictionaries of Music. • Schwarz, K. Robert. 1996. Minimalists. 20th Century Composers Series. London: Phaidon. ISBN 0-7148-3381-9. • Strickland, Edward. 1993. Minimalism: Origins. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-35499-4 (cloth); ISBN 0-253-21388-6 (pbk, corrected and somewhat revised printing, 2000). Chapter T, pp. 241–56, reprinted as Strickland 1997. • Strickland, Edward. 1997. "Minimalism: T (1992)". In Writings on Glass: Essays, Interviews, Criticism, edited by Richard Kostelanetz and Robert Flemming, 113–130. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press; New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0520214919. Reprint of a chapter from Strickland 1993. • Sweeney-Turner, Steve. 1995. "Weariness and Slackening in the Miserably Proliferating Field of Posts." Musical Times 136, no. 1833 (November): 599–601. • Warburton, Dan. 1988. "A Working Terminology for Minimal Music." Intégral 2: 135–59.
• Art of the States: minimalist (http://artofthestates.org/cgi-bin/genresearch.pl?genre=minimalist) minimalist works by American composers, including audio samples. • Art and Music Since 1945: Introduction to Minimal Music (http://arted.osu.edu/160/11_MinimalMusic.php), from Ohio State University's Department of Art Education. • Minimal Music, Maximal Impact (http://www.newmusicbox.org/page.nmbx?id=31tp00), by Kyle Gann, with a more comprehensive list of early minimalists.
Stylistic origins Cultural origins Typical instruments Rock, blues rock, folk rock, jazz, rāga, garage rock Mid 1960s, United Kingdom and United States Bass guitar, drums, electric guitar, electronic organ, Mellotron, percussion instruments, sitar
Mainstream popularity Late 1960s-early 1970s, revivals as neo-psychedelia 2000s on Derivative forms Hard rock, heavy metal, jam bands, krautrock, new age, progressive rock, stoner rock, neo-psychedelia Subgenres Acid rock, raga rock, space rock Fusion genres Psychedelic pop, psychedelic soul Other topics Freak scene, hippies, psychedelic music, UK underground
Psychedelic rock is a style of rock music that is inspired or influenced by psychedelic culture and attempts to replicate and enhance the mind-altering experiences of psychedelic drugs. It emerged during the mid 1960s among folk rock and blues rock bands in United States and the United Kingdom. It often used new recording techniques and effects and drew on non-Western sources such the ragas and drones of Indian music. Psychedelic rock bridged the transition from early blues- and folk music-based rock to progressive rock, glam rock, hard rock and as a result influenced the development of sub-genres such as heavy metal. Since the late 1970s it has been revived in various forms of neo-psychedelia.
As a musical style psychedelic rock often contains some of the following features: • • • • • • • • electric guitars, often used with feedback, wah wah and fuzzboxes; elaborate studio effects, such as backwards tapes, panning, phasing, long delay loops, and extreme reverb; exotic instrumentation, with a particular fondness for the sitar and tabla; a strong keyboard presence, especially organs, harpsichords, or the Mellotron (an early tape-driven 'sampler'); extended instrumental solos or jams; complex song structures, key and time signature changes, modal melodies and drones; primitive electronic instruments such as synthesizers and the theremin;  surreal, whimsical, esoterically or literary-inspired, lyrics; 
In the 1960s, in the tradition of jazz and blues, many folk and rock musicians began to take drugs and included drug references in their songs. Beat Generation writers like William Burroughs, Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg and especially the new proponents of consciousness expansion such as Timothy Leary, Alan Watts, Aldous Huxley and Arthur Koestler  , profoundly influenced the thinking of the new generation, helping to popularise the use of LSD. Psychedelic music's LSD-inspired vibe began in the folk scene, with the New York-based Holy Modal Rounders using the term in their 1964 recording of "Hesitation Blues". The first group to advertise themselves as psychedelic rock were the 13th Floor Elevators from Texas, at the end of 1965. The term was first used in print in the Austin American Statesman in an article about the band titled "Unique Elevators shine with psychedelic rock", dated 10 February 1966, and theirs was the first album to use the term as part of its title, in The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators, released in August that year. After being introduced to cannabis by Bob Dylan, members of The Beatles began experimenting with LSD from 1965 and the group introduced many of the major elements of the psychedelic sound to audiences in this period, with "I Feel Fine" (1964) using guitar feedback; "Norwegian Wood" from their 1965 Rubber Soul album using a sitar, and the employment of backwards spooling on their 1966 single B-side "Rain". Drug references began to appear in their songs from "Day Tripper" (1965) and more explicitly from "Tomorrow Never Knows" (1966) from their album Revolver. The Byrds, emerging from the Californian folk scene, and the Yardbirds from the British blues scene, have been seen as particularly influential on the development of the genre. The psychedelic life style had already developed in California, particularly in San Francisco, by the mid-60s, where there was also an emerging music scene.  This moved out of acoustic folk-based music towards rock soon after The Byrds "plugged in" to produce a chart topping version of Bob Dylan's "Tambourine Man" in 1965. As a number of Californian-based folk acts followed them into folk-rock they brought their psychedelic influences with them to produce the "San Francisco Sound".  Particularly prominent products of the scene were The Grateful Dead, Country Joe and the Fish, The Great Society, Big Brother and the Holding Company, The Charlatans, Moby Grape, Quicksilver Messenger Service and Jefferson Airplane. The Byrds rapidly progressed from purely folk rock in 1966 with their single "Eight Miles High", which made use of free jazz and Indian ragas and the lyrics of which were widely taken to refer to drug use. In Britain The Yardbirds, with Jeff Beck as their guitarist, increasingly moved into psychedelic territory, adding up-tempo improvised "rave ups", Gregorian chant and world music in particular Indian influences to songs including "Still I'm Sad" (1965) and "Over Under Sideways Down" (1966) and singles: "Heart Full of Soul" (1965), "Shapes of Things" (1966) and "Happenings Ten Years Time Ago" (1966).   They were soon followed into this territory by bands such as Procol Harum, The Moody Blues and The Nice.
Allen Ginsberg and Bob Dylan in 1975
Development in the USA
The San Francisco music scene continued to develop as the Fillmore, the Avalon Ballroom, and The Matrix began booking local rock bands on a nightly basis. The first Trips Festival, held at the Longshoremen's Hall in January 1966, saw The Grateful Dead and Big Brother and the Holding Company play to an audience of 10,000, giving many their first encounter with both acid rock, with its long instrumentals and unstructured jams, and LSD. Also from San Francisco, Blue Cheer played psychedelic-influenced rock in a blues-rock style.   Although San Francisco was the centre of American psychedelic music scene, many other American cities contributed significantly to the new genre. Los Angeles boasted dozens of important psychedelic bands, Typical psychedelic style poster. Iron Butterfly at besides The Byrds, these included Iron Butterfly, Love, Spirit, Captain the Carousel Ballroom. Beefheart and his Magic Band, The United States of America, The West Coast Pop Art Experimental Band, and the Electric Prunes; perhaps the most commercially successful were The Doors. The Beach Boys concept album Pet Sounds helped herald the psychedelia movement in America, with its artful experiments, psychedelic lyrics based on emotional longings and self-doubts, elaborate sound effects and new sounds on both conventional and unconventional instruments.   New York City produced its share of psychedelic bands, such as folk pioneers The Fugs, The Godz, and Pearls Before Swine, besides the Blues Magoos, the Blues Project, Lothar and the Hand People and the blues influenced Vanilla Fudge. The Detroit area gave rise to psychedelic bands the Amboy Dukes, and the SRC, and Chicago produced H. P. Lovecraft. Texas (particularly Austin) is often cited for its contributions to psychedelic music: besides the 13th Floor Elevators it produced acts including Bubble Puppy, Lost and Found, The Golden Dawn, The Zakary Thaks, and Red Crayola. Frank Zappa and his group The Mothers of Invention began to incorporate psychedelic influences in their first two albums Freak Out! and Absolutely Free.
Development in the UK
In the UK before 1967 media outlets for psychedelic culture were limited to stations like Radio Luxembourg and pirate radio like Radio London, particularly the programmes hosted by DJ John Peel. The growth of underground culture was facilitated by the emergence of alternative weekly publications like IT (International Times) and OZ magazine which featured psychedelic and progressive music together with the counter culture lifestyle, which involved long hair, and the wearing of wild shirts from shops like Mr Fish, Granny Takes a Trip Cream, one of the psychedelic influenced bands and old military uniforms from Carnaby Street (Soho) and Kings Road of the British blues movement, c. 1966 (Chelsea) boutiques, Britain's hippies comported themselves in stark contrast to the slick, tailored Teddyboys or the drab, conventional dress of most teenagers prior to that. Soon psychedelic rock clubs like the UFO Club in Tottenham Court Road, Middle Earth Club in Covent Garden, The Roundhouse in Chalk Farm, the Country Club (Swiss Cottage) and the Art Lab (also in Covent Garden) were drawing capacity audiences with psychedelic rock and ground-breaking liquid light shows. British psychedelic rock, like its American counterpart, had roots in the folk scene. Blues, drugs, jazz and eastern influences had featured since 1964 in the work of Davy Graham and Bert Jansch. However, the largest strand was a series of bands that emerged from 1966 from the British blues scene, but influenced by folk, jazz and psychedelia,
Psychedelic rock including Pink Floyd, Traffic, Soft Machine, Cream, and The Jimi Hendrix Experience (led by an American, but initially produced and managed in Britain by Chas Chandler of The Animals). The Crazy World of Arthur Brown added surreal theatrical touches to its dark psychedelic sounds, such as the singer's flaming headdress. Existing British Invasion acts now joined the psychedelic revolution, including Eric Burdon (previously of The Animals), and The Small Faces and The Who whose The Who Sell Out (1967) included psychedelic influenced tracks "I Can See for Miles" and "Armenia City in the Sky". The Rolling Stones had drug references and psychedelic hints in their 1966 singles "19th Nervous Breakdown" and "Paint It, Black", the latter featuring drones and sitar.
Psychedelic rock reached its apogee in the last years of the decade. 1967 saw the Beatles release the double A-side "Strawberry Fields Forever" and "Penny Lane", opening a strain of British "pastoral" or "nostalgic" psychedelia, followed by the release of what is often seen as their definitive psychedelic statement in Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, including the controversial track "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds". They continued the psychedelic theme later in the year with the double EP Magical Mystery Tour and the number one single "Hello, Goodbye" with The Redmond Stage at the Woodstock Festival in 1969 its B-side "I Am The Walrus". Also enigmatic and surreal was one of the most influential records of 1967, "A Whiter Shade of Pale" by Procol Harum, which reached number one in the UK Singles Chart on 8 June 1967, and stayed there for six weeks. The Rolling Stones responded to Sgt Pepper later in the year with Their Satanic Majesties Request, and Pink Floyd produced what is usually seen as their best psychedelic work The Piper at the Gates of Dawn.  In 1967 the Incredible String Band's The 5000 Spirits or the Layers of the Onion developed their folk music into full blown psychedelia. From 1967 Fairport Convention became a mainstay of the London Underground scene, producing their eponymous first album of American-inspired folk rock the following year. In America the Summer of Love of 1967 saw huge number of young people from across American and the world travel to the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco, boosting the population from 15,000 to around 100,000. It was prefaced by the Human Be-In event in March and reached its peak at the Monterey Pop Festival in June, the latter helping to make major American stars of Janis Joplin, lead singer of Big Brother and the Holding Company, Jimi Hendrix and The Who. Key recordings included Jefferson Airplane's Surrealistic Pillow, the first album to come out of San Francisco during this era, which sold well enough to bring the city's music scene to the attention of the record industry: from it they took two of the earliest psychedelic hit singles: "White Rabbit" (1967) and "Somebody to Love" (1967). The Doors' first hit single "Light My Fire" (1967), clocking in at over 7 minutes, became one of the defining records of the genre, although their follow up album Strange Days only enjoyed moderate success. These trends climaxed in the 1969 Woodstock festival, which saw performances by most of the major psychedelic acts, including Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, and Santana.
The US and UK were the major centres of psychedelic music, but in the late 1960s scenes began to develop across the world, including continental Europe, Australasia, Asia and south and central America. In the later 1960s psychedelic scenes developed in a large number of countries in continental Europe, including the Netherlands with bands like The Outsiders, Denmark where it was pioneered by Steppeulvene, and Germany, where musicians began to fuse music of psychedelia and the electronic avant-garde. 1968 saw the first major German rock festival in Essen, and the foundation of the Zodiak Free Arts Lab in Berlin by Hans-Joachim Roedelius, and Conrad Schnitzler, which helped bands like Tangerine Dream and Amon Düül achieve cult status.
The Bee Gees, one of the most commercial successful survivors of the psychedelic era, performing on Dutch television in 1968
The fledgling Australian and New Zealand rock scenes that formed in wake of Beatlemania were most influenced by British psychedelia, often with bands of first generation immigrants, who returned to further their musical careers. Among the most successful were The Easybeats, formed in Sydney but who recorded their international hit "Friday on My Mind" (1966) in London and remained there for their forays into psychedelic-tinged pop until they disbanded in 1970. A similar path was pursued by the Bee Gees, formed in Brisbane, but whose first album Bee Gees' 1st (1967), recorded in London, gave them three major hit singles and contained folk, rock and psychedelic elements, heavily influenced by the Beatles. The Twilights, formed in Adelaide, also made to trip to London, recording a series of minor hits, absorbing the psychedelic scene, to return home to produce covers of Beatles' songs, complete with sitar, and the concept album Once upon a Twilight (1968). The most successful New Zealand band, The La De Das, produced the psychedelic pop concept album The Happy Prince (1968), based on the Oscar Wilde children's classic, but failed to break through in Britain and the wider world. A thriving psychedelic music scene in Cambodia was pioneered by Sinn Sisamouth, Pan Ron and Ros Sereysothea. In Turkey Anatolian rock artist Erkin Koray, released his first psychedelic rock track "Anma Arkadaş" in 1967 and helped found a Turkish psychedelic scene. Latin American proved a particularly fertile ground for psychedelic rock. The Brazilian psychedelic rock group Os Mutantes formed in 1966, and although little known outside Brazil at the time, their recordings have since accrued a substantial international cult following. In the late 1960s, a wave of Mexican rock heavily influenced by psychedelia and funk emerged, especially in several northern border Mexican states, in particular, Tijuana, Baja California. Among the most recognized bands from this "Chicano Wave" (Onda Chicana in Spanish) were Three Souls in my Mind, Love Army and El Ritual. In Chile, from 1967 to 1973, between the ending of the government of President Frei Montalva and the government of President Allende, a cultural movement was born from a few Chilean bands that emerged playing a unique fusion of folkloric music with heavy psychedelic influences. The 1967 release of Los Mac's album Kaleidoscope Men (1967) inspired bands such as Los Jaivas and Los Blops, the latter going on to collaborate with the iconic Chilean singer-songwriter Victor Jara on his 1971 album El derecho de vivir en paz. Meanwhile in the Argentinian capital Buenos Aires, a burgeoning psychedelic scene gave birth to three of the most important bands in Argentine rock: Los Gatos, Manal and Almendra.
By the end of the decade psychedelic rock was in retreat. LSD had been made illegal in the US and UK in 1966. The murders of Sharon Tate and Leno and Rosemary LaBianca by Charles Manson and his "family" of followers, claiming to have been inspired by Beatles' songs such as "Helter Skelter", has been seen as contributing to an anti-hippie backlash. At the end of the year, the Altamont Free Concert in California, headlined by The Rolling Stones, became notorious for the fatal stabbing of black teenager Meredith Hunter by Hells Angel security guards. Brian Wilson of the Beach Boys (whose much anticipated Smile project would not emerge until 2004),  Brian Jones of the Rolling Stones, Peter Green of This 'gate fold' record sleeve features Fleetwood Mac and Syd Barrett of Pink Floyd were early "acid UV/stroboscopic photography. casualties", helping to shift the focus of the respective bands of which they had been leading figures. Some bands like the Jimi Hendrix Experience and Cream broke up. Jimi Hendrix died in London in September 1970, shortly after recording Band of Gypsies (1970), Janis Joplin died of a heroin overdose in October 1970 and they were closely followed by Jim Morrison of the Doors, who died in Paris in July 1971. Many surviving acts moved away from psychedelia into either more back-to-basics "roots rock", traditional-based, pastoral or whimsical folk, the wider experimentation of progressive rock, or riff-laden heavy rock. In 1966, even while psychedelic rock was becoming dominant, Bob Dylan spearheaded the back-to-basics roots revival when he went to Nashville to record the album Blonde on Blonde.  This, and the subsequent more clearly country-influenced albums, John Wesley Harding (1967) and Nashville Skyline (1969), have been seen as creating the genre of country folk. Dylan's lead was also followed by The Byrds, joined by Gram Parsons to record Sweetheart of the Rodeo (1968), helping to define the genre of country rock, which became a particularly popular style in the California music scene of the late 1960s, and was adopted by former folk rock artists including Hearts and Flowers, Poco and New Riders of the Purple Sage. Other acts that followed the back to basics trend in different ways were the Canadian group The Band and the Californian-based Creedence Clearwater Revival. The Grateful Dead also had major successes with the more reflective and stripped back Workingman's Dead and American Beauty in 1970. The super-group Crosby, Stills and Nash, formed in 1968 from members of The Byrds, Buffalo Springfield, and The Hollies, were joined by Neil Young for Deja Vu in 1970, which moved away from many of what had become the "clichés" of psychedelic rock and placed an emphasis on political commentary and vocal harmonies. After the death of Brian Epstein and the unpopular surreal television film, Magical Mystery Tour, the Beatles returned to a more raw style with The Beatles (1968), Abbey Road (1969) and Let It Be (1970), before their eventual break up. The back to basics trend was also evident in The Rolling Stones' albums starting from Beggar's Banquet (1968) to Exile on Main St. (1972). Fairport Convention released Liege and Lief in 1969, turning away from American-influenced folk rock toward a sound based on traditional British music and founding the sub-genre of electric folk, to be followed by bands like Steeleye Span and Fotheringay. The psychedelic-influenced and whimsical strand of British folk continued into the 1970s with acts including Comus, Mellow Candle, Nick Drake, The Incredible String Band, Forest and Trees and with Syd Barrett's two solo albums. 
Many of the British musicians and bands that had embraced psychedelia went on to create progressive rock in the 1970s, including Pink Floyd, Soft Machine and members of Yes. King Crimson's album In the Court of the Crimson King (1969) has been seen as an important link between psychedelia and progressive rock. While bands such as Hawkwind maintained an explicitly psychedelic course into the 1970s, most dropped the psychedelic elements in favour of wider experimentation. As they moved away from their psychedelic roots German kosmische musik band Can on stage in and placed increasing emphasis on electronic experimentation German Hamburg in 1972 bands like Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream, Can and Faust developed a distinctive brand of electronic rock, known as kosmische musik, or in the British press as "Kraut rock". The adoption of electronic synthesisers, pioneered by Popol Vuh from 1970, together with the work of figures like Brian Eno (for a time the keyboard player with Roxy Music), would be a major influence on subsequent synth rock. In Japan, Osamu Kitajima's 1974 psychadelic rock album Benzaiten utilized electronic equipment such as a synthesizer and drum machine, and one of the record's contributors was Haruomi Hosono, who later started the electronic music band Yellow Magic Orchestra (as "Yellow Magic Band") in 1977. Psychedelic rock, with its distorted guitar sound, extended solos and adventurous compositions, has been seen as an important bridge between blues-oriented rock and later heavy metal. Two former guitarists with the Yardbirds, Jeff Beck and Jimmy Page, moved on to form key acts in the genre, The Jeff Beck Group and Led Zeppelin respectively. Other major pioneers of the genre had begun as blues-based psychedelic bands, including Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, Judas Priest and UFO.  The incorporation of jazz into the music of bands like Soft Machine and Can also contributed to the development of the jazz rock of bands like Colosseum. Psychedelic music also contributed to the origins of glam rock, with Marc Bolan changing his psychedelic folk duo into rock band T. Rex and becoming the first glam rock star from 1970. From 1971 David Bowie moved on from his early psychedelic work to develop his Ziggy Stardust persona, incorporating elements of professional make up, mime and performance into his act.
Psychedelic rock began to be revived in the late 1970s/early 1980s by bands of the post-punk scene, including The Teardrop Explodes, Echo and the Bunnymen, The Church, and the Soft Boys. New wave band XTC published records under the pseudonym, The Dukes of Stratosphear. In the US in the early 1980s these bands were joined by the Paisley Underground movement, based in Los Angeles, with acts like Dream Syndicate, The Bangles and Rain Parade. There were occasional mainstream acts that dabbled in neo-psychedelia, including Prince's mid-'80s work and some of Lenny Kravitz's 1990s output, but it has mainly been an influence on alternative and indie-rock bands.
Tame Impala onstage at the V Festival in 2009
In the 1990s the Elephant 6 collective, including acts like The Apples in Stereo, The Olivia Tremor Control, Neutral Milk Hotel, Elf Power and Of Montreal, produced eclectic psychedelic rock and folk. Other alternative rock acts that delved into psychedelic territory included Nick Saloman's Bevis Frond, the space rock of Spacemen 3 and diverse acts like Mercury Rev, The Flaming Lips, The Brian Jonestown Massacre, Porno For Pyros and Super Furry
Psychedelic rock Animals. In the UK The Stone Roses debut single in 1988 set out a catchy neo-psychedelic guitar pop, helping to create the Madchester scene, and influencing the early sound of 1990s Britpop bands like Blur, and Oasis who drew on 1960s psychedelic pop and rock, particularly on the album Standing on the Shoulder of Giants. In the immediate post-Britpop era Kula Shaker incorporated swirling, guitar-heavy sounds of late-'60s psychedelia and with Indian mysticism and spirituality. In the new millennium neo-psychedelia was continued by bands directly emulating the sounds of the 60s like Tame Impala, MGMT and The Essex Green.
 P. Prown, H. P. Newquist and J. F. Eiche, Legends of Rock Guitar: the Essential Reference of Rock's Greatest Guitarists (London: Hal Leonard Corporation, 1997), ISBN 0-7935-4042-9, p. 48.  S. Borthwick and R. Moy, Popular Music Genres: an Introduction (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004), ISBN 0-7486-1745-0, pp. 52-4.  R. Rubin and J. P. Melnick, Immigration and American Popular Culture: an Introduction (New York, NY: New York University Press, 2007), ISBN 0-8147-7552-7, pp. 162-4.  D. W. Marshall, Mass Market Medieval: Essays on the Middle Ages in Popular Culture (Jefferson NC: McFarland, 2007), ISBN 0-7864-2922-4, p. 32.  M. Hicks, Sixties Rock: Garage, Psychedelic, and Other Satisfactions Music in American Life (Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2000), ISBN 0-252-06915-3, pp. 64-6.  J. DeRogatis, Turn On Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock (Milwaukie, Michigan: Hal Leonard, 2003), ISBN 0634055488, p.230.  Richie Unterberger, Samb Hicks, Jennifer Dempsey, "Music USA: the rough guide", (Rough Guides, 1999), ISBN 185828421X, p. 391.  G. Thompson, Please Please Me: Sixties British Pop, Inside Out (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), ISBN 0-19-533318-7, p. 197.  V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 1322-3.  J. Shepherd, Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World: Media, Industry and Society (London: Continuum, 2003), ISBN 0-8264-6321-5, p. 211.  J. Campbell, This is the Beat Generation: New York, San Francisco, Paris (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2001), ISBN 0-520-23033-7.  Did The Death Of Communism Take Koestler And Other Literary Figures With It? (http:/ / www. huffingtonpost. com/ 2010/ 01/ 26/ did-the-death-of-communis_n_435939. html) by Anne Applebaum, The Huffington Post, 26 January 2010  "Out-Of-Sight! SMiLE Timeline" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20100201234435/ http:/ / pages. cthome. net/ tobelman/ The_Out-Of-Sight_SMiLE_Site. html). Archived from on 2008-03-11. . Retrieved 30-10-11.  L. R. Veysey, The Communal Experience: Anarchist and Mystical Communities in Twentieth-Century America (Chicago IL, University of Chicago Press, 1978), ISBN 0-226-85458-2, p. 437.  "Though Lennon had yet to launch himself into his fullscale LSD period, he evidently felt sufficiently versed in the "counterculture" associated with the drug to poke fun at those who took it without changing their outlook. The lyric of Day Tripper, he later explained, was an attack on "weekend hippies" - those who donned floral shirts and headbands to listen to "acid rock" between 9-to-5 office-jobs", in I. MacDonald, Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties (London: Vintage, 3rd edn., 2008), ISBN 978-0-09-952679-7, pp. 167-8.  R. Unterberger, Eight Miles High: Folk-Rock's Flight from Haight-Ashbury to Woodstock (London: Backbeat Books, 2003), ISBN 0-87930-743-9, p. 11.  Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 41 - The Acid Test: Psychedelics and a sub-culture emerge in San Francisco. [Part 1] : UNT Digital Library" (http:/ / digital. library. unt. edu/ ark:/ 67531/ metadc19800/ m1/ ) (audio). Pop Chronicles. Digital.library.unt.edu. . Retrieved 2011-05-06.  R. Unterberger, Eight Miles High: Folk-Rock's Flight from Haight-Ashbury to Woodstock (London: Backbeat Books, 2003), ISBN 0-87930-743-9, p. 1.  Peter Lavezzoli, The dawn of Indian music in the West: Bhairavi, (Continuum International Publishing Group, 2006), ISBN 0826418155, p154  P. Buckley, The Rough Guide to Rock (London: Rough Guides, 3rd edn., 2003), ISBN 1-84353-105-4, p. 1144.  "British Psychedelia" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ explore/ essay/ british-psychedelic-t684). Allmusic. . Retrieved 2011-06-07.  E. Macan, Rocking the Classics: English Progressive Rock and the Counterculture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), ISBN 0-19-509888-9, p. 20.  B. Jackson, Garcia: An American Life (London: Penguin, 2nd edn., 2000), ISBN 0-14-029199-7, pp. 94-5.  Phil Alexander. "Blue Cheer - Disc of the day - Mojo" (http:/ / www. mojo4music. com/ blog/ 2009/ 03/ blue_cheer. html). Mojo4music.com. . Retrieved 2010-10-21.  "Rolling Stone Music | Top Artists, News, Reviews, Photos and Videos" (http:/ / www. rollingstone. com/ artists/ bluecheer/ biography). Rollingstone.com. . Retrieved 2010-10-21.  "Psychedelic rock" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ explore/ essay/ psychedelic-rock-t576). Allmusic. . Retrieved 2011-06-07.
 P. Buckley, The Rough Guide to Rock (London: Rough Guides, 3rd edn., 2003), ISBN 1-84353-105-4, p. 65.  J. E. Perone, Music of the Counterculture Era (London: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004), ISBN 0-313-32689-4, p. 120.  J. DeRogatis, Turn On Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock (Milwaukie, Michigan: Hal Leonard, 2003), ISBN 0634055488.p.35-40  "Pet Sounds, Revolver and The Piper at the Gates of Dawn, relics of the first era of psychedelic rock and shining testaments to what can be accomplished in the recording studio when folks are fueled on the potent drug of rampant imagination" J. DeRogatis, "Milk it!: collected musings on the alternative music explosion of the 90s", ISBN 0306812711.p.352  "British Psychedelic" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ explore/ essay/ british-psychedelic-t684). Allmusic. . Retrieved 2011-06-07.  J. S. Harrington, Sonic Cool: the Life & Death of Rock 'n' Roll (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corporation, 2002), ISBN 0-634-02861-8, pp. 171-3.  A. M. Ashby, The Pleasure of Modernist Music: Listening, Meaning, Intention, Ideology (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2004), ISBN 1-58046-143-3, p. 228.  Vanilla Fudge (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ p5744) at Allmusic  D. A. Carson, Grit, Noise, and Revolution: The Birth of Detroit Rock 'n' Roll (University of Michigan Press, 2006), ISBN 0-472-03190-2, pp. 5 and 173.  P. Auslander, Performing Glam Rock: Gender and Theatricality in Popular Music (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2006), ISBN 0-472-06868-7, p. 76.  J. DeRogatis, Turn On Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock (Milwaukie, MI: Hal Leonard, 2003), ISBN 0-634-05548-8, p. 71.  Ulrich Adelt, The University of Iowa. American Studies Black, white and blue: Racial politics of blues music in the 1960s, (ProQuest, 2007), ISBN054934196X, p. 69.  Pirate Radio (http:/ / www. ministryofrock. co. uk/ PirateRadio. html), Ministry of Rock.co.uk, retrieved 9 February 2010.  P. Gorman, The Look: Adventures in Pop & Rock Fashion (Sanctuary, 2001), ISBN 1-86074-302-1.  C. Grunenberg and J. Harris, Summer of Love: Psychedelic Art, Social Crisis and Counterculture in the 1960s (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2005), ISBN 0-85323-919-3, pp. 83-4.  C. Grunenberg and J. Harris, Summer of Love: Psychedelic Art, Social Crisis and Counterculture in the 1960s (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2005), ISBN 0-85323-919-3, p. 137.  "The Crazy World of Arthur Brown" (http:/ / psychedelicsight. com/ crazy-world-of-arthur-brown/ ), Psychedelic Sight, retrieved 9 February 2010.  V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 29, 1027 and 1220.  I. MacDonald, Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties (London: Vintage, 3rd edn., 2008), ISBN 978-0-09-952679-7, p. 216.  I. MacDonald, Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties (London: Vintage, 3rd edn., 2008), ISBN 978-0-09-952679-7, pp. 241-2.  I. MacDonald, Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties (London: Vintage, 3rd edn., 2008), ISBN 978-0-09-952679-7, pp. 263-73.  S. Whiteley, The Space Between the Notes: Rock and the Counter-Culture (London: Routledge, 1992), ISBN 0-415-06816-9, p. 61.  Unterberger, Richie. "Their Satanic Majesties Request" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ album/ their-satanic-majesties-request-r16807/ review). Allmusic. . Retrieved 2007-11-19.  J. DeRogatis, Turn on Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock (Milwaukie, MI: Hal Leonard, 2003), ISBN 0-634-05548-8, p. 120.  "Unhalfbricking, Fairport Convention" (http:/ / observer. guardian. co. uk/ omm/ story/ 0,,1240058,00. html), Observer Music Monthly, 20 June 2004, retrieved on 14/01/09.  G. Falk and U. A. Falk, Youth Culture and the Generation Gap (New York, NY: Algora, 2005), ISBN 0-87586-368-X, p. 186.  W. E. Studwell and D. F. Lonergan, The Classic Rock and Roll Reader: Rock Music from its Beginnings to the mid-1970s (London: Routledge, 1999), ISBN 0-7890-0151-9, p. 223.  P. Frame, Rock Family Trees (London: Omnibus Press, 1980), ISBN 0-86001-414-2, p. 9.  J. E. Perone, Music of the Counterculture Era (London: Greenwood, 2004), ISBN 0-313-32689-4, p. 24.  A. Bennett, Remembering Woodstock (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004), ISBN 0-7546-0714-3.  S. Borthwick and R. Moy, Popular Music Genres: an Introduction (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004), ISBN 0-7486-1745-0, p. 44.  R. Unterberger, Unknown Legends of Rock 'n' Roll: Psychedelic Unknowns, Mad Geniuses, Punk Pioneers, Lo-fi Mavericks & More (Miller Freeman, 1998), ISBN 0-87930-534-7, p. 411.  P. Houe and S. H. Rossel, Images of America in Scandinavia (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1998), ISBN 90-420-0611-0, p. 77.  P. Scaruffi, "A brief summary of German rock music" (http:/ / www. scaruffi. com/ history/ german. html), retrieved 9 February 2010.  P. Stump, Digital Gothic: a Critical Discography of Tangerine Dream (Wembley, Middlesex: SAF, 1997), ISBN 0-946719-18-7, p. 33.  V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 1341-3.
 V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 349-50.  V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 85-6.  T. Rawlings, Then, Now and Rare British Beat 1960-1969 (London: Omnibus Press, 2002), ISBN 0-7119-9094-8, p. 191.  V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 635-6.  Sinn Sisamouth (http:/ / www. nme. com/ artists/ sinn-sisamouth), NME Artists, retrieved 3 February 2010.  Erkin Koray (http:/ / www. nme. com/ artists/ erkin-koray), NME Artists, retrieved 3 February 2010.  Bush, John. Os Mutantes (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ p312117/ biography) at Allmusic. Retrieved 2 February 2010.  G. M. Joseph and T. J. Henderson, ed., The Mexico Reader: History, Culture, Politics (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002), ISBN 0-8223-3042-3, p. 605.  B. Keen and K. Haynes, A History of Latin America (Andover: Cengage Learning, 8th ed., 2008), ISBN 0-618-78318-0, p. 592.  S. Bao, Buenos Aires (Footscray, Victoria: Lonely Planet, 5th ed., 2008), ISBN 1-74104-699-8, p. 248.  I. Inglis, The Beatles, Popular Music and Society: a Thousand Voices (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000), ISBN 0-312-22236-X, p. 46.  D. A. Nielsen, Horrible Workers: Max Stirner, Arthur Rimbaud, Robert Johnson, and the Charles Manson Circle: Studies in Moral Experience and Cultural Expression (Lanham MD: Lexington Books, 2005), ISBN 0-7391-1200-7, p. 84.  J. Wiener, Come Together: John Lennon in his Time (Chicago IL: University of Illinois Press, 1991), ISBN 0-252-06131-4, pp. 124-6.  "Smile-Brian Wilson review" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ album/ smile-r493411). Allmusic.com. .  J. DeRogatis, Turn On Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock (Milwaukie, MI: Hal Leonard, 2003), ISBN 0-634-05548-8, pp. 35-9.  "Garage rock", Billboard, Jul 29, 2006, 118 (30), p. 11.  D. Gomery, Media in America: the Wilson Quarterly Reader, (Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2nd edn., 1998), ISBN 0-943875-87-0, pp. 181-2.  S. Whiteley, Too Much Too Young: Popular Music, Age and Gender (London: Routledge, 2005), ISBN 0-415-31029-6, p. 147.  R. Unterberger, S. Hicks and J. Dempsey, Music USA: the Rough Guide (London: Rough Guides, 1999), ISBN 1-85828-421-X, p. 31.  K. Wolff and O. Duane, Country Music: The Rough Guide (London: Rough Guides, 2000), ISBN 1-85828-534-8, p. 392.  V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, p. 1327.  V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 61 and 265.  B. Jackson, Garcia: An American Life (London: Penguin, 2000), ISBN 0-14-029199-7, pp. 196-200.  F. W. Hoffmann, Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound, Volume 1 (London: CRC Press, 2nd edn., 2005), ISBN 0-415-93835-X, p. 253.  B. Sweers, Electric Folk: The Changing Face of English Traditional Music (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), ISBN 0-19-515878-4, pp. 45-9.  P. Scaruffi, A History of Rock Music 1951-2000 (iUniverse, 2003), ISBN 0-595-29565-7, pp. 54, 71 and 81-2.  J. DeRogatis, Turn on Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock (Milwaukie MI, Hal Leonard, 2003), ISBN 0-634-05548-8, p. 120.  J. DeRogatis, Turn on Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock (Milwaukie, MI: Hal Leonard, 2003), ISBN 0-634-05548-8, p. 169.  V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, p. 515.  P. Bussy, Kraftwerk: Man, Machine and Music (London: SAF, 3rd end., 2004), ISBN 0-946719-70-5, pp. 15-17.  V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 1330-1.  Osamu Kitajima – Benzaiten (http:/ / www. discogs. com/ release/ 1303605) at Discogs  Harry Hosono And The Yellow Magic Band – Paraiso (http:/ / www. discogs. com/ release/ 1188801) at Discogs  B. A. Cook, Europe Since 1945: an Encyclopedia, Volume 2 (London: Taylor & Francis, 2001), ISBN 0-8153-1336-5, p. 1324.  J. DeRogatis, Turn on Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock (Milwaukie, MI: Hal Leonard, 2003), ISBN 0-634-05548-8, p. 212.  A. Blake, The Land Without Music: Music, Culture and Society in Twentieth-Century Britain (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997), ISBN 0-7190-4299-2, pp. 154-5.  P. Auslander, Performing Glam Rock: Gender and Theatricality in Popular Music (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2006), ISBN 0-472-06868-7, p. 196.  P. Auslander, "Watch that man David Bowie: Hammersmith Odeon, London, July 3, 1973" in I. Inglis, ed., Performance and Popular Music: History, Place and Time (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006), ISBN 0-7546-4057-4, p. 72.  "Neo-psychedelia" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ explore/ style/ d2778), Allmusic, retrieved 2 July 2010.  Leckie, John. Producer John Leckie On The Ten Essential Records He's Worked On (http:/ / thequietus. com/ articles/ 02121-stone-roses-producer-john-leckie-on-the-ten-essential-records-he-s-worked-on). Thequietus.com. retrieved 19 July 2011
 R. Unterberger, S. Hicks and J. Dempsey, Music USA: the Rough Guide (London: Rough Guides, 1999), ISBN 1-85828-421-X, p. 401.  D. Walk, "The Apples in Stereo: Smiley Smile", CMJ New Music, Sep 1995 (25), p. 10.  S. Erlewine, "The Stone Roses" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ the-stone-roses-p5537/ ) Allmusic, retrieved 6 July 2011.  S. Erlewine, "Blur" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ blur-p12405/ ) Allmusic, retrieved 6 July 2011.  Stephen Thomas Erlewine, Standing on the Shoulder of Giants (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ album/ r1558236), Allmusic, retrieved 7 July 2010.  S. Erlewine, "Kula Shaker" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ kula-shaker-p194896/ ) Allmusic, retrieved 06 July 2011.  J. Macgregor, "Tame Impala" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ tame-impala-p1111074/ biography), Allmusic, retrieved 26 January 2011.  J. Ankeny, "The Green Essex" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ the-essex-green-p384584/ biography), Allmusic, retrieved 26 January 2011.
Stylistic origins Cultural origins Typical instruments Experimental, progressive rock, funk, psychedelic rock Late 1960s/early 1970s in West Germany Guitar, bass guitar, drums, synthesizer
Mainstream popularity Underground, but some bands were commercially successful. Derivative forms Electronic music Ambient New Age Neue Deutsche Welle Post-rock Regional scenes Berlin – Düsseldorf
Krautrock is a generic name for the experimental music scenes that appeared in Germany in the late 1960s and gained popularity throughout the 1970s, especially in Britain. The term is a result of the English-speaking world's reception of the music at the time and not a reference to any one particular scene, style, or movement, as many krautrock artists were not familiar with one another. BBC DJ John Peel in particular is largely credited with spreading the reputation of krautrock outside of the German-speaking world. Largely divorced from the traditional blues and rock & roll influences of English and American rock music up to that time, the period contributed to the birth and evolution of electronic music, ambient music, alternative music and New Age music. Key artists associated with the tag include Can, Amon Düül II, Ash Ra Tempel, Faust, Popol Vuh, Cluster, Tangerine Dream, Klaus Schulze, Neu!, and Kraftwerk.
Origin of the term
The moniker "krautrock" was slapped on the experimental German rock movement of the late 1960s and early 1970s by the British music press, and ironically retained by its practitioners The term krautrock was originally a humorous one coined by the UK music press (such as New Musical Express and Melody Maker), where "krautrock" found an early and enthusiastic underground following. The term derives from the ethnic slur "kraut", and its use by the music press was inspired by a track from Amon Düül's Psychedelic Underground titled "Mama Düül und Ihre Sauerkrautband Spielt Auf" ('Mama Düül and her Sauerkrautband Strike Up.')   As is often the case with musical genre labels, few of the bands wished to see themselves pigeon-holed, and tended to eschew the term. The term is also a problematic category due to the considerable differences between the artists so labelled. Musicologist Julian Cope, in his book Krautrocksampler, says "Krautrock is a subjective British phenomenon," based on the way the music was received in the UK rather than on the actual West German music scene out of which it grew. For instance, while one of the main groups originally tagged as krautrock, Faust, recorded a seminal 12 minute track they titled "Krautrock", they would later distance themselves from the term, saying: "When the English people started talking about Krautrock, we thought they were just taking the piss... and when you hear the so-called 'Krautrock renaissance,' it makes me think everything we did was for nothing."
Krautrock is an eclectic and often very original mix of post-psychedelic jamming and moody progressive rock mixed with ideas from contemporary experimental classical music (especially composer Karlheinz Stockhausen, with whom, for example, Irmin Schmidt and Holger Czukay of Can had previously studied) and from the new experimental directions that emerged in jazz during the 1960s and 1970s (mainly the free jazz pieces by Ornette Coleman or Albert Ayler). Moving away from the patterns of song structure and melody of much rock music in America and Britain, some in the movement also drove the music to a more mechanical and electronic sound. The key component characterizing the groups gathered under the term is the synthesis of rock and roll rhythm and energy with a decided will to distance themselves from specifically American blues origins, but to draw on German or other sources instead. Jean-Hervé Peron of Faust says: "We were trying to put aside everything we had heard in rock 'n' roll, the three-chord pattern, the lyrics. We had the urge of saying something completely different." Typical bands dubbed "krautrock" in the 1970s included Tangerine Dream, Faust, Can, Amon Düül II, Ash Ra Tempel and others associated with the celebrated Cologne-based producers and engineers Dieter Dierks and Conny Plank, such as Neu!, Kraftwerk and Cluster. Bands such as these were reacting against the post-WWII cultural vacuum in Germany and tending to reject Anglo-American popular culture in favour of creating their own more radical and experimental new German culture and identity, and to develop a radically new musical aesthetic. Many of these groups began their musical careers with little or no awareness of (or interest in) rock and roll: exposure to the increasingly radical and innovative music of the Velvet Underground, Pink Floyd, Frank Zappa, Jimi Hendrix and the Beatles, for example, led members of groups like Can and Kraftwerk to embrace popular music for the first time. The signature sound of krautrock mixed rock music and "rock band" instrumentation (guitar, bass, drums) with electronic instrumentation and textures, often with what would now be described as an ambient music sensibility. A common rhythm featured in the music was a steady 4/4 beat, often called "motorik" in the anglophone music press.
