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EVALUATION OF PROPOSED ASHRAE ENERGY AUDIT FORM AND PROCEDURES (RP-669)

Final Report February 1996

Prepared For: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. 1791 Tullie Circle, NE Atlanta, Georgia, 30329

Prepared By: Principal Investigator - Ish Sud, PhD., P.E. Co-principal Investigator - Jerome C. Hay, P.E. Sud Associates, P.A. 1805 Chapel Hill Road Durham, NC 27707 919/493-5277

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank ASHRAE, the sponsors of this research project, and the ASHRAE Technical Committee TC 9.6, which initiated the project. In addition, we would like to thank all those who provided input into the process by providing constructive comments and suggestions to improve the Energy Audit Form and database. Particular acknowledgment is due to the members of the Project Monitoring Subcommittee and the project subcontractors. Project Monitoring Subcommittee Mr. Richard Mazzucchi Mr. Richard J. Pearson, PE Mr. William R. Mixon Subcontracting Engineering Firms ADM Associates, Sacramento, California Landsberg Engineering/The Fleming Group, Syracuse, NY Prism Engineering, Burnaby, British Columbia

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

Acknowledgments Table of Contents List of Tables Executive Summary I Introduction a) Objective b) Background c) Scope of Work

i ii iii 1 3 3 3 4 5 9 9 9 10 12 12 12 13 13 14

II Procedure m Conclusions a) Selection of Buildings b) Energy Audit Form c) Trial Database IV Utilization a) b) c) d) Results Relationship of this Work to Existing Knowledge Recommendations and Suggestions for Further Research ASHRAE Handbook

Bibliography

Appendix A - Energy Audit Form and Procedures, as Originally Proposed by SP-56 Appendix B - Revised Energy Audit Form and Procedures Appendix C - List of Buildings Analyzed Appendix D - Comments by Auditors Appendix E - Sample Database Analyses Appendix F - Trial Database Documentation and Data Dictionary

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LIST OF TABLES Table Table H-l: Distribution of Selected Buildings Type vs. Location Distribution of Selected Buildings Type vs. Gross Floor Area Distribution of Selected Buildings Type vs. Heating Fuel Page 3

Table II-2:

Table n-3:

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ASHRAE developed a uniform Energy Audit Form and Procedures as a part of a previous research project, ASHRAE Special Project SP-56. The objective of this research, ASHRAE Research Project RP-669, was to utilize, test, and evaluate the proposed Energy Audit Form and Procedures (Proposed Form) and to make informed recommendations for their improvements based on the experience of those performing the evaluation. An additional objective was to produce and analyze a trial database to determine the adequacy of the data collected to normalize and compare building energy performance. The goal was to establish forms and procedures to be used by experienced auditors in the auditing of a variety of buildings in the field. The principal aims of the project were to: 1) Analyze the effectiveness of Proposed Forms. 2) Identify strengths and weaknesses of the Proposed Form. 3) Recommend improvements to the Proposed Form. 4) Discuss how well data collected with the Proposed Form can be incorporated into a database. 5) Determine if the collected data is adequate to normalize and compare building energy performance. Energy audit data from 100 buildings which had previously had level 2 or higher energy audits performed on them were assembled by four engineeringfirmswith significant energy auditing experience. The buildings selected represented a diversity of climatic and fuel cost regions, as well as a broad cross section with respect to building type, building size, fuel sources, and building energy costs. Datafromthe buildings were transferred from the auditors' original audit form or report to the Proposed Form. Comments were solicited on several occasionsfromthe auditors, the Project Monitoring Subcommittee (PMS), and the ASHRAE TC 9.6 research subcommittee about the Proposed Form. The Proposed Form was modified, based on this input, several times before the majority of the datafromthe 100 buildings were input. Not only was the Proposed Form tested, but that the revised form was thoroughly tested, resulting with a reviewed, modified, and tested Energy Audit Form ready for distribution to the auditing community. An important aspect of the Energy Audit Form is inclusion of Space Functions for the building being analyzed. SP-56 recognized the need to not only analyze building energy usage with 1

respect to building type, but also to the functions which take place in that building. The Energy Audit Form, in its revised form, can be valuable to the industry in two important ways. First, it provides a guide to a building owner or auditor as to what information should be collected, analyzed, and reported for an energy audit. It standardizes information to be collected without trying to dictate or constrain the actual analysis of the data. In this capacity, it can be used to improve the overall level of energy auditing in thefield,as well as give a building owner an idea of what should be expected from an energy audit. Second, the Energy Audit Form can serve as a data collection form for entry into a database. Because of its standardized format and database friendly entries, it serves as an excellent tool for this purpose. Concurrent with the revision and testing of the Proposed Form, a trial database was developed. The database contained primarily the building, energy, and space function datafromthe Proposed Form. Comments and suggestions were solicitedfromthe auditors, the PMS, and TC 9.6, and the database was finalized. The database was populated with datafromthe completed energy audit forms for the 100 buildings, and the data in the database was analyzed based on several parameters: building type, fuel type, climate zone, square footage, fuel usage, operating cost, etc. The trial database proved to be an effective tool for collecting and analyzing this data. Use of such a database on a widespread basis would permit the collection and analysis of a lot of valuable information for building owners, utilities, agencies, and energy analysts. Perhaps the most valuable use would be to compare energy usage any individual building to the entire building stock of similar buildings with similar space functions, climate, energy sources, and fuel costs. The principle products resultingfromthis research project are: 1) An improved, evaluated, and tested Energy Audit Form ready for use in thefieldby the energy auditing industry, 2) A trial database developed, tested, and revised. While not ready for widespread distribution, it is available for guidance and to be built upon to develop a polished database. Recommendations and suggestions for further research are summarized as follows: 1) Distribute the revised Energy Audit Form and Procedures to the energy auditing community. 2) Develop a database, based on the trial database developed in this project, to disseminate to the industry to provide a tool for collecting building and energy information on existing building stock. 3) Once there