By the end of the 1960s, the American and British counterculture and hippie movement had moved rock towards psychedelia, heavy metal, progressive rock and other styles, incorporating, for the first time in popular music, socially and politically incisive lyrics. The 1968 German student movement, French protests and Italian student movement had created a class of young, intellectual continental listeners, while nuclear weapons, pollution, and war inspired protests and activism. Avant-garde music had taken a turn towards the electronic in the mid-1950s. The avant-garde minimalist music current which emerged in the beginning of the 60s with the works of Americans La Monte Young, Terry Riley and Steve Reich using drones and loops (often with synthesizers and tapes) in a kind of psychedelic and space-oriented music. These factors all laid the scene for the explosion in what came to be termed krautrock, which arose at the first major German rock festival in 1968 in Essen. Like their American, British and international counterparts, German rock musicians played a kind of psychedelic music. In contrast, however, there was no attempt to reproduce the effects of drugs, but rather an innovative fusion of jazz, free-jazz and the electronic avant-garde, and strikingly innovative as a fusion of psychedelia and the electronic avant-garde. That same year, 1968, saw the foundation of the Zodiak Free Arts Lab in Berlin by Hans-Joachim Roedelius, and Conrad Schnitzler, which further popularized the psychedelic-rock sound in the German mainstream. Originally krautrock was a form of Free art, which meant that krautrock bands gave their records away for free at Free Art Fairs. The next few years saw a wave of pioneering groups. In 1968, Can formed by two former students of Karlheinz Stockhausen, adding jazz to the mix (and in that way the krautrock scene can be seen to parallel the emerging Canterbury scene in England at the same time), while the following year saw Kluster (later Cluster) begin recording keyboard-based electronic instrumental music with an emphasis on static drones. In 1970, Popol Vuh became the
Krautrock first krautrock group to use an electronic synthesizer, to create what would be known as "kosmische musik". By 1971, the bands Tangerine Dream and Faust began to use electronic synthesizers and advanced production. The term Kosmische musik dates from that period. The bands Tangerine Dream, Ash Ra Tempel, Sand (Golem album) and Cosmic Jokers (all linked by collaboration with Klaus Schulze), would follow suit in the years to come. Faust also made use of synthesizers and tape manipulation in a way foreshadowing the noise rock of the future. In 1972, two albums incorporated European rock and electronic psychedelia with Asian sounds: Popol Vuh's In den Gärten Pharaos and Deuter's Aum. Meanwhile, kosmische musik saw the release of two double albums, Klaus Schulze's Cyborg and Tangerine Dream's Zeit (produced by Dieter Dierks), while a band called Neu! began to play highly rhythmic music. By the middle of the decade, one of the best-known German bands, Kraftwerk, had released albums like Autobahn and Radioaktivität ("Radio-Activity" in English), which laid the foundation for the British 1980s synthpop/new wave music, electro, techno and other styles later in the century. The release of Tangerine Dream's Phaedra in 1974 marked a divergence of that group from krautrock to a more melodic sequencer-driven sound that was later termed Berlin School. In that same year Klaus Schulze delivered one more LP of pure krautrock, Blackdance, and then began to release a more expansive version of the kind of music that TD was making. By the mid-late 1970s onward the terms electronic rock, electronic music, new instrumental music and new age have been used more often than Krautrock and Kosmische Musik, though the early scene continues still today to be regarded as a style in and of itself.
By the early 1970s experimental West German rock styles had crossed the border into East Germany, and influenced the creation of an East German rock movement referred to as Ostrock. On the other side of the Wall, these bands tended to be stylistically more conservative than in the West, to have more reserved engineering, and often to include more classical and traditional structures (such as those developed by Kurt Weill and Bertolt Brecht in their 1920s Berlin theatre songs). These groups sang in German, often featuring poetic lyrics loaded with indirect double-meanings and deeply philosophical challenges to the status quo. The best-known bands representing these styles in the GDR were The Puhdys and Karat. Krautrock must generally be regarded, however, as a primarily West German phenomenon; the East German musical avant-garde may be argued to have been more genuinely represented by, for example, political singer-songwriter Wolf Biermann, whose work more aptly bears comparison to Woody Guthrie or early Bob Dylan than to any progressive rock artists.
Influence on later generations
Krautrock was highly influential on the development of post-punk, notably artists such as The Fall, Joy Division, and This Heat. The genre was also a strong influence to David Bowie's Station to Station (1976) and this kind of experimentation led him go to his 'Berlin Trilogy'.  By the late 1990s and early 2000s, with the resurgence of electronic music and a new generation rediscovering much of the early German music, krautrock came to be considered a style in and of itself. Artists such as Stereolab, John Frusciante, The Mars Volta, Deerhunter, Wilco, Laika, Mouse on Mars, Bowery Electric, I Am Spoonbender, Tortoise, Coil, and Fujiya & Miyagi working under the post-rock and electronica rubrics have often cited bands in the krautrock canon as being among their more significant influences. Krautrock has also been an influence on Hawkwind, in particular Dave Brock who supposedly penned the sleeve notes for the British edition of Neu!'s first album  Radiohead has covered Can's song "Thief" and cite Can, Faust, and Neu! among their influences, while The Secret Machines not only covered Harmonia's "(De Luxe) Immer Wieder" on their The Road Leads Where It's Led EP, but have also played live with Michael Rother. Porcupine Tree has also covered Neu!'s "Hallogallo" as a demo for
Krautrock their album Signify. The band Wilco has shown a growing krautrock influence in their music, specifically on Yankee Hotel Foxtrot and several songs on A Ghost Is Born, especially "Spiders (Kidsmoke)." In interviews Jeff Tweedy has often spoken of his admiration for Can and Neu!. Current 93 covered Sand's "When the May Rain Comes" on their album Thunder Perfect Mind. Julian Cope has always cited krautrock as an influence, and wrote the book Krautrocksampler on the subject. The Kosmische Club was founded in London at his suggestion in 1996, with the motto "Music from the Future", and did much to promote the genre on the underground music scene, including promoting gigs featuring many of the original German musicians and through a weekly radio show on Resonance FM since 2002. The Legendary Pink Dots claim heavy influence from krautrock—naming in particular Can, Faust and Neu!—with one of their few cover songs being Neu!'s "Super" on the Cleopatra Records album A Homage to NEU!, which featured covers and remixes by bands including Autechre, Dead Voices On Air, Khan, System 7, James Plotkin, as well as an original track from Michael Rother.
• • • • • • • Agitation Free Birth Control Brainticket Eloy Embryo Eruption Exmagma • • • • • • • Floh de Cologne Edgar Froese Frumpy Manuel Göttsching Gila Grobschnitt Guru Guru • • • • • • • Jean Ven Robert Hal Peter Michael Hamel Hoelderlin Jane Kin Ping Meh Kraan La Düsseldorf • • • • • • • Lucifer's Friend Mythos Nektar Night Sun Novalis Organisation Eberhard Schoener • • • • • • Stern-Combo Meißen Thirsty Moon Ton Steine Scherben Wallenstein Walter Wegmüller Xhol Caravan
 'Krautrock - Cosmic Rock and its Legacy' by David Stubbs, Erik Davis, Michel Faber and various contributing authors. Published 2009 by Black Dog Publishing Limited, London ISBN 978-1-906155-66-7  Cope, Julian (1995). Krautrocksampler: One Head's Guide to the Great Kosmische Musik - 1968 Onwards. Yatesbury: Head Heritage. p. 64. ISBN 0952671913.  Siebert, Armin (1999). Die Sprache der Pop- und Rockmusik: Eine terminologische Untersuchung im Englischen und Deutschen. Norderstedt: Grin. p. 114. ISBN 9783640282333.  Blühdorn, Annette (2003). Pop and Poetry - Pleasure and Protest: Udo Lindenberg, Konstantin Wecker and the Tradition of German Cabaret. New York: Peter Laing Publishing. p. 141. ISBN 9780820468792.  The Wire (275): p. 20. January 2007.  Scaruffi 2009.  A brief summary of German rock music (http:/ / www. scaruffi. com/ history/ german. html)  Buckley (2000): pp. 275–277.  Pegg (2004): pp. 205–206.  Hawkwind Quotations (http:/ / www. starfarer. net/ quotation. html)  Bruss, Andrew (29 August 2006). "Secret Machines - Light's On" (http:/ / www. glidemagazine. com/ index. php?task=Articles& section=93& id=47839& issue=1& PHPSESSID). Glide Magazine. .  "2005 AUSTIN CITY LIMITS FESTIVAL IN REVIEW" (http:/ / www. popculturepress. com/ ACL05_wilco. html). Pop Culture Press. 2005. .
• Scaruffi, Piero (2009) . "26: Kosmische Musik 1969-72" (http://www.scaruffi.com/history/cpt26.pdf). A History of Rock and Dance Music: From the Guitar to the Laptop, from Chicago to Shangai (http://www. scaruffi.com/history/purchase.html). Vol. 1: 1950-1989 (II ed.). U.S.. ISBN 9780976553151. OCLC 424631650. Retrieved 16 November 2010. • Scaruffi, Piero (2002). "A History of German Rock" (http://www.scaruffi.com/history/german.html). Retrieved 17 November 2010. • Buckley, David (2000) . Strange Fascination – David Bowie: The Definitive Story. London: Virgin. ISBN 075350457X.
Krautrock • Pegg, Nicholas (2004) . The Complete David Bowie. London: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN 1903111730.
• Krautrock @ pHinnWeb (http://www.phinnweb.org/krautrock/) • krautrock website (http://www.wasistdas.co.uk) • Kosmische Musik 1969 - 1972 (http://www.scaruffi.com/history/cpt26.html) • Introduction to German Krautrock (http://progressive.homestead.com/GERMANYPROG.html) • The Kosmische Club (http://www.kosmische.org) • The Crack In The Cosmic Egg Krautrock Encyclopedia (http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/ultimathule/krautrockers. html) • Krautrocksite (http://www.krautrockseite.de/index.htm) - Online-Magazin from Germany • Krautrock Album Database (http://krautrockgroup.blogspot.com/) • Krautrock-World (http://www.krautrock-world.com) - Krautrock WebRadio from Germany • Krautrock or Kosmische Musik? (http://kxlu.typepad.com/joshfrankfort/2009/08/ krautrock-or-kosmische-musik-1.html) • das plumpe denken website on Krautrock (in English) (http://www.dasplumpedenken.de/40797.html)
Stylistic origins Progressive rock, psychedelic rock, experimental rock, electronic music Late 1960s, England Mellotron guitar, bass, synthesiser, strings, drums, vocals, sequencer
Cultural origins Typical instruments
Mainstream popularity Limited to a few groups as a specific genre, but often associated with more popular genres Derivative forms Noise pop Subgenres Neo-psychedelia, post-rock, shoegazing Fusion genres Dream pop, stoner rock, ambient music Other topics Jam band
Space rock is a subgenre of rock music; the term originally referred to a group of early, mostly British, 1970s progressive and psychedelic rock bands such as Hawkwind and Pink Floyd, characterised by slow, lengthy instrumental passages dominated by electric organs, synthesizers, experimental guitar work and science fiction or astronomical lyrical themes, though it was later repurposed to refer to a series of late 1980s British alternative rock bands that drew from earlier influences to create a more ambient but still melodic form of pop music. The term was revived in the 21st century to refer to a new crop of bands including The Flowers of Hell, Comets on Fire, and Flotation Toy Warning who diversely draw upon the ideas and sounds of both waves of the genre’s founders.
Origins and Emergence
Man's entry into outer space provided ample subject matter for rock and roll and R&B songs from the mid-1950s through the early 1960s. It also inspired new sounds and sound effects to be used in the music itself. A prominent early example of space rock is the 1959 concept album I Hear a New World by British producer and song writer Joe Meek. The album was inspired by the space race and concerned man's first close encounter with alien life forms. Meek then went on to have a UK and US #1 success in 1961 with "Telstar," named after the newly launched communications satellite and thus intended to commemorate the new space age. Its main instrument was a clavioline, an electronic forerunner of synthesizers. Space rock emerged from the late 1960s psychedelic music scene in Britain, and was closely associated with the progressive rock movement of the same era. Pink Floyd's early albums contain pioneering examples of space rock: "Lucifer Sam", "Astronomy Domine", "Pow R. Toc H." and "Interstellar Overdrive"  from their 1967 debut album The Piper at the Gates of Dawn are examples. Their second album A Saucerful of Secrets contained further examples: "Let There Be More Light" and "Set the Controls for the Heart of the Sun" with explicit science fiction themes, and their third, Soundtrack from the Film More (1969) had "Cirrus Minor". In July 1969, perhaps because of their space-related music and lyrics, Pink Floyd were part of live BBC television coverage of the Apollo 11 moon landing, performing live an instrumental piece, which they called "Moonhead". An audio copy exists of the track and occasionally appears on Pink Floyd
Space rock bootleg albums. In early 1971, Pink Floyd began writing the song that would become known as "Echoes", from the 1971 album Meddle. The song was performed from April until September 1971, with an alternate set of lyrics, written about two planets meeting in space. Before the Meddle album released, the lyrics were changed to an aquatic theme, because of the band's concern that they were being labelled as a space rock band. The Beatles' song "Flying" (1967), originally titled "Aerial Tour Instrumental", was a psychedelic instrumental about the sensation of flying, whether in a craft or in your own head space. The Rolling Stones' song "2000 Light Years from Home" (1967), which drew heavily on some of the aforementioned Pink Floyd songs, is another early form of space rock. Jimi Hendrix is also an early innovator of the genre, with such tracks as "Third Stone from the Sun", "1983... (A Merman I Should Turn to Be)" and "The Stars That Play with Laughing Sam's Dice". During the middle of the second set of a Grateful Dead concert throughout the late 1970s to 1990s, the band would go into a drum solo to a space rock section. David Bowie's "Space Oddity" (1969) is, apart from Telstar, probably the best example of a space rock song achieving mainstream recognition. A major album in the history of space rock was Hawkwind's Space Ritual (1973), a two-disc live album advertised as "88 minutes of brain-damage" documenting Hawkwind's successful 1972 tour of their blow-out show complete with liquid lights and lasers, nude dancers (notably the earth-mother figure Stacia), wild costumes and psychedelic imagery. This hard-edged concert experience attracted a motley but dedicated collection of psychedelic drug users, science-fiction fans and motorcycle riders. The science fiction author Michael Moorcock collaborated with Hawkwind on many occasions: for example, he wrote the lyrics for many of the spoken-word sections on Space Ritual.
By the early 1990s, the term "space rock" came to be used when describing numerous American and British alternative rock bands of the time. Shoegazing, stoner rock/metal and noise pop genres emerged into the mainstream with the explosion of bands such as Kyuss, Slowdive, The Verve, My Bloody Valentine, Flying Saucer Attack, Loop, Ride, The Flaming Lips, Failure, Tool, Monster Magnet, Sun Dial, Grandaddy, Hum, Orange Goblin, Spacemen 3, Spiritualized, Mercury Rev and Muse. The sonic experimentation and emphasis placed on texture by these bands led them to be dubbed "space rock", although most would more readily be categorized in other genres such as Shoegazing or Stoner Metal. In the mid 1990s, a number of bands built on the space rock styles of Hawkwind, Ozric Tentacles (band) and Gong appeared in America. Some of these bands (such as Pressurehed and Melting Euphoria) were signed to Cleopatra records, which then proceeded to release numerous space rock compilations. The Strange Daze festivals from 1997-2000 showcased the American space rock scene in 3 day outdoor festivals. The shows were headlined by Hawkwind and Nik Turner in 1997 and featured major players of American space rock: F/i, Alien Planetscapes, Architectural Metaphor, Quarkspace, Melting Euphoria, Pressurehed, Nucleon, Bionaut, Born to Go and others. A Michigan based space rock scene included Burnt Hair Records, Darla Records, and bands such as Windy & Carl, Mahogany, Sweet Trip, Tomorrowland, Delta Waves, Starphase 23, Füxa, Auburn Lull, Monaural, Asha Vida, and Alison's Halo. This was a modern movement of the traditional "space rock" sound and was pinned Detroit Space Rock.
Space rock in the 21st century
Influences from space rock can be heard in UK bands Coldplay, Radiohead, Amplifier, Oceansize, Mugstar and Muse, American bands 30 Seconds to Mars, Angels and Airwaves, Lumerians, The Secret Machines, The Mars Volta and The Boxing Lesson, Australian bands Lunar Module and Space Project, and Turkish band Nemrud. The first reported involvement of NASA and space rock came in 2009 when an off duty worker from the shuttle program synchronised footage of a Discovery launch with the Flowers Of Hell's 'Sympathy For Vengeance' in an online video which became popular amongst staff at the Kennedy Space Center.  Star One's 2002 Space Metal album mixes space rock and progressive metal, and many of the songs are linked conceptually by having cult science fiction movies or TV series as their subjects.
       Richie Unterberger, Pink Floyd biography (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ p76669) Allmusic Space Rock (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ explore/ style/ d2784), Allmusic The Flowers of Hell blast off (http:/ / www. eyeweekly. com/ music/ streetspirit/ article/ 55902) Comets On Fire: Field Recordings from the Sun (http:/ / pitchfork. com/ reviews/ albums/ 1561-field-recordings-from-the-sun/ ) Flotation Toy Warning Biography at Allmusic (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ p729598) Joe Meek: The RGM Legacy (http:/ / www. musicomh. com/ music/ features/ joe-meek_0805. htm) A.Robbins "The Trouser Press record guide" (Collier Books, 1991), ISBN 0020363613
 Bruce Eder, Astronomy Domine song review (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ song/ t1530785), Allmusic  Nicholas Schaffner, "Saucerful of secrets: the Pink Floyd odyssey", (Dell, 1992), ISBN 0385306849, p.66.  Richie Unterberger, Interstellar Overdrive song review (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ song/ t1530791), Allmusic  "Unreleased Pink Floyd Material" (http:/ / pinkfloydhyperbase. dk/ unreleased/ index. html#MOONHEAD). The Pink Floyd Hyperbase. 2007. . Retrieved 18 February 2008.  Allmusic Review by Richie Unterberger  Wilson Neate, Space Ritual review (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ album/ r40140), Allmusic  Ian S. Port (Apr. 22 2011). "Lumerians Talk Video Projections, Recording in a Church, and "Space-Rock"" (http:/ / blogs. sfweekly. com/ shookdown/ 2011/ 04/ lumerians_talk_video_projectio. php). SF Weekly. . Retrieved 2011-05-15.  Archive of Sympathy for Vengeance + Space Shuttle Discovery mashup (http:/ / smg. photobucket. com/ albums/ v173/ star17abby/ ?action=view& current=119Launch4. flv)
New Age music
New Age music
New Age music
Stylistic origins Classical music Electronic music Folk music Ambient music Musique concrète Progressive rock Psychedelic rock Krautrock Traditional folk music World music Celtic music Minimalism Avant-garde music Free jazz Europe and United States, late 1960s piano, synthesizer, sampler, sequencer, computer, strings, found sounds (often bird song or whale song, waterfalls, etc), folk and ethnic instruments, acoustic guitar, flutes, harp, sitar, tamboura, tabla, organ High Worldwide, often connected with New Age spirituality
Cultural origins Typical instruments Mainstream popularity Derivative forms
Post-rock Subgenres Neoclassical (New Age), Space music, tone poems, biomusic, Andean New Age Fusion genres Celtic fusion, post-rock Other topics New Age movement, meditation, environmentalism, List of New Age music artists
New Age music is music of various styles intended to create artistic inspiration, relaxation, and optimism. It is used by listeners for yoga, massage, meditation, and reading as a method of stress management or to create a peaceful atmosphere in their home or other environments, and is often associated with environmentalism and New Age spirituality. The harmonies in New Age music are generally modal, consonant, or include a drone bass. The melodies are often repetitive, to create a hypnotic feeling, and sometimes recordings of nature sounds are used as an introduction to a track or throughout the piece. Pieces of up to thirty minutes are common. New Age music includes both electronic forms, frequently relying on sustained synth pads or long sequencer-based runs, and acoustic forms, featuring instruments such as flutes, piano, acoustic guitar and a wide variety of non-western acoustic instruments. Vocal arrangements were initially rare in New Age music but as it has evolved vocals have become more common, especially vocals featuring Native American, Sanskrit, or Tibetan influenced chants, or lyrics based on mythology such as Celtic legends or the realm of Faerie.
New Age music
New Age music was influenced by a wide range of artists from a variety of genres, for example, folk instrumentalists John Fahey and Leo Kottke, classical minimalists Terry Riley, Steve Reich, and Philip Glass, synthesizer performers Pink Floyd and Brian Eno, and impressionistic jazz artists Keith Jarrett and Pat Metheny. Many different styles and combinations of electronic experimental and acoustic new age music was introduced in the 1970s including music from Asia, such as Kitaro and Yellow Magic Orchestra. New age music was initially produced and sold only by independent labels. The sales reached significant numbers in unusual outlets such as bookstores, gift stores, health food stores and boutiques, as well as direct mail. In 1981, Tower Records in Mountain View, California added a New Age bin. By 1985, independent and chain record retail stores were adding sections for New Age music and major labels began showing interest in the genre, both through acquisition of some existing new age labels such as Paul Winter's Living Music and through signing of new age artists such as Kitaro and jazz crossover artist Pat Metheny, both signed by Geffen. On Valentine's Day in 1987, the former Los Angeles rock radio station KMET changed to a full-time New Age music format with new call letters KTWV, branded as The Wave. During The Wave's new age music period, management told the station employees to refer to The Wave as a "mood service" rather than a "radio station". DJs stopped announcing the titles of the songs, and instead, to maintain an uninterrupted mood, listeners could call a 1-800 phone number to find out what song was playing. News breaks were also re-branded and referred to as "wave breaks". KLRS (Colours) in Santa Cruz began a new age format around the same time. Stations in other cities followed this lead and in 1988, Stephen Hill's radio show Music From The Hearts of Space was picked up by NPR for syndication to 230 affiliates nationally. Other new age music specialty radio programs included Forest's Musical Starstreams and John Diliberto's Echoes. Most major cable television networks have channels that play music without visuals, including channels for New Age music, such as the "Soundscapes" channel on Music Choice. By 1989, there were over 150 small independent record labels releasing New Age music, new age music and adult alternative programs were carried on hundreds of commercial and college radio stations in the USA, and over 40 distributors were selling new age music through mail order catalogs.
New Age music is defined more by the effect or feeling it produces rather than the instruments used in its creation; it may be electronic, acoustic, or a mixture of both. New Age artists range from solo or ensemble performances using classical music instruments ranging from the piano, acoustic guitar, flute or harp to electronic musical instruments, or from Eastern instruments such as the sitar, tabla, and tamboura. There is a significant overlap of sectors of New Age music, ambient music, classical music, jazz, electronica, world music, chillout, space music and others. The two definitions typically associated with the New Age genre are: • New Age music with an ambient sound that has the explicit purpose of aiding meditation and relaxation, or aiding and enabling various alternative spiritual practices, such as alternative healing, Yoga practice, guided meditation, chakra auditing, and so on. The proponents of this definition are almost always musicians who create their music expressly for these purposes. Prominent artists who create New Age music expressly for healing and/or meditation include Paul Horn, Deuter, Steven Halpern, Dean Evenson, Lawrence Ball, and Karunesh. • Music which is found in the New Age section of the record store. This is largely a definition of practicality, given the breadth of music that is classified as "New Age" by retailers who are often less interested in finely-grained distinctions between musical styles than are fans of those styles. Music which falls into this definition is usually music which cannot be easily classified into other, more common definitions, but often includes well-defined music such as worldbeat and Flamenco guitar. Musicians as varied as George Winston, Vangelis, David Arkenstone, Paul Winter, Will Ackerman, Ray Lynch, Suzanne Ciani, Jim Brickman, Bradley Joseph, Deuter, Era, Enya, Jean Michel Jarre, Enigma, Jean Ven Robert Hal, Kitaro, Sandeep Khurana, Yanni,
New Age music Andreas Vollenweider, Mannheim Steamroller, Suzanne Doucet, Mike Oldfield, Peter Gabriel, Steve Roach, Constance Demby, Patrick O'Hearn, 2002_(band), and Singh Kaur are typically classified as New Age, although they may have divergent styles. It also includes expressly spiritual New Age music as a subset. There are retail outlets, that specify subcategories such as Nature Sounds, Healing, Piano, Chants, and so on. Amazon includes also Celtic, Meditation, World-dance, and Relaxation, and iTunes Store includes Nature, Environmental, Healing, and Travel, besides other subgenres. The German new-age site Silenzio lists almost 70 subgenres.
Influences and themes
From 1968 to 1973, German musicians such as Edgar Froese (founder of Tangerine Dream), Holger Czukay (one of the founders of Can and a former student of Karlheinz Stockhausen), Popol Vuh, and Ashra released a number of works featuring experimental sounds and textures built with electronics, synthesizers, acoustic and electric instruments which were referred to as cosmic music. This experimentation provided early foundational influences for the ambient music and New Age music genres. In the late 1970s Brian Eno's defining explorations in ambient music further influenced the formation of the New Age music genre, as developed in the styles of musicians such as Robert Fripp, Jon Hassell, Laraaji, Harold Budd, Cluster, Jah Wobble (of post-punk band Public Image Limited). In 1973, Mike Oldfield's unconventional progressive rock album Tubular Bells became one of the first albums to be referred to under the genre description of New Age music. Other influences are early electronic music, classical music, ethnic music and world music. The minimalism of Terry Riley and Steve Reich (Indian influenced in the former case) can also be cited as an influence, along with artists like Tony Conrad, La Monte Young who utilized drones since the early 1960s. Connected to the creation of New Age music is the resurgence of interest in Gregorian chant during the second half of the 20th century. Now, New Age music has branched out and also includes chanting of "spiritual" or ancient languages, and includes, but is not limited to Sanskrit, Latin, Gaelic, Hebrew and Gurmukhi. Popular artists in this genre include Krishna Das, Deva Premal, Bhagavan Das and Snatam Kaur. The solo ECM performances by artists like Keith Jarrett (especially his record The Köln Concert), Ralph Towner (especially his records Blue Sun and Solo Concert) and Lyle Mays's first eponymous album, are usually thought to be an influence on Ambient/New Age music. The acoustic solo and group performances by the early Windham Hill artists such as William Ackerman, Alex de Grassi, George Winston, and Michael Hedges were called New Age for much of the last 30 years. Popular themes in New Age music include space and the cosmos, environment and nature, wellness in being, harmony with one's self and the world, dreams or dreaming and journeys of the mind or spirit. Titles of New Age albums and songs are frequently descriptive: examples include Shepherd Moons (Enya), Straight' a Way to Orion (Kitaro), Touching the Clouds (Symbiosis), and One Deep Breath (Bradley Joseph).
As described in this article, the borders of this genre are not well defined; however music retail stores will include artists in the "New Age" category even if the artists themselves use different names for their style of music. Here are some other terms used for "New Age". Contemporary instrumental This is a term that may be used most often, and can include artists that do not use electronic instruments in their music, such as solo pianist David Lanz. Similarly, pianists such as Yanni and Bradley Joseph both use this term as well, although they use keyboards to incorporate layered orchestral textures into their compositions. Contemporary adult instrumental This term was suggested by Steven Halpern in the June 1999 issue of New Age Voice as an alternative catch-all label for music which is classified by retailers as "New Age", but which is not expressly spiritual in
New Age music nature.
 New Age music (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ explore/ genre/ d117) at Allmusic  Lehrer, Paul M.; David H. (FRW) Barlow, Robert L. Woolfolk, Wesley E. Sime (2007). Principles and Practice of Stress Management, Third Edition. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 46–47. ISBN 159385000X.  Derk Richardson (Nov 1986). "The Sounds of Sominex". Mother Jones Magazine. p. 60.  Geoff Mayfield (October 25, 19896). "The Independents: Oasis of Individuality Offering Welcome Relief from the Volume Wars". Billboard Magazine (Nielsen Business Media): p. 22.  Balfe, Judith H. (1993). Paying the piper: causes and consequences of art patronage. University of Illinois Press. pp. 279–81. ISBN 0252063104.  PJ Birosik (March 1989). "Dreamtime Return". Yoga Journal (Active Interest Media, Inc.): pp. 94–95.  Steven Halpern, New Age Voice Magazine, June 1999 issue  Birosik, Patti Jean (1989). The New Age Music Guide. Collier MacMillan. p. 138. ISBN 0020416407.  David Lanz Website Bio (http:/ / www. davidlanz. com/ profile. shtml)  Yanni in Words. Miramax Books. Co-Author, David Rensin (p. 84).  Bradley Joseph - Indie Journal Interview (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20041101084648/ http:/ / www. indiejournal. com/ indiejournal/ interviews/ bradleyjoseph. htm).
Electronic musical instrument
An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces its sounds using electronics. Such an instrument sounds by outputting an electrical audio signal that ultimately drives a loudspeaker. An electronic instrument may include a user interface for controlling its sound, often by adjusting the pitch, frequency, or duration of each note. However, it is increasingly common for the user interface and sound-generating functions to be separated into a music controller (input device) and a music synthesizer, respectively, with the two devices communicating through a musical performance description language such as MIDI or Open Sound Control.
Ondes Martenot created by Maurice Martenot, 1928
All electronic musical instruments can be viewed as a subset of audio signal processing applications. Simple electronic musical instruments are sometimes called sound effects; the border between sound effects and actual musical instruments is often hazy. French composer and engineer Edgard Varèse created a variety of compositions using electronic horns, whistles, and tape. Most notably, he wrote Poème Électronique for the Phillips pavilion at the Brussels World Fair in 1958. Electronic musical instruments are now widely used in most styles of music. The development of new electronic musical instruments, controllers, and synthesizers continues to be a highly active and interdisciplinary field of research. Specialized conferences, notably the International Conference on New interfaces for musical expression, have organized to report cutting edge work, as well as to provide a showcase for artists who perform or create music with new electronic music instruments, controllers, and synthesizers.
Early electronic musical instruments
Emergence of electronic sound technology
In the 18th-century, musicians and composers adapted a number of acoustic instruments to exploit the novelty of electricity. Thus, in the broadest sense, the first electrified musical instrument was the Denis d'or, dating from 1753, followed shortly by the Clavecin électrique by the Frenchman Jean-Baptiste de Laborde in 1761. The former instrument consisted of a keyboard instrument of over 700 strings, electrified temporarily to enhance sonic qualities. The latter was a keyboard instrument with plectra (picks) activated electrically. However, neither instrument used electricity as a sound-source.
Diagram of the clavecin électrique
The first electric synthesizer was invented in 1876 by Elisha Gray.  The "Musical Telegraph" was a chance by-product of his telephone technology when Gray accidentally discovered that he could control sound from a self-vibrating electromagnetic circuit and so invented a basic oscillator. The Musical Telegraph used steel reeds
Electronic musical instrument oscillated by electromagnets and transmitted over a telephone line. Gray also built a simple loudspeaker device into later models, which consisted of a diaphragm vibrating in a magnetic field. A significant invention, which later had a profound effect on electronic music, was Lee DeForest's triode audition. This was the first thermionic valve, or vacuum tube, invented in 1906, which led to the generation and amplification of electrical signals, radio broadcasting, and electronic computation, amongst other things. Other early synthesizers included Thaddeus Cahill's Dynamophone or Telharmononium (before 1907), Jorg Mager's Spherophone (1924) and Partiturophone, the Theremin (1927), which was marketed by RCA, Taubmann's similar Electronde (1933), the Ondes Martenot (1928), Trautwein's Trautonium (1930). The Mellertion (1933) used a non-standard scale, Bertrand's Dynaphone could produce octaves and perfect fifths, while the Emicon was an American, keyboard-controlled instrument constructed in 1930 and the German Hellertion combined four instruments to produce chords. Three Russian instruments also appeared, Oubouhof's Croix Sonore (1934), Ivor Darreg's microtonal 'Electronic Keyboard Oboe' (1937) and the ANS synthesizer, constructed by the Russian scientist Evgeny Murzin from 1937 to 1958. Only two models of this latter were built and the only surviving example is currently stored at the Lomonosov University in Moscow. It has been used in many Russian movies - like Solaris - to produce unusual, "cosmic" sounds.  Hugh Le Caine, John Hanert, Raymond Scott, composer Percy Grainger (with Burnett Cross), and others built a variety of automated electronic-music controllers during the late 1940s and 1950s. In 1959 Daphne Oram produced a novel method of synthesis, her "Oramics" technique, driven by drawings on a 35 mm film strip; it was used for a number of years at the BBC Radiophonic Workshop. This workshop was also responsible for the theme to the TV series Doctor Who, a piece, largely created by Delia Derbyshire, that more than any other ensured the popularity of electronic music in the UK.
Telharmonium console by Thaddeus Cahill 1897
In 1897 Thaddeus Cahill patented an instrument called the Telharmonium (or Teleharmonium, also known as the Dynamaphone). Using tonewheels to generate musical sounds as electrical signals by additive synthesis, it was capable of producing any combination of notes and overtones, at any dynamic level. This technology was later used to design the Hammond organ. Between 1901 and 1910 Cahill had three progressively larger and more complex versions made, the first weighing seven tons, the last in excess of 200 tons. Portability was managed only by rail and with the use of thirty boxcars. By 1912, public interest had waned, and Cahill's enterprise was bankrupt.
Electronic musical instrument
Another development, which aroused the interest of many composers, occurred in 1919-1920. In Leningrad, Leon Theremin (actually Lev Termen) built and demonstrated his Etherophone, which was later renamed the Theremin. This led to the first compositions for electronic instruments, as opposed to noisemakers and re-purposed machines. Composers who ultimately utilized the Theremin included Varèse—in his piece Ecuatorial (1934)—while conductor Leopold Stokowski experimented with its use in arrangements from the classical repertory. In 1929, Joseph Schillinger composed First Airphonic Suite for Theremin and Orchestra, premièred with the Cleveland Orchestra with Leon Theremin as soloist. The next year Henry Cowell commissioned Theremin to create the first electronic rhythm machine, called the Rhythmicon. Cowell wrote some compositions for it, and he and Schillinger premiered it in 1932.
Ondes Martenot (ca.1974, 7th generation model)
The 1920s have been called the apex of the Mechanical Age and the dawning of the Electrical Age. In 1922, in Paris, Darius Milhaud began experiments with "vocal transformation by phonograph speed change." These continued until 1927. This decade brought a wealth of early electronic instruments—along with the Theremin, there is the presentation of the Ondes Martenot, which was designed to reproduce the microtonal sounds found in Hindu music, and the Trautonium. Maurice Martenot invented the Ondes Martenot in 1928, and soon demonstrated it in Paris. Composers using the instrument ultimately include Boulez, Honneger, Jolivet, Koechlin, Messiaen, Milhaud, Tremblay, and Varèse. Radiohead guitarist and multi-instrumentalist Jonny Greenwood also uses it in his compositions and a plethora of Radiohead songs. In 1937, Messiaen wrote Fête des belles eaux for 6 ondes Martenot, and wrote solo
Electronic musical instrument parts for it in Trois petites Liturgies de la Présence Divine (1943–44) and the Turangalîla-Symphonie (1946–48/90).
Volks Trautonium (1933, Telefunken Ela T 42)
The Trautonium was invented in 1928. It was based on the subharmonic scale, and the resulting sounds were often used to emulate bell or gong sounds, as in the 1950s Bayreuth productions of Parsifal. In 1942, Richard Strauss used it for the bell- and gong-part in the Dresden première of his Japanese Festival Music. This new class of instruments, microtonal by nature, was only adopted slowly by composers at first, but by the early 1930s there was a burst of new works incorporating these and other electronic instruments.
Hammond organ and Novachord
Hammond Novachord (1939)
In 1929 Laurens Hammond established his company for the manufacture of electronic instruments. He went on to produce the Hammond organ, which was based on the principles of the Telharmonium, along with other developments including early reverberation units. The first commercially-manufactured synthesizer was the Novachord, built by the Hammond Organ Company from 1938 to 1942, which offered 72-note polyphony using 12 oscillators driving monostable-based divide-down circuits, basic envelope control and resonant low-pass filters. The instrument featured 163 vacuum tubes and weighed 500 pounds. The instrument's use of envelope control is significant, since this is perhaps the most significant distinction between the modern synthesizer and other electronic instruments.
Analogue synthesis 1950-80
Electronic musical instrument
Siemens Synthesizer at Siemens Studio For Electronic Music (ca.1959)
The RCA Mark II (ca.1957)
The most commonly used electronic instruments are synthesizers, so-called because they artificially generate sound using a variety of techniques. All early circuit-based synthesis involved the use of analogue circuitry, particularly voltage controlled amplifiers, oscillators and filters. An important technological development was the invention of the Clavivox synthesizer in 1956 by Raymond Scott with subassembly by Robert Moog.
RCA produced experimental devices to synthesize voice and music in the 1950s. The Mark II Music Synthesizer, housed at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in New York City. Designed by Herbert Belar and Harry Olson at RCA, with contributions from Vladimir Ussachevsky and Peter Mauzey, it was installed at Columbia University in 1957. Consisting of a room-sized array of interconnected sound synthesis components, it was only capable of producing music by programming, using a paper tape sequencer punched with holes to control pitch sources and filters, similar to a mechanical player piano but capable of generating a wide variety of sounds. The vacuum tube system had to be patched to create timbres. In the 1960s synthesizers were still usually confined to studios due to their size. They were usually modular in design, their stand-alone signal sources and processors connected with patch cords or by other means and controlled by a common controlling device. Harald Bode, Don Buchla, Hugh Le Caine, Raymond Scott and Paul Ketoff were among the first to build such instruments, in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Buchla later produced a commercial modular synthesizer, the Buchla Music Easel. Robert Moog, who had been a student of Peter Robert Moog Mauzey and one of the RCA Mark II engineers, created a synthesizer that could reasonably be used by musicians, designing the circuits while he was at Columbia-Princeton. The Moog synthesizer was first displayed at the Audio Engineering Society convention in 1964. It required experience to set up sounds but was smaller and more intuitive than what had come before, less like a machine and more like a musical instrument. Moog established standards for control interfacing, using a logarithmic 1-volt-per-octave for pitch control and a separate triggering signal. This standardization allowed synthesizers from different manufacturers to operate simultaneously. Pitch control was usually performed either with an organ-style keyboard or a music sequencer producing a timed series of control voltages. During the late 1960s hundreds of popular recordings used Moog synthesizers. Other early commercial synthesizer manufacturers included ARP, who also started with modular synthesizers before producing all-in-one instruments, and British firm EMS.
Electronic musical instrument
Minimoog (1970, R.A.Moog)
In 1970, Moog designed the Minimoog, a non-modular synthesizer with a built-in keyboard. The analogue circuits were interconnected with switches in a simplified arrangement called "normalization." Though less flexible than a modular design, normalization made the instrument more portable and easier to use. The Minimoog sold 12,000 units. further standardized the design of subsequent synthesizers with its integrated keyboard, pitch and modulation wheels and VCO->VCF->VCA signal flow. It has become celebrated for its "fat" sound - and its tuning problems. Miniaturized solid-state components allowed synthesizers to become self-contained, portable instruments that soon began to be used in live performance and quickly became the most widely used synthesizer in both popular and electronic art music. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, DIY (Do it yourself) designs were published in hobby electronics magazines (notably the Formant modular synth, a DIY clone of the Moog system, published by Elektor) and kits were supplied by companies such as Paia in the US, and Maplin Electronics in the UK.
Yamaha GX-1 (ca.1973)
E-mu Modular System (ca.1973)
Sequential Circuits Prophet-5 (1977)
Electronic musical instrument
Many early analog synthesizers were monophonic, producing only one tone at a time. Popular monophonic synthesizers include the Moog Minimoog, and Roland SH-101. A few, such as the Moog Sonic Six, ARP Odyssey and EML 101, could produce two different pitches at a time when two keys were pressed. Polyphony (multiple simultaneous tones, which enables chords) was only obtainable with electronic organ designs at first. Popular electronic keyboards combining organ circuits with synthesizer processing included the ARP Omni and Moog's Polymoog and Opus 3. By 1976 affordable polyphonic synthesizers began to appear, notably the Yamaha CS-50, CS-60 and CS-80, the Sequential Circuits Prophet-5 and the Oberheim Four-Voice. These remained complex, heavy and relatively costly. The recording of settings in digital memory allowed storage and recall of sounds. The first practical polyphonic synth, and the first to use a microprocessor as a controller, was the Sequential Circuits Prophet-5 introduced in late 1977. For the first time, musicians had a practical polyphonic synthesizer that allowed all knob settings to be saved in computer memory and recalled by pushing a button. The Prophet-5's design paradigm became a new standard, slowly pushing out more complex and recondite modular designs.
Phonogene (1953) for musique concrète
  
In 1935, another significant development was made in Germany. Allgemeine Elektrizitäts Gesellschaft (AEG) demonstrated the first commercially produced magnetic tape recorder, called the "Magnetophon". Audio tape, which had the advantage of being fairly light as well as having good audio fidelity, ultimately replaced the bulkier wire recorders. The term "electronic music" (which first came into use during the 1930s) came to include the tape recorder as an essential element: "electronically produced sounds recorded on tape and arranged by the composer to form a musical composition") It was also indispensable to Musique concrète. Tape also gave rise to the first, analogue, sample-playback keyboards, the Chamberlin and its more famous successor the Mellotron, an electro-mechanical, polyphonic keyboard originally developed and built in Birmingham, England in the early 1960s.
Electronic musical instrument
One of the earliest digital sequencer, EMS Synthi Sequencer 256 (1971)
In 1951 former jazz composer Raymond Scott invented the first sequencer, which consisted of hundreds of switches controlling stepping relays, timing solenoids, tone circuits and 16 individual oscillators.
It was within this period (1966–67) that Reed Ghazala discovered and began to teach "circuit bending"—the application of the creative short circuit, a process of chance short-circuiting, creating experimental electronic instruments, exploring sonic elements mainly of timbre and with less regard to pitch or rhythm, and influenced by John Cage’s aleatoric music concept. Much of this manipulation of circuits directly, especially to the point of destruction, was pioneered by Louis and Bebe Barron in the early 1950s, such as their work with John Cage on the Williams Mix and especially in the soundtrack to Forbidden Planet.
The digital era 1980-2000
Synclavier I (1977)
Synclavier PSMT (1984)
Electronic musical instrument
Yamaha GS-1 (1980)
Yamaha DX7 (1983) and Yamaha VL-1 (1994)
The first digital synthesizers were academic experiments in sound synthesis using digital computers. FM synthesis was developed for this purpose, as a way of generating complex sounds digitally with the smallest number of computational operations per sound sample. In 1983 Yamaha introduced the first stand-alone digital synthesizer, the DX-7. It used frequency modulation synthesis (FM synthesis), first developed by John Chowning at Stanford University during the late sixties. Chowning exclusively licensed his FM synthesis patent to Yamaha in 1975. Yamaha subsequently released their first FM synthesizers, the GS-1 and GS-2, which were costly and heavy. There followed a pair of smaller, preset versions, the CE20 and CE25 Combo Ensembles, targeted primarily at the home organ market and featuring four-octave keyboards. Yamaha's third generation of digital synthesizers was a commercial success; it consisted of the DX7 and DX9 (1983). Both models were compact, reasonably priced, and dependent on custom digital integrated circuits to produce FM tonalities. The DX7 was the first mass market all-digital synthesizer. It became indispensable to many music artists of the 1980s, and demand soon exceeded supply. The DX7 sold over 200,000 units within three years. The DX series was not easy to program but offered a detailed, percussive sound that led to the demise of the electro-mechanical Rhodes piano. Following the success of FM synthesis Yamaha signed a contract with Stanford University in 1989 to develop digital waveguide synthesis, leading to the first commercial physical modeling synthesizer, Yamaha's VL-1, in 1994.
A Fairlight CMI keyboard (1979)
Kurzweil K250 (1984)
The Fairlight CMI (Computer Musical Instrument), the first polyphonic digital sampler, was the harbinger of sample-based synthesizers. Designed in 1978 by Peter Vogel and Kim Ryrie and based on a dual microprocessor
Electronic musical instrument computer designed by Tony Furse in Sydney, Australia, the Fairlight CMI gave musicians the ability to modify volume, attack, decay, and use special effects like vibrato. Sample waveforms could be displayed on-screen and modified using a light pen. The Synclavier from New England Digital was a similar system. Jon Appleton (with Jones and Alonso) invented the Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer, later to become the New England Digital Corp's Synclavier. The Kurzweil K250, first produced in 1983, was also a successful polyphonic digital music synthesizer, noted for its ability to reproduce several instruments synchronously and having a velocity-sensitive keyboard.
Max Mathews (1970s) playing realtime software instrument.
ISPW, a successor of 4X, was a DSP platform based on i860 and NeXT, by IRCAM.
An important new development was the advent of computers for the purpose of composing music, as opposed to manipulating or creating sounds. Iannis Xenakis began what is called "musique stochastique," or "stochastic music", which is a method of composing that employs mathematical probability systems. Different probability algorithms were used to create a piece under a set of parameters. Xenakis used graph paper and a ruler to aid in calculating the velocity trajectories of glissandi for his orchestral composition Metastasis (1953–54), but later turned to the use of computers to compose pieces like ST/4 for string quartet and ST/48 for orchestra (both 1962). The impact of computers continued in 1956. Lejaren Hiller and Leonard Isaacson composed Iliac Suite for string quartet, the first complete work of computer-assisted composition using algorithmic composition. In 1957, Max Mathews at Bell Lab wrote MUSIC-N series, a first computer program family for generating digital audio waveforms through direct synthesis. Then Barry Vercoe wrote MUSIC 11 based on MUSIC IV-BF, a next-generation music synthesis program (later evolving into csound, which is still widely used). In mid 80s, Miller Puckette at IRCAM developed graphic signal-processing software for 4X called Max (after Max Mathews), and later ported it to Macintosh (with Dave Zicarelli extending it for Opcode  ) for real-time MIDI control, bringing algorithmic composition availability to most composers with modest computer programming background.
Electronic musical instrument
In 1980, a group of musicians and music merchants met to standardize an interface by which new instruments could communicate control instructions with other instruments and the prevalent microcomputer. This standard was dubbed MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface). A paper was authored by Dave Smith of Sequential Circuits and proposed to the Audio Engineering Society in 1981. Then, in August 1983, the MIDI Specification 1.0 was finalized. The advent of MIDI technology allows a single keystroke, control wheel motion, pedal movement, or command from a microcomputer to activate every device in the studio remotely and in synchrony, with each device responding according to conditions predetermined by the composer.
MIDI, a LAN for music, enables connections between digital musical instruments
MIDI instruments and software made powerful control of sophisticated instruments easily affordable by many studios and individuals. Acoustic sounds became reintegrated into studios via sampling and sampled-ROM-based instruments.
Modern electronic musical instruments
The increasing power and decreasing cost of sound-generating electronics (and especially of the personal computer), combined with the standardization of the MIDI and Open Sound Control musical performance description languages, has facilitated the separation of musical instruments into music controllers and music synthesizers. By far the most common musical controller is the musical keyboard. Other controllers include the radiodrum, Akai's EWI, the guitar-like SynthAxe, the BodySynth , the Buchla Thunder, the Continuum Fingerboard, the Roland Octapad, various isomorphic keyboards including the Thummer, and Kaossilator Pro, and kits like I-CubeX.
Electronic musical instrument
The reactable is a round translucent table, used in a darkened room, and appears as a backlit display. By placing blocks called tangibles on the table, and interfacing with the visual display via the tangibles or fingertips, a virtual modular synthesizer is operated, creating music or sound effects.
AudioCubes are autonomous wireless cubes powered by an internal computer system and rechargeable battery. They have internal RGB lighting, and are capable of detecting each other's location, orientation and distance. The cubes can also detect distances to the user's hands and fingers. Through interaction with the cubes, a variety of music and sound software can be operated. AudioCubes have applications in sound design, music production, DJing and live performance.
The Kaossilator and Kaossilator Pro are compact instruments where the position of a finger on the touch pad controls two note-characteristics; usually the pitch is changed with a left-right motion and the tonal property, filter or other parameter changes with an up-down motion. The touch pad can be set to different musical scales and keys. The instrument can record a repeating loop of adjustable length, set to any tempo, and new loops of sound can be layered on top of existing ones. This lends itself to electronic dance-music but is more limited for controlled sequences of notes, as the pad on a regular Kaossilator is featureless.
The Eigenharp is a large instrument resembling a bassoon, which can be interacted with through touch-sensitive buttons, a drum sequencer and a mouthpiece. The sound processing is done on a separate computer.
Future electronic musical instruments
Electronic musical instrument
three degree of freedom on Continuum
Six degrees of freedom of the Sixense/Razer Hydra controller
According to a forum post  in December 2010, Sixense Entertainment is working on musical control with the Sixense TrueMotion motion controller. Immersive virtual musical instruments, or immersive virtual instruments for music and sound aim to represent musical events and sound parameters in a virtual reality so that they can be perceived not only through auditory feedback but also visually in 3D and possibly through tactile as well as haptic feedback, allowing the development of novel interaction metaphors beyond manipulation such as prehension.
 Electronic Musical Instrument 1870 - 1990 (http:/ / www. obsolete. com/ 120_years/ machines/ telegraph/ ), 2005, , retrieved 2007-04-09  Chadabe, Joel (February 2000), The Electronic Century Part I: Beginnings (http:/ / emusician. com/ tutorials/ electronic_century1/ ), Electronic Musician, pp. 74–89,  Vail, Mark (November 1, 2002), Eugeniy Murzin's ANS — Additive Russian synthesizer, Keyboard Magazine, p. 120  All the preceding instruments except those of Darreg and Murzin described in P. Scholes, The Oxford Companion to Music, 10th Ed. OUP, p.322  Manning, Peter (2004), Electronic and Computer Music (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=P2dClS4LdPQC), Oxford University Press US, pp. 129–132, ISBN 0195144848,  Weidenaar 1995.  Russcol 1972, 68.  Russcol 1972, 70.  Vail, Mark (October 1, 2003), Buchla Music Easel — Portable performance synthesizer, Keyboard Magazine, p. 108  Glinsky, Albert (2000), Theremin: Ether Music and Espionage, University of Illinois Press, p. 293, ISBN 0252025822  1970 Robert Moog Moog Music Minimoog Synthesizer (http:/ / mixonline. com/ TECnology-Hall-of-Fame/ moog-music-minimoog-090106/ ), Mix Magazine, September 1, 2006, , retrieved 2008-04-10  Montanaro, Larisa Katherine (May, 2004). "A Singer’s Guide to Performing Works for Voice and Electronics, PhD thesis Doctor of Musical Arts" (http:/ / www. lib. utexas. edu/ etd/ d/ 2004/ montanarolk042/ montanarolk042. pdf). The University of Texas at Austin. . "In 1969, a portable version of the studio Moog, called the Minimoog, became the most widely used synthesizer in both popular music and electronic art music"  Wells, Peter (2004), A Beginner's Guide to Digital Video, AVA Books (UK), p. 10, ISBN 2884790373  "Mellotron Mark VI (1999-) Images" (http:/ / www. mellotron. com/ mellotron_mk_vi_images. htm). Mellotron (Canada). . — Note: It has a speed selector switch on the red logo.  "Streetly Mellotron M4000" (http:/ / www. soundonsound. com/ sos/ oct07/ articles/ mellotronm4000. htm). . "Mellotron M4000's controll panel identical to the M400's, aside from the addition of four buttons and an LED display to operate the cycling mechanism."  "Digital Mellotron M4000D" (http:/ / www. mellotron. com/ mellotron_mk_vi_images. htm). Mellotron (Canada). . "The front panel user inteface has 2 TFT-displays of high quality and are capable of showing pictures of the actual instruments."  "Electronic music": Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. (http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ browse/ electronic music) (accessed: August 19, 2007)  Yabsley, Alex (2007-02-03). "Back to the 8 bit: A Study of Electronic Music Counter-culture" (http:/ / www. gamemusic4all. com/ backto8bit 4. html). Dot.AY. . "This element of embracing errors is at the centre of Circuit Bending, it is about creating sounds that are not supposed to happen and not supposed to be heard (Gard, 2004). In terms of musicality, as with electronic art music, it is primarily concerned with timbre and takes little regard of pitch and rhythm in a classical sense. ... . In a similar vein to Cage’s aleatoric music, the art of Bending is dependent on chance, when a person prepares to bend they have no idea of the final outcome."  Chowning, 1973
Electronic musical instrument
 Petzold, Charles (November 29, 1988), Riding the wave of sound synthesis: the origins of FM synthesis, PC Magazine, p. 232  Yamaha GS1 & DX1 (http:/ / www. soundonsound. com/ sos/ aug01/ articles/ retrofmpt1. asp), Sound On Sound, 06-2001, , retrieved 2008-04-10  Le Heron, Richard B.; Harrington, James W. (2005), New Economic Spaces: New Economic Geographies, Ashgate Publishing, p. 41, ISBN 0754644502  Three Yamaha products that reshaped the industry mark 20th anniversary (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_hb5264/ is_200402/ ai_n20430721), Music Trades, February 2004, pp. 70–74,  Colbeck, Julian (June 1997), Keyfax The Omnibus Edition, Hal Leonard Corporation, p. 208, ISBN 0918371082  Aikin, Jim (2003), Software Synthesizers: The Definitive Guide to Virtual Musical Instruments, Backbeat Books, p. 4, ISBN 0879307528  Holloway, David (July 1, 2006), Fairlight's Peter Vogel, Keyboard Magazine, p. 104  Scott, David (May 1984), Music computer - you draw sounds you want to hear, Popular Science, p. 154  1979 Fairlight CMI (http:/ / mixonline. com/ TECnology-Hall-of-Fame/ fairlight-computer-musical-090106/ index. html), Mix Magazine, September 1, 2006, , retrieved 2008-05-30  Battino, David; Kelli Richards, Stewart Copeland (2005), The Art of Digital Music (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=1cSfFMaR0QkC& pg=PA58& dq=Kurzweil+ K250& ei=3n8ASNmEGIuCyQT4keXPDA& sig=7nmpGx1BTQ4XDNDi3gDwa7zwPe4#PPA58,M1), Backbeat Books, p. 58, ISBN 0879308303,  Porter, M (July 1984), The Impact of the Kurzweil 250, Computers & Electronics, pp. 42–43  Schwartz 1975, 347.  Max at Opcode (http:/ / www. atpm. com/ 6. 05/ barline. shtml)  http:/ / www. synthzone. com/ bsynth. html  http:/ / sixense. com/ forum/ phpBB3/ viewtopic. php?t=61
• 120 Years of Electronic Music (http://www.obsolete.com/120_years/) • History of Electronic Music (http://sonhors.free.fr/) (French) • Tons of Tones !! : Site with technical data on Electronic Modelling of Musical Tones (http://tons-of-tone.tripod. com/index.html)
Electroacoustic music originated in Western art music during its modern era following the incorporation of electric sound production into compositional practice. The initial developments in electroacoustic music composition during the mid-20th century are associated with the activities of composers that were based at research studios in Europe and America at that time. These include the Groupe de Recherches Musicales at the ORTF in Paris, the home of musique concrete, the Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk (NWDR) studio in Cologne, where the focus was on the composition of elektronische Musik, and the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in New York, where tape music, electronic music, and computer music were all explored.
Most standard music history and reference texts date the formal birth of electroacoustic music to the late 1940s and early 1950s, and in particular to the work of two groups of composers whose æsthetic orientations were radically opposed: a Paris based collective centred around the practice of Musique Concrete and a group in Cologne who began experimenting with elektronische Musik. But isolated examples of the use of electroacoustic and prerecorded music exist that pre-date such developments. Ottorino Respighi used an (acoustical) phonograph recording of a nightingale’s song in his orchestral work The Pines of Rome in 1924, before the introduction of electrical record players; experimental filmmaker Walter Ruttmann created Weekend, a sound collage on an optical soundtrack in 1930; and John Cage used phonograph recordings of test tones mixed with live instruments in Imaginary Landscape no. 1 (1939), among other examples. In the first half of the Twentieth Century, a number of writers also advocated the use of electronic sound sources for composition, notably Ferruccio Busoni, Luigi Russolo, and Edgard Varèse,
Electroacoustic music and electronic performing instruments were invented, such as the Theremin in 1919, and the Ondes Martenot in 1928.
Tape music is a form of music which began soon after tape recording was invented, as people could now create sounds that were for the first time identical with each performance. Users of this new technology began to develop a new musical ethic around the idea of the created artificial sound; as now music no longer had to be related to live performance of instruments, but now, the recording itself is the performance. Electroacoustic music and particularly musique concrète made extensive use of magnetic tape, so much that the terms "tape music" and "musique concrete" were sometimes used interchangeably, though, strictly speaking, they are not necessarily the same thing. Before recording technology, "music" referred only to live music. So when the recording media first appeared, the transformation of the music paradigm was profound. The experience of listening to music was seldom repetitive before recording, unlike listening to a tape which is more or less identical at each hearing. In addition, this experience is also shared by everyone who listens to the same recording, making commonality of message and musical experience a unifying social ritual for the first time. Holmes (2008) cites the work of Halim El-Dabh as perhaps the earliest example of tape music. El-Dabh's The Expression of Zaar, first presented in Cairo, Egypt in 1944, but now lost, was an early work using musique concréte like techniques similar to those developed in Paris during the same period. El-Dabh would later become more famous for his work at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center, where in 1959 he composed the influential piece Leiyla and the Poet (Holmes 2008, 153–54 & 157). US composer John Cage's assembly of the Williams Mix serves as an example of the rigors of tape music. First, Cage created a 192-page score. Over the course of a year, 600 sounds were assembled and recorded. Cut tape segments for each occurrence of each sound were accumulated on the score. Then the cut segments were spliced to one of eight tapes, work finished on January 16, 1953. The premiere performance (realization) of the 4'15" work was given on March 21, 1953 at the University of Illinois, Urbana. The underlying philosophy of tape music spawned a whole new direction in musicianship, and music styles that would follow. Electronic music, electronica, New Age, hip hop and other incarnations are direct descendants of the original tape music philosophy. The musique concrète group was centered in Paris and was pioneered by Pierre Schaeffer; their music was based on the juxtaposition and transformation of natural sounds (meaning real, recorded sounds, not necessarily those made by natural forces) recorded to tape or disc.
In Cologne, elektronische Musik, pioneered in 1949–51 by the composer Herbert Eimert and the physicist Werner Meyer-Eppler, was based solely on electronically generated (synthetic) sounds, particularly sine waves (Eimert 1957, 2; Morawska-Büngeler 1988, 11–13; Ungeheuer 1992, 13). The beginning of the development of electronic music has been traced back to “the invention of the valve [vacuum tube] in 1906” (Eimert 1957, 2). The precise control afforded by the studio allowed for what Eimert considered to be the subjection of everything, “to the last element of the single note”, to serial permutation, “resulting in a completely new way of composing sound” (Eimert 1957, 8); in the studio, serial operations could be applied to elements such as timbre and dynamics. The common link between the two schools is that the music is recorded and performed through loudspeakers, without a human performer. While serialism has been largely abandoned in electroacoustic circles, the majority of electroacoustic pieces use a combination of recorded sound and synthesized or processed sounds, and the schism between Schaeffer’s and Eimert’s approaches has been overcome, the first major example being Karlheinz Stockhausen’s Gesang der Jünglinge of 1955–56 (Morawska-Büngeler 1988, 17; Stockhausen 1996, 93–94).
Sound generation techniques
All electroacoustic music is made with electronic technology. Some electroacoustic compositions make use of sounds not available to typical acoustic instruments, such as those used in a traditional orchestra. The interaction between sounds and the ways they are transfigured over time has been termed “spectromorphology” by the composer Denis Smalley (Smalley 1997). Electroacoustic as a term applied to describe musical instruments can mean that the sound of the instrument is generated acoustically, by strings for example, but that there is no traditional acoustic sound box. Amplification is accomplished through electronic pickups and amplifiers. Design of these instruments are typically cut down and very minimal and may consist of only a fingerboard, bridge, and tuning machines. The term electroacoustic can also mean that the instrument can be played either electrically or acoustically as in hollow body electric guitars. Both systems of amplification exist simultaneously in the same instrument and it will work well either way.
Audio feedback is a special kind of feedback which occurs when a sound loop exists between an audio input (for example, a microphone or guitar pickup) and an audio output (for example, a loudspeaker). While audio feedback is usually undesirable, it has entered into musical history as a desired effect beginning in the early 1960s. It is now well associated with the history of rock music where electric guitar players such as Pete Townshend and Jimi Hendrix have used it extensively. Some of the earliest users of guitar feedback were 1950s musicians with Albert Collins, Johnny “Guitar” Watson and Guitar Slim all independently recording and publishing music featuring that effect. Outside of the rock tradition, an early user of feedback was the contemporary American composer Robert Ashley who first used feedback as sound material in his work Wolfman (1964).
Circuit bending is the creative short-circuiting of low voltage, battery-powered electronic audio devices such as guitar effects, children’s toys and small synthesizers to create new musical instruments and sound generators. Emphasizing spontaneity and randomness, the techniques of circuit bending have been commonly associated with noise music, though many more conventional contemporary musicians and musical groups have been known to experiment with “bent” instruments (Collins 2006,).
Examples of notable electroacoustic works
• • • • • • • • • • • Milton Babbitt — Philomel (1964) Luciano Berio — Thema (Omaggio a Joyce) (1958–59) Pierre Boulez — Répons (1981–84) John Cage - Imaginary Landscape No. 1 (1939) Mario Davidovsky —Synchronisms No. 6 (1970) Halim El-Dabh — Leiyla and the Poet (1961) Karel Goeyvaerts — Nummer 5 met zuivere tonen (1953) Alvin Lucier — I Am Sitting in a Room (1970) Steve Reich — Pendulum Music (1968), for microphones, amplifiers, speakers and performers Pierre Schaeffer - Cinq études de bruits (1948) Karlheinz Stockhausen — Gesang der Jünglinge (1955–56), Kontakte (1958–60), Mixtur (1964), Mikrophonie I & II (1964 and 1965), Telemusik (1966), Hymnen (1966–67) • James Tenney — For Ann (rising) (1969) • Edgard Varèse — Poème électronique (1958)
Electronic and electroacoustic instruments
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Birotron (1974), Dave Biro Buchla Lightning I (1991) and Buchla Lightning II (1995), Don Buchla Cembaphon (1951), Harald Bode Chamberlin (1946) Clavinet Clavioline Bode  (early 1950s) and Concert Clavioline (1953), Harald • • • • • • Moog Synthesizer (1971), Harald Bode et al. Optigan (1971) Orchestron (1975), Vako Synthesizers Inc. Polychord (1950) and Polychord III (1951), Harald Bode Electronic Sackbut  (1945), Hugh Le Caine
Sampler (musical instrument)
DX7 (1983), Yamaha Elektronium (in German) EMS Synthi AKS (1972) Fairlight CMI (1978) Gravikord (1986), Robert Grawi Kraakdoos / Cracklebox (1960s–70s), Michel Waisvisz Mellotron (1960s) Melochord (1947–49), Harald Bode Melodium (1938), Harald Bode
• • • • • •
Synclavier (1975), Jon Appleton, Sydney A. Alonso and Cameron Jones Telharmonium (1897), Thaddeus Cahill Theremin (1928), Léon Theremin Tuttivox (1953), Harald Bode UPIC (1977), Iannis Xenakis and CEMAMu Warbo Formant organ (1937), Harald Bode
Centers, associations and events for electroacoustics and related arts
Important centers of research and composition can be found around the world, and there are numerous conferences and festivals which present electroacoustic music, notably the International Computer Music Conference, the International Conference on New interfaces for musical expression, the Bourges International Electroacoustic Music Festival (Bourges, France), and the Ars Electronica Festival (Linz, Austria). A number of national associations promote the art form, notably the Canadian Electroacoustic Community (CEC) in Canada, the Society for Electro-Acoustic Music in the United States (SEAMUS) in the US, the Australasian Computer Music Association in Australia and New Zealand, and Sound and Music (previously the Sonic Arts Network) in the UK. The Computer Music Journal and Organised Sound are the two most important peer-reviewed journals dedicated to electroacoustic studies, while several national associations produce print and electronic publications.
• • • • FUTURA  — Festival international d’art acousmatique et des arts de support (Crest, France) Inventionen  (Berlin) SICMF  — Seoul International Computer Music Festival 60x60
Conferences and symposiums
Alongside paper presentations, workshops and seminars, many of these events also feature concert performances or sound installations created by those attending or which are related to the theme of the conference / symposium. • ICMC — International Computer Music Conference (coordinated by International Computer Music Association  since 1974) • NIME — International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression  (since 2000) • SEAMUS — Society for Electro-Acoustic Music National Conference (coordinated by SEAMUS  since 1985)
Electroacoustic music • TES  — Toronto Electroacoustic Symposium (since 2007)
 Chaudron, André. "Williams Mix" (http:/ / www. johncage. info/ workscage/ williamsmix. html). John Cage database. . Retrieved 9 July 2011.  http:/ / www. hughlecaine. com/ en/ sackbut. html  http:/ / www. soundonsound. com/ sos/ mar07/ articles/ clavioline. htm  http:/ / www. festivalfutura. fr  http:/ / inventionen. de  http:/ / computermusic. or. kr  http:/ / computermusic. org  http:/ / www. nime. org  http:/ / www. seamusonline. org  http:/ / cec. sonus. ca/ events/ TES
• Anon. 2007. Untitled (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=lvo4AQAAIAA). The Wire 275-280 (Accessed 5 June 2011) • Collins, Nicolas. 2006. Handmade Electronic Music: The Art of Hardware Hacking. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-97592-1 (pbk) • Eimert, Herbert. 1957. “What is Electronic Music?” Die Reihe 1 [English edition] (“Electronic Music”): 1–10. • Holmes, Thom (2008). "Early Synthesizers and Experimenters" (http://books.google.co.uk/ books?id=hCthQ-bec-QC&pg=PA156). Electronic and experimental music: technology, music, and culture (3rd ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0415957818. Retrieved 2011-06-04. • Morawska-Büngeler, Marietta. 1988. Schwingende Elektronen: Eine Dokumentation über das Studio für Elektronische Musik des Westdeutschen Rundfunk in Köln 1951–1986. Cologne-Rodenkirchen: P.J. Tonger Musikverlag. • Smalley, Denis. 1997. “Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound-Shapes.” Organised Sound 2, no. 2:107–26. • Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 1996. “Electroacoustic Performance Practice.” Perspectives of New Music 34, no. 1 (Fall): 74-105. • Ungeheuer, Elena. 1992. “Wie die elektronische Musik „erfunden” wurde…: Quellenstudie zu Werner Meyer-Epplers musikalische Entwurf zwischen 1949 und 1953.” Kölner Schriften zur Neuen Musik 2, edited by Johannes Fritsch and Dieter Kämper. Mainz: B. Schott’s Söhne. ISBN 3-7957-1891-0 • Wishart, Trevor. 1996. On Sonic Art. New and revised edition. Contemporary Music Studies 12. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers. ISBN 3-7186-5846-1 (cloth) ISBN 3-7186-5847-X (pbk) ISBN 3-7186-5848-8 (CD) • Wright, Edward. 2010. " A Portfolio of Work Focusing on the Tensions Between Electroacoustic and Instrumental Music (http://www.symbiosisphd.orgSymbiosis:)". PhD diss. Bangor: Bangor University.
• Beecroft, Norma. 2009. “ Electronic Music in Toronto and Canada in the Analogue Era (http://cec.sonus.ca/ econtact/11_2/.html).” eContact! 11.2 — Figures canadiennes (2) / Canadian Figures (2) (July 2009). Montréal: CEC. • Chadabe, Joel. 1997. Electric Sound: The Past and Promise of Electronic Music. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-303231-0 • Emmerson, Simon (ed.). 1986. The Language of Electroacoustic Music. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-39759-2 (cased); ISBN 0-333-39760-6 (pbk)
Electroacoustic music • Emmerson, Simon (ed.). 2000. Music, Electronic Media and Culture. Aldershot (UK) and Burlington, Vermont (USA): Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-0109-9 • Gann, Kyle. 2000a. " It’s Sound, It’s Art, and Some Call It Music (http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage. html?res=9A05E0DB163BF93AA35752C0A9669C8B63)." New York Times (January 9) • Gann, Kyle. 2000. " MUSIC; Electronic Music, Always Current (http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage. html?res=9C07E7D71039F93AA35754C0A9669C8B63).” New York Times (July 9). • Griffiths, Paul. 1995. Modern Music and After: Directions Since 1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-816578-1 (cloth) ISBN 0-19-816511-0 (pbk.) • Heifetz, Robin Julian. 1989. On the Wires of Our Nerves: The Art of Electroacoustic Music. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses Inc. ISBN 0-8387-5155-5 • Kahn, Douglas. 2001. Noise, Water, Meat: A History of Sound in the Arts. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-61172-4 • Licata, Thomas (ed.). 2002. Electroacoustic Music: Analytical Perspectives. Contributions to the Study of Music and Dance, 0193-9041; no. 63. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-31420-9 • Manning, Peter. 2004. Electronic and Computer Music. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514484-8 (hardback) ISBN 0-19-517085-7 (pbk.) • Roads, Curtis. 1996. The Computer Music Tutorial. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-18158-4 (cloth) ISBN 0-262-68082-3 (paper) See also the “ Electroacoustic Bibliography (http:/ / cec. sonus. ca/ econtact/ 8_4/ bibliography. html)” published in eContact! 8.4 — Ressources éducatives / Educational Resources (Montréal: CEC) for an annotated “‘essential reading list’ for electroacoustics, including books, journals and other resources relating to electroacoustics”.
Key journals for electroacoustics and sound art
• Computer Music Journal (http://www.computermusicjournal.org). Published quarterly by MIT Press. • eContact! (http://econtact.ca). Freely available online, four themed issues published each year by the Canadian Electroacoustic Community. • Organised Sound (http://journals.cambridge.org/oso). Three themed issues published each year by De Montfort University (Leicester UK). See also the “ Electroacoustic Bibliography (http:/ / cec. sonus. ca/ econtact/ 8_4/ bibliography. html#journals)” published in eContact! 8.4 — Ressources éducatives / Educational Resources (Montréal: CEC) for an annotated list of journals publishing articles related to electroacoustics.
A folk instrument is an instrument that developed among common people and usually doesn't have a known inventor. It can be made from wood, metal or other material. It is a part of folk music. The instruments can be percussion instruments, different types of flutes, the bow and different types of trumpets. Some instruments are referred to as folk instruments even if they do not meet the criteria for classifying a folk instrument because they commonly appear in folk music. An example would be harmonica.
List of folk instruments
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Accordion Appalachian dulcimer autoharp bagpipe balalaika bandura banjo bağlama bodhran bukkehorn Rhythm Bones bouzouki and Irish bouzouki Bullroarer cavaquinho charango cümbüş çiftelia concertina daegeum darbuka didgeridoo dhol Djembe dholak dingulator dotara dranyen drum ektara erhu fiedil / Fiddle Fujara gayageum
The cavaquinho is a Portuguese folk instrument.
• gudok • guitar • gusle
Folk instrument • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • gusli haegeum Hank drum hardingfele harmonica harmonium hammered dulcimer haat baya hurdy gurdy jaw harp jouhikko jug kazoo kantele Kaval khamak klopotec kobza komuz kora kulintang Launeddas Låtfiol Lur Lute mbira / thumb piano mandola mandocello mandolin and octave mandolin marimbula melodeon mridangam musical saw naal Nepali Madal nyckelharpa ocarina pan flute pipa pogo cello prem juri quena Rebab Rubab salamiyyah
• shofar • sitar
Folk instrument • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Snare Drum smallpipes sopilka spilåpipa steelpan stompbox Talking drum tin whistle trembita oud Udu ukulele violin vuvuzela washboard willow flute zampoña zurna zither zealouser Zhaleika
Over 75 instruments
Stylistic origins Ambient music House music Synthpop Electro music Late 1980s, United Kingdom and Japan Electronic musical instruments, some ambient artists use traditional instrumentation of almost any variety
Mainstream popularity Low Derivative forms Ambient techno – Trance – Intelligent dance music (complete list) Other topics Ambient music artists
Ambient house, a music genre that first emerged in the late 1980s, is a sub-genre of house music, combining elements of acid house and ambient music. Tracks in the ambient house genre typically feature four-on-the-floor beat patterns, synthesisers (sometimes known as synth pads), and vocal samples integrated in a style classed as atmospheric("atmospheric style").
Birth of ambient house
In 1989, Paul Oakenfold ran the Acid house night at Heaven, and Dr. Alex Paterson ran a chill-out counterpart in the White Room. There, Paterson (soon to be front man in The Orb) spun Brian Eno, Pink Floyd, and 10CC songs at low volume and accompanied them with multiscreen video projections. Around the same time, in the East End of London, so-called Spacetime parties were held at Cable Street. These parties, organized by Jonah Sharp, were designed to encourage conversation rather than dance, and featured Mixmaster Morris. The ambient house movement began in the late 1980s largely due to the demand for post-rave "come-down" music. It was founded mainly by The Orb members Alex Paterson and Jimmy Cauty. They drew from various influences, particularly Yellow Magic Orchestra (active since the late 1970s), an electronic music group frequently cited as a pioneer of ambient house music, in addition to influences from Steve Reich, Brian Eno, reggae music, and 1970s psychedelic rock, including Pink Floyd. Inspired by the house music played by DJs such as Larry "Mr. Fingers" Heard, Paterson and Cauty began DJ-ing and composing experimental music. The Orb established the genre in 1989 as DJs during night-club events called The Land of Oz, based at the night-club Heaven. After a recording session with John Peel later that year, The Orb released the twenty-minute "A Huge Ever Growing Pulsating Brain That Rules from the Centre of the Ultraworld", which featured "bright, translucent sounds" and "tinkl[ing]" keyboards, as well as heavily sampling Minnie Riperton's "Lovin' You". Out of Paterson and Cauty's sessions at Trancentral studio, came Cauty and Bill Drummond's KLF album Chill Out (which featured no credit to Paterson ). As one of the first ambient house albums, The Grove Dictionary of Music describes it as "a 1980s pop culture version of musique concrète". After splitting from The Orb, Cauty finished work on his own album Space, and Paterson's Orb
Ambient house went on to create the single "Little Fluffy Clouds" – both important works of ambient house. In 1991, The Orb released the album The Orb's Adventures Beyond the Ultraworld, featuring both of their previous singles. Combining Moog synthesizers with religious chorales and audio clips of the Apollo 11 rocket launch, The Orb popularized the "spacy" sound of ambient house. The musicians of The KLF stopped their musical production in 1992, whilst in the same year The Orb released the single "Blue Room"which was to become their most successful, reaching eighth place in the UK singles chart. At forty minutes, it was the longest single to reach the UK charts. An edited form of it appeared on The Orb album U.F.Orb later that year. U.F.Orb brought in dub influences into ambient-house. In the years after the release of their live album, Live 93, The Orb largely stopped their ambient-house music production, instead concentrating on producing more "metallic" music. Ambient house was taken up in large part by artists such as Juno Reactor, Pete Namlook, Aphex Twin and Tetsu Inoue.
Major ambient house artists
• 808 State • Aphex Twin • • • • • • • • • Biosphere Boards of Canada Global Communication Juno Reactor Tetsu Inoue The KLF The Orb System 7 Yellow Magic Orchestra
• • • • • • • • • The Orb - "A Huge Ever Growing Pulsating Brain That Rules from the Centre of the Ultraworld" (1989/1990) Jimmy Cauty - Space (1990) The KLF - Chill Out (1990) Biosphere - Microgravity (1991) The Orb - Adventures Beyond the Ultraworld (1991) The Orb - U.F.Orb (1992) The Irresistible Force - Flying High (1992) Pete Namlook - Air (1993) Tetsu Inoue - Ambiant Otaku (1994)
    "Ambient House" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ explore/ style/ ambient-house-d3257). Allmusic. . Retrieved 2011-07-17. Reynolds, Simon. Generation ecstasy: into the world of techno and rave culture. New York: Routledge, 1999. Yellow Magic Orchestra (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ p5886) at Allmusic. Retrieved 2011-05-25. Prendergast, Mark. The Ambient Century: From Mahler to Moby-The Evolution of Sound in the Electronic Age. London: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2003.  Fulford-Jones, Will. "Ambient house", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 4 October 2006), grovemusic.com (http:/ / www. grovemusic. com/ ) (subscription access).
Lounge music is a retrospective description of music popular in the 1950s and 1960s. It is a type of mood music meant to evoke in the listeners the feeling of being in a place — a jungle, an island paradise, outer space, et cetera — other than where they are listening to it. The range of lounge music encompasses beautiful music-influenced instrumentals, modern electronica (with chillout, nu-jazz and downtempo influences), while remaining thematically focused on its retro-space-age cultural elements. The earliest type lounge music appeared during the 1920s and 1930s, and was known as light music. Contemporaneously, the term lounge music also denotes the types of music played in hotels (the lounge, the bar), casinos, and piano bars.
Exotica, space-age pop, and some forms of easy listening music popular during the 1950s and 1960s are now broadly termed lounge. The term lounge does not appear in textual documentation of the period, such as Billboard magazine or long playing album covers, but has been retrospectively applied. While rock and roll was generally influenced by blues and country, lounge music was derived from jazz and other musical elements borrowed from traditions around the world. Exotica from such artists Les Baxter, Martin Denny and Arthur Lyman sold millions of records during its heyday. It combined music that was popular outside the USA, such as various Latin genres (e.g., Bossa Nova, Cha-Cha-Cha, Mambo), Polynesian, French, etc. into a relaxed, palatable sound. Such music could have some instruments exaggerated (e.g., a Polynesian song might have an exotic percussion arrangement using bongos, and vocalists imitating wild animals.) Many of these recordings were portrayed as originating in exotic foreign lands, but in truth were recorded in Hollywood recording studios by veteran session musicians. Another genre, space age pop, mimicked space age sound effects of the time and reflected the public interest in space exploration. With the advent of stereophonic technology, artists such as Esquivel used spatial audio techniques to full effect, creating whooshing sounds with his orchestra. A good deal of lounge music was pure instrumental (i.e., no main vocal part, although there could be minor vocal parts). Sometimes, this music would be theme music from movies or TV shows, although such music could be produced independently from other entertainment productions. These instrumentals could be produced with an orchestral arrangement, or from an arrangement of instruments very similar to that found in jazz, or even rock and roll such as the Hammond Organ or electric guitar.
Swinging music of the era is also considered lounge and consisted of a schmaltzy continuation of the swing jazz era of the 1930s and 1940s, but with more of an emphasis on the vocalist. The legendary Rat Pack of Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, and Sammy Davis Jr., along with similar artists such as Bobby Darin, Jackie Gleason, Wayne Newton, Louis Prima, Sonny King, and Sam Butera are notable examples. The music of Burt Bacharach was soon featured as part of many lounge singers' repertoires. Such artists performed mainly at featured lounges in Las Vegas casinos. Lounge singers have a lengthy history stretching back to the decades of the early twentieth century. The somewhat derisive term lounge lizard was coined then, and less well known lounge singers have often been ridiculed as dinosaurs of past eras and parodied for their smarmy delivery of standards. In any event, these lounge singers, perhaps performing in a hotel or cocktail bar, are usually accompanied by one or two other musicians, and they favor cover songs composed by others, especially pop standards, many deriving from the days of Tin Pan Alley.
Lounge music Many well known performers got their start as lounge singers and musicians. Although he claims not to have worked for very long, Billy Joel worked as a lounge musician and penned the song "Piano Man" about his experience. Not all lounge singers, however, sing lounge music.
Lounge emerged in the late 1980s as a label of endearment by younger fans whose parents had played such music in the 1960s. It has enjoyed resurgences in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s, led initially by iconic figures such as Buster Poindexter and Jaymz Bee. In the early 1990s the lounge revival was in full swing and included such groups as Combustible Edison, Love Jones, The Cocktails, Pink Martini and Nightcaps. Alternative band Stereolab demonstrated the influence of lounge with releases like Space Age Bachelor Pad Music and the Ultra-Lounge series of lounge music albums. The lounge style was starkly in contrast to the grunge music that dominated the period.  These groups wore suits and played music inspired by earlier works of Antonio Carlos Jobim, Juan García Esquivel, Louis Prima and many others. In the 2000s Richard Cheese and Lounge Against the Machine has added to this resurgence by covering (usually profane) hit songs of other genres (primarily metal and hip hop) in the style of a lounge singer. In 2004, the Parisian band, Nouvelle Vague, released a self-titled album in which they covered songs from the '80s post-punk and new wave genres in the style of Bossa Nova. Other artists have taken lounge music to new heights by recombining rock with pop, such as Jon Brion, The Bird and the Bee, Triangle Sun, Pink Martini, the Buddha-Lounge series, and the surrounding regulars of Café Largo. The movie The Rise and Fall of Black Velvet Flag (2003) is a documentary about three older punk rockers who created a lounge-punk band.
In the 1980 movie The Blues Brothers, most of the members of the band were reduced to performing as "Murph and the Magictones" (headlining at a Holiday Inn) after band leader Jake Blues went to prison. Interestingly, when the band takes a break to speak with Jake and his brother Elwood, Murph switches on a Muzak version of Just the Way You Are, performed by Billy Joel, a former lounge musician himself. In the 1984 cult film, Repo Man directed by Alex Cox, the Circle Jerks perform as a very great, ironic lounge act, grinding out a slow, "swinging" version of their normally raucous When the Shit Hits the Fan. The 1989 film The Fabulous Baker Boys starred Jeff Bridges, Beau Bridges, and Michelle Pfeiffer as a successful lounge act. The film Swingers was set during the late 1990s lounge and swing revival in Los Angeles, and featured legendary performers like Dean Martin, Louis Jordan and Tony Bennett, as well as modern lounge acts like Love Jones, Joey Altruda and Big Bad Voodoo Daddy. In the movie Jerry Maguire, Renée Zellweger's "manny" claims that lounge music and singers ruined classic jazz.
Andy Kaufman created a character called Tony Clifton. A parody of show biz entitlement and excess, Clifton is untalented, lazy (often not bothering to remember the words to the songs), and abusive to his audiences. Bill Murray also portrayed a particularly bad lounge singer on Saturday Night Live, Nick The Lounge Singer, best known for providing his own lyrics to the John Williams theme from Star Wars and performing an over-the-top version of the Morris Albert hit "Feelings". Later, Will Ferrell and Ana Gasteyer portrayed a goofy married duo of lounge-style musicians, but in unlikely venues such as high school dances. Part of the humor derived from the incongruous application of their "nerdy" and outdated style to performances of current pop-music hits. British comedians Mel Smith and Griff Rhys Jones appeared as a cheesy keyboard and bass duo during the end credits of one series of their
Lounge music long-running sketch show.
 Melissa Ursula Dawn Goldsmith, "Lounge Caravan: A Selective Discography," Notes 61, no. 4 (2005): 1060. Available at Project Muse at "http:/ / muse. jhu. edu/ journals/ notes/ v061/ 61. 4goldsmith. html"  Album notes for Exotica! The Best of Martin Denny by Martin Denny [CD]. Rhino Records (R2 70774).  "American Notes LAS VEGAS--- Stop the Music!" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,958377,00. html). Time. August 21, 1989.  Sean Elder. "Bill Murray" (http:/ / archive. salon. com/ people/ bc/ 2001/ 02/ 06/ murray/ index1. html). Salon.com. . Retrieved 2008-01-18.  Spindler, Amy M. (March 7, 1995). "Review/Fashion; Chic Prevails Over Grunge" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=990CE1DE133FF934A35750C0A963958260). New York Times. . Retrieved 2007-12-12.  Lacayo, Richard (May 25, 1998). "Ring-A-Ding Ding" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,988394,00. html). Time. . Retrieved 2008-01-17.
Stylistic origins Cultural origins Typical instruments Ambient, electronica, New Age Early-1990s, Europe. Various software synthesizers, loops
Mainstream popularity Medium-High since 1990's Fusion genres Downtempo, trip hop, ambient house, chillwave
Chill out music (sometimes also chillout, chill-out, or simply chill) is an umbrella term for several styles of electronic music characterized by their mellow style and mid-tempo beats — "chill" being derived from a slang injunction to "relax." Chill out music emerged in the early and mid-1990s in "chill rooms" at dance clubs, where relaxing music was played to allow dancers a chance to "chill out" from the more emphatic and fast-tempo music played on the main dance floor. The genres associated with chill-out are mostly ambient, trip-hop, nu jazz, ambient house, New Age and other sub-genres of downtempo. Sometimes the easy listening sub-genre lounge is considered to belong to the chill-out collection as well. Chill out as a musical genre or description is synonymous with the more recently popularized terms "smooth electronica" and "soft techno" and is a loose genre of music blurring into several other very distinct styles of electronic and lo-fi music.
The earliest mentioned "chill out room" was at the legendary Madchester nightspot, Konspiracy. In these rooms, visitors would find couches, comfortable pillows, psychedelic light shows projecting entrancing images and music that was decidedly downtempo, especially when compared to what was going on a few feet away on the dance floor. Its history began in the UK, with post-punk band The Durutti Column being an abstract influence on the genre in the '80s. Higher Intelligence Agency (the HIA) helped move the chill room concept from sideshow to main event Renowned sunset at the Café del Mar in Ibiza with their Oscillate chill party events in Birmingham and elsewhere in the early to mid nineties. Their first releases came out on the now defunct Beyond record label and soon thereafter in the U.S. on the Waveform label - who describes the music as 'exotic electronica.' In 1990 the KLF released their seminal ambient house album named Chill Out.
Chill-out music A number of compilations with "Chill Out" in their titles were released in the mid-1990s and beyond, helping to establish the genre as being very closely related to downtempo and trip hop but also incorporating, especially in the early 2000s, slower tempo varieties of house music, nu-jazz, psybient, and lounge music of approximately 80 to 110bpm . The genre also includes some forms of trance music, ambient music, and IDM, and it has entirely subsumed the older genre Balearic Beat, although that term is still used interchangeably with chill out. Chill out is generally tonal, relaxing (or at least not as "intense" as other music from the styles it draws from), although when used to describe the music played in chillout rooms at raves, it can also encompass extremely psychedelic experimental sounds of great variety.
Chill-room club culture
An entire culture surrounding chill out music has evolved, with many fashionable bars and clubs, designed with a retro or retro-futuristic ambience, devoted to the genre. Ministry of Sound in London has hosted many chill out events in places such as Ibiza and there are hundreds of mix compilation titles including the words "chill out" or just "chill" that cater for the chill out audience. As of 2005 "chill out" is recognized by all major UK dance magazines and their charts. Ministry of Sound released an album in 2008 named "Chilled"; they described the songs in the album "the best chill out songs from 1991 to 2008." Chill out rooms at dance clubs fill a safety need for users of Ecstasy, which has had problems and deaths due to dehydration or heat stroke. In 1992 a UK rule required dance clubs to provide free water and chill out rooms in response to a number of Ecstasy-related injuries and deaths.
A few notable DJs that specialize in chill out and have achieved popularity are: Chicane, Roger Shah, Blank & Jones, Triangle Sun, Ryan Farish, José Padilla, Chris Coco, Pete Lawrence, Alex Paterson, Björk, Nujabes (Jun Seba) and Mixmaster Morris. Some of the labels with the most important rosters of chill out artists and DJs, and largest catalogs of releases and compilations are (also in no order of precedence): ESL Music, G-Stone Recordings, !K7, Instinct Records, Hearts of Space, Café del Mar, Water Music, Pork Recordings, Ninja Tune, Mole Listening Pearls, Six Degrees Records, Beyond Records, Waveform, Compost Records, and Ultimae. The chill out genre's increased following was noticed by the Ministry of Sound, a record label which specializes in dance music, which then began to produce a series of albums called The Chillout Sessions.
Mandala Meditation Music By Ney Angelis  Fly Away With Me by Alien Tribe shows an example of Chill with the use of vocals and a cascading style rhythm structure 
 The Chillout Room at the Konspiracy nightclub was mentioned by journalist James Style, in his review of the Madchester scene, for The Independent, May 23, 1990.  Foster, Jonathan. "Free water rule to raise safety at rave clubs", The Independent (London), December 16, 1992, Page 5 (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ uk/ free-water-rule-to-raise-safety-at-rave-clubs-1563816. html)  http:/ / soundcloud. com/ productora-digital/ mandala-meditation-music-ney  http:/ / soundcloud. com/ alientribe/ fly-away-with-me-alien-tribe-320kbits-44100-stereo-may15-2010
Stylistic origins Cultural origins Typical instruments Mainstream popularity Derivative forms Soul jazz, ambient, electronic music, groove music, jazz, funk, dub, hip hop Early 1990s, United Kingdom Synthesizers, Electronic musical instruments, Personal computer, Sampler occasional use of instruments include Guitar, Bass, Drums, Keyboard, Organ, Percussion, Brass, Strings, Rhodes, Flute Medium, mainly based in the United Kingdom
Downtempo (or Downbeat) is a laid-back electronic music style similar to ambient music, but usually with a beat or groove unlike the beatless forms of Ambient music. The beat is sometimes made from loops that have a hypnotic feeling. Sometimes the beats are more complicated and more featured instead of being in the background, but even then they are usually less intense than other kinds of electronic music like Trance. Often the name chill-out music is used to refer to songs demonstrative of the genre, but those names also refer to other styles of music, and downtempo encompasses a wider variety of styles than those terms alone would indicate. Another related genre is trip hop, though downtempo usually uses a slower tempo than trip hop. Due to the relaxing and often sensual or romantic feel of most downtempo music, it is a popular form of background music in 'chill out rooms' of dance parties, and many alternative cafes.
The 1990s brought on a wave of slower paced music which was played throughout chillout rooms—the relaxation sections of the clubs or dedicated sections at electronic music events. Downtempo music started to surface around Ibiza, when DJs and Promoters would bring down the vibe with slower rhythm and gentler electronic music upon approaching sunrise. In 1994, trip hop emerged from Bristol, which combined elements of hip hop beats, drum and bass breaks, and ambient atmospheres at a lower tempo. At the end of 1990s a more melodic instrumental electronica incorporating acoustic sounds with electronic styles emerged under its own umbrella name of downtempo. In the late 1990s, the Austrian duo Kruder & Dorfmeister popularized the style with their downtempo remixes of pop, hip-hop, and drum and bass tracks with influences of the '70s soul jazz. The British Steve Cobby and Dave McSherry, producing under the name Fila Brazillia, released a handful of downtempo, electronica and ambient techno albums that propelled the style further. Meanwhile the Washington, D.C. locals Eric Hilton and Rob Garza, better known as Thievery Corporation, have introduced the Brazilian sound into the style after discussing the music of Antonio Carlos Jobim, and enriched it further by combining elements of Jamaican dub and reggae.
List of notable downtempo acts
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Air Boards of Canada Bowery Electric Bibio DJ Cam Enigma Fila Brazillia Kruder & Dorfmeister Sephira  Shpongle Sneaker Pimps Röyksopp Tosca The Cinematic Orchestra Thievery Corporation Triangle sun Zero 7 Bottlesmoker Bonobo The Weeknd Rae and Christian Portishead DJ Frane Blockhead (music) Bluetech
 "Pandora FAQ" (http:/ / blog. pandora. com/ faq/ index. html#310). . Retrieved 2009-09-15.  Dalling, John (2006). "Chillout and Downtempo Electronic Music, a History" (http:/ / www. toucanmusic. co. uk/ articles/ chillout. html). . Retrieved 2007-03-26.  Johnson, Martin (2002-02-17). "Downtempo: A Genre With Plenty in Reserve". The Washington Post. p. G4.  http:/ / seph. net
Stylistic origins Industrial music Ambient music Musique concrète 1980s and 1990s, Europe and United States Electronic musical instruments, field recordings Low Fusion genres Ambient noise - Illbient - Black ambient Other topics List of dark ambient artists - List of electronic music genres - Dark psytrance - Drone metal
Cultural origins Typical instruments Mainstream popularity
Dark ambient is a subgenre of ambient music that features foreboding, ominous, or discordant overtones. Although it had its roots in the 1970s, Dark ambient emerged in the 1980s and 1990s with the introduction of newer, smaller, and more affordable Effects units, synthesizer and sampling technology. Dark ambient is an unusually diverse genre, related to industrial music, noise, ethereal wave, and black metal, yet generally free from derivatives and connections to other genres or styles.
Dark ambient evolved partially based on several of Brian Eno's early collaborations that had a distinctly dark or discordant edge, notably "An Index of Metals" (from Evening Star (1975)), a collaboration with Robert Fripp that incorporated harsh guitar feedback, the ambient pieces on the second half of David Bowie's Low (1977) and "Heroes", Fourth World, Vol. 1: Possible Musics (1980), a collaboration with Jon Hassell, and particularly the fourth installment of his ambient series, On Land (1982), which had many deeply spatial elements, often utilising field recordings to foreboding effect. An important early precursor of the genre was Tangerine Dream's early double-album Zeit, which was unlike most of their subsequent albums in abandoning any notion of rhythm or definable melody in favour of "darkly" sinuous, occasionally disturbing sonics. Burzum is the pioneer of black metal dark ambient. Ambient industrial projects like Coil, Lilith, Lustmord, Zoviet France, and Nocturnal Emissions evolved out of industrial music during the 1980s, and were some of the earliest artists to create consistently "dark" ambient music. These artists make use of industrial principles  such as noise and shock tactics, but wield these elements with more subtlety.  Additionally, ambient industrial often has strong occultist tendencies, with a particular leaning toward magick, as expounded by Aleister Crowley, and chaos magic, often giving the music a ritualistic flavor. (In fact, a sub-genre dubbed "Ritual Ambient" has evolved in recent years, exemplified by work of such groups as Herbst9 and Desiderii Marginis, amongst others.) Ambient industrial is one of several directions that post-industrial music took on after the breakup of Throbbing Gristle in 1981. The last material that TG recorded in the studio, In the Shadow of the Sun and Journey Through a Body, was ambient, and pointed in the direction that several of TG's offshoots (notably Coil and CTI) would take.
Dark ambient Among the many artists who produce ambient industrial are Cabaret Voltaire, S.P.K., Coil, CTI, Lab Report, Lustmord, Hafler Trio, Nocturnal Emissions, Zoviet France, PGR, Akira Yamaoka, Thomas Köner, Controlled Bleeding, early Techno Animal, Robin Rimbaud, Final and Deutsch Nepal. Many of these artists are eclectic in their output, with much of it falling outside of ambient industrial. Ambient industrial often consists of evolving dissonant harmonies of drones and resonances, low frequency rumbles and machine noises, sometimes supplemented by gongs, percussive rhythms, bullroarers, distorted voices and other found sounds, often processed to the point where the original sample cannot be recognized. Entire works may be based on radio telescope recordings (Arecibo Trans-Plutonian Transmissions), the babbling of newborn babies (Nocturnal Emissions Mouths of Babes), or sounds recorded through contact microphones on telegraph wires (e.g. Alan Lamb's Primal Image). In the late 1980s and early 1990s, an ethereal wave trend emerged within the dark wave movement, that tended toward moody atmospheric pieces rather than jangly minor-key rock. Ethereal wave was mainly associated with the Projekt record label, with bands like Black Tape for a Blue Girl composing moody ambient soundscapes. By the mid-1990s, a large number of artists were working in ambient industrial, ambient noise, ethereal wave, illbient, isolationism, and other emerging "dark ambient" styles. Among these artists were Endura, Autopsia, Vidna Obmana, Daniel Menche, Deca, Lull, Raison d'etre, Hwyl Nofio, Hieronymus Bosch, and Velvet Cacoon. In the same time dark ambient vibrated into contemporary classical music. Example of this can be project Aghiatrias, the solo works of composer Vladimír Hirsch, and composer Jessie Martin under the name TakeMeToTheMorgue Generally the music tends to evoke a feeling of solitude, melancholy, confinement, and isolation. However, while the theme in the music tends to be "dark" in nature, some artists create more organic soundscapes. Examples of such productions are those of Oöphoi, Alio Die, Mathias Grassow, Tau Ceti, and Klaus Wiese. The Symphonies of the Planets series, a collection of works by NASA and Brain/Mind Research in which planetary electromagnetic waves are captured by the Voyager unmanned space probes and converted into audible sound, can also be considered an organic manifestation of dark ambient.
It has been said that noise music is a 'relative' or 'sister' genre to dark ambient, or vice-versa. Noise is considered unpleasant and dark, as is dark ambient. Some noise artists create almost ambient soundscapes, such as Aube, Junkielover, MOZ, Daniel Menche, Kiyoshi Mizutani, Iszoloscope, and some Merzbow. Some, for example Iszoloscope, also compose ambient on the side, such as his Les Gorges Des Limbes album. While the two genres cannot really compare sound wise, many labels, such as Ant-Zen, release both ambient and noise, as well as combinations of both, taking both avant-garde genres further.
 "Dark Ambient Music" (http:/ / www. synthtopia. com/ Articles/ ElectronicMusicStylesDark. html). Synthtopia.com. . Retrieved March 19, 2010.  Brandon Stosuy (October 31, 2008). "Show No Mercy" (http:/ / www. pitchforkmedia. com/ article/ feature/ 146846-column-show-no-mercy). Pitchfork. . Retrieved October 31, 2008.  http:/ / music. hyperreal. org/ epsilon/ info/ industrial_principles. html  (http:/ / music. hyperreal. org/ epsilon/ info/ werner_notes. html)  (http:/ / headbangersblog. mtv. com/ 2008/ 11/ 20/ brutal-truth-drummer-blends-ambient-industrial-experimental-film-for-new-project-peacemaker/ )  Lucan, Lord (2000-07-26). "Throbbing Gristle - In The Shadow Of The Sun" (http:/ / www. headheritage. co. uk/ unsung/ review/ 146). Julian Cope Presents Head Heritage (http:/ / www. headheritage. co. uk). . Retrieved 2009-03-15.  Robert Lamb, "Symphonies of the Planets: Music from the Hearts of Space?", HowStuffWorks, September 15, 2009. (http:/ / blogs. howstuffworks. com/ 2009/ 09/ 15/ symphonies-of-the-planets/ )
Stylistic origins Indian classical music  Experimental music  Minimalist music  1960s experimental rock Electronic musical instruments, guitars, string instruments, electronic postproduction equipment
Mainstream popularity Low, mainly in ambient, metal and electronic music fanbases Fusion genres Drone metal (alias Drone doom)
Drone music is a minimalist musical style that emphasizes the use of sustained or repeated sounds, notes, or tone-clusters – called drones. It is typically characterized by lengthy audio programs with relatively slight harmonic variations throughout each piece compared to other musics. La Monte Young, one of its 1960s originators, defined it in 2000 as "the sustained tone branch of minimalism". Drone music  is also known as drone-based music, drone ambient or ambient drone, dronescape or the modern alias dronology, and often simply as drone. Explorers of drone music since the 1960s have included Theater of Eternal Music (aka The Dream Syndicate: La Monte Young, Marian Zazeela, Tony Conrad, Angus Maclise, John Cale, et al.), Charlemagne Palestine, Eliane Radigue, Philip Glass, Kraftwerk, Klaus Schulze, Tangerine Dream, Sonic Youth, The Velvet Underground, Robert Fripp & Brian Eno, Steven Wilson, Kyle Bobby Dunn, Robert Rich, Steve Roach, Earth, Rhys Chatham, Coil, If Thousands, John Cage, Labradford, Lawrence Chandler, Stars of the Lid, Sonic Boom, Phill Niblock, Sheila Chandra, Hwyl Nofio, Janek Schaefer and Sunn O))).
Ethnic or spiritual music which contains drones and is rhythmically still or very slow, called "drone music", can be found in many parts of the world, including bagpipe traditions, among them Scottish pibroch piping; didgeridoo music in Australia, South Indian classical carnatic music and Hindustani classical music (which is accompanied almost invariably by the tambura, a four-string instrument which is only capable of playing a drone); the sustained tones found in the Japanese gagaku classical tradition; possibly (disputed) in pre-polyphonic organum vocal music of late medieval Europe; and the Byzantine chant's ison (or drone-singing, attested after the fifteenth century). Repetition of tones, supposed to be in imitation of bagpipes,    is found in a wide variety of genres and musical forms. However, the lineage of stillness and long tones occurring in classical compositions during adagio movements, including, for instance, the third movement of Anton Webern's Five Small Pieces for Orchestra, as well as in Northern European folk musics in the form of "slow airs" has directly descended into modern popular and electronic music. The modern genre also called drone music  (called "dronology" by some books, labels and stores, to differentiate it from ethnic drone-based music) is often applied to artists who have allied themselves closely with underground music and the post-rock or experimental music genres. Drone music also fits into the genres of found sound, minimalist music, dark ambient, drone doom/drone metal, and noise music. Most often utilizing electronic instruments or electronic processing of acoustic instruments, they typically create dense and unmoving harmonies and a stilled or "hovering" sense of time. While the hallmarks of drone music are easy to recognize, the backgrounds and goals of the artists vary greatly.
Drone music Pitchfork Media and Allmusic journalist Mark Richardson defined it thus: "The vanishing-point music created by drone elders Phill Niblock and, especially, LaMonte Young is what happens when a fixation on held tones reaches a tipping point. Timbre is reduced to either a single clear instrument or a sine wave, silence disappears completely, and the base-level interaction between small clusters of "pure" tone becomes the music's content. This kind of work takes what typically helps us to distinguish "music" from "sound," discards nearly all of it, and then starts over again from scratch." As summarized in a review, "Drone music is about as far away from music as you can get before it stops being music [...] In the beginning, there was the word, and the word was oooooommmmmmm. God was, apparently, a drone music pioneer, and there is something religious about this music... or rather, something spiritual."
La Monte Young and the Theater of Eternal Music
La Monte Young, fascinated with "the sound of the wind blowing", the "60 cycle per second drone" of "step-down transformers on telephone poles", the tanpura drone and the alap of Indian classical music, "certain static aspects of serialism, as in the Webern slow movement of the Symphony Opus 21", and Japanese gagaku "which has sustained tones in it in the instruments such as the Sho", started writing music incorporating sustained tones in 1957 with the middle section of Four Brass, then in 1958 what he describes as "the first work in the history of music that is completely composed of long sustained tones and silences" with Trio for Strings, before exploring this drone music within the Theater of Eternal Music that he founded in 1962. The Theater of Eternal Music is a multi-media performance group who, in its 1960s–1970s heyday included at various times La Monte Young, Marian Zazeela, Tony Conrad, Angus MacLise, Terry Jennings, John Cale, Billy Name, Jon Hassell, Alex Dea and others, each from various backgrounds (classical composition and performance, painting, mathematics, poetry, jazz, etc.). Operating from the world of lofts and galleries in New York in the mid-sixties to the mid-seventies in particular, and tied to the aesthetics of Fluxus and the post-John Cage-continuum, the group gave performances on the East Coast of the United States as well as in Western Europe comprised long periods of sensory innundation with combinations of harmonic relationships, which moved slowly from one to the next by means of "laws" laid out by Young regarding "allowable" sequencies and simultaneities, perhaps in imitation of Hindustani classical music which he, Zazeela and the others either studied or at least admired. The group released nothing during their lifetime (although Young and Zazeela issued a collaborative LP in 1969, and Young contributed in 1970 one side of a flexi-disc accompanying Aspen magazine ). The concerts themselves were influential on their own upon the art world including Karlheinz Stockhausen (whose Stimmung bears their influence most strikingly)  and the drone-based minimalist works of dozens of other composers many of whom made parallel innovations including Young classmate Pauline Oliveros, or Eliane Radigue, Charlemagne Palestine, Yoshi Wada, Phill Niblock and many others. Then group member John Cale went on to extend and popularize this work into 1960s rock music with the Velvet Underground (along with songwriter Lou Reed). In 2000, La Monte Young wrote: "[About] the style of music that I originated, I believe that the sustained tone branch of minimalism, also known as “drone music,” is a fertile area for exploration."
John Cale and the Velvet Underground
The combination of Cale's grinding viola drone with Reed's two-chord guitar figure of the Velvet Underground's song "Heroin" on their first album, The Velvet Underground & Nico (1967) laid the foundation for drone music as a rock music genre in close proximity to the art-world project of the Theatre of Eternal Music. Cale's departure from the group in 1968 blurred matters considerably, as Reed continued to play primitive figures (sometimes in reference to R&B), while Cale went quickly on to produce the Stooges' debut (1969), including his viola drone on the track "We Will Fall" and Nico's The Marble Index (1969) which also included Cale's viola drone on "Frozen Warnings". Later, Lou Reed issued in 1975 a double LP of multi-tracked electric-guitar feedback titled Metal Machine Music which listed (misspelling included) "Drone cognizance and harmonic possibilities vis a vis Lamont Young's Dream
Drone music Music" among its "Specifications".
George Harrison and the Beatles
Several songs by The Beatles, the most popular and influential group of the 1960s, include drones. Drawing on George Harrison's studies and friendship with Hindustani classical sitarist, Ravi Shankar, from 1966's Love You To through 1967's The Inner Light, many of Harrison's compositions include the tambura, an instrument dedicated in Indian music to harmonic stasis. John Lennon's Tomorrow Never Knows, a quasi-mystical song based around text from the Tibetan Book of the Dead also includes the tambura and is sung around a pedal-point drone, as in medieval Western liturgical music.
In the late sixties and early seventies German rock musicians including Can, Neu! and Faust drew from the heritage of experimental sixties rock like the Beatles at their most collagic and jamming as well as from composers like Stockhausen and La Monte Young. These groups became influential on art-rock contemporaries in their own day and punk-rock and post-punk players subsequently.  Tony Conrad, of the Theater of Eternal Music, notably made a collaborative LP with Faust which included nothing but two sides of complex violin drones accompanied only by a single note on bass guitar and a bloody-minded percussion accompaniment. Single-note bass-lines were also featured on Can's track "Mother Sky" (album Soundtracks, 1970) and the entirety of Die Krupp's first album (1979).
New age, cosmic and ambient music
Parallel to Krautrock's rockist impulses, across North America and Europe, some musicians sought to reconcile Asian classicalism, austere minimalism and folk music's consonant aspects in the service of spiritualism. Among them was Theater of Eternal Music alumnus Terry Riley with his 1964 In C   and who had become a disciple, along with Young and Zazeela, of the Hindustani classical singer Pandit Pran Nath. In parallel, then-Krautrock band Tangerine Dream and their recently departed member Klaus Schulze both moved toward a more contemplative and consonant harmonic music, each releasing their own drone music album on the label Ohr in August 1972 (Zeit and Irrlicht, respectively). Meanwhile, as increasingly elaborate studio technology was born during the seventies, Brian Eno, an alumn of the glam/art-rock band Roxy Music postulated ambient music (drawing, in part from John Cage and his antecedent Erik Satie's 1910s concept of furniture music, in part from minimalists such as La Monte Young) as "able to accommodate many levels of listening attention without enforcing one in particular; it must be as ignorable as it is interesting". While his late seventies ambient tape-music recordings are not drone music, his acknowledgment of Young ("the daddy of us all") and his influence on later drone music made him an undeniable link in the chain.
Shoegaze and indie-drone
In the UK, a crop of 1980s rock bands appeared who owed greater or lesser debts to the Velvet Underground, Krautrock, and subsequent droning trends. Cocteau Twins, Coil, My Bloody Valentine, Slowdive, The Jesus and Mary Chain, Ride, Loop (who covered Can's "Mother Sky") Brian Jonestown Massacre (Methodrone album) and Spacemen 3 (who used a text by Young for the liner notes to their record Dreamweapon: An Evening of Contemporary Sitar Music, a live 45-minute drone piece), for instance reasserted the influence of the Velvet Underground and its antecedents in their use of overwhelming volume and hovering sounds, even as they asserted rockish and propulsive rhythms. Sonic Youth uses a large number of guitars with alternate tunings to emphasise the drone in almost all of their songs. They also quite often prolong notes in their song structures to add more droning in their song. Pelt and Charalambides expanded them further still while referring to eighties and nineties noise music,
Drone music Metal Machine Music-derived performers like Merzbow, C.C.C.C., and KK Null.
Electronics and metal
In the late 1990s and early 2000s, drone music was intermixed with rock, ambient, dark ambient, electronic and new-age music. Many drone music originators, including Phill Niblock, Eliane Radigue and La Monte Young are still active and continute to work exclusively in long, sustained tones. Improvisors like Hototogisu and Sunroof! play nothing but sustained fields which are close to drones. Sunn O))), a drone metal band, almost exclusively plays sustained tone pieces, and their peers Merzbow and Boris released a collaborative 62-minute drone piece called Sun Baked Snow Cave in 2005.
Some notable examples include, chronologically: • Yves Klein: as a precedent, his 1949 Monotone Symphony (formally The Monotone-Silence Symphony, conceived 1947–1948) is an orchestral 40-minute piece whose first movement is an unvarying 20-minute drone (the second and last movement being a 20-minute silence).  • La Monte Young's 1958 Trio for Strings, that he describes as "the first work in the history of music that is completely composed of long sustained tones and silences." • Giacinto Scelsi's 1959 piece Quattro pezzi su una nota sola for one pitch and numerous subsequent pieces by himself and his followers and contemporaries in the realm of spectral composition. • La Monte Young's 1960s drone-based pieces, solo and with John Cale, Tony Conrad, Marian Zazeela, Terry Riley, Angus MacLise, Terry Jennings and/or Billy Name in the Theater of Eternal Music (aka The Dream Syndicate), including: Day of Niagara: Inside the Dream Syndicate, Vol. I (1965/2000). • The "free form freakout" leading into The Red Crayola's "Pink Stainless Tale" from their Parable of Arable Land album (1967). • Late 1960s–1980s work by minimal composers and gallery artists Yoshimasa Wada (The Rise and Fall of the Elephantine Serpentine), John Cale (Sun Blindness Music, 1965–1968/2001; Dream Interpretation: Inside the Dream Syndicate, Vol. II, 1965–1968/2001; Stainless Gamelan: Inside the Dream Syndicate, Vol. III, 1965-1968/2002), Tony Conrad solo (Joan of Arc, 1968/2006) and with Faust (Outside the Dream Syndicate, 1973; Outside the Dream Syndicate Alive, 1995/2005), Terry Fox (Berlino), Harry Bertoia, Jon Gibson (Two Solo Pieces), Charlemagne Palestine (In Mid Air, 1967–1970/2003; Four Manifestations on Six Elements, 1974/1996; Schlingen-Blängen, 1988/1999), David Hykes (Hearing Solar Winds), Pauline Oliveros (Horse Sings From Cloud), Alvin Lucier (Music on a Long, Thin Wire), Harley Gaber (The Wind Rises in the North), Stuart Dempster (In the Great Abbey of Clement VI), and Remko Scha (Machine Guitars), to name only a few. All used long, sustained and timbrally dense harmonic material for the entirety of various of their pieces. • Philip Glass: within the 61-minute Music with Changing Parts(fr) (1970, recorded 1971, issued 1973) parts 1-2 and 4 (on original LP; single-track CD has them around 0-16, 16-36, and 50-61 mins) are based around drones from wind instruments and sustained voices, rythmed with a slowly-evolving whirlwind of electric organ (which goes solo on the non-drone part 3). • Kraftwerk's experimental/drone self-titled first album Kraftwerk (1970): the 4-minute intro to "Stratovarius", the organ drone on most of "Megaherz", the first half of "Vom Himmel Hoch". • Harold Budd's 1970 experimental drone pieces "The Oak of the Golden Dreams" and "Coeur D'Orr" on The Oak of the Golden Dreams. • Klaus Schulze's early "organ drone" albums Irrlicht (1972), and to a lesser extent the mix of drone and space on Cyborg (1973) (the organ drone track "Synphära", the cello drone track "Chromengel"). • Tangerine Dream's ambient drone album Zeit (1972), and to a lesser extent the mix of drone ambient and space music on Phaedra (1974).
Drone music • Fripp and Eno: the 21-minute drone ambient of "The Heavenly Music Corporation" on No Pussyfooting (1973), the 28-minute drone ambient of "An Index of Metals" on Evening Star (1975). Fripp revisited guitar drone in 1998 with the 3-minute intro of "Sus-tayn-Z" (a play on "sustains") from the Live Groove album of King Crimson's ProjeKct Two. • On Miles Davis' Agharta (1975): the last 6 minutes of the last track, especially the last 2 minutes. • Jon Hassell's Vernal Equinox (1977) • Robert Rich's early albums Sunyata (1982), Trances (1983), Drones (1983). • Steve Roach: the drone ambient album Structures from Silence (1984). • Coil's drone music albums How to Destroy Angels EP (1984) and How to Destroy Angels (Remixes and Re-Recordings) LP (1992), Time Machines (1998), and to a lesser extent ANS (2003). Plus many tracks on non-drone albums, such as "Tenderness of Wolves" on Scatology (1984), "Wrim Wram Wrom" on Stolen and Contaminated Songs (1992), "Cold Dream of an Earth Star" and "Die Wolfe Kommen Zuruck" on Black Light District: A Thousand Lights in a Darkened Room (1996), "North" on Moon's Milk (1998 singles). (Plus many semi-drone tracks such as "Her Friends the Wolves...", "Moon's Milk or Under an Unquiet Skull Part 1", "Bee Stings", "Refusal of Leave to Land", "Magnetic North", etc.) • Vidna Obmana: half of Noise/Drone Anthology (1984-1989/2004), the drone-ambient album Soundtrack for the Aquarium (1992/2001), and the drone ambient "night disc" (percussionless disc two) of Well of Souls (1995, with Steve Roach). • John Cage: the 23-minute strings piece "Twenty-Three" (late 1980s). • On Aphex Twin's Selected Ambient Works Volume II (1994): especially "[spots]" and "[tassels]", and to a lesser degree tracks such as "[tree]", "[parallel stripes]", "[grey stripe]", and "[white blur 2]". • Labradford: the drone ambient album Prazision LP (1993), and to a lesser extent a few drone-rock tracks on A Stable Reference (1995) and Labradford (1996). • Kyle Bobby Dunn and his patient drones for electric guitar and chamber instruments are full of movement and detail, yet throughout all the tiny changes, an uncanny stillness prevails. Nearly two hours of minimal, lulling and romantic drone on the double album, A Young Person's Guide to Kyle Bobby Dunn. "Going down in history as a master of 21st century minimalist drone."  Sedimental has been following Dunn’s sensitive and world-wise drone works closely for many years. “…there’s an austere classical air to Dunn’s compositions, recalling the geometry of cathedral domes and the interlaced ribs of vaulted ceilings.” -The Wire Magazine  • Stars of the Lid (described as "Austin drone stars" in 1995 ): the overwhelming majority of their work, from Music for Nitrous Oxide (1995) and Gravitational Pull vs. the Desire for an Aquatic Life (1996) to the more classical-tinged The Tired Sounds of Stars of the Lid (2001) and Stars of the Lid and Their Refinement of the Decline (2007). • Mystical Sun: the drone ambient album Primordial Atmospheres (1994), especially the track Journey to Samadhi which fuses 33 minute drones with binarual beats. • Sheila Chandra's album ABoneCroneDrone (1996) consists of minimalist vocal phrases over complex electronic drones combined with acoustic drones. She found melodies inherent within the harmonics of the drones, so that the music was incomplete without the listeners finding their own melodies arising from the drones, as she invited the listeners to be creators. She continued this approach onto her next album, This Sentence Is True (The Previous Sentence Is False). This work developed from her previous explorations based in Indian music using drones such as the tambura. • Bowery Electric's "Postscript" on the album Beat (1996). • Gescom (a side-project of Autechre): the experimental album Minidisc (1998) is half drone ambient (tracks "Cranusberg [1-3]", "Fully [1-2]", "Shoegazer", "Polarized Beam Splitter [1-5]", "Dan Dan Dan [1-4]", "A Newer Beginning [1-2]", "Go On", and to a lesser degree "Interchangeable World [1-3]", "Yo! DMX Crew", "New Contact Lense", "1D Shapethrower", "Inter", "Of Our Time", or the drone techno of "Pricks [1-4]"). • Radiohead's "Treefingers" (on the album Kid A, 2000) is a cross of drone ambient and space music.
Drone music • Biosphere : half of his ambient/drone album Shenzhou (2002), and his drone album Autour de la Lune (2004). • Boards of Canada : the drone ambient of "Corsair" on Geogaddi (2002). • Wilco's album A Ghost Is Born (2004) contains "Less Than You Think", a 15-minute track containing ~12 minutes of droning ambience after a brief piano-based melody. • Contemporary drone composers such as Phill Niblock, Leif Elggren, Eliane Radigue • Dark ambient, noise music, post-industrial music and improvised music bands and projects involved with drone music include Autopsia, Die Krupps, KK Null, Zoviet France, Matthew Bower's Hototogisu, C.C.C.C., Merzbow, Wapstan. • Other contemporary bands representative of this genre include Maeror Tri, Children of the Drone, Windy & Carl, Troum, Mirko Uhlig, House of Low Culture, Growing, Cisfinitum, Hwyl Nofio, and Eleh Some important hearths for bands in the genre include Soleilmoon or Drone Records. • "The Barometric Sea" by Deepspace is drone-based, taking in many ambient and drone influences. • The Music of Stray Ghost is mostly drone-influenced, and showcases a blurring between classical string sounds and drones. • Most of Bethany Curve's songs are drone-based, made only with guitars. • Erik Wøllo: the electronic drone ambient album The Polar Drones (2003). • Steven Wilson's side project, Bass Communion, uses drone, noise, supernatural, and ambient textures. Wilson's solo debut Insurgentes (2008) also contains various drone and noise elements throughout. • If Thousands' album "Lullaby" (2003) is intended to aid slumber through the use of keyboards, guitars, and field recordings to build up a captivating atmosphere that mimics a state of near-sleep. • Janek Schaefer's 'Local Radio Orchestra' for 12 x digital audio players, 24 x short range FM transmitters, and 12 x portable FM Radios, broadcasting a drone ensemble across the entire FM dial for you to tune out and tune in.
 From experimental music, not ambient music: Although drone is now seen as a subgenre of both Minimalism and Ambient, Ambient came in part from Drone, not the other way around (cf. below citations of Cook & Pople 2004, p. 502, and ambient founder Eno's quote about Young)  Cox & Warner 2004, p. 359 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=FgDgCOSHPysC& vq=dronology& pg=PA359& sig=ACfU3U0HuS7q0UW-_E1qIjGHij4mj7q6Ew) (in "Post-Rock" by Simon Reynolds): "The Velvets melded folkadelic songcraft with a wall-of-noise aesthetic that was half Phil Spector, half La Monte Young—and thereby invented dronology, a term that loosely describes 50 per cent of today's post-rock activity." (about the Velvet Underground and post-rock)  Young 2000, p. 27  Early use of "drone music" as an ethnic or spiritual, drone-based music can be found such as in 1958 (American Musicological Society, JAMS (Journal of the American Musicological Society), 1958, p. 255 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=rZw5AAAAIAAJ& q="the+ mystery+ of+ drone+ music+ in+ antiquity"& pgis=1#search_anchor): "Remarks such as those on drone effects produced by double pipes with an unequal number of holes provoke thoughts about the mystery of drone music in antiquity and about primitive polyphony.") or 1972 (Barry S. Brook & al., Perspectives in Musicology, W. W. Norton, 1972, ISBN 0-393-02142-4, p. 85 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=QKe0AAAAIAAJ& q="the+ persistence+ of+ drone+ music+ from+ the+ Middle+ Ages+ to+ the+ present+ day"& pgis=1#search_anchor): "My third example of the force of tradition concerns another large problem, the persistence of drone music from the Middle Ages to the present day.")  Early use of "drone music" as a non-ethnic, new or experimental genre can be found such as in 1974 (Michael Nyman, Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond, Studio Vista, 1974, ISBN 0-02-871200-5, p. 20 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=RVGzAAAAIAAJ& q="LaMonte+ Young's+ drone+ music"& pgis=1#search_anchor): "[...] LaMonte Young's drone music [...]") or again 1974 (cf. "drone-music" in the Hitchcock 1974 quote about Riley)  "Drone-based music" is used for instance in 1995 (Paul Griffiths, Modern music and after: Directions Since 1945, Oxford University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-19-816511-0, p. 209 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=OYQy92PzNgYC& pg=PA209): "Young founded his own performing group, the Theatre of Eternal Music, to give performances of highly repetitive, drone-based music"), or in Cow & Warner 2004 (cf. cited quote of p. 301).  "Drone ambient" is used for instance on Allmusic, such as in the review of Soundtrack for the Aquarium ("representative of the drone ambient side of his work"). (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ album/ r545376)  "Ambient drone" is used for instance on Allmusic (and thus mirrored on VH1, Amazon, etc.), such as in the biography of Stars of the Lid ("Ambient drone duo Stars of the Lid") (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ p169016) or de:Mathias Grassow ("widely recognized as 'the King of the Ambient Drone' ") (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ p294430) or on PopMatters ("experimental no-man’s-lands like ambient drone" (http:/ / www. popmatters. com/ pm/ review/ stars-of-the-lid-and-their-refinement-of-the-decline/ ), "seminal works of ambient drone" (http:/ /
www. popmatters. com/ pm/ review/ fennesz-and-sakamoto-cendre/ )).  "Dronescape" is used for instance on Allmusic, such as in the review of New York Noise, Vol. 2 ("one of Sonic Youth's first known recordings, the dronescape 'I Dreamed I Dream,' ") (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ album/ r822975)  The independent record store Aquarius Records, in this catalog page (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20020905042752/ http:/ / aquariusrecords. org/ cat/ t6. html) (Archive.org copy of 2002), claims: "Here at Aquarius, we've coined such neologisms as "dronology" and "fuckery", simply because we hope that such words offer enough connotation even without a lot of context."  A precedent directly cited by La Monte Young, see his quote below (Zuckerman 2002).  Speculated in 1988 by French musicologist Marcel Pérès of Ensemble Organum (as summarized here (http:/ / www. analogion. com/ Isokratema. html)) but disputed in a master thesis (Robert Howe, "The Performance of Mediæval Music in Contemporary Culture", PDF file (http:/ / www. google. com/ search?q=cache:www. rob-rah. com/ Downloads/ MA. pdf), p. 6-8)  "there is no clear testimony to the use of the ison until after the fifteenth century" (in St. Anthony's Monastery, "Introduction to Byzantine Chant", p. 1 (http:/ / www. stanthonysmonastery. org/ music/ Intro. htm)). Elsewhere is specified: "The earliest notification of the custom appears to have been made in 1584 by the German traveller, Martin Crusius." (in Dimitri E. Conomos (Oxford University), "A Brief Survey of the History of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Chant" (http:/ / www. stanthonysmonastery. org/ music/ History. htm), section "7. Post-Byzantine Era")  Rosamond E. M. Harding, Origins of Musical Time and Expression, Oxford University Press, 1938, Part 2 "Studies in the imitation of musical instruments by other instruments and by voices", p. 42 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=1KUnAAAAMAAJ& q="IMITATION+ OF+ BAGPIPES:+ Bagpipes+ may+ be"& pgis=1#search_anchor)- 43 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=1KUnAAAAMAAJ& q="sufficient+ to+ characterize+ Bagpipe+ influence,+ if+ not+ a+ direct+ imitation. + The+ first+ is+ the+ drone"& pgis=1#search_anchor): "IMITATION OF BAGPIPES: Bagpipes may be called a world-instrument, since they are found in most parts of the world. They are also of considerable antiquity, being known to the ancient Egyptians. [...] There are three characteristics of Bagpipe imitations all three of which may be present at the same time and any one of which is sufficient to characterize Bagpipe influence, if not a direct imitation. The first is the drone, usually placed in the bass, and consisting of one note alone or of two or three notes played together. A drone consisting of two adjacent notes sounded alternately is also typical. Dr. Naylor, in his work An Elizabethan Virginal Book, has drawn attention to the fact that many early English melodies are founded on a drone consisting of two alternating notes, and that the Northumbrian Bagpipe had alternative drones and an arrangement for changing the note of the drones."  George Grove, Stanley Sadie, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Macmillan Publishers, 1st ed., 1980 (ISBN 0-333-23111-2), vol. 7 (Fuchs to Gyuzelev), "André-Ernest-Modeste Grétry", p. 708 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?q=isbn:0333231112+ "couplet+ form,+ simplicity+ of+ style,+ straightforward+ rhythm,+ drone+ bass+ in+ imitation+ of+ bagpipes"): "in L'épreuve villageoise, where the various folk elements - couplet form, simplicity of style, straightforward rhythm, drone bass in imitation of bagpipes - combine to express at once ingenuous coquetry and sincerity."  Leroy Ostransky, Perspectives on Music, Prentice-Hall, 1963, p. 141 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=cWm0AAAAIAAJ& q="musette,+ which+ is+ a+ gavotte+ over+ a+ drone+ bass,+ an+ imitation+ of+ bagpipes"& pgis=1#search_anchor): "GAVOTTE. A dance consisting of two lively strains in 4/4 time, usually with an upbeat of two quarter-notes. It sometimes alternates with a musette, which is a gavotte over a drone bass, an imitation of bagpipes."  David Wyn Jones, Music in Eighteenth-Century Austria, Cambridge University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-521-02859-0, p. 117 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=BKo9z4UCO7sC& pg=PA117): "Table 5.1 - Pastoral traits in eighteenth-century masses [...] II - Harmony: A) Drones in imitation of bagpipes"  "drone music" is also used in The Cambridge History of Twentieth-century Music (cf. Cook & Pople 2004, p. 551 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=g3NweXtHo7wC& pg=PA551), about the Theatre of Eternal Music: "his drone music [...] Young went on to develop this early drone music into intricate and extended compositions") or on Pitchfork Media ("During that time I wanted my drone music to have as prickly an edge as possible" (http:/ / www. projekt. com/ projekt/ product. asp?sku=KRA00059)).  "Dronology" is used for instance as a genre tag at Aquarius Records (who claim they coined it (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20020905042752/ http:/ / aquariusrecords. org/ cat/ t6. html)), Chemical Records (http:/ / www. chemical-records. co. uk/ sc/ downloadstore/ genre/ 37), Epitonic.com (http:/ / www. epitonic. com/ genres/ dronology. html), and Last.fm (http:/ / www. lastfm. fr/ tag/ dronology).  Mark Richardson, "Stars of the Lid: And Their Refinement of the Decline" (http:/ / www. pitchforkmedia. com/ article/ record_review/ 42058-and-their-refinement-of-the-decline) review, April 3, 2007, www.pitchforkmedia.com  Callum Zeff, "The Dream Syndicate" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20030116002445/ http:/ / www. godsofmusic. com/ gom/ articles. php?action=detail& ID=136) (Archive.org copy of 2003) — A review that's also an overview of drone music.  Zuckerman 2002.  Young, Zazeela, and Hindustani classical music: Mela Foundation, "Pandit Pran Nath Memorial Tributes" (http:/ / www. melafoundation. org/ Raga07VI29. htm), www.melafoundation.org (quoting The Eye, the SPIC MACAY (Society for the Promotion of Indian Classical Music and Culture Amongst Youth) quarterly magazine): "He [Young] is a master of Hindustani classical music. La Monte Young and Marian Zazeela, founders of the MELA Foundation Dream House in New York are responsible for having single-handedly introduced vocal Hindustani classical music to America. In 1970 when they brought renowned master vocalist Pandit Pran Nath of the Kirana Gharana to the U.S. and became his first Western disciples, studying with him for twenty-six years in the traditional gurukula manner of living with the guru, [...]"  La Monte Young & Marian Zazeela, vinyl LP (limited to 2800 copies) dubbed The Black Record (1969), Munich: Edition X, featuring two side-long compositions. (http:/ / www. discogs. com/ release/ 381760) (http:/ / www. melafoundation. org/ discogra. htm)
 Flexi-disc "Jackson MacLow / La Monte Young" (http:/ / www. ubu. com/ aspen/ aspen8/ audio8. html), Side B: credited "Drift Study 31 1 69 by La Monte Young" (full title is "Excerpt from Drift Study 31 I 69 12:17:33 - 12:49:58 PM", (http:/ / www. melafoundation. org/ discogra. htm) from its recording date and time), accompanying Young's article "Notes on Continuous Periodic Composite Sound Waveform Environment Realizations" (http:/ / www. ubu. com/ aspen/ aspen8/ waveform. html), in Aspen no. 8 "The Fluxus Issue" (http:/ / www. ubu. com/ aspen/ aspen8/ ), New York: Aspen Communications Inc., NYC., Fall-Winter, 1970-1971.  Potter 2002, p. 89 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=sc61Gy3r8HAC& pg=PA89): "[Young's] influence on already established composers who were themselves his student mentors is not, however, confined to Cage. Karlheinz Stockhausen's exploration of the harmonic series, notably in Stimmung (1968), has often been linked to Young's example. [...] The German composer seems to have visited Young and Zazeela when in New York, in 1964 or 1965, and listened to a rehearsal of The Theatre of Eternal Music. He requested tapes of the group's performances which, perhaps surprisingly, Young gave him. Stockhausen's own musicians visited Young and Zazeela's Dream House installation in Antwerp in 1969."  Steve Reich, Writings on Music, 1965-2000 (ed. by Paul Hillier), Oxford University Press US, 2002, ISBN 0-19-511171-0, p. 202 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=axR3DtrPxSkC& pg=PA202): "I didn't hear any of Feldman's music until 1962, when I heard a piece of Stockhausen's called Refrain. I only realized later that this was Stockhausen's “Feldman piece” just as Stimmung was his “LaMonte Young piece”."  Cox & Warner 2004, p. 401 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=FgDgCOSHPysC& pg=PA401) ("Chronology" of key dates): "1964 [...] Young, Marian Zazeela, John Cale, Angus MacLise, and Tony Conrad form the Theatre of Eternal Music, the foundation of drone-based minimalism;"  Lou Reed, Metal Machine Music (1975), double vinyl LP, RCA Records (CPL2-1101), "Specifications": text copy (http:/ / www. gutsofdarkness. com/ god/ objet. php?objet=7406), image copy (reissue) (http:/ / www. discogs. com/ viewimages?release=748918).  Boon 2003  Simon Reynolds, Generation Ecstasy: Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture, Routledge, 1999 (from a 1998 hardcover), ISBN 978-0-415-92373-6, p. 50 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=tGaRJiXe74UC& pg=PA050): "the truly “progressive” bands of the late sixties and early seventies had more in common with twentieth-century avant-classical composers (electro-acoustic, musique concrète, the New York school of drone-minimalism)"  Cook & Pople 2004, p. 547 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=g3NweXtHo7wC& pg=PA547): "On the other hand, the legacy of La Monte Young was flourishing in late 1970s punk rock."  Cox & Warner 2004, p. 320 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=FgDgCOSHPysC& pg=PA320) (in "Digital Discipline: Minimalism in House and Techno" by Philip Sherburne): "In the late 1970s, rock music produced its own minimalist reaction to inflated, overproduced mainstream rock. The results, No Wave and punk rock, often made explicit links to the 60s' drone-minimalism tradition, as with Glenn Branca's bands Theoretical Girls and The Static, his guitar orchestras, and the many groups that he influenced."  Hugh Wiley Hitchcock, Music in the United States: A Historical Introduction, Prentice-Hall, 1974, ISBN 0-13-608380-3, p. 269 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=gG5nhnPM5CsC& q="pursued+ similar+ paths+ of+ minimal+ drone-music,+ notably+ Terry+ Riley"& pgis=1#search_anchor): "A few others besides Young have pursued similar paths of minimal drone-music, notably Terry Riley (b. 1935) in works like In C for orchestra [...]"  Cook & Pople 2004, p. 659 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=g3NweXtHo7wC& pg=PA659) ("Personalia" mini biographies): "Riley, Terry (b. 1935) [...] A meeting with La Monte Young deeply affected his outlook [...]"  Cook & Pople 2004, p. 502 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=g3NweXtHo7wC& pg=PA502): "Semi-audible music had been consistently prefigured in the music of left-field composers from Erik Satie onwards. ‘Ambient music’ emerged as a category when in the 1980s, influenced by the minimalism of La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Philip Glass, and Steve Reich, Brian Eno started to make music for deliberately sub-audible presentation, [...]"  Brian Eno, 1978, sourced at Ambient Music.  Potter 2002, p. 91 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=sc61Gy3r8HAC& pg=PA91): Brian Eno saying "La Monte Young is the daddy of us all" (with endnote 113 p. 349 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=sc61Gy3r8HAC& pg=PA349) referencing "Quoted in Palmer, A Father Figure for the Avant-Garde, p. 49").  Spacemen 3, Dreamweapon: An Evening of Contemporary Sitar Music, Sympathy for the Record Industry SFTRI 211, 1993 CD re-issue, liner notes  Gilbert Perlein & Bruno Corà (eds) & al., Yves Klein: Long Live the Immaterial! ("An anthological retrospective", catalog of an exhibition held in 2000), New York: Delano Greenidge, 2000, ISBN 978-0-929445-08-3, p. 226 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=baJPAAAAMAAJ& q="This+ symphony,+ 40+ minutes+ in+ length+ (in+ fact+ 20+ minutes+ followed+ by+ 20+ minutes+ of+ silence)"& pgis=1#search_anchor): "This symphony, 40 minutes in length (in fact 20 minutes followed by 20 minutes of silence) is constituted of a single 'sound' stretched out, deprived of its attack and end which creates a sensation of vertigo, whirling the sensibility outside time."  See also more sources and two recordings of the Monotone Symphony at the Yves Klein article.  "Glass's discovery, during a 1969 runthrough of Music In Similar Motion, that sustained overtones and undertones were following the patterns played by the ensemble like an aural shadow. [...] And so, in his next piece, Music With Changing Parts, Glass decided to augment what was already occurring naturally. Toward the end of this new composition, he added in long tones, allotted to wind instruments and voices, held for the length of a breath, to support the notes that emerged from the keyboard patterns, with the rule that a player could reinforce any tone emerging from the whirl." ( CD liner notes (http:/ / www. glasspages. org/ changing. html) by Tim Page, Elektra Nonesuch, 1994, booklet p. 5).
 Mueller, Klaus D. (2010 archive). "Klaus Schulze: Irrlicht" (http:/ / webcitation. org/ query?date=2010-07-27& url=http:/ / www. klaus-schulze. com/ disco/ 1721ir. htm) (WebCite). Official Klaus Schulze Discography. www.klaus-schulze.com. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. klaus-schulze. com/ disco/ 1721ir. htm) on 27 July 2010. . "Early organ drone experiments."  Mueller, Klaus D. (2010 archive). "Klaus Schulze: Cyborg" (http:/ / webcitation. org/ query?date=2010-07-27& url=http:/ / www. klaus-schulze. com/ disco/ 1731cy. htm) (WebCite). Official Klaus Schulze Discography. www.klaus-schulze.com. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. klaus-schulze. com/ disco/ 1731cy. htm) on 27 July 2010. . "Further organ drone experiments. Heavy stuff."  "It's quite possibly some of Obmana's best work and it's representative of the drone ambient side of his work." ( Matt Borghi review (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ album/ r545376) from AllMusic).  "Vidna Obmana's penchant for getting interstellar mileage out of even the most minimal electronic drones. [...] Roach's acoustic and synthetic rhythms are in deliberate absence here, but as dark, electronic buds blossom and begin to seed the lifeless surroundings, the drones that erupt out of them vibrate with a tangible, malevolent pulse." ( Darren Bergstein review (http:/ / www. steveroach. com/ Press/ review. php?id=185) from i/e). "This occurs through the composers' use of nebulous drones, and gorgeous passages of pure sonics drift" ( Thom Jurek review (http:/ / www. steveroach. com/ Press/ review. php?id=169) from Detroit Metro Times).  " 'Twenty-Three,' for massed violins, violas, and celli [...] is a gorgeous lattice of densely layered drones occupying a very small note range but varying widely in intensity of attack. Tony Conrad's violin music inevitably comes to mind, [...]" ( review (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ album/ r689977) at AllMusic).  by Pitchfork (http:/ / pitchfork. com/ reviews/ albums/ 14427-rural-route-no-2/ )  Anti-Gravity Bunny, "Kyle Bobby Dunn: A Young Person's Guide to" (http:/ / antigravitybunny. blogspot. com/ 2010/ 03/ kyle-bobby-dunn-young-persons-guide-to. html)  Sedimental Records (Sedimental has been following Dunn’s sensitive and world-wise drone works closely for many years) "Fragments & Compositions of Kyle Bobby Dunn" (http:/ / www. sedimental. com/ catalog/ index. php?ID=32)  Sedimental Records, "Stars of the Lid: Music for Nitrous Oxide" (http:/ / www. sedimental. com/ catalog/ stars_of_the_lid_music_for_nit/ ) (original press release that went out with promo copies), www.sedimental.com  Sheilachandra.com: ABoneCroneDrone (http:/ / www. sheilachandra. com/ albums/ bonecrone. html)
• Boon, Marcus, "The Drone" (http://web.archive.org/web/20060617144332/http://www.hungryghost.net/ mb/drone.htm) (Archive.org copy of 2006), 2003, www.hungryghost.net, originally published as "The eternal drone: good vibrations, ancient to future" in The Wire book: Rob Young (ed.), Undercurrents: The Hidden Wiring of Modern Music, ed. Rob Young, London: Continuum Books, 2002, ISBN 978-0-8264-6450-7 — History and analysis of drone music from medieval Europe to 1960s La Monte Young (who helped with the article) to 1990s Coil. • Cook, Nicholas & Pople, Anthony, The Cambridge History of Twentieth-century Music, Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-521-66256-7 • Cox, Christoph & Warner, Daniel (eds) & al., Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music, Continuum International, 2004, ISBN 978-0-8264-1615-5 • DRAM (Database of Recorded American Music), "Drone in American Minimalist Music" (http://www. dramonline.org/blog/monthly-playlists/473739) (Archive.org copy should be available in February 2009), by Nate Wooley, August 1, 2008. — Short history with six online drone pieces (available from accredited institutions or with a library login). • Potter, Keith, Four Musical Minimalists: La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass, Cambridge University Press, 2002 (rev. pbk from 2000 hbk), ISBN 978-0-521-01501-1 • Textura, "Drones: Theatres of Eternal Music" (http://web.archive.org/web/20080205065218/http://www. textura.org/archives/articles/dronesarticle.htm) (Archive.org copy of 2008), Textura No. 5, February 2005, textura.org. (Also printed as "On and On and On...: The drone & modern music" in Grooves No. 16, 2005) — Definition, history, further reading, records list, links. • Young, La Monte, "Notes on The Theatre of Eternal Music and The Tortoise, His Dreams and Journeys" (http:// www.google.com/search?q=cache:www.melafoundation.org/theatre.pdf) (original PDF file (http://www. melafoundation.org/theatre.pdf)), 2000, Mela Foundation, www.melafoundation.org — Historical account and musical essay where Young explains why he considers himself the originator of the style vs. Tony Conrad and John Cale.
Drone music • Zuckerman, Gabrielle (ed.), "An Interview with La Monte Young and Marian Zazeela" (http://web.archive.org/ web/20061003051403/http://musicmavericks.publicradio.org/features/interview_young.html) (Archive.org copy of 2006), American Public Media, July 2002, musicmavericks.publicradio.org — Text transcript with audio version available.
• Online playlist of 6 drone pieces (http://www.dramonline.org/blog/monthly-playlists/473739) (available from accredited institutions or with a library login) at the Database of Recorded American Music (from Pauline Oliveros, Alvin Lucier, Phill Niblock, Charlemagne Palestine, Ellen Fullman, and Eliane Radigue) • Online playlist of 10+ drone-based pieces (http://avant-avant.net/tag/drone/) (MP3) at Avant-Avant (from Theater of Eternal Music, MacLise/Conrad/Cale, Sunn O))), etc.)
Stylistic origins Ambient Minimalism Electronic musical instruments, field recordings
Mainstream popularity Relatively unknown
Originally coined by minimal artist Steve Roden, lowercase is an extreme form of ambient minimalism in which very quiet sounds bookend long stretches of silence. Roden started the movement with an album entitled Forms of Paper, in which he made recordings of himself handling paper in various ways. These recordings were actually commissioned by the Hollywood branch of the Los Angeles Public Library. Many artists have contributed to the lowercase movement, including electronic music pioneer and educator Kim Cascone, Tetsu Inoue, Bhob Rainey, Richard Chartier, Björk and Bernhard Günter. Some of the labels that publish lowercase music include Bremsstrahlung Recordings , Trente Oiseaux, 12k, and Raster-Noton, which features famed composer Ryuichi Sakamoto in collaboration with Carsten Nicolai, a.k.a. Alva Noto.
• • • • • • • • • • Steve Roden  Bernhard Günter  Richard Chartier  12k  LINE  raster-noton  alva noto  Bremsstrahlung Recordings  lowercase-sound  (Electronic mailing list) Whisper the Songs of Silence  (article in Wired)
 http:/ / www. bremsstrahlung-recordings. org/  http:/ / www. inbetweennoise. com/  http:/ / www. bernhardguenter. com/  http:/ / www. 3particles. com/  http:/ / www. 12k. com/  http:/ / www. lineimprint. com/  http:/ / www. raster-noton. de/  http:/ / www. alvanoto. com/  http:/ / launch. groups. yahoo. com/ group/ lowercase-sound/  http:/ / www. wired. com/ gadgets/ mac/ commentary/ cultofmac/ 2002/ 05/ 52397
Stylistic origins Cultural origins Typical instruments Mainstream popularity Electro, Chicago House Detroit, Michigan, USA Analog synthesizer, Drum machine Large underground following, low International mainstream popularity, mainstream popularity only in the Detroit metro area. (complete list) Fusion genres Minimal techno - ghettotech - acid house Other topics Electronic music, Techno
Detroit techno (also known as Detroit House) is an early style of electronic music beginning in the 1980s. Detroit, Michigan has been cited as the birthplace of techno music.  Prominent Detroit Techno artists include Juan Atkins, Derrick May, and Kevin Saunderson. A distinguishing trait of Detroit techno is the use of analog synthesizers and early drum machines, particularly the Roland TR-909, or, in later releases, the use of digital emulation to create the characteristic sounds of those machines.
Detroit techno music was originally thought of as a subset to Chicago's early style of house. However, some critics believe that the Detroit techno movement was an adjunct to house music, named for the new style of music played at a Chicago nightclub called "The Warehouse". Although producers in both cities used the same hardware and even collaborated on projects and remixes together, Detroiters traded the choir-friendly vocals of House for metallic clicks, robotic voices and repetitive hooks reminiscent of an automotive assembly line. Many of the early techno tracks had futuristic or robotic themes, although a notable exception to this trend was a single by Derrick May under his pseudonym Rhythim Is Rhythim, called Strings of Life. This vibrant dancefloor anthem was filled with rich synthetic string arrangements and took the underground music scene by storm in May 1987. With subtle differences between the genres, clubs in both cities included Detroit techno and Chicago house tracks in their playlists without objection from patrons (or much notice by non-audiophiles).
The Belleville Three
The three individuals most closely associated with the birth of Detroit techno as a genre are Juan Atkins, Kevin Saunderson and Derrick May, also known as the "Belleville Three". The three, who were high school friends from Belleville, Michigan, created electronic music tracks in their basement(s). Eventually, they were in demand at local dance clubs, thanks in part to seminal Detroit radio personality The Electrifying Mojo. Ironically, Derrick May once described Detroit techno music as being a "complete mistake...like George Clinton and Kraftwerk caught in an elevator, with only a sequencer to keep them company."
Detroit techno Origins Kevin Saunderson was born in Brooklyn, New York. At the age of nine he moved to Michigan, where he attended Belleville High School in Belleville, a town some 30 miles from Detroit. In school he befriended Derrick May and Juan Atkins, both of whom had been born in Detroit but later moved to suburban Belleville. Geography The location of Belleville was key to the formation of the Belleville Three as musicians. Because the town was still “pretty racial[ly prejudiced] at the time,” according to Saunderson, “we three kind of gelled right away.” The suburban setting also afforded a different setting in which to experience the music. “We perceived the music differently than you would if you encountered it in dance clubs. We'd sit back with the lights off and listen to records by Bootsy and Yellow Magic Orchestra. We never took it as just entertainment, we took it as a serious philosophy,” recalls May. Belleville was located near several automobile factories, which provided well-paying jobs to a racially integrated workforce. “Everybody was equal,” Atkins explained in an interview. “So what happened is that you’ve got this environment with kids that come up somewhat snobby, ‘cos hey, their parents are making money working at Ford or GM or Chrysler, been elevated to a foreman, maybe even a white-collar job.” European acts like Kraftwerk were popular among middle-class black youth. The segratory stigma attaching to Eight Mile Road was comparable to that dividing lines around Watts in Los Angeles, The Bronx in New York City, or Chicago's South Side. Although the Belleville Three lived outside the city limits, their influence in loft apartment parties, after hours and high school clubs and late night radio united listeners of progressive dance music from above and below Eight Mile Road. Even Techno-friendly regular hours clubs like The Shelter, The Music Institute and The Majestic were incubators Techno's progress from basements and late night radio onto the dancefloors of the world. During the first wave of Detroit techno scene of the 80s, huge parties were held with upwards to fifty or more competing DJs. Most of the early party-goers were made up of middle-class black youths. However, as Detroit experienced heavy economic downfall, many of the middle-class white families fled to the suburbs in what is called the "white flight" of the early 70s while middle-class black families were displaced by the degentrification of once securely middle-class black districts. Detroit Techno as a genre created a new-found, integrated club scene in Detroit that had not been felt in a general sense after the Motown label moved to Los Angeles. Television programs like TV62 - WGPR's "The Scene" featured a racially and ethnically very mixed selection of dancers every weekday after school, but the playlist was typically jammed with the R&B and Funk tracks of the day, like Prince or the Gap Band. Breakouts like Juan Atkins's Technicolor, under his Channel One moniker, eventually found their way onto The Scene, and helped to validate the burgeoning local Techno underground with the urban high school set, college radio programmers and DJs from Chicago to London and beyond. In addition, the advent of a huge circuit of local parties in Detroit spawned competition between a number of DJs, with a week's preparation for a party being common. The club scene was as much in transition as the city they were in. The widespread popularity of techno across socio-economic lines led to a mixing between West Side and elite high school youths with ghetto and gangster "jits" (abbreviation for "jitterbug"). Unfortunately, the economic problems of Detroit and the prevalent social apathy and desolation led to a proliferation of gun violence within clubs and by 1986, the techno club scenes were wrought with gun shootings, fights, and acts of violence further compounding the sociological and economic recovery of Detroit. This wave of violence, economic collapse, and socio-communal atrophy extensively affected the Detroit techno themes. Still influenced by the same Euro sounds, Juan Atkins and Rick Davis formed Cybotron producing Detroit hits like Alleys of Your Mind, Techno City, Cosmic Cars, and Clear before signing onto the Fantasy label. However, Cybotron's dominant mood of tech-noir and desolation played into describing the city's decline. "But for all their futuristic mise-en-scene, the vision underlying Cybotron songs was Detroit-specific... from industrial boomtown to
Detroit techno post-Fordist wasteland, from US capital of auto manufacturing to US capital of homicide." By the end of the first successful wave of Detroit techno, the city's center had become a ghost town and the techno landscape was evolving into a more hardcore, militaristic frenzy of drug-infused rave and trance scene. Influences The three teenage friends bonded while listening to an eclectic mix of music: Yellow Magic Orchestra, Kraftwerk, Bootsy, Parliament, Prince, and The B-52's. The electronic and funk sounds that influenced the Belleville Three came primarily from a 5-hour late-night radio show called The Midnight Funk Association, broadcast in Detroit by DJ Charles "Electrifyin' Mojo" Johnson on WGPR. Juan Atkins was inspired to buy a synthesizer after hearing Parliament. Atkins was also the first in the group to take up turntablism, teaching May and Saunderson how to DJ. Early careers Under the name Deep Space Soundworks, Atkins and May began to DJ on Detroit’s party circuit. By 1981, Mojo was playing the record mixes recorded by the Belleville Three, who were also branching out to work with other musicians. The trio traveled to Chicago to investigate the house music scene there, particularly the legendary Chicago DJs Ron Hardy and Frankie Knuckles. House was a natural progression from disco music, so that the trio began to formulate the synthesis of this dance music with the mechanical sounds of groups like Kraftwerk, in a way that reflected post-industrialist Detroit. An obsession with the future and its machines is reflected in much of their music, because, according to Atkins, Detroit is the most advanced in the transition away from industrialism. First wave of Detroit techno While attending Washtenaw Community College, Atkins met Rick Davis and formed Cybotron with him. Their first single “Alleys of Your Mind”—recorded on their Deep Space label in 1981—sold 15,000 copies, and the success of two follow-up singles, “Cosmic Cars” and “Clear,” led the California-based label Fantasy to sign the duo and release their album, Clear. After Cybotron split due to creative differences, Atkins began recording as Model 500 on his own label, Metroplex, in 1985. His landmark single, “No UFOs,” soon arrived. Eddie Fowlkes, Derrick May, and Kevin Saunderson also recorded on Metroplex. Collaboration Although the Detroit musicians—the Belleville Three and other early pioneers like Eddie Fowlkes, and James Pennington—were a close-knit group who shared equipment and studio space, and who helped each other with projects, friction developed. Each member of the Belleville Three branched off on his own record label. May's Transmat began as a sublabel imprint of Metroplex. Saunderson founded KMS based on his own initials. They set up shop in close proximity to one another, in Detroit’s Eastern Market district. Names All of the Belleville Three have worked under many different names and titles. Derrick May saw great success under the name Rhythim is Rhythim, his moniker when he released his landmark “Strings of Life.” Kevin Saunderson’s most commercially recognized projects was Inner City with vocalist Paris Grey. Juan Atkins has been lauded as the "Godfather of Techno" while Derrick May is thought of as the "Innovator" and Kevin Saunderson is often referred to as the "Elevator" 
Detroit techno The Music Institute Inspired by Chicago's house clubs, May, Atkins, and Saunderson started a club of their own in downtown Detroit, named the Music Institute. The club helped unite a previously scattered scene into an underground "family," where May, Atkins, and Saunderson DJed with fellow pioneers like Eddie "Flashin" Fowlkes and Blake Baxter. It allowed for collaboration, and helped inspire what would become the second wave of Detroit-area techno, which included artists whom the Belleville Three had influenced and mentored. Success abroad In 1988, due to the immense popularity of American electronic music in Great Britain, dance music entrepreneur Neil Rushton approached the Belleville Three to license their work for release in the UK. To define the Detroit sound as being distinct from Chicago house, Rushton and the Belleville Three chose the word "techno" for their tracks, a term that Atkins had been using since his Cybotron days ("Techno City" was an early single). However, the trio from Belleville had some reservations about the culture that surrounded the drug-filled techno subculture abroad. Derrick May in particular continues to advocate that drugs are not necessary to participate in good music. Recent work Juan Atkins, Kevin Saunderson, and Derrick May remain active in the global music scene today. In 2000, the first annual Detroit Electronic Music Festival was held, and in 2004 May assumed control of the festival, renamed Movement. He invested his own funds into the festival, and "got severely wounded financially." Kevin Saunderson helmed the festival, renamed FUSE IN, the following year. Saunderson, May, and Craig all performed but did not produce the festival in 2006, when it was again called Movement. Saunderson returned to perform at the 2007 Movement as well. The Belleville Three continue to tour internationally. All three maintain popular MySpace pages promoting their music and performances. Derrick May says that his mission continues to be "to save the world from bad music."
The first wave of Detroit techno had peaked in 1988-89, with the popularity of artists like Derrick May, Kevin Saunderson and Chez Damier, and clubs like the Shelter and the Music Institute. At the same time, the European rave scene embraced the Detroit sound, thanks to Kool Kat Records's release of a number of Detroit records. May's Strings of Life achieved "anthemic" status in 1989, several years after its recording. Once Detroit Techno became a full-fledged musical genre, a second generation of regional artists developed into techno icons themselves; Jeff Mills, Richie Hawtin (aka Plastikman), Carl Craig, and Octave One to name just a few. Mills began his career as "The Wizard" on Mojo's nightly broadcast, showcasing his turntablist skills with quick cuts of the latest underground tracks and unreleased music from local labels. What began as a Europhile fantasy of elegance and refinement, ironically, by the early 90s, British and European techno transformed into a "vulgar uproar for E'd-up mobs: anthemic, cheesily sentimental, unabashedly drug-crazed.", as British journalist Simon Reynolds puts it. Detroit embraced this maximalism and created its own variant of acid house and techno. The result was a harsh Detroit hardcore full of riffs and industrial bleakness. Two major labels of this sound were Underground Resistance and +8, both of which mixed 80s electro, UK synth-pop and industrial paralleling the brutalism of rave music of Europe.
What distinguishes Detroit Techno from its European variants is the way it more directly works the interface of funk and futurism...but the desire to play up the genre's futuristic side often means the second half of the equation gets dropped.
—Mike Shallcross, "From Detroit To Deep Space". The Wire (161): p. 21. July 1997
Underground Resistance's music embodied a kind of abstract militancy by presenting themselves as a paramilitary group fighting against commercial mainstream entertainment industry who they called "the programmers" in their
Detroit techno tracks such as Predator, Elimination, Riot or Death Star. Similarly, the label +8 was formed by Richie Hawtin and John Acquaviva which evolved from industrial hardcore to a minimalist progressive techno sound. As friendly rivals to Underground Resistance, +8 pushed up the speed of their songs faster and fiercer in tracks like Vortex. However, it was the drug-fueled dynamic of Ecstacy and amphetamine abuse that drove Detroit's hardcore techno scene to the extremes of "brain-dead brutalism". What had started as a value system of elegance over energy, restraint over abandon shared by "purists" of traditional Detroit techno evolved through mutation into a mind-spinning, hardcore mix of trance, jungle, and bleep-and-bass. In the mid-to-late 1990s, Detroit Techno producers experimented with extended aural soundscapes featuring sparse, ambient underscores punctuated with sporadic, cyclical periods of percussion. Extended length vinyl projects like those under Hawtin's Plastikman façade are particularly clear examples of this period. Atkins Sonic Sunset CD in 1994 also delivered this new tradition of Detroit techno. This new variant also included new connections to African percussions. The racial politics of Detroit Techno gave rise to a new form of African-American expression, "the link to African drumming and its emphasis on polyrhythms can't be ignored." One such example by a white artist, Richie Hawtin, is "Afrika" which produced a connection between African drums and percussion with Techno minimalistic programming. On Memorial Day weekend of 2000, electronic music fans from around the globe made a pilgrimage to Hart Plaza on the banks of the Detroit River and experienced the first Detroit Electronic Music Festival. In 2003, the festival management changed the name to Movement, then Fuse-In (2005), and most recently, Movement: Detroit's Electronic Music Festival (2007). The festival is a showcase for DJs and performers across all genres of electronic music.
Notable Detroit area producers
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Aaron-Carl Ragland • Anthony Shakir Aux 88 Blake Baxter Carl Craig Claude Young D Wynn DJ Rolando DJ BONE Derrick May Dopplereffekt Drexciya Eddie Fowlkes James Pennington Jay Denham Jeff Mills Juan Atkins • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • K Hand Kenny Larkin Kevin Saunderson Los Hermanos Martin Bonds Mike Banks Mike Huckaby Mike Grant Moodymann Octave One Orlando Voorn Richard Davis Richie Hawtin Robert Hood Scan 7 Sean Deason Seth Troxler Suburban Knight Stacey Pullen Strand Terrence Dixon Terrence Parker Theo Parrish The Burden Brothers The Martian Thomas Barnett
• Trackmaster Lou
Notable Detroit area record labels
• • • • 430 West Records Axis Detroit Techno Militia Fragile • •  • • • • • Metroplex Planet E Communications Plus 8 Red Planet Transmat Underground Resistance Interface Records(Metroplex sub label)
Other notable Detroit techno styled producers and acts
• • • • Dave Angel Aril Brikha Surgeon (musician) XDB
 http:/ / www. plexifilm. com/ title. php?id=27  Woodford, Arthur M. (2001). This is Detroit 1701–2001. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2914-4.  "From The Autobahn To I-94: The Origins Of Detroit Techno And Chicago House" (http:/ / www. pitchforkmedia. com/ article/ feature/ 10251-from-the-autobahn-to-i-94). pitchforkmedia.com/Heiko Hoffmann. . Retrieved 2007-10-05.  Reynolds, p. 7  "Music Feature: Who Likes Techno? [2nd October 2007 (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ radio/ aod/ radio4_aod. shtml?radio4/ wholikestecno)"]. BBC Radio4. . Retrieved 2007-10-05.  TECHNO -Derrick May, Kavin Saunderson, Juan Atkins - the Belleville Three (http:/ / negroartist. com/ TECHNO GODS. htm)  Reynolds, Simon. Generation Ecstasy: Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture Routledge, 1999.  Reynolds, p.19.  http:/ / 64. 233. 169. 104/ search?q=cache:U6Dk5AXh-_UJ:www. thetechnocracy. net/ techfiles/ The%2520beginning%2520of%2520Techno. doc+ belleville+ three  Juan Atkins (http:/ / www. mobeus. org/ archives/ juanatkins/ )  Techno (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=RSX_r0u3uzE|Universal)  Juan Atkins Interview - Godfather of Techno Interview (http:/ / dancemusic. about. com/ od/ remixersproducers/ a/ JuanAtkinsInt. htm)  Derrick May interview: Godfather of Techno :: CentralStation.com.au (http:/ / www. centralstation. com. au/ articles/ shownews. asp?newsid=5778)  Juan Atkins (http:/ / www. globaldarkness. com/ articles/ juan_atkins_model_500_cybotron_bio. htm)  Derrick May (http:/ / www. derrickmay. com)  Pitchfork Feature: From the Autobahn to I-94 (http:/ / www. pitchforkmedia. com/ article/ feature/ 10251-from-the-autobahn-to-i-94)  Derrick May (http:/ / www. techno. de/ mixmag/ interviews/ DerrickMay1. html)  inthemix | Features | Derrick May: High Tech Soul (http:/ / www. inthemix. com. au/ features/ 28765/ Derrick_May_High_Tech_Soul)  Movement (http:/ / www. demf. com/ index_2006. html)  http:/ / www. demf. com/  Derrick May (http:/ / www. derrickmay. com/ )  Reynolds, p. 219  http:/ / www. 365mag. com/ index. php?pg=spec& recnum=679& Title=365Mag+ Interview%3A+ Octave+ One+ on+ 365Mag+ International+ Music+ Magazine  Reynolds, Simon Reynolds, "Generation Ecstasy." pg.114.  Philip Sherburne, "Digital Discipline: Minimalism in House and Techno." Continumm, NY, 2006, pg.321.  http:/ / detroittechnomilitia. com/
Stylistic origins Ambient music East Coast hip hop Trip hop Industrial hip-hop Dub music Early 1990s New York City Vocals - Sampler - Turntables - Electronics
Cultural origins Typical instruments
Mainstream popularity mid 1990s Other topics Nu jazz
Illbient is a term allegedly coined by DJ Olive to describe the iconoclastic music being produced by a community of artists based in the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York in 1994. The word "Illbient" is a portmanteau of the hip hop slang term "ill" (a positive expression: bad meaning good) and "ambient". Other definitions, such as those coined by psychedelic musician Helios Creed, state: "although Eno invented ambient music while ill in bed - "illbient" is actually an extreme retro offshoot that demands that the listener produces a doctor's note before being allowed to purchase." Though there are many individualistic variants of Illbient, the music is characterized by interesting dub-wise layering of soundscapes, hip hop-influenced use of samples and a progressive approach to beat programming that encompasses all genres of world groove and electronic music. Usually, but not always, illbient uses beats more than purely ambient music, and often illbient includes loops in the recordings. Illbient was introduced to the public at large in 1996 through the Asphodel Records Incursions in Illbient compilation and a feature in The Wire magazine. According to DJ Spooky, DJ Olive started an event in Brooklyn called Lalalandia - that had nothing to do with illbient. It is perhaps worth noting that DJ Spooky also claims to have invented the word Illbient in relation to the multicultural digital arts scene in Manhattan. To his credit, he released Necropolis, a mix CD in 1996 as a follow up to the 1995 Subharmonic release VALIS 1 CD that first pulled together many Illbient associated artists. DJ Spooky wrote the liner notes to the VALIS release and recommended many of the artists that were included on the compilation. DJ Spooky strongly disagrees that DJ Olive coined the term illbient. The compilation that Asphodel put out took many of the same artists that DJ Spooky pulled together, and made a commercial release in October 1996. DJ Spooky's events like Molecular at The Gas Station on Avenue B and Second street in Manhattan set the tone for the genre, and predated all of the Manhattan events around what later came to be called "illbient."
• • • • • • • • • • DJ Spooky DJ Olive Byzar We Sub Dub Motown Junkie Collarbones Techno Animal Teargas & Plateglass Ryan's Dunn
 http:/ / www. discogs. com/ artist/ DJ+ Olive
• Jah Sonic about DJ Spooky (http://www.jahsonic.com/Spooky.html) • Allmusic Guide (http://www.allmusic.com/explore/style/d11133) • Boston Phoenix article (http://bostonphoenix.com/archive/music/97/09/11/ILLBIENT.html)
Stylistic origins Goa Psytrance Downtempo Ambient Dub New Age Goa, Israel, England, France, Australia, Jamaica, U.S.A
Typical instruments Electronic: software synthesizers, Roland SH-101 , Roland TB-303 , Sequencer, Sampler. Organic: acoustic guitar, bongos, Flute, Tabla, Double Bass, Didgeridoo Mainstream popularity Derivative forms none
Psybient, also known as ambient psy, psychedelic chillout, psychedelic ambient, ambient goa, ambient psytrance and more commonly within the Goa/psytrance scene as psychill and psydub, is a genre of electronic music that combines elements of psychedelic trance, ambient, world music, new age and even ethereal wave. It often has many dub influences and can also sound somewhat like glitch. Psybient pieces are often structured around the concept of creating a "sonic voyage" or "musical journey". Although similar to psytrance's emphasis on maintaining non-stop rhythm throughout the night, psybient is far more focused on creating a vast soundscape that can be experienced over the length of an album, focusing less on beatmatching and allowing for a myriad of tempo changes. Some of the most popular and genre leading psybient artists include Shpongle, Entheogenic, Shulman, Ott, Hoopy Frood, Third Ear Audio, Doof, Warp Technique, Yestegan chaY, Younger Brother, The Infinity Project, Pitch Black, The Mystery Of The Yeti, Celtic Cross, Androcell, and Evan Bluetech.
Because of the heat, humidity, and dust in Goa, the birthplace of Goa trance (which was the earliest incarnation of psytrance), DJs tended to use cassette tapes or DATs instead of vinyl records. As a result, beatmatching was very hard, and many of the earliest DJs who worked within the Goan scene didn't bother trying at all, the well-known Goa Gil being one of them. As a solution to the dilemma, a production technique developed of having relatively long atmospheric portions in each track, which would allow a DJ to easily mix two tracks of different tempos without having them clash. These short periods that were free of heavy, bass driven beats acted as "chillout" periods for those who were dancing (or "tripping") to relax and regain their energy for the next track. From its inception, goa and psytrance albums (as well as compilations) almost always contained a compulsory "chillout" track at the beginning, end, or sometimes the middle, (usually track 5) of the album, to either set the mood, give an intermission, or give a cooldown type track at the end which was the most common on the earlier days of psytrance.
Early chill albums
Perhaps the earliest full mainstream album consisting entirely of "chill psychedelic tracks" was Mystical Experiences by The Infinity Project in 1995. This was released around the same time as Simon Posford's first Hallucinogen album "Twisted" (also of The Infinity Project) which was the first big breakthrough in worldwide goa and subsequently psytrance history. Psybient and Psytrance is generally accepted as first being popularized by a remix of the 1971 track "One Of These Days" by Pink Floyd. Other early incarnations of psybient include the 1992 album by Porcupine Tree's album Voyage 34, which is also heavily influenced by Pink Floyd's songs (especially "One Of These Days", and "Run Like Hell"). Ozric Tentacles, and one of their later offshoots Eat Static and early X-Dream are also late 80's and early 90s bands that are the biggest influences to the whole psybient genre (pre Infinity Project) which first took off in '95 and then exploded in popularity 10 years later with many new psychill artists that redefined the genre for the new millennium. One of the most popular Steve Roach albums Dreamtime Return in 1992 may have been a big influence in the (newer western electronic) tribal ambient vein of psybient, later picked up in the later 90s by Juno Reactor and Shpongle.
Due to its roots in the Goa scene, psybient is considered to be highly influenced by psychoactive drugs, even more so than other forms of psytrance. The influence of psychedelics is often blatantly presented in both the musical content (such as "trippy", tweaked-out samples) the artwork, and sound samples, usually involving Terence McKenna sound samples in the earliest recordings such as Spacetime Continuum's "Alien Dreamtime" album in 1993, and Shpongle's "Tales Of The Inexpressible" (2001) albums. Shpongle's first album also has many subtle psychedelic lyrics and artwork that one would most likely miss on first glance (the cd artwork is faces) or listen. (DMT is the only song with (English) lyrics, even though they are so heavily tweaked with effects, it's hard to understand that there are actually words at first) Many other lesser known psybient songs may involve a psychedelic song title, and eastern style singing, but lyrics for a full song are still pretty rare, (Shpongle's Once Upon the Sea Of Blissful Awareness being the first (and possibly only) to incorporate a full song into psybient history and any psybient track with vocals are mainly a few short lines repeated mainly for musical effect and less for actual song effect.
Success with the downtempo market
In recent years, psybient has received a considerable amount of success in the chillout/downtempo market, a listener group far larger than the psytrance audience. An example of psybient's foothold within the "chill" market can be seen in the success of Entheogenic's second album, Spontaneous Illumination. In November 2003 it went to Number 1 on the German "Chill-Out" Charts, where it remained at Number 1 for eight weeks. The album stayed in the Top 10 for an additional 12 weeks.
Psybient in Suomisaundi
Some artists of the psychedelic trance offshoot suomisaundi have also been known to delve into the realm of psybient. Due to the suomisaundi's tendency towards sampling, as well as its popularity at forest dance parties like Earthcore, psybient productions that come out of the suomisaundi realm of psychedelic trance often resemble world music far more than productions of artists who produce psybient exclusively.
List of notable artists
• Adham Shaikh • Aes Dana • Asura • Bluetech
Psybient • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Carbon Based Lifeforms Chronos Celtic Cross Doof Eat Static Electrypnose Ephemeral Mists Entheogenic Galaxy H.U.V.A. Network Ishq Kekal Kick Bong Makyo Mystical Sun Ott Pitch Black Puff Dragon Sephira  Shpongle Shulman Solar Fields Side Liner The Infinity Project Vibrasphere Younger Brother Zymosis 
List of notable record labels
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Aleph Zero Records Altar Records Avatar Records Awakening Records Blue Tunes Recordings Chillcode Music Cosmicleaf Records Dragonfly Records Interchill Records Liquid Sound Design Spiral Trax Spirit Zone Recordings Suntrip Records Synergetic Records Twisted Records
• Ultimae Records
Psybient Music By Ney Angelis 
 "The Goa Gil Petition: Play Those DATS!" (http:/ / www. beatportal. com/ feed/ item/ the-goa-gil-petition-play-those-dats/ ). Juanuary 2008. Accessed 14 May 2010.  http:/ / www. ocf. berkeley. edu/ ~easwaran/ papers/ psytrance. html#sdfootnote16sym  Swank, Jonathan (2007). "HM Review - Kekal: The Habit of Fire" (http:/ / www. hmmagazine. com/ reviews/ album/ k/ kekal0707. php). HM Magazine July/August Issue (#126). HM Magazine. . Retrieved 2011-01-06. "While long-time fans may not be surprised by the electronic programming, the psychedelic ambience or the jazz/fusion elements..."  http:/ / www. zymosis. info  http:/ / soundcloud. com/ productora-digital/ sets/ cd-amarillo-ney-angelis/
Stylistic origins Avant-garde music Classical music Electronic music Jazz Musique concrète Progressive rock Krautrock New age music Minimalism Psychedelic rock Soft rock Traditional folk music World music 1950's Europe piano, synthesizer, sampler, sequencer, computer, strings, folk and ethnic instruments, acoustic guitar, harp, sitar, tamboura, tabla, organ, flute, cello, woodwind, saxophone, drums, dulcimer, vocals
Cultural origins Typical instruments
Space music, also called spacemusic, is an umbrella term, synonymous with a segment of New Age Music and Ambient Music, used to describe music that evokes a feeling of contemplative spaciousness.   Space music can be found within a wide range of genres.   It is particularly associated with ambient, New Age, and electronic music. Some claim that music from the western classical, world, Celtic, traditional, experimental and other idioms also falls within the definition of space music.    Space music can range in character, the sonic texture of the music can be simple or complex, it can be instrumental or electronic, it may lack conventional melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic features, and may be less concerned with the formal compositional schemes associated with other styles of music. 
Space music typically evokes a sense of spatial imagery and emotion or sensations of floating, cruising, flying and other transportative sensations.
Such music can evoke a "continuum of spatial imagery and emotion,"  which can be beneficial for introspection, and for developing, through a practice of deep listening, an awareness of the spatiality of sound phenomenon. This type of psychonautic listening can produce a subtle trance-like state in certain individuals    which can in turn lead to sensations of flying, floating, cruising, gliding, or hovering.  Space music is used by some individuals for both background enhancement and foreground listening, often with headphones, to enable states of relaxation, contemplation, inspiration, and generally peaceful expansive moods; it may promote health through relaxation, atmospherics for bodywork therapies, and effectiveness of meditation. Space music appears in many film soundtracks and is commonly played in planetariums. An eclectic form of music, produced almost exclusively by independent labels, space music occupies a small niche in the marketplace, supported and enjoyed by a relatively small audience of loyal enthusiastic listeners.
Stephen Hill, co-founder of "Music from the Hearts of Space" (syndicated nationally in the USA on National Public Radio and XM Satellite Radio), uses the phrase "contemplative music, broadly defined" as an overview to describe the music played on his station, along with the term "spacemusic". He states that the "genre spans historical, ethnic, and contemporary styles", and that it combines elements from many cultures and genres, blended with varieties of acoustic and electronic ambient music, "woven into a seamless sequence unified by sound, emotion, and spatial imagery." In his essay New age Music made Simple, and in introducing the 200th broadcast of the "Hearts of Space" radio program, Hill has referred to space music as a sub-category of New Age. Hill's partner Anna Turner (co-host and original co-producer of "Music from the Hearts of Space") wrote in her 1989 essay entitled "Space Music", that "New Age Space music carries visions in its notes; it is transcendent inner and outer space music that opens, allows and creates space... this music speaks to our present moment, to the great allegory of moving out beyond our boundaries into space, and reflexively, to the unprecedented adventures of the psyche that await within." Gerardo "Pkx" Martinez-Casas, original host, producer and creator of KUSF's 90.3 FM, University of San Francisco in California, "Moondance (The Beyond Within)" 1981– 198?, described space music as electronic, environmental and spiritual fine art fashion cosmic sounds as an aid and tool for cultural, contemplative, meditative, social and spiritual awareness. "Space Music experts do agree that Miles Davis' "In a Silent Way", Soundtracks by Philip Glass "The Hours" and "Koyaanisqatsi", Clif Martinez "Solaris", Tangerine Dream "Sorcerer", etc. should be considered Space Music". In her book The New Age Music Guide, author, editor and music critic P. J. Birosik classifies Space music as a subgenre of New Age music, as does Dallas Smith, writer, teacher and recording artist in his essay New Age Jazz/Fusion. Steven Halpern, noted recording artist and workshop leader writes that Space music has been considered a synonym for New Age music: " 'Space' is a vital dimension of New Age music; so much so that one of the early appellations for the genre was simply 'space music', referring both to its texture and to the state that it tended to evoke in the listener." Radio programmer John Diliberto has stated that space music is related to electronic music, as has Bay Area musician, composer and sound designer Robert Rich, who considers space music to be a combination of Electronic music influences from the 1970s with world music and "modern compositional methods". Forest, host of Musical Starstreams refers to Space music as a separate genre along with Ambient music, and others including dub, downtempo, trip hop, and acid jazz in the list of genres he calls "exotic electronica". Similarly, WXPN Radio's Star's End, programming ambient music since 1976, on its website lists Space music as a separate genre, along with Ambient, New Age, and others. Steve Sande, freelance writer for the San Francisco Chronicle considers space music to be "Anything but New Age," and writes that "spacemusic [is] also known as ambient, chill-out, mellow dub, down-tempo." In the same article, he describes Stephen Hill's "Hearts of Space" spacemusic program as streaming ambient, electronic, world, New Age and classical music. In contrast to this, according to author and National Endowment for the Arts researcher Judith H. Balfe, Billboard editor Jerry Wood describes space music as a one of several "genres within the genre" of New Age music. Allmusic, one of the world's largest commercial databases of music-related information, defines Space music as a subgenre of New Age music. Similarly, mainstream retailer Barnes & Noble, independent online music retailer CDBaby, and RealNetwork's music download service Rhapsody all classify Space music as a subgenre of New Age music.   Rhapsody's editorial staff writes in their music genre description for Space music (listed as a subgenre of New Age music) that "New Age composers have looked upward for inspiration, creating an abstract notion of the sounds of interstellar music."
Space music Musicologist Joseph Lanza relates space music to prior generations of relaxing or environmental music, with a twist, writing, "Space music is easy-listening with amnesia, sounding like the future but retaining unconscious ties to elevator music of the past."
As described by Stephen Hill, the predominant defining element of spacemusic is its contemplative nature.  Within that overview, space music includes a wide variety of styles, instrumentation and influences - both acoustic or electronic.  For example, the playlist archives of the "Hearts of Space" program lists the following genres as included in their programming: 1. Electronic space music: Electronic Space, Ambient/Downtempo, Ethno/Ambient 2. Acoustic or partially acoustic space music - Regional or national: African/Sub-Saharan, Celtic, Japanese, Scandinavian/Arctic, Central Asian, Latin American, Southeast Asian/Indonesian, Chinese, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern/North African, Spanish/Moorish, Tibetan, Native American, World Fusion, East Indian 3. Acoustic or partially acoustic space music - Western:Contemporary Instrumental, New Vocal, Holiday, Miscellaneous/Eclectic, Space Jazz, Sacred/Choral, Guitar, Piano, Orchestral/Chamber While many space music recording artists specialize in electronic forms, evolving out of the traditional Kosmische musik of the Berlin School (also known as Krautrock), examples of recording artists who create the contemplative experience of space music using acoustic instruments and influences of cultures from around the world are plentiful: Andreas Vollenweider (harp), George Winston (piano), Carlos Nakai and Coyote Oldman (Native American flutes), David Darling (cello), Paul Horn (woodwinds), Paul Winter (saxophone), and more. Examples of Space music artists using combinations of acoustic and electronic instruments are Deuter (flute and other esoteric instruments), Kitaro (Japanese drums and synthesizers), Laraaji (acoustic zither with electronic processing), Constance Demby (hammered dulcimer, cello, vocals, custom acoustic instruments and synthesizers), Oregon (world music influenced jazz), Mychael Danna (ethnic instruments and orchestra with electronic minimalism), and others. Author and classical music critic David Hurwitz describes Joseph Haydn's choral and chamber orchestra piece, The Creation, composed in 1798, as space music, both in the sense of the sound of the music, ("a genuine piece of 'space music' featuring softly pulsating high violins and winds above low cellos and basses, with nothing at all in the middle ... The space music gradually drifts towards a return to the movement's opening gesture ... "); and in the manner of its composition, relating that Haydn conceived The Creation after discussing music and astronomy with William Herschel, oboist and astronomer (discoverer of the planet Uranus).
Historical usage of the term space music
In 1928, the German composer Robert Beyer published a paper about "Raummusik" (spatial music), which is an entirely different sense of the term. Karlheinz Stockhausen, who became a colleague of Beyer in Cologne in 1953, used the expression "space music" in this sense when describing his early development as a composer: "The first revolution occurred from 1952/53 as musique concrète, electronic tape music, and space music, entailing composition with transformers, generators, modulators, magnetophones, etc, the integration of all concrete and abstract (synthetic) possibilities within sound (also all noises) and the controlled projection of sound in space." In the sense meant here, he stated in 1967, "Several have commented that my electronic music sounds 'like on a different star,' or 'like in outer space.' Many have said that when hearing this music, they have sensations as if flying at an infinitely high speed, and then again, as if immobile in an immense space." Music historian Joseph Lanza described the emerging light music style during the early 1950s as a precursor to modern space music. He wrote that orchestra conductor Mantovani used new studio technologies to "create sound tapestries with innumerable strings" and in particular, "the sustained hum of Mantovani's reverberated violins
Space music produced a sonic vaporizor foreshadowing the synthesizer harmonics of space music." Jazz artist Sun Ra used the term to describe his music in 1956, when he stated that the music allowed him to translate his experience of the void of space into a language people could enjoy and understand. Physicist Werner Meyer-Eppler had been inspired by Homer Dudley's 1948 invention of the Vocoder and began in 1951 to work with a device known as a Melochord, in conjunction with magnetic tape recorders, leading to a decade of working at the Cologne school specializing in "elektronische Musik" using magnetic tape recorders, sine wave generators and serial composition techniques. In 1969, Miles Davis was introduced to the music of Stockhausen by young arranger and cellist, and later Grammy award winner, Paul Buckmaster, leading to a period of new creative exploration for Davis. Biographer J.K.Chambers wrote that "The effect of Davis's study of Stockhausen could not be repressed for long. ... Davis's own 'space music,' shows Stockhausen's influence compositionally." His recordings and performances during this period were described as "space music" by fans, by music critic Leonard Feather, and by Buckmaster who stated: "a lot of mood changes - heavy, dark, intense - definitely space music."  In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the Grateful Dead developed a new form of improvisational space music in their extended formless jam sessions during live concerts (which their fans referred to as "Space" though the band did not formally assign that title), and their experimental space music albums such as Aoxomoxoa, and later in the 1980s, Infrared Roses, and Grayfolded.  Band member Phil Lesh released experimental space music recording Seastones with computer music pioneer Ned Lagin in 1975, one of the first albums to be issued in the innovative but commercially unsuccessful format SQ-Quadwith. Lagin used in real-time stage and studio performance of minicomputers driving real time digital to analog converters, prior to the time digital synthesizers became commercially available in the early 1980s. The Czech-American composer Václav Nelhýbel, released in 1974 a record named Outer Space: Music by Vaclav Nelybel. From the liner notes: “Ingenious use of echo, artificial reverberation and electronic alterations gives the music in this category a weird, spooky futuristic, ‘out of this world’ quality, well-suited to super-natural happenings of any kind. Piano, drums and electronic instruments are used to achieve the strange atmosphere and spatial sounds.” Vaclav Nelhybel crafts a supernatural world, describing nebulae, meteors, star clusters and craters on Mars with sounds natural and manipulated to tell the story of cosmic space. Beginning in the early 1970s, the term "space music" was applied to some of the output of such artists as Vangelis, Jean-Michel Jarre, Klaus Schulze and Tangerine Dream, due to the transcendent cosmic feelings of space evoked by the sound of the music and enhanced by the use of the emerging new instrument, the synthesizer,    and also in part to the "outer space" themes that are apparent in some of their works. These space music explorations diverged from traditional pop-song formats into longer less structured compositions. Following their early influence on the development of space music, Tangerine Dream later produced increasingly rock-influenced works that are not generally described as space music. In 1971–72, Sun Ra brought his "space music" philosophy to UC Berkeley where he taught as artist-in-residence for the school year, creating notoriety among the students by devoting the second half-hour of each class to solo or band performances. In 1972, San Francisco public TV station KQED producer John Coney, producer Jim Newman, and screen writer Joshua Smith worked with Sun Ra to produce a 30 minute documentary film, expanded into a feature film released in 1974, entitled "Space is the Place", featuring Sun Ra's Arkestra and filmed in Golden Gate Park. In 1973, KPFA Berkeley, California radio producers Anna Turner and Stephen Hill used the phrase in the title of their local public radio show Music from the Hearts of Space. They developed an innovative segue music assembly technique, cross-mixing "spacey" instrumental pieces to create a sustained mood. The term began to be used more widely when the show was syndicated nationally in 1983. Other US-based radio programmers adopted the term as well, among them, John Diliberto, Steve Pross, and Gino Wong with Star's End, launched in 1976, Frank J. Forest (a.k.a. “Forest”) with Musical Starstreams, launched in 1981 and nationally syndicated in 1983, and John Diliberto again with Echoes, launched in 1989.
In film and television soundtracks
Space music has been effective for creating moods and soundscapes in film and TV soundtracks; in particular, electronic forms of space music have been used to convey an auditory metaphor for non-ordinary consciousness. Examples of space music in film soundtracks include Peter Gabriel - Passion: Music for The Last Temptation of Christ, Philip Glass - Koyaanisqatsi and The Hours (soundtrack), Cliff Martinez - Solaris (2002 film), Vangelis score to Blade Runner,  Tangerine Dream's moody soundtracks for Legend, Sorcerer (soundtrack) and Risky Business,   Jonn Serrie's surround-sound score for the IMAX short film, Hubble: Galaxies Across Space and Time,  Brian Eno's score for the 1989 film For All Mankind, and Michael Stearns' soundtrack for the 1985 IMAX film, Chronos, broadcast on Stephen Hill's Hearts of Space radio, on the film's opening night.  Television science-fiction series Babylon 5 was scored by former Tangerine Dream member Christopher Franke, released on CD in 1996 on Franke's independent label Sonic Images. The scores for many of the Babylon 5 TV movies and numerous Babylon 5 episodes were also released by Sonic Images. In 1994, the German TV station Bayerischer Rundfunk launched the television program Space Night, featuring a constant flow of satellite and space images accompanied by space music programmed by European chill-out-DJ Alex Azary.
This list includes notable artists who have created works of space music:
Alphabetized by last person name including single name, or first group name • • • • • • Aphex Twin or AFX - Selected Ambient Works 85-92 David Arkenstone - Robot Wars, Another Star in the Sky William Basinski - The Disintegration Loops (2002–2003) Kevin Braheny - Galaxies • • • • Laraaji - Celestial Vibration, Celestial Realms, Essence/Universe, Flow Goes the Universe Lustmord - The Place Where The Black Stars Hang Ray Lynch  
Murcof - Cosmos R. Carlos Nakai   - Cycles Volume 2 
Thom Brennan - Strange Paradise, Beneath Clouds, Signals • in Moonlight Carbon Based Lifeforms - Hydroponic Garden, World of Sleepers, Interloper (albums) Wendy Carlos Cluster Mychael Danna - Aurora Borealis David Darling - Until the End of the World Constance Demby - Sacred Space Music (1982), Novus Magnificat (1986) Deuter - Sun Spirit Thomas Dolby - The Gate to the Mind's Eye  - Tron, Digital Moonscapes • • • • • • • • • •  • • •
NASA (with Brain/Mind Research) - Symphonies of the Planets series Numina Patrick O'Hearn - Ancient Dreams, Between Two Worlds Mike Oldfield Oregon   - The Songs of Distant Earth
• • • • • • • •
The Cosmic Jokers
David Parsons - Sounds of the Mothership, Atmanaut Jeff Pearce - To the Shores of Heaven Popol Vuh - Tantric Songs and Hosianna Mantra Giles Reaves - Wunjo, Nothing Is Lost, Sea of Glass, Sacred Space  Kaleida Visions,
• • • •
Enigma - A Posteriori
Robert Rich - Night Sky Replies, Music from Atlas Dei Steve Roach - Structures From Silence Roedelius Conrad Schnitzler - Constellations, Moon Mummy    
Brian Eno - Apollo, Music for Airports Les Fradkin - Telstar, Lift Off, Orbiter
Eloy Fritsch "Atmosphere - Electronic Suite, Space Music, Behind the Walls of Imagination" Edgar Froese 
- Moondawn, Cyborg
Geodesium - A Gentle Rain of Starlight, Fourth Universe, West of the Galaxy, Double Eclipse
 Sensitive Chaos - Leak, Emerging Transparency
• • Peter Gabriel - Passion: Music for The Last Temptation of Christ Michael Garrison - Escape, In the Regions of Sunreturn, Eclipse, Point of Impact, Aurora Dawn, An Earth-Star Trilogy Lisa Gerrard - The Mirror Pool Manuel Göttsching Jean Ven Robert Hal Jon Hassell - Dream Theory in Malaya : Fourth World Volume Two   
- Midsummer Century, Ixlandia
 Michael Stearns - Desert Moon Walk, Planetary Unfolding, Lyra Sound Constellation, Encounter  Tim Story - Shadowplay Tangerine Dream    - Alpha Centauri
• • • •
• • • •
Robert Scott Thompson - Sidereal  Isao Tomita - Snowflakes are Dancing considered the ultimate Space Album of All Time; The Planets, Kosmos, Space Walk and Mind of the Universe Vir Unis - Aeonian Glow Vangelis   - Albedo 0.39, Spiral, Mythodea
• • •
Tom Heasley - Where the Earth Meets the Sky Michael Hedges 
• • •
Michael Hoenig - Departure from the Northern Wasteland 1978 Paul Horn - Inside the Taj Mahal Ishq - Orchid   Jean Michel Jarre - Oxygene, Equinoxe, Magnetic Fields, Rendez-Vous, Revolutions Benn Jordan - Pale Blue Dot Al Gromer Khan Kitaro - Ten Kai/Astral Voyage/Astral Voyager/Astral Trip, Silk Road, The Light of the Spirit and many more. 
Klaus Wiese 
• • •
• • •
David Hykes - Hearing Solar Winds
Erik Wollo - Wind Journey, Emotional Landscapes René Van Der Wouden = Pro Sequentia, Alchemia, Universal Quiet, Sequential Tourism
• • • •
 "In fact, almost any music with a slow pace and space-creating sound images could be called spacemusic." Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, What is spacemusic? (http:/ / hos. com/ aboutmusic. html)  "When you listen to space and ambient music you are connecting with a tradition of contemplative sound experience whose roots are ancient and diverse. The genre spans historical, ethnic, and contemporary styles. In fact, almost any music with a slow pace and space-creating sound images could be called spacemusic." Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, What is spacemusic? (http:/ / hos. com/ aboutmusic. html)  Lanza, Joseph (2004). Elevator Music: A Surreal History of Muzak, Easy-listening, and Other Moodsong. University of Michigan Press. p. 184. ISBN 0472089420. "space music evokes vague images of regal landscapes perhaps encountered in past lives or the tones of a harmonic convergence between earth and other celestial bodies..."  Hearts of Space Playlist - Complete list of genres (http:/ / hos. com/ choose_by_genre. htm)  Herberlein, L.A. (2002). The Rough Guide to Internet Radio. Rough Guides. p. 95. ISBN 1858289610.  "A timeless experience...as ancient as the echoes of a simple bamboo flute or as contemporary as the latest ambient electronica. Any music with a generally slow pace and space-creating sound image can be called spacemusic. Generally quiet, consonant, ethereal, often without conventional rhythmic and dynamic contrasts, spacemusic is found within many historical, ethnic, and contemporary genres."Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, sidebar "What is Spacemusic?" in essay Contemplative Music, Broadly Defined (http:/ / hos. com/ history. html)  "The program has defined its own niche — a mix of ambient, electronic, world, new age, classical and experimental music....Slow-paced, space-creating music from many cultures — ancient bell meditations, classical adagios, creative space jazz, and the latest electronic and acoustic ambient music are woven into a seamless sequence unified by sound, emotion, and spatial imagery." Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, essay titled Contemplative Music, Broadly Defined (http:/ / hos. com/ history. html)  "Hill's Hearts of Space Web site provides streaming access to an archive of hundreds of hours of spacemusic artfully blended into one-hour programs combining ambient, electronic, world, New Age and classical music." Steve Sande, The Sky's the Limit with Ambient Music, San Francisco Chronicle (Sunday, January 11, 2004) (http:/ / sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?file=/ chronicle/ archive/ 2004/ 01/ 11/ PKGAA45D9R1. DTL).  Hurwitz, David (2005). Exploring Haydn: A Listener's Guide to Music's Boldest Innovator. Amadeus Press Unlocking the Masters Series. Hal Leonard. pp. 78–81. ISBN 1574671162.  Nidel, Richard (2005). World Music: The Basics. Routledge. p. 310. ISBN 0415968011.
 "The early innovators in electronic "space music" were mostly located around Berlin. The term has come to refer to music in the style of the early and mid 1970s works of Klaus Schulze, Tangerine Dream, Ash Ra Tempel, Popol Vuh and others in that scene. The music is characterized by long compositions, looping sequencer patterns, and improvised lead melody lines." - John Diliberto, Berlin School, Echoes Radio on-line music glossary (http:/ / www. echoes. org/ de. glossary. html#a)  "This music is experienced primarily as a continuum of spatial imagery and emotion, rather than as thematic musical relationships, compositional ideas, or performance values." Essay by Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, New Age Music Made Simple (http:/ / hos. com/ n_word. html)  "Innerspace, Meditative, and Transcendental... This music promotes a psychological movement inward." Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, essay titled New Age Music Made Simple (http:/ / hos. com/ n_word. html)  Lanza, Joseph (2004). Elevator Music: A Surreal History of Muzak, Easy-listening, and Other Moodsong. University of Michigan Press. p. 184. ISBN 0472089420. "Space music is just as important for its ability to confound our spoon-fed sense of time and place. Its mercurial stirrings create openings between worlds: inner and outer space; ancestral rhythms and ultra-civilized electronics, the clock on the wall and the hallucinatory "psyhonaut" time that drifts in and out of waking life."  Lanza, Joseph (2004). Elevator Music: A Surreal History of Muzak, Easy-listening, and Other Moodsong. University of Michigan Press. p. 185. ISBN 0472089420. "The mystique of communing with some larger, transpersonal, extraterretrial Gaia is commonly included as part of space music's packaging. Explaining compositions such as 'The Galactic Chalice' and 'Celestial Communion,' Constance Demby refers to the 'transformative journey' with 'sounds to awaken and activate soul memory of our true origin.'"  Lancaster, Kurt; Brooks McNamara (1999). Warlocks and Warpdrive: Contemporary Fantasy Entertainments With Interactive and Virtual Environments. McFarland & Company. p. 29. ISBN 0786406348. "Space music presents a virtual fantasy of traveling in outer space."  "...Spacemusic ... conjures up either outer "space" or "inner space" " - Lloyd Barde, founder of Backroads Music Notes on Ambient Music, Hyperreal Music Archive (http:/ / music. hyperreal. org/ epsilon/ info/ barde_notes. html)  "Space And Travel Music: Celestial, Cosmic, & Terrestrial... This New Age sub-category has the effect of outward psychological expansion. Celestial or cosmic music removes listeners from their ordinary acoustical surroundings by creating stereo sound images of vast, virtually dimensionless spatial environments. In a word — spacey. Rhythmic or tonal movements animate the experience of flying, floating, cruising, gliding, or hovering within the auditory space."Stephen Hill, co-founder, Hearts of Space, in an essay titled New Age Music Made Simple (http:/ / hos. com/ n_word. html)  "Restorative powers are often claimed for it, and at its best it can create an effective environment to balance some of the stress, noise, and complexity of everyday life." -- Stephen Hill, Founder, Music from the Hearts of Space What is Spacemusic? (http:/ / hos. com/ aboutmusic. html)  "This was the soundtrack for countless planetarium shows, on massage tables, and as soundtracks to many videos and movies."- Lloyd Barde Notes on Ambient Music, Hyperreal Music Archive (http:/ / music. hyperreal. org/ epsilon/ info/ barde_notes. html)  "Like most people in the independent side of the music business, we inhabited what are called the niche genres.... All niche music regardless of style or content has one thing in common: it's all something that relatively small numbers of people really, truly, love." Stephen Hill, Powered By Love: Niche Music in the New Millennium (http:/ / www. ambientvisions. com/ poweredbylove. htm), feature article in Ambient Visions Magazine, 2002  "New Age Space music carries visions in its notes; it is transcendent inner and outer space music that opens, allows and creates space... Space music moves; the balance between the rhythm track and melody line determines a great deal of the imagery, altitude, and impact of a particular piece... At its best and most essential, this music speaks to our present moment, to the great allegory of moving out beyond our boundaries into space, and reflexively, to the unprecedented adventures of the psyche that await within." Anna Turner, "Space Music", in The New Age Music Guide: Profiles and Recordings of 500 Top New Age Musicians, edited by Patti Jean Birosik, p. 134 (New York: Collier Books; London: Collier MacMillan Publishing Company, 1989).  "In the archives of KUSF 90.3 FM http:/ / www. kusf. org/ University of San Francisco, California" "Archives meaning that if you email them with the name of the person, show and date they will confirm"  "Currently no less than fourteen separate subgenres are being called New Age music. These include New Age East/West, Electronic/Computer, Environmental/Nature, Folk, Jazz/Fusion, Meditation, Native American/Indigenous, New Age Pop, New Age Progressive, Solo Instrumental, Sound Health, Space Music, Traditional. New Age, Vocal, and World Music." P. J. Birosik, "Preface", in The New Age Music Guide, edited by P. J. Birosik, p. vii (New York: Collier Books; London: Collier Macmillan Publishing Company, 1989).  "New Age Jazz/Fusion is distinguished from other New Age subgenres, especially space music, by its rhythm and identifiable melodies." Dallas Smith, New Age Jazz/Fusion, page 46, The New Age Music Guide: Profiles and Recordings of 500 Top New Age Musicians, edited by Patti Jean Birosik, p. 46 (New York: Collier Books; London: Collier MacMillan Publishing Company, 1989).  " 'Space' is a vital dimension of New Age music; so much so that one of the early appellations for the genre was simply "space music," referring both to its texture and to the state that it tended to evoke in the listener. By "Space" we mean the elecrto-acoustic enhancement of instrumental tones, through reverb and echo; in New Age music such enhancement is not simply a "special effect", but rather an integral part of the music itself." Steven Halpern, Notes on New Age Music, in The New Age Music Guide: Profiles and Recordings of 500 Top New Age Musicians, edited by Patti Jean Birosik, p. xix (New York: Collier Books; London: Collier MacMillan Publishing Company, 1989).  "I got into space music in the '70s as a teenager and I wanted to play with those clichés again—the cyclic, repetitive structures of '70s electronic music—but steer away from the formula by using some of the compositional methods of Steve Reich and Terry Riley, for example. It's a combination of world music, modern compositional methods and '70s schlock." Robert Rich, quoted in Plugged in to the Joy of Ambient Music, by j. poet (http:/ / sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2006/ 05/ 28/ PKGKKIV3K81. DTL& type=music), San Francisco
Chronicle (May 28, 2006).  "Ambient, spacemusic, dub, downtempo, trip hop, acid jazz...artists from all these categories." Waveform...Starstreams and beyond: Ambient Visions Talks with....Forest, listing styles of music played on Musical Starstreams, from interview in Ambient Visions Magazine, 2003 (http:/ / www. ambientvisions. com/ forest. htm)  "spacemusic, also known as ambient, chill-out, mellow dub, down-tempo ....Anything but New Age." Steve Sande, The sky's the Limit with Ambient Music, San Francisco Chronicle (Sunday, January 11, 2004) (http:/ / sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?file=/ chronicle/ archive/ 2004/ 01/ 11/ PKGAA45D9R1. DTL).  Balfe, Judith H. (1993). Paying the Piper: Causes and Consequences of Art Patronage. University of Illinois Press. p. 280. ISBN 0252063104].  Allmusic New Age music page (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ explore/ genre/ d117) - includes Space music as subgenre of New Age music.; Allmusic Space music page - subgenre of New Age music (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ explore/ style/ d780); Allmusic Electronica music page (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ explore/ genre/ d11605) - does not list Space music as a subgenre; Allmusic Ambient music page (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ explore/ style/ d226) - does not list Space music as a subgenre.  Barnes & Noble website - Space music is not listed on the main music genres page (http:/ / music. barnesandnoble. com/ styles/ browseAllStyle. asp?z=y). Space music is listed as a subgenre of New Age music on the New Age music genre page (http:/ / music. barnesandnoble. com/ search/ browseSubStyle. asp?z=y& TYP=P& parent_id=1000105), as is Ambient music. Ambient also appears as a subgenre on the Dance & DJ genre page (http:/ / music. barnesandnoble. com/ search/ browseSubStyle. asp?TYP=P& parent_id=1000100& z=y), along with Electronic music.  Space music is listed on the Rhapsody Music Service New Age music genre page (http:/ / www. rhapsody. com/ newage) as a subgenre of New Age. Space music is not listed on Rhapsody electronica/dance genre page (http:/ / www. rhapsody. com/ electronicadance) or Rhapsody Ambient music subgenre page (http:/ / www. rhapsody. com/ electronicadance/ ambient).  CD Baby - Space music is listed as a subgenre of New Age music. Both Electronic music and New Age music list Ambient as a subgenre. Electronic genre page (http:/ / cdbaby. com/ style/ electronic), New Age genre page (http:/ / cdbaby. com/ style/ newage).  "Although there is no sound in the vacuum of space, many New Age composers have looked upward for inspiration, creating an abstract notion of the sounds of interstellar music. Space indicates not only a style of composition, but also a certain cosmic consciousness.... Artists like...Space music pioneer Michael Stearns try to evoke peace and unity with their spacescapes, creating compositions that are tranquil, hypnotic and moving." Rhapsody online music service - definition of Space Music on New Age music subgenre page (http:/ / www. rhapsody. com/ newage/ space/ more. html)  Lanza, Joseph (2004). Elevator Music: A Surreal History of Muzak, Easy-listening, and Other Moodsong. University of Michigan Press. p. 185. ISBN 0472089420.  Dr. Ulrich D. Einbrodt (2001). "Space, Mysticism, Romantic Music, Sequencing, and the Widening of Form in German Krautrock during the 70's" (http:/ / geb. uni-giessen. de/ geb/ volltexte/ 2001/ 592/ pdf/ p010004. pdf) (PDF). Justus Liebig University, Giessener Electronic Library. .  Robert Beyer, "Das Problem der ‘kommenden Musik,'" Die Musik 20, no. 12 (1928): 861–66. See also p. 36 in Lowell Cross, "Electronic Music, 1948–1953", Perspectives of New Music (Autumn-Winter 1968): 32–65, and p. 7 of David Dunn, " A History of Electronic Music Pioneers (http:/ / www. scribd. com/ doc/ 22877/ David-Dunn-A-History-Of-Electronic-Music-Pioneers)", from the catalog of the exhibition Eigenwelt der Apparatewelt: Pioneers of Electronic Art, presented as part of Ars Electronica 1992, in Linz, Austria.  Schwartz, Elliott; Barney Childs (1998). Contemporary Composers on Contemporary Music. Da Capo Press. p. 380. ISBN 0306808196.  "In 1967, just following the world premier of Hymnen, Stockhausen said this about the electronic music experience: '... Many listeners have projected that strange new music which they experienced—especially in the realm of electronic music—into extraterrestrial space. Even though they are not familiar with it through human experience, they identify it with the fantastic dream world. Several have commented that my electronic music sounds "like on a different star," or "like in outer space." Many have said that when hearing this music, they have sensations as if flying at an infinitely high speed, and then again, as if immobile in an immense space. Thus, extreme words are employed to describe such experience, which are not "objectively" communicable in the sense of an object description, but rather which exist in the subjective fantasy and which are projected into the extraterrestrial space.' " Page 145, Electronic and Experimental Music: Pioneers in Technology and Composition, Thomas B. Holmes, Routledge Music/Songbooks, 2002, ISBN 0415936438  Lanza, Joseph (2004). Elevator Music: A Surreal History of Muzak, Easy-listening, and Other Moodsong. University of Michigan Press. p. 80. ISBN 0472089420.  According to Author Norman Mailer in 1956, quoted on page 154: "a friend took me to hear a jazz musician named Sun Ra who played 'space music.' " and according to Sun Ra himself, also in 1956, quoted on page 384: "When I say space music, I'm dealing with the void, because that is of space too... So I leave the word space open, like space is supposed to be." and on page 247, in an interview, Sun Ra states: "sometimes when I'm playing for a band, playing space music... I'm using ordinary instruments, but actually I'm using them in a manner... transforming certain ideas over into a language which the world can understand." -- Space is the Place By John F. Szwed, 1998, Da Capo Press (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=FC52qh7YQVgC& printsec=toc& dq="space+ music"& as_brr=3#PPA154,M1)  A History of Electronic Music Pioneers by David Dunn, in the catalog of the exhibition: Eigenwelt der Apparatewelt: Pioneers of Electronic Art, presented as part of Ars Electronica 1992, in Linz, Austria.  Chambers, J. K. (1998). Milestones: The Music and Times of Miles Davis. Da Capo Press. p. 246.. ISBN 0306808498.  Carr, Ian (1998). Miles Davis: The Definitive Biography. Thunder's Mouth Press. pp. 284, 303, 304, 306. ISBN 1560252413.  "purveyors of freely improvised space music," -- Blender Magazine, May 2003 (http:/ / www. blender. com/ guide/ articles. aspx?id=932)
 ""Dark Star," both in its title and in its structure (designed to incorporate improvisational exploration), is the perfect example of the kind of "space music" that the Dead are famous for. Oswald's titular pun "Grayfolded" adds the concept of folding to the idea of space, and rightly so when considering the way he uses sampling to fold the Dead's musical evolution in on itself." -- Islands of Order, Part 2,by Randolph Jordan, in Offscreen Journal (http:/ / www. horschamp. qc. ca/ new_offscreen/ islands_part2. html), edited by Donato Totaro, Ph. D, film studies lecturer at Concordia University since 1990.  "a quartet of albums, Phaedra, Rubycon, Ricochet and Stratosfear, established the Dream's modus operandi with throbbing, cosmic rubber band rhythms thrumming like galactic space basses through floating mellotron pads, ghost flutes and electronic effects whirling by at hyperspeed. This was the soundtrack for countless planetarium shows... the first electronic music to shed the synthesizers reputation as cold and unfeeling... beyond emotion, into the sensual and the transcendent. It was as if the universe were wrapping you up in a warm velvet glove and showing you the wonders of existence." Time Warped in Space by Echoes Radio producer and host, John Diliberto (http:/ / www. echoes. org/ TimeWarped. html).  Listed in "A Classic Space Music Countdown to Liftoff: 10 Essential classic space music albums, counting down from 10 to 1" Time Warped in Space by Echoes Radio producer and host, John Diliberto (http:/ / www. echoes. org/ TimeWarped. html).  "At its most abstract - solo albums by Klaus Schulze and by Tangerine Dream's leader Edgar Froese - these were clouds of sounds to lose yourself in, a Rorschach mindscreen for projecting fantasies onto." Reynolds, Simon. "Kings of the cosmos", in The Guardian, April 22, 2007, retrieved May 13, 2007 (http:/ / observer. guardian. co. uk/ print/ 0,,329781701-111639,00. html)  Jack Chambers.; Detlef Junker, Philipp Gassert, Wilfried Mausbac David Brian Morris (2004). The United States and Germany in the Era of the Cold War, 1945-1990: A Handbook. Cambridge University Press. p. 342. ISBN 0306808498.  Junker, Detlef; Philipp Gassert, Wilfried Mausbach, David Brian Morris (2004). The United States and Germany in the Era of the Cold War, 1945-1990: A Handbook. Cambridge University Press. p. 342. ISBN 0521834201.  "The Dream's sound started getting a lot more rock 'n' roll in the 1980s, especially once the dreaded Private Music years set in. They'd record good music after that, but it never had the impact, cultural resonance or lasting import of their 1970s output." Time Warped in Space by Echoes Radio producer and host, John Diliberto (http:/ / www. echoes. org/ TimeWarped. html).  official website for "Space is the Place" (http:/ / www. outerspacewaysinc. com/ index. htm), documentary film about Sun Ra's Arkestra, filmed in 1972  "Hill began the program as a volunteer at KPFA-FM, Berkeley, in 1973, and worked with Anna Turner as co-producer. Ten years later--Jan. 8, 1983--the program went national." Hearts of Space: a mellow carriage leader after a decade on the public radio satellite -- published Feb. 1, 1993 in Current, "the newspaper about public television and radio in the United States" (http:/ / www. current. org/ rad/ rad302h. html)  Norman, Katharine (2004). Sounding Art: Eight Literary Excursions Through Electronic Music. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. p. 32. ISBN 0754604268.  "...includes music in his 'classic' style, ethnically influenced e-music, deep sequences, symphonic synths, and sci-fi space music." Blade Runner soundtrack album review (Multi-CD extended version), Jim Brenholts, Windows Media Guide, from Allmusic (http:/ / www. windowsmedia. com/ MediaGuide/ Templates/ AlbumInfo. aspx?a_id=R 313657)  "Vangelis...composes and performs mainly instrumental music and film scores. ...he has flirted with many genres and has proved to be very hard to categorize. His music has been filed as 'synthesizer music', 'new age', 'progressive rock', 'Symphonic rock', 'Space music', 'electronic music', etc" Vangelis Papathanassiou Biography, Newsfinder, A literary favour to world culture (http:/ / www. newsfinder. org/ site/ more/ vangelis_papathanassiou/ ), Gus Leous, July 2003  "The terms New Age and Space Music have been aptly applied to the ethereal improvisational electronic work of Tangerine Dream.... Tangerine Dream lends itself to movie soundtracks; their music graces dozens of popular motion pictures." Tangerine Dream Biography Contemporary Musicians, Ed. Suzanne M. Bourgoin. Vol. 12. (http:/ / arts. enotes. com/ contemporary-musicians/ tangerine-dream-biography) Thomson Gale, 1994. eNotes.com. 2006  " In 1983 the group made a substantial contribution to the soundtrack for the film Risky Business, .... the title piece, also known as Love On A Real Train involved repetitive elements that were close to the minimalism of Steve Reich... 'we stumbled upon a minimal kind of thing, like Steve Reich or Philip Glass. It was a new way of drawing a romantic theme, which we still get credit for today.' " Tangerine Dream - Their Changing Use Of Technology Part 2: 1977-1994, Sound on Sound Magazine, January 1995 (http:/ / www. soundonsound. com/ sos/ 1995_articles/ jan95/ tangerinedream2. html)  "the award-winning IMAX short film, Hubble: Galaxies Across Space and Time, ... transforms images and data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope into a voyage that sweeps viewers across the cosmos. .... space music composer Jonn Serrie wrote the surround-sound score." Hubble IMAX Film Takes Viewers on Ride Through Space and Time Hubble Telescope News Release (http:/ / hubblesite. org/ newscenter/ archive/ releases/ 2004/ 16/ text/ ), June 24, 2004  Harpole, Charles; Charles Musser, Eileen Bowser, Richard Koszarski, Donald Crafton, Tino Balio, Thomas Schatz, Stephen Prince, David A. Cook, Paul Monaco, Peter Lev (2004). History of the American Cinema. Simon and Schuster. p. 385. ISBN 068480493X.  "[Michael Stearns] scored the IMAX film Chronos for Ron Fricke... Chronos opened in May of 1985 and on opening night the soundtrack was beamed via satellite to over 200 radio stations nationwide on Stephen Hill's program Music From the Hearts of Space." from Stearns' bio on the Michael Sterns official website (http:/ / www. michaelstearns. com/ past_bio. html)  (http:/ / christopherfranke. com/ soloreleases. html)  "don't get confused and start thinking that classically crafted space music is a thing of the past. We recently received several releases from Sonic Images, an independent Los Angeles label operated by synthesist Christopher Franke, who played with Tangerine Dream for 17 years during the apex of the German group's popularity. Franke, who now resides in L.A., is represented on the label by two recent albums: a
compilation of soundtrack music for the sci-fi TV series Babylon 5 and Klemania," DECLARATIONS OF INDEPENDENTS, Billboard Magazine, January 27, 1996 (http:/ / www. billboard. biz/ bbbiz/ search/ article_display. jsp?vnu_content_id=753498)  Space night official website (http:/ / www. br-online. de/ wissen-bildung/ spacenight/ )  Patti Jean Birosik, The New Age Music Guide: Profiles and Recordings of 500 Top New Age Musicians, p113, 1989, Collier MacMillan, ISBN 0020416407, "Deep Breakfast...one of the best-selling New Age Space music albums ever"  Affirmation Spot (http:/ / www. theaffirmationspot. com/ raylynch. html) "Ray Lynch...one of the luminaries of the "space music" genre"  Insound Review of R. Carlos Nakai, Cycles, Vol. 2 (1985) (http:/ / www. insound. com/ R. _Carlos_Nakai/ artistmain/ artist/ P+ + + + + 2703/ ) "This is a set of heavenly space music compositions with their bases firmly in the Northern plains and Southwestern deserts. "  Jim Brenholts, Allmusic, Sundance Season, R. Carlos Nakai (http:/ / www. mp3. com/ albums/ 63402/ reviews. html) "Nakai is one of the leading practitioners of this style. In his hands, the flute takes on space music qualities."  Robert Lamb, "Symphonies of the Planets: Music from the Hearts of Space?", HowStuffWorks, September 15, 2009. (http:/ / blogs. howstuffworks. com/ 2009/ 09/ 15/ symphonies-of-the-planets/ )  "Pioneered by Tangerine Dream, Klaus Schulze and Walter Carlos, then popularised by Tomita, Jean Michel Jarre, and Vangelis, this genre - space music, some call it..." Reynolds, Simon. "Kings of the cosmos", in The Guardian, April 22, 2007, retrieved May 13, 2007 (http:/ / observer. guardian. co. uk/ print/ 0,,329781701-111639,00. html)  Hearts of Space playlist (http:/ / www. hos. com/ php/ showProgram. php?program=0035)  "As in previous Spacejazz excursions, we favor the more melodic or space creating players over the instrumental technicians. We'll be hearing from the group OREGON with music from 45th PARALLEL;" -- Music from the Hearts of Space, Program 260 : "Spacejazz 6 Animato"  Billboard Chart 1992 (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ p2741) cited in Allmusic  "RIVERS OF BELIEF-an ENIGMAtic mix of the spiritual & the seductive" (http:/ / hos. com/ php/ showProgram. php?program=0263). Hearts of Space. 24 May 1991. .  Steve Sande (January 11, 2004). "The sky's the limit with ambient music" (http:/ / sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?file=/ chronicle/ archive/ 2004/ 01/ 11/ PKGAA45D9R1. DTL). SF Chronicle. . "10 essential spacemusic CDs, Selected by Stephen Hill of Hearts of Space"  Planetarium Music (http:/ / www. geodesium. com)  Hearts of Space playlist (http:/ / www. hos. com/ php/ showProgram. php?program=0897)  Hearts of Space playlist (http:/ / www. hos. com/ php/ search. php?searchText=Lisa Gerrard)  "Among the first, and arguably the best to bring that psychedelic ethos into the electronic age was Tangerine Dream. While their 1970 debut, Electronic Meditation, sounded like Karlheinz Stockhausen meeting the Grateful Dead, their later albums essayed the sound that would be the template of space music." Time Warped in Space by Echoes Radio producer and host, John Diliberto (http:/ / www. echoes. org/ TimeWarped. html).  Hearts of Space playlist (http:/ / www. hos. com/ php/ showProgram. php?program=0660)  eNotes biography of George Winston (http:/ / www. enotes. com/ contemporary-musicians/ winston-george-biography) "prime acoustic example of what is popularly called new age space music"
• Prendergast, Mark. Eno, Brian (Foreword) (2001). The Ambient Century: From Mahler to Trance: The Evolution of Sound in the Electronic Age. Bloomsbury USA. ISBN 1582341346.
Related topics and lists
List of ambient artists
This is a list of ambient music artists. This includes artists who have either been very important to the genre or have had a considerable amount of exposure (such as in the case of one that has been on a major label, but not limited to such). This list does not include little-known local artists. Artists are listed by the first letter in their name (not including the words "a", "an", or "the"), and individuals are listed by last name.
Contents: Top · 0–9 · A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
• 2002 • 3rd Force
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Philip Aaberg William Ackerman Acoustic Alchemy Adiemus Rudy Adrian Aes Dana Aghiatrias Airiel The Album Leaf Ambeon The American Dollar Anugama Aphex Twin Diane Arkenstone Ash Ra Tempel James Asher Atom Heart Augustine Leudar Australis Marvin Ayres Sara Ayers
List of ambient artists
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • William Basinski Bad Sector Wally Badarou Bass Communion Peter Baumann Biosphere Bluetech Boards of Canada Bohren & der Club of Gore Richard Bone Booka Shade Bonobo Bowery Electric Thom Brennan Michael Brook Brunette Models Buckethead (trance-ambient) Harold Budd Peter Buffett Burzum (later works) Ray Buttigieg
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Carbon Based Lifeforms Wendy Carlos Clifford Carter (member of James Taylors band) Craig Chaquico Suzanne Ciani Clouddead Cluster Cocteau Twins Coil B.J. Cole (pedal steel gutairist) Colleen Conjure One, headed by Rhys Fulber Controlled Bleeding Cusco Holger Czukay
List of ambient artists
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Malcolm Dalglish David Darling David Jolley Dead Can Dance Deadmau5 Death Ambient Death Cube K Deathprod Deep Forest De Facto (band) Delerium Constance Demby Stuart Dempster Deuter Deutsch Nepal DJ Spooky Kurt Doles Suzanne Doucet dreamSTATE Kyle Bobby Dunn
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Earth Earthstar Danielle Egnew Ludovico Einaudi Eluvium Emerald Web Emeralds Justin Emerle Enigma Brian Eno Roger Eno Enya Karlheinz Essl Dean Evenson Explosions In The Sky
List of ambient artists
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Don Falcone Falling Up Falling You Fantomas Ryan Farish Christian Fennesz Fingers in the Noise The Field The Fireman Tim Floyd Jim Fox Christopher Franke Freescha Robert Fripp Edgar Froese Ben Frost Frou Frou Fumio Future Sound of London / Amorphous Androgynous Friendly Ghost
• • • • • • • • • • • Peter Gabriel Gandalf Gas Philip Glass Global Communication God Is An Astronaut Goldfrapp Manuel Gottsching Grey Area (band) Guru Guru Guy Gerber
• • • • • • • Rob Haigh Halo Manash Peter Hammill Hammock Harmonia Jon Hassell Imogen Heap
• Tom Heasley • Tim Hecker • Michael Hedges
List of ambient artists • • • • • • David Helpling Higher Intelligence Agency Vladimír Hirsch Ezekiel Honig Hum Hwyl Nofio
• • • • • • • • Iasos (musician) In-Existence (Maarten van der Vleuten) Inon Zur Tetsu Inoue Mark Isham Irresistible Force Ishq Ishvara
• • • • • • • • • Jacaszek Jean Michel Jarre Jónsi & Alex Karl Jenkins Jeff Johnson Jóhann Jóhannsson Michael Jones Bradley Joseph Jonas-nkb
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Karunesh Kátai Tamás Peter Kater Kevin Keller Kevin Kern Kettel Paddy Kingsland Kitaro The KLF Koan Thomas Köner Kraftwerk Andrei Krylov
List of ambient artists
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Labradford Ladytron Daniel Lanois David Lanz Laraaji Bill Laswell Thomas Leer Ottmar Liebert Lights Out Asia Liquid Zen Loscil Lull Luminaria Lusine Lustmord Ray Lynch
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • M83 Maeror Tri Main Makyo Mana ERG Mannheim Steamroller Marconi Union Catya Maré Mariae Nascenti Marine Matotumba Keiko Matsui Paul McCandless Loreena McKennitt Billy McLaughlin Mehdi Michna Robert Miles Robyn Miller Mirror System Moby Moodswings The Moon Lay Hidden Beneath a Cloud Morgenstern Rob Mounsey
• Murcof • Roberto Musci
List of ambient artists • Mythos
• • • • • • • • • • • • R. Carlos Nakai (Native American flutist) Pete Namlook Andy Narell Nemuriyume Neptune Towers Loren Nerell Nightnoise Nine Inch Nails (Ghosts I-IV, some of The Fragile) No-Man Alva Noto (Carsten Nicolai) Numina (Numina/Caul) Michael Nyman
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Vidna Obmana Obsil Odd Nosdam Patrick O'Hearn Mike Oldfield Coyote Oldman Omar Rodriguez Lopez Ombient Omni Trio On! Air! Library! Open Canvas The Orb William Orbit (Strange Cargo series) Orbital O Yuki Conjugate Ott (record producer)
• • • • • • • • Craig Padilla Panda Bear Pendulum Phish (The Siket Disc in particular) Pink Floyd Pivot Plastikman Popol Vuh
• Puff Dragon • Port Blue
List of ambient artists
• Quantic (Earlier Works)
• • • • • • • • • • • • Rabbit in the Moon Radiohead Radio Massacre International Raison D'être Red Robert Rich Terry Riley Francis Rimbert Steve Roach Kim Robertson Ciarán Paul Roche Hans-Joachim Roedelius
• Rothko • Rurutia • Röyksopp
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ryuichi Sakamoto Karl Sanders Bruno Sanfilippo Devin Sarno Erik Satie Conrad Schnitzler Neal Schon (from Journey) Klaus Schulze Scorn Murat Ses Shadowfax Jonah Sharp Shpongle Shulman Michael Shrieve The Sight Below Sigur Rós Montana Skies Spiral Realms Gary Stadler Stars of the Lid Stray Ghost
• Michael Stearns • Solar Fields
List of ambient artists
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Henrik Takkenberg Hirokazu Tanaka Tangerine Dream Team Sleep Telefon Tel Aviv Mark Templeton Terre Thaemlitz Robert Scott Thompson TimeShard Amon Tobin Devin Townsend Troum Tuu Thom Brennan Thomas Newman
• Ulrich Schnauss • Ulver • Underworld
• • • • Vangelis Velvet Cacoon VLE Voice of Eye
• • • • • • • • • • • • The Water Kit Watkins Wavestar (with John Dyson) Simon Webb Carl Weingarten Tim White Windy & Carl Paul Winter Paul Winter Consort Jah Wobble Erik Wollo Woob
List of ambient artists
• • • • Kenji Yamamoto Yanni Yellow Magic Orchestra Susumu Yokota
• Zero 7 • Zoviet France
Contents: Top · 0–9 · A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
List of electronic music genres
This is a list of electronic music genres, subgenres and styles. • Ambient • • • • • • • Ambient house Ambient techno Dark ambient Drone music Illbient Isolationism Lowercase
• Rave music • Breakbeat • • • • Acid breaks Baltimore Club Big beat Breakbeat hardcore • Hardcore breaks • Oldschool jungle • Darkside jungle • Ragga-jungle • Drum and bass (Intelligent jungle) • • • • • • • Darkcore Darkstep Drumfunk Drumstep Hardstep Intelligent drum and bass (Intelligent jungle) Jump-Up
List of electronic music genres • Liquid funk • Neurofunk • Raggacore • Sambass • Trancestep • Progressive drum & bass Broken beat Florida breaks Nu skool breaks 4-beat Turntablism Progressive breaks
• • • • • •
• Chiptune • • • • Bitpop Game Boy music Nintendocore Video game music
• Yorkshire Bleeps and Bass • Disco • Cosmic disco • Europop • Euro disco • Space disco • Italo disco • Nu-disco • Downtempo • • • • • • • • • Acid jazz Balearic Beat Chill out Dubtronica Ethnic electronica Moombahton New age music Nu jazz Trip hop
• Dub music • Reggae • Rocksteady • Dancehall • Electro • Crunk • Electro backbeat • Electro-grime • Electro hop • Electropop
List of electronic music genres • Nightcore • Electroacoustic • • • • • • • • • Acousmatic music Computer music Electroacoustic improvisation Field recording Live electronics Live coding Musique concrète Soundscape composition Tape music
• IDM • Experimental • Glitch • Electronica • Berlin school • • • • • • • • • • Chillwave Electronic art music Electronic dance music Folktronica Freestyle music Laptronica Rave breaks Skweee Sound art Synthcore
• Electronic rock • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Alternative dance Dance-punk Dance-rock Dark Wave Electroclash Electropunk Ethereal Wave Grind Indietronica New rave Space rock Synthpop Synthpunk Trip rock Shoegaze
• Eurodance • Bubblegum dance • Eurotrance
List of electronic music genres • J-pop • Italo dance • Hardcore/Hard dance • • • • • • • • • • • • • • UK Hardcore Bouncy house Bouncy techno Breakcore Darkcore Digital hardcore Doomcore Dubstyle Gabber Happy hardcore Hardstyle Jumpstyle Makina Speedcore
• Terrorcore • UK hardcore • House • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Acid house Chicago house Deep house Disco house Diva house Dutch house Electro house French house Freestyle house Funky house Ghetto house Hardbag Hip house Italo house Latin house Minimal house/Microhouse Progressive House • Dream house • Space house Swing house Tech house Tribal house US garage Vocal house
• • • • •
• Industrial • Aggrotech
List of electronic music genres • • • • • Coldwave Cybergrind Dark electro Death industrial Electronic body music
• Futurepop • Electro-Industrial • Industrial metal • Neue Deutsche Härte • Industrial rock • Noise • Japanoise • Power noise • Power electronics • Witch House/Drag • Post-disco • Boogie • Dance-pop • K-pop • Progressive • Techno • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Acid techno Detroit techno Free tekno Ghettotech Minimal Nortec Rotterdam techno Schranz / Hardtechno Symphonic techno Tecno brega Techno-DNB Techstep Toytown Techno Progressive techno
• Trance • • • • • Acid trance Classic trance Dream trance Euro-trance Goa trance / Psychedelic trance • Dark psytrance • Full on • Psyprog • Psybient
List of electronic music genres • Psybreaks • Suomisaundi Hard trance Neo-trance Tech trance Uplifting trance
• • • •
• Orchestral Uplifting • Vocal trance • Progressive House/Trance • UK garage • • • • • • • 2-step Bassline Breakstep Dubstep Funky Grime Speed garage (4x4)
• Ishkur's Guide To Electronic Music  • Electronic music styles  on Discogs
 http:/ / techno. org/ electronic-music-guide/  http:/ / wiki. discogs. com/ index. php/ Style_Guide-Genre-Electronic
Furniture music, or in French musique d’ameublement (sometimes more literally translated as furnishing music), is background music originally played by live performers. The term was coined by Erik Satie in 1917.
Although other selections of Erik Satie's music can be experienced (and are sometimes indicated) as furniture music, Satie himself applied the name only to five short pieces, composed in three separate sets: • 1st set (1917), for flute, clarinet and strings, plus a trumpet for the first piece: • 1. Tapisserie en fer forgé - pour l'arrivée des invités (grande réception) - À jouer dans un vestibule - Mouvement: Très riche (Tapestry in forged iron - for the arrival of the guests (grand reception) - to be played in a vestibule - Movement: Very rich) • 2. Carrelage phonique - Peut se jouer à un lunch ou à un contrat de mariage Mouvement: Ordinaire (Phonic tiling Can be played during a lunch or civil marriage - Movement: Ordinary),
Furniture music: «Tapisserie en Fer forgé», 1924
• 2nd set, Sons industriels (Industrial sounds, February/March 1920), for piano duet, 3 clarinets and trombone: • Premier Entr'acte: Chez un “Bistrot” (First Entr'acte: At a “Bistro”) • Second Entr'acte: Un salon (Second Entr'acte: A drawing room) • 1923, commissioned by Mrs Eugène Meyer jr. (living in Washington DC), for small orchestra: • Tenture de cabinet préfectoral (Wall-lining in a chief officer's office)
154 The first set was apparently never performed (nor the score published) during Satie's lifetime. The second set contained reminiscences of popular tunes by, amongst others, Camille Saint-Saëns and Ambroise Thomas. It was premiered in Paris the year it was composed, as intermission music to a lost comedy by Max Jacob. During these intermissions the audience was invited to visit an exposition of children's drawings in the gallery hosting the premiere. Indications of the intentions of the artists giving the first performance are found in the manuscript of the score:
Furnishing divertissement organised by the group of musicians known as the Furniture music: «Carrelage Phonique», 1917 "Nouveaux Jeunes" Furnishing music replaces "waltzes" and "operatic fantasias" etc. Don't be confused! It's something else!!! No more "false music" Furnishing music completes one's property; it's new; it doesn't upset customs; it isn't tiring; it's French; it won't wear out; it isn't boring --quoted in Gillmor, 1988, p 325-326 See also Entr'acte article for more details regarding the circumstances of this first, and only documented, public performance of furniture music during Satie's lifetime, assisted by the composer himself. The separate commissioned piece was sent to America. There are no known public performances or publications of this music prior to leaving the European continent. This piece is sometimes presented as furniture music No. 3. As Satie's pieces of furniture music were very short pieces, with an indefinite number of repeats, this kind of furniture music later became associated with repetitive music (sometimes used as a synonym of minimal music), but this kind of terminology did not yet exist in Satie's time.
For a quarter of a century after the composer's death, all of the furniture music pieces remained hidden from the general public, apart from being mentioned in early Satie biographies. By the end of the 1960s parts of the furniture music started to appear as facsimile illustrations to press articles and new Satie biographies. The first full publication of sets 1 and 3 followed in the early 1970s. There was no full publication of the 2nd set before the last years of the 20th century.
Several decades after Satie's death furniture music was revived, largely due to the American composer John Cage, as the composer's theory of minimalist background music. Furniture music appeared as the launchpad for minimalist/experimental/avant-garde music since it was the first instance of music being played or produced out of context: not as a centerpiece but as a cerebral backdrop. These and other related ideas were picked up by several composers of the neo-Classical/20th Century school of music, accentuating atmosphere and texture over traditional form and movement. The minimalist references and anachronisms weren't solidified until composer John Cage performed Satie's "hidden" piece Vexations 840 times as requested by Satie's own scribbled notes on the original sheet music.
• Cage’s Place In the Reception of Satie  - a 1999 paper by Matthew Shlomowitz, published on Niclas Fogwall's "Erik Satie" website. This article contains a quote of Milhaud's definition of Furniture Music, as it was presented at the first public performance (Milhaud being one of the performers). • UbuWeb's Eric Satie: Conceptual Works page  offers some rare recordings of Satie's Furniture Music pieces by the Ars Nova Ensemble for download.
 http:/ / www. satie-archives. com/ web/ article8. html  http:/ / www. ubu. com/ sound/ satie_conceptual. html
Article Sources and Contributors
Article Sources and Contributors
Ambient music Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463194335 Contributors: -Majestic-, 100110100, 1ultrared, 2004-12-29T22:45Z, A4, ACSE, Acidburn24m, Acne m, Actionslacks, Aesopos, Aeternus, Agentbla, Ah-delican, Ahoerstemeier, Airplaneman, Aitias, Akronym, Alanwiki00, Alex Zivoder, AlexGWU, AlexReynolds, Alexander elder, Aliendj456, All Is One, Altenmann, Alvareo, Amikuk, Andareed, Andros 1337, Angeforce, Angela, Ante Aikio, Antigoon, Antitext, Aquafire, AreDaval, As530, Asmadeus, AuRec, Auro.001, Aurochs, Austere, Az1568, B saitzyk, BD2412, Backpackadam, Badagnani, Beetstra, Before My Ken, Ben DeRoy, Betawave31, Bfx0, BigHaz, Biopresto, Blop, BoBrandt, Bobblewik, BobbyAmbient, BongoPedro, Bookofjude, Borisb, Brendan Vox, Breseler, Breus, Brian G. Wilson, Caitlynmaire, CanisRufus, Carl.bunderson, Cek, Chadbrekke, Chipmunk01, Choas, CircafuciX, Cjharri, Clarityfiend, Clement-Fiontain, Clodomir17, Closedmouth, Cobain, ColdPhage, Colonies Chris, Crazyoval, Cyberbum, Damien Karras, DanFluid, Danialwilford, DaveSeidel, David Kernow, Davieblint, Dawnseeker2000, Deanos, Decklin, DesertEagle73, Dimitris22, Discospinster, Discreet, Djrobgordon, Doktor Who, Doomgaze, Doramysz, Dotspace, Dpcohen1968, Dysprosia, E-Kartoffel, EVula, Editor B, Edmradio, Ekans, ElBenevolente, Elaine11, EmanWilm, Endomion, Escaper7, Everyking, Ewegogetemtiger, Exponentialcube, Extrafacts, Fantusta, Fell asleep on the way, FireCrystal, Flubeca, Flyset, Francis Schonken, Frongle, Funks, Gadget850, Gaius Cornelius, Gardener of Geda, Garret Beaumain, Gee13, Gene Poole, Genshi, Ghewgill, Gilliam, GraemeL, Graham87, Grendelkhan, Grm wnr, Guaka, Gunmetal Angel, Gustard33, Haakon, Hairhorn, Harry Doodli, Harveyspeed, Headbomb, Heidimo, Henchren, Hephaestos, Hertz1888, Hexebart, Hisdhuidhuiao, Hunting dog, Huwbwici, Hydrargyrum, IL7Soulhunter, Ian Dunster, Iapetus, Iggysaves, IncomingMessageFromDurandal, Insomniak, Intgr, Ironicon, J Milburn, J.delanoy, JAF1970, JNW, JRHorse, JaGa, Jack's Revenge, Jagged 85, James599, JanderVK, Janexx, Jb-adder, JdwNYC, Jeancosx, Jeff79, JeremyA, Jerome Kohl, Jhsounds, Jmm6f488, John aziz, JohnCD, Jokeandalaugh, Jokes Free4Me, JonasRH, Jozef Ahmed, Jpbowen, Jseree, Jumping cheese, Justin Foote, Jwy, K d f m, Karen Johnson, Kariandelos, Karol Langner, Kawayama, Kenyon, Keraunoscopia, Ketiltrout, Kimi95, Kingboyk, Koavf, Kolyma, Kotuku33, Krash, Kst447, Kuru, Kx1186, Kyng, LadyofShalott, Lbgrowl, Lectonar, Lexor, Lid, Lil' Noahz, LilHelpa, LimoWreck, Lironos, Lkrory21, Llafeht, Loeser, Logan, Lottielurcher, Lx45803, M-sun, M.nelson, MMBKG, Magic Window, Maierstrahl, Mandarax, Mark PEA, Marleen01, Mattishq, Mattsmawfield, MaxSem, Maximus Rex, Mboverload, MegX, Mentifisto, Mheumann, Mikej413, Mikemoral, MilkMiruku, Mintleaf, Mirkoruckels, Misterknowall, Misza13, Mk5384, Moezzillas world, Moscvitch, MoxoM, Mr. ATOZ, Musicaindustrial, Muzicafan, MuzikJunky, Myrnostrum, Nakon, NapoliRoma, NawlinWiki, NewYork1956, Nick Number, NickD, NicoSPPP, Nihiltres, Nite-Sirk, NoremacDaGangsta, Novum, Nv8200p, Ohnoitsjamie, Omegatron, Onam, Opiaterein, Optigan13, OrangeHat, Ore4444, Ours18, OwenBlacker, Pablo-flores, Pammylove, Panaphonic, Parsifal, Paul A, Paul Erik, Paul Formain, Peacenik62, Pearle, Peter G Werner, Philipderby, Phillennium, PhilyG, Physicistjedi, PikaPikaPeekah, Pipozor, Pixel Eater, Pjoef, Plim84, Precious Roy, ProfiantLoner, Psychomusicianuk, Pzqk, Qfl247, Qui1che, Quibus, RJFJR, RNS-M-64, Rbj, Realist-st, Recury, Riana, RinchenOz, Rjwilmsi, Robchurch, Robert8525, Roccotactical, Roisterer, Rothery, Rotto, Rwalker, Ryulong, Sabrebd, Sam Korn, Samwaltz, SarahStierch, Sard112, Sardanaphalus, Sbrianhicks, SchuminWeb, Scwlong, SebastiaanMode, Sebs.sd, Secretlondon, Seejohnplay, Semi-awesome, Semitransgenic, Sensesfail123, Shayn S9, ShelfSkewed, Shoeofdeath, Silverlullabye, Simeonsimon, Sir Vicious, Sjorford, Sky-surfer, Slowking Man, Smjg, Sonjakris, SouperAwesome, Speaksoft, Spiff, Sprocketeer, Sry85, Sscochaa, StanKingMusic, Starstreams, Stdw, Steerpike, Stevekeiretsu, Steveprutz, Strawmd, Sugar Bear, Susume-eat, Svetlana122, TUF-KAT, Tainted Angel, Tassedethe, Teklund, Template namespace initialisation script, Tempshill, The Anome, The Neutral Zone, The-Q, Theatomsk, Theblako, Themfromspace, Tikilounge, Tim!, Tinton5, Tlusťa, Toddst1, TolkienGeek, Tom Morris, Torchiest, Tothebarricades.tk, Transity, Tropylium, Truckstopdave, Twsx, Ukabu, Ulyd, Unint, Vindimy, Viriditas, Vodnokon4e, WJetChao, Wejdas, Whig, Whispie, Whorepresents?, Wickethewok, Wiendietry, Wine Guy, Wm, Woohookitty, Woohp978, Wormpatrol, Wwagner, Yworo, Zack wadghiri, Zenbeats, Zigger, ZimZalaBim, Zoeb, Γραφή, Δ, 840 anonymous edits 20th-century classical music Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=464123119 Contributors: 3didgar3, Akerans, Aldoperani, Aleenf1, Alexhard, Alfietucker, Angela, Antandrus, Apesfan, AprilSKelly, Badagnani, BastianOfArt, Batya Silber, Bmowrey, Boing! said Zebedee, Brian0918, BrownHairedGirl, Camembert, CanisRufus, Caritasmus, CatherineMunro, Challisrussia, Chris Roy, Chris the speller, ChrisMD123, Chrysalifourfour, Colonies Chris, Cote d'Azur, Crazynas, Crculver, DCGeist, DO'Neil, DanFluid, DanMS, Dave Bass, Death by Hamster, Deltabeignet, DenisRS, Deskford, DjScrawl, Dogbertd, Doublea, Dpbsmith, Dysprosia, Edsechs, Electrocdwiki, Fartwrangler, Favonian, Ferdinand Pienaar, Flamurai, Floodamanny, Flux712, Fredrik, Freechild, Gingermint, Gopackgo160, Grstain, Guanlongwucaii, HGB, Hornbostel-Sachs, Hyacinth, Infrogmation, JackofOz, James (Jim) Baker, Jan1nad, Jdiazch, Jebus989, Jerome Kohl, Jfucinos, Jmldalton, JoeyTH, JonHarder, Joonasl, Jossi, Jubileeclipman, Karada, Karel dragoun, Karl Michael Johnson, Kleinzach, Kmunoz, Kona W, Krash, Leogoldseed, Lexor, LumpyGravyUK, Madhero88, Marcus2, Marlowe, Matthew Auger, Max Terry, Mboverload, Mcmillin24, MegX, Megan1967, Mgclapé, Michaelsayers, Mindspillage, Morahman7vn, Myanw, Naddy, Najeb, Nakon, Netoholic, O Graeme Burns, Octane, Ohthelameness, OldakQuill, PDH, Paggz, Parsifal, Pharaoh of the Wizards, Pjs012915, Possiblybetween, Precore19, Pulpy, RickK, Ricky81682, Rigaudon, RobertG, Rolf.Anderson, Ronhjones, Rossami, S.dedalus, Samohyl Jan, Semitransgenic, Senator Palpatine, ShelfSkewed, Shizhao, Slovovitzh, Sludge, Sluzzelin, Snasr, So God created Manchester, Stfg, Stirling Newberry, T k, TUF-KAT, Takin' Names, Template namespace initialisation script, The Utahraptor, The stuart, Themfromspace, Tikilounge, Tom.email@example.com, Torc2, Trevor MacInnis, Tsanoff, Ultratomio, UninvitedCompany, Varlaam, Viajero, Violncello, Wahoofive, WereSpielChequers, Whjayg, WillMak050389, William Prawn, Wladyslaw1885, Woohookitty, Xp54321, Zazaban, Zerkalox, Zlatogor, 336 anonymous edits Electronic music Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463928106 Contributors: 100110100, 130.94.122.xxx, 2206, ACSE, AMCKen, Abc518, Acousmadef, Acroterion, AdSR, Addambombb, Addshore, Aeternus, Afita, Ahkond, Ajnewbold, Alansohn, Aldie, AlexReynolds, AlexWolfx, Alexander Vince, All Is One, AllyD, AlmanacManiac, Altenmann, Analogik, Andres rojas22, Andros 1337, Angelrada, Antandrus, Aportnoy, Arru, Asger Shah, Ashohat, Asmadeus, Atario, Aufmerksamkeit, Auntof6, Aurochs, BFD1, Badagnani, BananaTime!, Bdean1963, Beatskill, Beetstra, Binary TSO, Binksternet, Biógrafo, Bkonrad, Blainster, Bomac, Bongwarrior, Bookofjude, Borisb, Brentt, Brian G. Wilson, Bryan Derksen, Bubeck, Bxj, Bydand, Cadillandy, Camembert, CapitalLetterBeginning, CatherineMunro, CharlotteWebb, Ched Davis, Chenzw, Chickyfuzz14, Chowbok, Chris Roy, Chris the speller, ChrisGriswold, Chzz, Cleared as filed, Clerks, Cmdrjameson, CommonsDelinker, Conversion script, CoolGuy, Cooptrol, Corykoski, CryptoDerk, Cygri, Dachshund, DanMS, Danelo, Danski14, Darkildor, Darklord159, Davehi1, Davichito, Dbarnes99, Deeperknowledge22, Dejitaru Neko, Dekimasu, Delirium, Derek Ross, Deskford, Devon Fyson, Dilen, Dj samson, Djmitch, Dlohcierekim, Doktor Who, Domplum, Doniago, Douglas david, Dowcet, DragonGuyver, Drew smith99, Drew3D, DrewT2, Dunks58, Dynamic Progressive Turbulence Creator, Dysprosia, Edmradio, Electroliz, Elkman, Eloquence, Endomion, Epbr123, Ericd, Etan J. Tal, Eurotrance03, Evercat, Evil saltine, False vacuum, Fanofranz, Fazzer, Fclass, Ferdinand Pienaar, Fieldday-sunday, Filelakeshoe, Flamurai, Flyset, Fpenteado, Frantik, Fratrep, Frazzydee, Fresheneesz, Ft1, Funkstar De Luxe, Fvw, Gadget850, Gail, Gaius Cornelius, Ganellia, Gbeauregard, Gerrywright, Gewang, Gidonb, Giuliopp, Glennfolkvord, Gobiman, GoingBatty, Gotyernoze, GraemeL, Graham87, Grayshi, Greg Godwin, Gubbubu, Gunwarband, Hagbard Celine, Hankwang, HannesP, Harveyspeed, Helixweb, Hello32020, HenryLi, Heqs, Here, Hermione1980, Heron, Hertz1888, Hooverbag, Houtlijm, Hu12, Hwarwick, Hyacinth, ILIAS, Iain, Iammaeai, Ianthegecko, Ibt123, Ihcoyc, Imajicka, Inaeldi, Infrogmation, Inksash, Insomaniac117, Intervall, Intgr, Irishguy, Isbass, Ismschisms, ItsZippy, J Milburn, J.delanoy, JDitto, JForget, Jagged 85, Jahsonic, Jake Wartenberg, Jathu.T, Jauhienij, Jcoffland, Jengirl1988, Jerome Kohl, Jessegimbel, Jhsounds, JinJian, Jiy, Jmvirard, John, John L Walters, John the revelator, Johnlogic, Joseph Banks, Jpereira net, Jpers36, Jurghen, Justanother80808080, Justfred, Justin Foote, Kate, Katefan0, Kay Dekker, Ken Gallager, Kimiko, Kman543210, Koffieyahoo, Koyaanis Qatsi, Krash, Kross, Krungadoren, Kupojsin, Kurykh, KviK, Kzollman, Larrymuzik, Laubzega, Lawrence Hall, Lehi, Leolapinos, Lexor, Lifebonzza, Liftarn, Lightmouse, LilHelpa, LimoWreck, Lola Voss, Lowellian, Luckyherb, MTN, Majorly, Mandarax, Manuel Trujillo Berges, Marc Mongenet, MarcMyWords, Marcusmax, Marie Gordon, Martarius, Martin Hinks, Martin Osterman, Martinwguy, MarylandArtLover, Matthew Fennell, Max rspct, Mayooranathan, MegA, MegX, Megan1967, Mel Etitis, Metalim, Michael Hardy, Michig, Midlandstoday, Mild Bill Hiccup, MilkMiruku, Mindmatrix, Minor edit, Mintguy, Mix-sit, Mkandbrian, Mona, Monkeyatemydog, Moxy, Mozasaur, Mr Stephen, Mrrealtime, MuZemike, Myrnostrum, Mystic713, Natalie Erin, Naturenet, Naufana, NawlinWiki, Nebula2357, NeoVampTrunks, Netrat, Newheadrecords, Nickj, Nidrea, Nikitadurmashkin, Nilmerg, Nina phunsta, Nlu, Noble12345, NotACow, Nposs, Omegatron, Opus33, OregonD00d, Orphan Wiki, PGWG, Palapa, Palladmial, Parsifal, Pbryan, Peter Karlsen, Petrarchus, Philip Trueman, Physicistjedi, Pierre cummings, Piershaw, Pigman, Pjbdjk, Pjoef, Pkeets, PoprocksAndCoke, Powelldinho, Pumpmeup, Purpleritza, Qabbalah, Qqq1, Quadell, Quangbao, Quiddity, Quinobi, RadicalBender, Rainbowabc, RandomP, Randy Johnston, Redheylin, Reotrospee, RepublicanJacobite, Reverendgecko, RexNL, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rnt20, RobertG, Robin klein, Rodolfostanic, Ronhjones, Rossiver, Roux-HG, Rsdio, Ryanke07, Sabrebd, Salamibears58, SarahStierch, Scabby950, SchuminWeb, Sdornan, Seaphoto, Semitransgenic, Sennap, SeventyThree, Sharknosediesel, Shir aharon, Silver plane, SiobhanHansa, Sjc, Sk8ar, Skagedal, Sky-surfer, Slowking Man, Slugguitar, Smilesfozwood, Snowbound, Snowolf, Snoyes, Sopoforic, Sortior, Spellmaster, Spybeat, Squandermania, Squids and Chips, Ssr, Standarshy, Sternwolf, Stevekeiretsu, Steven Zhang, Stevend06, Stevertigo, Susume-eat, THARASK, TMC1221, TUF-KAT, Tabletop, Tafal2525, Tarquin, Tassedethe, TedColes, Tedernst, Teeroy, Teknite, Tembelejderha, Tesseran, The Anome, The Man in Question, The Nut, The Ronin, Theakers2001, Theoldanarchist, Theonedangerous, Thetriangleguy, Thewandererreturns, Tide rolls, Tikilounge, Timeforacatnap, Timo Honkasalo, Tobias Bergemann, Tobias Hoevekamp, Tpbradbury, Tripofagia, Tropylium, Tumble, Twang, Twelvethirteen, TwistOfCain, Two halves, US2K, Unmusicologist, Urthogie, Valueyou, VegaDark, Versageek, Voceditenore, VoxNovus, Voyagerfan5761, Waynequinton, Webdinger, Wehwalt, Welsh, WereSpielChequers, WesleyDodds, Wickethewok, Wiendietry, WikHead, Wikipedialuva, Wikipedian.editor, Woohookitty, XXRomsXx, Yamaha303, Yerpo, Yonskii, Zabadinho, Zambaccian, ZapWo, Zeno Gantner, Zenohockey, Zigger, Zoeb, 946 anonymous edits Minimal music Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463534869 Contributors: 1exec1, Abiyoyo, Acb58, Alan Liefting, Alfietucker, Alpha Quadrant, Andi Vincent, AngelOfSadness, Angela, Angr, Arminius, Art LaPella, BRUTE, Badagnani, Bassedancer, Benitoelbonito, Beyond silence, Bfinn, BigrTex, Boy wonderuk, Brentdax, Brian G. Wilson, Bsimmons666, COGDEN, Camembert, Canticle, Captain-n00dle, Cassandraleo, Catalina 123, Centroclinal, Charles Matthews, Chubbaustralia, Chubbles, Cielomobile, Clashwho, Coatbutton, Colonies Chris, Crash Underride, CrucialCoconut, Curps, D6, Danielpatrickquinn, DarkAudit, Darktremor, Dbmag9, Delirium, Deskford, Doktor Who, Drawn Some, Droidus, Dsreyn, Duncharris, EJF, El C, EqualRights, Erianna, Eric-Wester, Esprit15d, Evanreyes, Exir Kamalabadi, Experimusic, F Notebook, FaZ72, Famewhatsyourname, Faridsaavedra, Felipenet, Flamurai, Foxnhound33, Frank Lofaro Jr., Funks, Gamer007, GcSwRhIc, Gibbl011, Gil mo, Gingermint, Gloworm, GoodNoise, Gorgo d, Graham87, Gzkn, HaeB, Henchren, Hike395, Hyacinth, II MusLiM HyBRiD II, Iamcuriousblue, Iner22, Interrobang, Isnow, J Heath, J04n, JackofOz, Jengirl1988, Jerome Kohl, Jerry Zhang, Jessica.xoxox, JoanneB, Johnbod, Johnsmithpie, Jonathan.s.kt, Justin Foote, Kalogeropoulos, Karmalife, Koavf, Kumul, Kylegann, La Pizza11, Lesigal, Lexor, Lichtconlon, Limideen, Litis, Littlespaceboyrocks, Lynx10, MER-C, MTN, Magister Mathematicae, Mandarax, Measles, Mikething, Mild Bill Hiccup, Milliot, Mindiscored, Missmarple, Monkey Tennis, MossadElectronics, Mr Mamety, Mrdoc, Mrycraft, Musicman91196, Neurolysis, Nick C, Nick123, Ninly, Noctibus, Noosphere, Notinasnaid, O, OlEnglish, Ollie31770, Oniscoid, Opus88888, Paul Barlow, Pavel Vozenilek, Pgk, Philip G.W.Henderson, Picapica, Pigsonthewing, Pil56, Pontificake, Quentar, Rainwarrior, Ramana40, Red King, Regancy42, RexNL, Rigaudon, Rmaramone, Roedelius, RottweilerCS, Rowan McLeod, Rubberpuphfx, Sage Veritas, Salix alba, Sardur, Schaefer, Schmloof, Scottandrewhutchins, Scroteau96, Scwlong, Semitransgenic, Smorzandi, Snigbrook, Sophie, Sparkit, Splash, Statolith, Stephenb, Stirling Newberry, Strazds, Suicidalhamster, Sylvapram, Symphony19, T-1, TJRC, Tamorlan, Tassedethe, The Anome, The Thing That Should Not Be, Therewillbehotcake, Thinking of England, Tobias
Article Sources and Contributors
Bergemann, Tommy2010, Topologyrob, Travis.Thurston, Uncle Dick, Unixer, Unused0029, Vaniac, VectorPosse, WesUGAdawg, Wickethewok, Wikimol, Woohookitty, Wutschwlllm, Xeno, Zantastik, Zinatree, ZipZapZopZoup, 472 anonymous edits Psychedelic rock Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=464088910 Contributors: ***Ria777, 2D, 61x62x61, 75pickup, 96T, A Softer Answer, ACSE, AThing, AVand, Aboyall, Aeternus, Afrank, Ahbi0302, Aimulti, Alai, Albertrocker, Alcuin, Alecsdaniel, Alfvaen, Alias Flood, All systems go, Allreet, AllyD, Altermike, Andrew Kirschner, Andrewa, Andrzejbanas, Andycjp, Anger22, Aoecean, Aquatarkus90125, Archagon, Armoreno10, Aruton, Asarlaí, Atechi, Audacity, Augieopfell, Auricfuzz, B Touch, BRUTE, Balys, BaronZemo, Baz3333, Beginning, Benfergy, Benna, Berean Hunter, Bevo74, Bijun, Bobblewik, Bobby D. Bryant, Bodnotbod, Bornintheguz, BoxerBrown, Bridgecross, Bruce Tetlow, Bruin69, Bububu, Buckyboy314, Bujudude, Butseriouslyfolks, CAPS LOCK, CLW, CRouleau, Camborio, Capricorn42, Captain Cornflake, Carliertwo, Carnildo, CdaMVvWgS, Chairman S., Chairman smith, Chicory Speckled, Chipthief00, Chochopk, Chopdawg, Chris Henniker, Chubbles, CincinnatiWiki, CircafuciX, Circuitrider, Cnwb, Condem, Conversion script, CrazyChatHomme, Cubs Fan, Cyrius, DVdm, DabMachine, Dale Arnett, Damicatz, Dan.mcnabb, DanTD, Daniel5127, Darknessandwater, Darrell Wheeler, Dave souza, Dave420, Davehi1, DeadCute20, Decumanus, Demonburrito, Dennis Kussinich 08, Dirgela, Dissolve, Doc Strange, Dogru144, Doniago, DougHill, Down10, Download, Drenei, Drinky Crow, Dunks58, Dwaink, Dwarf Kirlston, Dyaimz, E-Kartoffel, EastGhost, EdH, Editor2020, Eduardo Sellan III, Eduen, Elecbullet, Elitropia, Elmarco, Elwood17, Enigmaman, Enrique.haro, Equendil, Er Komandante, Erics, Etaoin, Ethylenediamine, EuTuga, Evanaeus, Evand, Evanreyes, Exabyte, FMAFan1990, Fdssdf, Fieldday-sunday, Florian Blaschke, Forteanstaff, Fratrep, Friday, Fritz Fassbender, FruitMonkey, FuriousFreddy, Furrykef, GTBacchus, Gabriet, Gaius Cornelius, Galaxiaad, Gareth E Kegg, Gareth Owen, Gdavidp, Geniac, Geremia, Ghmyrtle, Gimboid13, Gjd001, Glassbreaker5791, Globalform, Glueball, Gogo Dodo, Goochelaar, GraemeL, Graham87, GripTheHusk, Gurch, Heah, Hephaestos, Hinio, Hoops gza, Htaccess, Hurakan, Hyacinth, Hydrogen Iodide, IL7Soulhunter, IXIA, Ianjones600, Ihcoyc, Ikcyzrteip, InterstellarPsyche, Iridescent, IronGargoyle, Ironholds, Ishmaelblues, J 1982, JTSomers, JaGa, Jagged 85, JamesAM, Jampilot, Japanese Searobin, Jas168, Jaywhitten, Jazz77, JeLuF, JeffBongi, Jharmer95, Jhsounds, Jimpatnmatt, JoanneB, Joey Q. McCartney, Jogers, John R Murray, Josh Cherry, Jpgordon, Jusdafax, Justinbowsher, Kane5187, Kcl0801, Keahapana, Kendrick7, Kingpin13, Klippa, Knutux, Kodoryu, Kohoutek1138, KoyaanisQatsi, Krich, Kurrgo master of planet x, Kvladiko, Kwertii, Laciefae, LanshinnFrodi, Ld, Leighu, Lemonhouse, Lenn0r, LessHeard vanU, Lexor, Lhynard, Lightmouse, LilHelpa, Llywrch, Lou72JG, Luke Davis, MTN, Mac9641, Magnol, Mago266, Mark Arsten, MarkinBoston, Marshall Williams2, Martarius, MattKingston, Matthew Fennell, Mav, Mayur, McLennonSon, Mcgillionaire, Mclay1, Mcpusc, MegX, Megan1967, Meganstewart, Mentzabides, Mercurymouth, Merqurial, Michaelas10, MisfitToys, Mladifilozof, Modemac, Modulatum, Mojo78, Mostly Zen, Mr. killcool, Mulad, Munci, MusicMan101Float, Muugokszhiion, NaidNdeso, NeoRetro, NerdyMcNerdstein, Nikhil 1988007, Ninjacke, Nirvanafreak95, Nite-Sirk, NoremacDaGangsta, Nurg, OnBeyondZebrax, PEJL, Panicoffice, Paul A, Paul Drummond, PaulVIF, Pekayer11, Peter Fleet, Petersykes, Philb, Pique76, Pjoef, Private Butcher, Pwr.max, Quentin X, Quinlan Vos, Qworty, R4x, Ral315, RandySavageFTW, Rank11, Rebrane, Red157, Redwolf24, Reedy, Regenspaziergang, Reko, RetroS1mone, Ric381, Richardavenger, Ricky81682, Ridernyc, RigbyEleanor, Rkelley65, Rlw, Robertstjames, RockRockOn, Rockreport, RodC, Roda, Rokysaustin2011, Ronz, RottweilerCS, Rvd4life, Saber girl08, Sabrebd, Saga City, Saltywood, Sard112, Sardanaphalus, SchfiftyThree, Scratchy7929, Sdornan, SeventyThree, SgtPetsounds, ShelfSkewed, Shomat, Sifaka, SilverleafandIronwings08, Simon Beavis, Sjc, Skapur, Sky Attacker, Slysplace, Snowynight, Sodium, SorrowD, Soulpatch, SovereignStates, Sry85, Ss112, Ssspam, StanfordProgrammer, Steel, SteinbDJ, SteveHopson, Stoshmaster, Strangest1, Stratosmacker, Strawberryfire, Summer of Love"67", Superastig, Svick, TMMATT, TUF-KAT, Talon Foot, Tanet, Tankstillton, Target Jackson, Tarsie, Tassedethe, Template namespace initialisation script, Teppei Aita, Terraleone, Texture, The Anome, The Shadow-Fighter, The Thing That Should Not Be, The blurry world, The very model of a minor general, TheBloodrocker666, Theelf29, Thefirefly11, Therewillbehotcake, Thoric, Tim flatus, Tommy2010, Tomtheeditor, TorbenFrost, Torc2, Traxinet, TrevorRC, Twsx, UltraCaution, Utility Monster, Vacio, Vague Rant, Versus22, Violarulez, Wailer, Weadmttothetruth, WesleyDodds, WikHead, Wikaholic, Wiki libs, Wikiscribe, Wildhartlivie, Windywendy, Wizard909, Wmahan, Woohookitty, Woovee, Xiong Chiamiov, Xx1994xx, Y2kcrazyjoker4, Yonskii, Zazaban, Zentoad, ZincOrbie, Александър, 918 anonymous edits Krautrock Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=460393855 Contributors: 24db, Alex Ex, Andycjp, Andylkl, Andyman1125, AntonSirius, Aragorn23, Argonel, Auréola, Avierkant, B J Bradford, BarryWood, Bathrobe, Bob rulz, Bocharoff, Brian G. Wilson, Bruce1ee, Caitlynmaire, CatherineMunro, Catou, Ceoil, Chipthief00, Chris Henniker, ChrisCork, Conical Johnson, Cyde, Dadaesque, Davydog, Demnevanni, Dewritech, Doco, Doktor Who, Dunks58, E-Kartoffel, ETO Buff, East of Lyra, Ecrz, Emmaloupe, Endomion, Esciaederoganel, Evanreyes, Fclass, Feline1, Fish34, Fisherjs, Gargaj, GoingBatty, Goldenband, Gregp22, Grobb, Guitaroxx, Gwen-chan, Harveyspeed, HisSpaceResearch, Hjbnj78, Houtlijm, Hu12, IanMSpencer, Infinitefeedback, ItsAlwaysLupus, J'onn J'onzz, Jayen466, Jeffersonnonpenguin, Jiang, Jjasi, John, John Cardinal, John the revelator, Jokeandalaugh, Jonny Bite, Josh Parris, Joshronsen, Juansidious, Kaasje, Kaldari, KaptKos, Karada, Keeblin, Keraunos, Kl89, Klausness, Kristencon, Lancashire Fusileer, Leibniz, Leonardo69, Lexor, LimoWreck, Linguini, Lockesdonkey, Loudscreamer, LuoShengli, Mais oui!, Marek69, Martarius, MegA, MegX, Merrrlo, Mfeldy22, Michael Bednarek, Michael Hardy, Middle 8, NawlinWiki, Neon white, Newlucas, Nite-Sirk, NoO2, Ohnoitsjamie, Osbus, Ospalh, Oyo, Ozzyismetal, Pablo323, Parsifal, Password635536, Paul August, Pegua, Pekaxmon, Peter Fleet, Peterdx, Pjoef, Quiddity, Raistuumum, Red dwarf, RepublicanJacobite, Ricadus, Rich Farmbrough, Ridernyc, Rjwilmsi, RobyWayne, Rothorpe, Rotorelief, Roundabout76, Rstrasser, Sabrebd, Sardanaphalus, Secretlondon, Selachophile, Seventhirtyam, Sevenxviii, Shirt58, Simon.rashleigh, Sky-surfer, Slysplace, Solarblue, Sonja Strom, SteinbDJ, Strongbadmanofme, TUF-KAT, Tassedethe, Tbone, Tchoutoye, Textor, The Guilty Undertaker, Tomaat, Tony Sidaway, Twsx, Viriditas, Visor, Volkerd, Wainstead, Walls bridges, Wikisound1, Wiz-Pro3, XJamRastafire, Xb2u7Zjzc32, Xic667, Yasharafif, 328 anonymous edits Space rock Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=462461607 Contributors: -5-, 61x62x61, A Knight Who Says Ni, A plague of rainbows, A.M., Access Denied, Acroterion, Aeternus, Albrozdude, Alexander Iwaschkin, AndrewHowse, Anger22, Angry Shoplifter, Arkyopterix, Avt tor, BD2412, Backtable, Barek, BeastmasterGeneral, Bhny, Billzebub, Bkstudios, Blackngold29, Bocharoff, Bongwarrior, Brandoncn, CHawke, Cannibaltinea, Captain Quirk, Casanuda, ChildofMidnight, Chris Henniker, Chzz, CloudyCrane, Cobain, CunningLinguist, Cxbrx, D6, DONOVAN, DanMS, Dantronic, Dark99, DarthInsinuate, David Latapie, DavidLevinson, Deathbymusic, Decumanus, Defaultdave, Diannaa, Dividing, Doktor Who, Dpunkaz64, Drgreyhound, Drmies, Dsims209, E-Kartoffel, Eagleeyes814, Ebyabe, Edgepedia, Eduen, Eik Corell, ElBenevolente, Elitropia, Eloquence, Elpicha, Emperornutz, Erics, Eternities, Evanreyes, Fair Deal, Fayenatic london, Fee mercury moon, FireCrystal, Folajimi, Fourthords, Fram, Fratrep, Freakofnurture, Fusion156, GTAfanSam, GVOLTT, Garret Beaumain, Gtcobain, Haipa Doragon, Hairy Dude, Hazard-SJ, Hecruliods, Henchren, HoichitheEarless, Hraefen, IL7Soulhunter, Iam, IanAbrahams, Impreziv, Irish Techno Zombie, J Milburn, J is for jihad, Jailed lost orc?, Jayron32, Jaysonryan, Jgfergus, Jimp, JohnnyLurg, Johnrpenner, Jollyswagman, Jonne Gonrott, Keahapana, Keiron22, Kodoryu, Kohoutek1138, Kross, Kucharo, Kuralyov, Kww, Lachlanusername, LimoWreck, Lola Voss, Lordnecronus, Lowbrassninja, Lupo, MER-C, Macowell, Madison Amy, Maestlin, Mahahahaneapneap, MakeRocketGoNow, Mallocks, Mar bells87, Marcelobbribeiro, Martarius, Mattbr, Matthew Woodcraft, Michig, Milkrit, MilleR, Mineralboy, Munci, Musician42536, NIRVANA2764, NovaMaltby, Obanite, Oriholic, Ostalocutanje, Patrick, PearlTheater, Pengo, Pepve, Piet Delport, Pigsonthewing, Pjmorse, Pjoef, Primarilyade, Prolog, Psychonaut, Ptolemy Caesarion, Pyramidek, Qwerty Binary, RagingR2, RaikiriChidori, Ralphnicastro, RedWolf, Redconfetti, Richard Lionheart, Richard@bethanycurve.com, Ridernyc, Rmhermen, Robbstrd, Roby0b, Rockfan231, Rockgenre, RottweilerCS, Runtime, SAMV, Sabeen557, Sabrebd, Saltywood, Sardanaphalus, Se8card, SebastiaanMode, Senator Meow, SgtPetsounds, Shadovar, Shawnhath, Slightsmile, Slowgaze, Smashyourface86, SomeGuy11112, Spacerock99, Spcranger, Spikeysnack, Stalaggh1, Stevenmattern, Stewacide, Straw Cat, Strobilus, T3chnosun, TFunk, TUF-KAT, Tableclothes, Tanet, Tanis573, Tassedethe, Terraleone, Tezero, The Anome, The Helper S, The informant, The one and only Pj, The undertow, TheSnowOwl, Themakeadeathwishfoundation, Therewillbehotcake, ToffeeandApples, TomRitchford, Tomwsulcer, Tornquist, TortheViolator, Tothebarricades.tk, Tracehead, Trevour, Tropylium, Twalls, Ulgen1368, Ummagumma23, UniversalMigrator, Vertgforces, Vertigo513, Vladale, Wayland, WesleyDodds, Wether B, Wiki libs, Wikisound1, Wilson556, WindKun, Witchfynde, Wmbishop, Wrathi, Y2kcrazyjoker4, Yani540, Zagozagozago, Zanders5k, Zarn Dickham, Zeidust, Zenohockey, 628 anonymous edits New Age music Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=462464922 Contributors: Aberwulf, Acalamari, Acidburn24m, Aeternus, Airplaneman, Albertrocker, All Is One, Alro, Altenmann, Alvareo, AndrewBratsman, Andy M. Wang, AngHvn, Angelrada, Artyari, Astrothomas, Awesomeauswien, BF, Bdiscoe, Beginnersview, Betacommand, Brian G. Wilson, Brian0918, Bucheron, Caiyu, CanisRufus, Cassivs, Cglassey, Chris Henniker, Cjharri, Classicguitar123, Cohesion, Cooltobekind, Crazytonyi, Cricket02, Crimsonmargarine, Crystallina, Dalf, Dark priest, Dillee1, Dimitrii, Docu, Doktor Who, Dreadstar, Dunk meister, Ealova, Earthwalker1, Eeee, Ekans, Elyk53, Epbr123, Everyking, Fakedeeps, Femto, FlipDarius, Fratrep, GT5162, Gadget850, Gail, Gary D, Gene Poole, Gilliam, Graham87, GumTree, GunnarMuhlmann, Gunpowderedplato, Gurch, Guru Fatha Singh Khalsa, Gwlubin, Haeleth, Hanahime, Harveyspeed, Hoaihung, Hogne, IL7Soulhunter, Ikke200945654, Imajicka, InnocuousPseudonym, JNW, Jack-A-Roe, Jagged 85, Jashiin, Jeff79, Jerome Kohl, JohnCub, Justaguytryingtohelp, Ken Gallager, King kong922, Koku, Kx1186, Kyuss-Apollo, Lastbob, Lexor, LiangHH, Lilithemoonful, LimoWreck, Linda, Llafeht, Lumos3, M Alan Kazlev, Matthew Fennell, MegX, Meno25, Metamagician3000, Milomedes, MinorContributor, Mirror Vax, Mohamed Magdy, Monni1995, Nagy, NancyAZ, Nasafiy, Neelix, Neo139, NoraenLondres, Nova Weaver, Noz5, Ogg, Ohnoitsjamie, Onam, Opus27, Parsifal, Pearle, Peisapooran, Phiiliip, Pigman, Pkeets, Pondo, Pretzelpaws, Quiescen, R. fiend, R6144, RDecke, Ragesoss, Rbj, Redheylin, Reim, RepublicanJacobite, Rickseaton, RodC, Roland2, Romantist, Rosarino, Rousearts, Sabrebd, Sanskrit Diva, Sard112, Sarkozila, Scwlong, Sfacets, Shauri, Shoemaker's Holiday, Shotwell, SkyWalker, Slowking Man, Smashyourface86, Smeira, Snow steed, Sry85, Stoa, TUF-KAT, Tafal2525, Tassedethe, Template namespace initialisation script, Teo64x, Terranueva, TexasAndroid, The Neutral Zone, The Rambling Man, TheRingess, Thesatyakaam, Tikilounge, Timneu22, Tiptoety, Tropylium, Trusilver, Ulric1313, Vicenarian, Vsmith, WJBscribe, WOSlinker, Wahwahpedal, Wayland, WesleyDodds, Wiendietry, Wilburyaya, Wile E. Heresiarch, Wisteriapress, Witchwooder, WolfgangFaber, Woohookitty, X-factor, YUL89YYZ, Yamamoto Ichiro, Yekrats, Yonskii, Yt7878, Yworo, Zanthra, Zillionkisses, 309 anonymous edits Electronic musical instrument Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463930387 Contributors: .anaconda, 130.94.122.xxx, 193.203.83.xxx, 213.253.39.xxx, 213.253.40.xxx, 217.126.156.xxx, 4twenty42o, 84user, Aeternus, Arthena, Axel.mulder, Badagnani, Bender235, Betacommand, Bigfoot09msc, Bobo192, Brendan Vox, Brucegeller, Bryan Derksen, Camembert, Capmo, CaptainVindaloo, ChaosCharacter, Chris the speller, ChrisHodgesUK, Ckatz, Clusternote, Cobain, CommonsDelinker, Conversion script, Cubs Fan, DVD R W, Dachshund, Davehi1, Dean300, DexDor, Djinn112, Doktor Who, Don4of4, Enviroboy, Epbr123, GRAHAMUK, GraemeL, Graham87, Gurch, HairyWombat, Hariva, Hede2000, Hermione1980, HerrSteiner, Houtlijm, Hyacinth, Iminrainbows, Inksash, Iokseng, Is he back?, J.delanoy, Jerome Kohl, JimPlamondon, Jni, KFP, Karada, Karol Langner, Kms310, Kurykh, LHMike, Laser brain, LimoWreck, Makemi, MegA, Merphant, Minor edit, Mister Mormon, Nertzy, Neshatian, Netalarm, Nick Number, Nohat, PS4FA, Pioneer-12, Redheylin, Richard D. LeCour, Rjstott, RobertG, SGBailey, SarekOfVulcan, Semitransgenic, Seth slackware, Shawn Dessaigne, Sidasta, Sietse Snel, Spiffy43, Staffwaterboy, Stevietheman, Suhami, SuzyJ53, Synthfiend, Tassedethe, Tbackstr, Tenbergen, The Anome, Tim Starling, Timelord, Tiuks, Tobias Bergemann, Twang, Untchbl, Unused0022, Uvicstudent, Vanished 6551232, Where next Columbus?, Will Beback Auto, Ynhockey, Youandme, Zigger, Zoeb, Zundark, 130 anonymous edits Electroacoustic music Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463928151 Contributors: Acousmadef, Afnecors, Aldarrof, All Is One, Allquestions, Andres, Anechoic, Apricotboy, Armando tranquilino, AuRec, Badseed, Bearcat, Ben Ben, BesselDekker, Bijanzelli, Bruce1ee, CaNa, Camembert, Chris the speller, Colbydevil, DSRH, David Kernow, David t, Deskford,
Article Sources and Contributors
Digimedialfa, Doceddi, Doctormatt, Electrocdwiki, Elmondo21st, Erreefecedos, Fermion, Filelakeshoe, FordPrefect42, Grokmoo, Hagbard Celine, Hartmannja, Henchren, Henry Jester, Here, Houtlijm, Hyacinth, JWLato, Jagged 85, Jahsonic, Jean routhier, Jefchip, Jerome Kohl, Jevansen, JzG, Kastorleduc, Kaustin6969, Khazar, Killyglen, Kilmer-san, Klausness, Kopecky, Ktr101, Lexusuns, Lord Snoeckx, Makeemlighter, Mani1, Manroit33, Mardhil, Mgclapé, Michael bunce, MilkMiruku, Musicyogi, MuzikJunky, Mystic713, Numuse37, Olle, Omeomi, PCock, PavelN, Pearle, Pedrowttgnstn, Petermopar, Piano non troppo, Pjbdjk, Pr0t0type, Q Valda, Quiddity, R'n'B, Rcrociani, Recury, RexNL, Ridernyc, Rosenleben, S.dedalus, ScottW, Semitransgenic, Smalljim, Solfox, Soporaeternus, TaeHongPark, Tassedethe, Tevildo, Timopie, Twang, Twas Now, Twsx, Unautobus, Vanieter, Violetculture, Violncello, Voceditenore, VoxNovus, Wikisound1, Xgrrl11, YuriLandman, Yuval Y, 238 anonymous edits Folk instrument Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=455019116 Contributors: Arthena, Bishop pam, Bruce1ee, CJLL Wright, ChankaChank, Charlesjustice, Ciraric, Craig Stuntz, Cryoboy, Cryptist, D.h, Daiv, Dbfirs, Duality1, Eleassar777, Fenevad, Foolestroupe, Giggy, Hand of Bjesomar, Hohenloh, Jameschanguitars, Jennifer Jenner, Jmabel, Jtrot10, Lord KRISHNA, Mmka1, Mr moustache05, Nick Roche, Opus88888, Paul foord, Pustelnik, Qaqaq, Scotland-inch, Suckindiesel, Takwish, Tasawwar raja, The Shadow-Fighter, Titania, Wigert, Woohookitty, Ykwyr, 84 anonymous edits Ambient house Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=455903271 Contributors: C1k3, Closedmouth, Collino, Dawidl, Doktor Who, Extrafacts, Furkhaocean, Jagged 85, Karol Langner, Kingboyk, Koavf, Lexor, Lightmouse, LimoWreck, MilkMiruku, Psychiks, RedMage, Res0nat0r, Rumanassr, Sabrebd, Sardanaphalus, TUF-KAT, Tassedethe, Template namespace initialisation script, Tikilounge, Wdfarmer, Wickethewok, Wimt, Ysiadf, 37 anonymous edits Lounge music Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=461460811 Contributors: AlistairMcMillan, Apollo Justice, Appraiser, Arcenciel, Barticus88, Bearcat, BenFrantzDale, Binary, Binary TSO, Bongwarrior, Bookofjude, CComMack, Chris Henniker, Chris83, CommonsDelinker, Cousinpaulie, Cybe0, Dbtfz, Deltabeignet, Dhartung, Dina, Djlounge, Dogru144, Dotspace, Drago9034, Drilnoth, Efrem7, Eric Sellars, Escaper7, FlyingIsLife, Furrysaint, Gilliam, Gimmeahighfive, Gobstopper, GraemeL, Gurch, Gurt Posh, Haemo, Homedawgbrother, Hoodsta5109, I dream of horses, Icairns, Iglew, InfoPager, Julia Rossi, Jvegas71, Karol Langner, Lionhead99, Loren.wilton, Marcus Brute, Mattmatt32, Mboverload, Meisterkoch, Munich-radio, Nev1, ONEder Boy, Parsifal, Piet Delport, Qazjaz, Quintote, R. Wolff, Ratwod, Rcarlberg, RedWolf, Reluctantpopstar, Rjwilmsi, Rl, Rsimmonds01, SMcCandlish, Saethwr, Sarynie, SteSVN, Surflounge, Suricatus, Thibbs, Tikilounge, Tjmayerinsf, Ukato80, Unidyne, Vague Rant, Venkatarama, Vik-Thor, Wickethewok, Woohookitty, Xndr, Zephyrad, 137 anonymous edits Chill-out music Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463451789 Contributors: 23funnel23, 7, Aberwulf, Altenmann, AnonMoos, Asparagus, BenFrantzDale, Binary TSO, CanadianLinuxUser, Chrishepner, Christianronn, Cjharri, ConradKilroy, ContiAWB, Creativity-II, DRTllbrg, Dj-xtra-chill, Donshapiro, Dotspace, Drand881, Drfreakenstien, Drrngrvy, Dspringerva, ESkog, Entmike, Epictetus, Escaper7, Explicit, Exploding Boy, Extrafacts, Flincmusic, Fui in terra aliena, Fvasconcellos, GraemeL, GregorB, Gregorik, HunTomy, Iothiania, JamesAM, JamesBWatson, Jiy, Karol Langner, KeenRich, Kingboyk, Lachlanusername, Lenticel, LimoWreck, Lounge-radio, Luckfoxx, MTN, MakeRocketGoNow, Mandarax, Matthew Fennell, MaxSem, Mhking, MichelleIves, Miz Hydee, Mjb, Mk5384, Mmortal03, Mr Stephen, Multivitamin, Mycomp, Naddy, Neon white, Nick Boulevard, Overxposure, Parsifal, Patito22, Paul Magnussen, Pigsonthewing, Primordial Ooze, Pwhite10, Qazjaz, Quintote, Radiojon, Rafael Gonsalves, Raven Morris, Rodhullandemu, Rogerbrent, Rowan Moore, Roxxkatt, Ryankent, ST47, Sabrebd, Sailrock2011, Samwaltz, Sardanaphalus, Scythia, ShadowHntr, Shadowolf, ShelfSkewed, Shoeofdeath, SirKibbles, Starstreams, Supremebeing18, TheoClarke, Therewillbehotcake, Thomas Skogestad, Tikilounge, Tom harrison, Utnijlj, Vclaw, Wayland, Wdfarmer, WereSpielChequers, Wickethewok, Wilburyaya, Wolker, Woohookitty, Xandi, Yonskii, Yuriybrisk, Zerolaw, Zimbricchio, 265 anonymous edits Downtempo Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463712827 Contributors: (jarbarf), -fin, 17Drew, Adminformusic, Aeternus, Altenmann, Altonbr, Amyjen, And4e, Andycjp, Angus Mackay, Antediluvian67, Asmadeus, BD2412, BossMusicFan, Brad101, Bubbles2000, CanadianLinuxUser, Captain panda, Catapult, Channelturbo, Che fox, Chillcuts, Christophegoze, Cirezed, Cjharri, DIH7184, Dan6hell66, Daniel Leech, David Haberlah, David Schaich, DavidSNACK, Devin Dyspepsia, Dotspace, Drand881, Em cal, Emhoo, Encryptedkernel, Erdubya, Escaper7, Etan Wexler, Findjammer, Firsfron, GraemeL, Gram123, Grm wnr, Hadal, HaroldJohnson, High Latency, Humphreyking, Ike9898, JamesBWatson, Jaydec, Jb-adder, Karol Langner, Kateshortforbob, Kenyon, Kevin, Kirkjames, Kmg90, Koku, Lexor, Lighthead, Lounge-radio, LucilleBall, Max rspct, Maxmaz, MiG, MichelleIves, Mike Indidginus, MilkMiruku, Mwanner, Neurodisc, Overxposure, PAW, PKF8586, Parsifal, Pearle, Plasticup, Projexam, Properlychilled, Pryds, Psychiks, Qazjaz, QuiescentWonder, RHaworth, Radio ga ga, Rawjer, RedRose333, RedWolf, RendezVous91, Repsaj, Sabrebd, SarathanRecords, Sard112, Scwlong, Seki rs, Sendek, Setacio, Setti, Shanes, ShotokanTuning, SirKibbles, Skribb, Smilesfozwood, Snowolf, Spin Boy 11, Squidgy1, Systemdertoten, Tassedethe, Template namespace initialisation script, Thmusik, Tikilounge, Tom Morris, Tony Schwarz, Twsx, Ultravisitor, Uncle Thirsty, Wernher, Whitebird, Wickethewok, Wikisound1, Zouavman Le Zouave, 281 anonymous edits Dark ambient Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463522623 Contributors: 218, 61x62x61, Ada Kataki, Aeternus, Agarwaen, Alai, Alexander elder, Aryder779, Asarlaí, Asenine, Bardin, Belzub, Big Brother 1984, Blackmetalbaz, BleuHope93, Bloodofox, Breus, Buddylives, CNSODT, Cassandraleo, Chardish, Chthonic93, Crash Underride, Cromag, Denniss, Drone Doom Metal, Druidmoss, Edwardrckann, Estargonfortress2, Euchiasmus, Evanreyes, F Notebook, FuegoFish, Fugazi32, Gdr, GiantSnowman, Grendelkhan, Gtrmp, Habj, Had0Maestus, Haikusuperstar, Handroller, HexagonSunn7))), IL7Soulhunter, Iamcuriousblue, Imagefix, JLaTondre, Jan Blanicky, Jb-adder, Jim1138, Jogers, Jotsko, Kaiba, Klausness, Kurunir, Ld, Lexor, LimoWreck, Lonethistle, MTN, Magnius, Malconfort, Menorrhea, Mezmerizer, MilkMiruku, Mothnow, Musicaindustrial, N432138, NawlinWiki, Netviruscz, Nick, ONEder Boy, Obsidieth, Oeln, OpheliaO, Opiaterein, Ours18, Peter G Werner, PezMonster, Poccil, Popoki, Priestofglass, Primaryspace, Pyro Stick, Quantumor, Quiddity, Qwallath, RG2, Redheylin, RepublicanJacobite, Rich Farmbrough, Richard BB, Sardanaphalus, Slightsmile, SonOfAGun, Surv1v4l1st, Taigkyo, Tassedethe, TeleTubbie ZOO, That-boy-joe, The Haunted Angel, TheEmissary, Tom harrison, Torchiest, Trivialist, Veinor, Wahoofive, Waluliso, Webmaster G, Whateley23, Whispie, Wolvesevolve, Xoynx, Yworo, Zenasprime, Zinnmann, 175 anonymous edits Drone music Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=460463278 Contributors: 6, 61x62x61, AaronSmitti, Addingrefs, Amikuk, Arabhorse, Aryder779, AtTheGatesOfBodom, Bearcat, BeŻet, Brian G. Wilson, Caliban23, Carl.bunderson, ChrisCork, Coldplay2002, DMS, Danielrocks15, Dave6, Davieblint, Dfinch, Doktor Who, Drawn Some, Droneon, E-Kartoffel, Ednolbed, Eduen, Elaine11, ErkinBatu, Evanreyes, Folajimi, Fpenteado, Fratrep, GabrielBb5, Gaius Cornelius, Gnomeselby, Hecruliods, Henchren, Hyacinth, IL7Soulhunter, ISawDrones, ITFOR, Iannai, Inkington, Irrelevant, J mead 23, JHunterJ, Janek schaefer, JeremyA, Jerome Kohl, Johanna-Hypatia, John Cardinal, Joseph Banks, Jxn, Kameejl, Kanoyes, Khakhalin, Khalkis, Ktr101, Kx1186, Llafeht, LokiClock, Lola Voss, Lollerskates, Loonymonkey, Mandarax, Martinez panda, MegX, MilkMiruku, MrBook, MrOllie, Musiclover9000, Mwtoews, NickD, Nite-Sirk, Opus88888, Organspende2000, Panaphonic, Parsifal, Petterfe, Plrk, Quiddity, Redheylin, Sam Clark, Sardanaphalus, Semitransgenic, Seventhirtyam, ShelfSkewed, Slinto, Squids and Chips, Stassats, Stentie, Tabledhote, Tainted Angel, Tassedethe, Tbone762, The Haunted Angel, Theblako, Twsx, Ulyd, Valueyou, WWLaidback, Wikisound1, Xeno, Xfactor1987, Zouavman Le Zouave, 190 anonymous edits Lowercase Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=444317402 Contributors: 5theye, Brian G. Wilson, Chick Bowen, Dhcmrlchtdj, Ex penumbrae, Exxolon, Flying Hamster, Genshi, Hagbard Celine, Jubileeclipman, Juhtolv, Mallarme, MilkMiruku, Sabrebd, Smiteri, 19 anonymous edits Detroit techno Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=461414922 Contributors: 313vator, A.J.1.5.2., Aaronbrick, Abrothanamedsharif, Aeko, Aeternus, Airdata, Almita, AndrewHowse, Arbitrarily0, Arru, Aryder779, Axd, Benuliak, Billydom, Bluemoose, C1k3, CWii, CanadianLinuxUser, Capricorn42, Catdude, Ceoil, Cessator, Chase me ladies, I'm the Cavalry, Chubbles, Closedmouth, Coertvangemeren, Davelong, Davewho2, Db313, DeadEyeArrow, DetroitHouse, Djnavii, Doktor Who, DoubleBlue, Download, Drbreznjev, Dunk meister, Dwayne J, ELNUMERO1, Ecksemmess, Eco84, Edmondk, Edward, ElectroOverlord, Evangeline83, FagggotryLuv, Farside268, Ferdinand Pienaar, Filelakeshoe, Foxboxrox, Fvw, GLewis1983, George..., Georgehotelling, GraemeL, Gwernol, Haroldredding, HornColumbia, ItsAlwaysLupus, JBellis, JHP, JackChill, Jafol, Jagged 85, Jhsounds, Jordyn3309, Kamelton, Khatru2, Koavf, Lexor, Lighthead, Llyntegid, Maximus Rex, Meelar, Mezz357, MilkMiruku, Mjb, Muse79, Nick Boulevard, Obelixus, Orbtastic, PMDrive1061, Pow tm, Putevar, R'n'B, Rethunk, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rmhermen, Sabrebd, Sanfranman59, Sardanaphalus, Semitransgenic, Sergey190, Shape84, Silverdale247, Sionus, SlikkTim, SoCalSuperEagle, Speedchief2, SuburbanKnight, SunCreator, T-dot, TUF-KAT, Tassedethe, TastyPoutine, Technochick, Template namespace initialisation script, The O o, Thomas Paine1776, Tsukiyume1209, Vossanova, WadeSimMiser, Wexfordman, Wiki Raja, Woohookitty, Zombie27, Zzyzx11, 228 anonymous edits Illbient Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=459188806 Contributors: Anarchivist, Aryder779, Backtable, Brian G. Wilson, Djspooky, Doktor Who, Dwinterwerp, Guroadrunner, HGB, Hoponpop69, HorsePunchKid, Hyacinth, IL7Soulhunter, InnocuousPseudonym, Intgr, Juliancolton, Lexor, MMBKG, Malcolm Farmer, Mallarme, Mangle, Mannafredo, Mav, Mikeblas, Mild Bill Hiccup, MilkMiruku, OTB, Owen, RedRose333, Ridernyc, Sabrebd, Spartaz, Special Cases, Template namespace initialisation script, Themindset, Tikilounge, Unint, Victor falk, Whateley23, Whispie, Ziggurat, 60 anonymous edits Psybient Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463684021 Contributors: 21h, 2Thousand3WRX, 3family6, 5theye, Adoroci, Altenmann, Anthon.Eff, Arcayne, Asmadeus, AvicAWB, Ayane1985, Backtable, Basawala, Beetstra, BoBrandt, Brian G. Wilson, CALTD, CactusWriter, Calvin 1998, Chris the speller, Cjharri, Comdim, Dekimasu, Djstory108, Doktor Who, Drthatguy, DuncanHill, DéRahier, Eckoelab, Frogkick, Hagbard Celine, Hoorayforbryan, Jas315, JayW, Jengelh, Josef213, LilHelpa, Lkinkade, MTN, Mallarme, Martin Dahlin, Midgrid, Mike Indidginus, MilkMiruku, Mseanbrown, Nick Number, Omgzeke, P4k, Penguin, Peripitus, Phuzion, Piet Delport, Pookypuff, Proton donor, Psychomelodic2, R'n'B, Rachelisamazingg, Remurmur, Sabrebd, Sardanaphalus, SirKibbles, Slysplace, Spellmaster, Spinst3r, Srice13, Ssr, Stephen Morley, Synthetic.Twitch, TheSun, Ultimateflex2, Vaclav Haisman, Yaneleksklus, Yauttja, 208 anonymous edits Space music Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=458318042 Contributors: 23funnel23, ACSE, Aeternus, All Is One, Aoecean, Backtable, Bluejay Young, Brian G. Wilson, Calton, Chadbrekke, Clodomir17, Clunq, Conscious, Cosprings, Davidbspalding, Denaar, DezSP, Doktor Who, DropShadow, Effsynth, Ekans, Electro - music, Forcecomet, Freederick, Fritsch, Gardener of Geda, Garion96, Garret Beaumain, Gene Poole, Gh-16, Ilion2, IncomingMessageFromDurandal, Iridescent, J Milburn, J04n, JAF1970, JM.Beaubourg, Jerome Kohl, Jnocook, JoJan, John of Reading, Justin Foote, Keraunos, L1A1 FAL, Lady Aleena, Leonardo69, Lowgun, MTN, Mafmafmaf, Mallarme, Matzoball1982, Mercurywoodrose, Mikeblas, Mild Bill Hiccup, Milomedes, Miss Bea Haiving, Misza13, Mlaffs, Mutually, Nepec92, Onam, Oneiros, Otolemur crassicaudatus, P2prox, Pais, Parsifal, Pekaxmon, Pjoef, Podrock, R'n'B, Rawr, RepublicanJacobite, Rjwilmsi, Rocketrye12, RodC, Rokit-seven, Sabrebd, Scwlong, Semitransgenic, Serrie, Slowtiger, Spettro9, Stardancer, Synthejim, Tassedethe, Terrasidius, The Neutral
Article Sources and Contributors
Zone, Thibbs, Tikilounge, Tobycat, Trivialist, Tropylium, V. Szabolcs, Viriditas, Warpozio, Whispie, Wiendietry, Will Beback, Willg1289, Wjejskenewr, Woohookitty, X1011, 107 anonymous edits List of ambient artists Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=461284796 Contributors: 218, Adore Recordings, Aktsu, Alcove, AlexMondo, AlexReynolds, Alexander Vince, Allen3, Altenmann, Ambizone, AndrewHowse, Andylkl, Angeforce, Antitext, AnzuLahmu, ArchitectREX, Asherlewis88, Astral Connection, Ataloa, AuRec, BD2412, Badagnani, Ben DeRoy, Bkonrad, Bobet, Bruce1ee, Buddygirrl234, Burton samograd, Cab88, Caitlynmaire, Caleson, Canadian Girl Scout, CelticWonder, Centroclinal, Chevellefan11, Chopchopwhitey, ChrisMilton, Chundermachine, Cleared as filed, ColdPhage, Cricket02, Cyberbum, Cymphonic, Danielpatrickquinn, Dark priest, Darkmuse, Daviddec, Dayn, Deathphoenix, Derondantzler, Destroyer Of Time, Discreet, Djabstract, Docu, Dragodichev, Dragonlady2007, Drone Doom Metal, Elaine11, Ezeu, Fantasticoval, Faradn, FnANDY, Forlorn, Funker joe, FuzzyGreen, G8d9f08g, Gene Poole, Geregen2, Gobonobo, Gogo Dodo, Grutness, Gtrmp, Guaka, Guilherme Schröter, Gustard33, Hailey C. Shannon, Harry Doodli, Harveyspeed, Heidimo, Henchren, Hexebart, Hiddenart, Hoary, Iae, Imaginaryoctopus, Indosauros, Inhumer, Interstate295revisited, IronChris, J3az6u, JM.Beaubourg, Jac16888, Jagged 85, Janexx, Januva, Jarsonic, Jb-adder, Jeff79, Jeraga, JohnCD, Josh215, Joyous!, Jozef Ahmed, Jrcantwell85, Jreferee, Justinambrose, Karol Langner, Kathoon, Kebyar, Killyglen, Kingboyk, Kingturtle, Koku, Kx1186, Ld, Lensrecords, Lexor, Lighthead, Llafeht, Luinros, M-sun, MacGyverMagic, Macrakis, Magiksound, Maierstrahl, Markhu, Matthew Florianz, Mattishq, Mattsmawfield, Megan1967, Mistermalave, Moezzillas world, Mred530, Musicpvm, Neewi, Neurodisc, Nick, Nick Number, NightSky6, Noelleb, Noizengine, Oenyaw, Opiaterein, Ormers, PaoloDP, Parsifal, Patrickmillard, Paul foord, Pema, Pepe Lux, Persephon, Peter G Werner, Petrus4, Phlebas, Precious Roy, Prometheus9, Quasipalm, Qworty, R'n'B, RAlafriz, Ramana40, Rasputinvanclitt, Regueifa, Rensek, Retired username, Rizzoj, RobLee50potter, Robert Moore, Robmounsey, Roccotactical, Rolondon, Saga City, Sanaa.sarmast, Sarcasm101, Satori Son, SchuminWeb, SebastiaanMode, Sergiocalzoni, SethTisue, Shadowego, Shantis, Si Webb, Solfox, SpiderJon, Stardancer, Starstreams, Stephen Morley, Stereotek, Stigko, Straytheories, Suzanne714, Svedr1, Symphony19, Takepills, TallyHoMate, Tarradiddle, Tassedethe, Tepi77, Teshia, Teslakun, Thainmlh, The JPS, Thewillied, Tim!, TomPlatzWannabe, Tome89, Tomtheeditor, Torgosaves, Tothebarricades.tk, Tunguska2, Tunguska2007, Turtlemouth, Ugajin, Ulyd, Umamusic, Una Smith, Vanished user 03, Vanisheduser12345, Viriditas, WarthogDemon, Wickethewok, Wiendietry, Wikij4, Wikisound1, Wind hawaa, Xxshystarxx, Γραφή, 552 anonymous edits List of electronic music genres Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463633074 Contributors: 0cram, 2bornot2b, 2v01d2, 44****44 mafija, Ada Kataki, Alai, Alex Ex, Alexander Vince, Alkivar, Analordian, Angelrada, Anthon.Eff, Appletangerine un, Ascorbic, Audioel, Auto Racing Fan, BD2412, Bartok01, Boing! said Zebedee, Bratsche, Burntsystems, C777, Calvin 1998, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CatherineMunro, Cattleya, Ceyockey, Cherryguy93, Chiflo, Chrisbkoolio, Comradephate, Concreteclamx, D-rok the fixer, Danski14, Darklight179, Dashiellx, Datanetwork, Dave19911224, David Kernow, Davidcharle, Dejaphoenix, Djbrokenwindow, Doktor Who, Dominichikaru, DraGonflY 27z, DubCrazy, Electro - music, EmJAY, Endomion, Fabrictramp, Falcon8765, Fclass, Filelakeshoe, Fish and karate, Frantik, FreeLance FoX, Freeeekyyy, Fuhghettaboutit, Gabithefirst, Genshi, Glasgow uk, Grm wnr, Gunmetal Angel, Hagbard Celine, Heaven's Wrath, Heidimo, Hello Control, Hephaestos, Here, Hmxma, Hurclefromph, ItsAlwaysLupus, Jafol, Jagged 85, Jason8787, Jay Dunstan, Jayflux, Jef-Infojef, Jhsounds, Joe Decker, Joe2903, Jotsko, Juhtolv, Jump Guru, Kenesis, Keraunos, Kirloo, Klautrancemusic, KviK, L888Y5, Lexor, Lighthead, LimoWreck, Lironos, Lukeecfc, Lupo, MTN, Mafmafmaf, Maximus Rex, Mddombrowski, Meco, Mejastarr, Memory palace, Menorrhea, Michael Hardy, Mikeyjh, Milk, MilkMiruku, Minor edit, Mixman2008, Mjb, Mporch, Musicpvm, Nakon, Nickin, Night of the Big Wind Turbo, Nlu, Noble12345, Owen, P4k, Pandyu, Parsifal, Pawzz, Pengowl, Phantasy Phanatik, Pikashnit2, Poga, Pow tm, Precious Roy, Prodego, RalfX, Raprockstail, Rector131uk, Reim, Rigadoun, Robofish, Sabrebd, Sam Pedefmc, Sardanaphalus, Semitransgenic, Shadowlynk, Sk8ar, Smoothhenry, Smu95rp, Songfor, Soren84, Southwade, Sparmactro, Spatulli, Squidfryerchef, Staticau, Stevesonius, Sun King, Susume-eat, Sykoknot, T1980, TUF-KAT, TaZaR, Taarten, Tarsierfish, Template namespace initialisation script, The Almighty Trickshot Jackelope Of Doom, TheAllSeeingEye, Themindset, Titan50, Transity, Travelbird, Treaclesandwich, Tropylium, True Steppa, Urabahn, Vellocet Malchickawick, Waxslinger, WesleyDodds, Wickethewok, William Trevor Blake, Wonderifdude, Yaneleksklus, Ylbissop, Yurte, 433 anonymous edits Furniture music Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=425581646 Contributors: A3 nm, Anon1416, Doktor Who, Epigrammed, Fogwall, Francis Schonken, Gloworm, Graham87, Grenadine, John aziz, Lola Voss, MaxSem, Nofoto, Ohconfucius, Pymouss, Redheylin, Trivialist, Δ, Финитор, 11 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:TudorCageShiraz1971.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:TudorCageShiraz1971.jpg License: Attribution Contributors: Bestiasonica, Ervaude, Infrogmation, Wvk File:Teleharmonium1897.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Teleharmonium1897.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User Chris 73 on en.wikipedia File:Halim El-Dabh2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Halim_El-Dabh2.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Halim_El-Dabh.jpg: stu_spivack derivative work: Xic 667 File:Stockhausen 1991 Studio.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stockhausen_1991_Studio.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Kathinka Pasveer Image:Josef Tal at the Electronic Music Studio.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Josef_Tal_at_the_Electronic_Music_Studio.jpg License: Attribution Contributors: איתן טלEtan Tal Image: Keith Emerson StPetersburg Aug08.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Keith_Emerson_StPetersburg_Aug08.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Mari Kawaguchi File:Qlimax 2008-11-22.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Qlimax_2008-11-22.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: Unterstrichmoepunterstrich File:Bending.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bending.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Holotone / Holotone at en.wikipedia File:Ginsberg-dylan.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ginsberg-dylan.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Elsa Dorfman Image:CAROUSEL BALLROOM MASTER.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:CAROUSEL_BALLROOM_MASTER.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Aimulti File:Cream Clapton Bruce Baker 1960s.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cream_Clapton_Bruce_Baker_1960s.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: General Artists Corporation (management) /Atco Records (the band's record label at one time). File:Woodstock redmond stage.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Woodstock_redmond_stage.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Derek Redmond and Paul Campbell File:The Bee Gees.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:The_Bee_Gees.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: NCRV File:jody cover.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jody_cover.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Aimulti, 1 anonymous edits File:Can 1972 (Heinrich Klaffs Collection 102).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Can_1972_(Heinrich_Klaffs_Collection_102).jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 1.0 Generic Contributors: Heinrich Klaffs File:Tame Impala.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tame_Impala.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Michael Spencer Image:Ondes martenot.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ondes_martenot.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: ja:利用者:30rKs56MaE Image:Clavessin electrique.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Clavessin_electrique.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original: Jean-Baptiste Delaborde. Uploaders: Musicologus; Scan. Image:Teleharmonium1897.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Teleharmonium1897.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User Chris 73 on en.wikipedia Image:Leon Theremin.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leon_Theremin.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Fetchcomms, Multichill, OneArmedMan, Shoulder-synth Image:Theremin Cello '30.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Theremin_Cello_'30.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: unknown (uploaded on flickr by giulioescalona) Image:Volkstrautonium MIM.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Volkstrautonium_MIM.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Museumsinsulaner Image:Novachord frontS.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Novachord_frontS.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Original uploader was Hollow Sun (talk) at en.wikipedia Image:DM Recording Studio.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DM_Recording_Studio.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Original uploader was BenFranske at en.wikipedia Image:RCA Mark II Sound Synthesizer.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:RCA_Mark_II_Sound_Synthesizer.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Rca_mk2.jpg: Finnianhughes101 derivative work: Clusternote (talk) Image:Bob Moog3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bob_Moog3.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Finnianhughes101 Image:R.A.Moog minimoog 2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:R.A.Moog_minimoog_2.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: glacial23 Image:Yamaha GX-1 (clip) @ Yamaha Design Masterworks.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Yamaha_GX-1_(clip)_@_Yamaha_Design_Masterworks.png License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Yamaha_GX-1_@_Yamaha_Design_Masterworks.jpg: knothole eyes derivative work: Clusternote (talk) Image:E-mu Modular System @ Cantos.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:E-mu_Modular_System_@_Cantos.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: .guilty Image:SCI Prophet 5.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SCI_Prophet_5.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Sequential_Circuits_Prophet_5.jpg: Original uploader was Felix2036 at nl.wikipedia derivative work: Clusternote (talk) Image:Phonogene.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Phonogene.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Semitransgenic (talk). Original uploader was Semitransgenic at en.wikipedia Image:Mellotron.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mellotron.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Buzz Andersen from San Francisco, California, United States Image:EMS at MIM Sequencer.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:EMS_at_MIM_Sequencer.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Museumsinsulaner Image:Synclavier1 JB.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Synclavier1_JB.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Jean-Bernard EMOND (talk) Image:NED Synclavier VPK (Velocity Pressure Keyboard) 1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NED_Synclavier_VPK_(Velocity_Pressure_Keyboard)_1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: John R. Southern from Toronto, Ontario, Canada Image:Yamaha GS-1 @ Yamaha Design Masterworks.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Yamaha_GS-1_@_Yamaha_Design_Masterworks.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: knothole eyes Image:Yamaha VP1 and DX7 @ Yamaha Design Masterworks.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Yamaha_VP1_and_DX7_@_Yamaha_Design_Masterworks.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: knothole eyes Image:Fairlight CMI.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fairlight_CMI.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Thomas Kriese Image:KURZWEIL 250.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:KURZWEIL_250.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Franck Lhermet Image:Mathews260.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mathews260.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Finnianhughes101 Image:ISPW - IRCAM Signal Processing Workstation.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ISPW_-_IRCAM_Signal_Processing_Workstation.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Jbemond at en.wikipedia Image:Midiaansl.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Midiaansl.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Original uploader was Pingel at nl.wikipedia Image:Onyx The Digital Pied Piper.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Onyx_The_Digital_Pied_Piper.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Vlad Spears Image:SynthAxe.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SynthAxe.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Chrisfromcanberra (talk). Original uploader was Chrisfromcanberra at en.wikipedia
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Reactable Multitouch.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Reactable_Multitouch.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Daniel Williams from NYC, USA Image:Detailed view of Audiocubes.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Detailed_view_of_Audiocubes.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Adrignola, Clusternote, Ettepuop Image:KORG Kaossilator.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:KORG_Kaossilator.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Fhayashi (talk). Original uploader was Fhayashi at en.wikipedia Image:ContinuumAxes2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ContinuumAxes2.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Lippold Haken and Edmund Eagan Image:6DOF en.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:6DOF_en.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Image:Cavaquinho1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cavaquinho1.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Matthew Pike at en.wikipedia File:Cafe del mar sunset (14215019).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cafe_del_mar_sunset_(14215019).jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Ben Coombs from Chiswick, United Kingdom Image:M82 Chandra HST Spitzer.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:M82_Chandra_HST_Spitzer.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: NASA/JPL-Caltech/STScI/CXC/UofA/ESA/AURA/JHU File:Satie Tapisserie en Fer forge 1924.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Satie_Tapisserie_en_Fer_forge_1924.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Erik Satie File:Satie Carrelage Phonique 1917.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Satie_Carrelage_Phonique_1917.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Erik Satie
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.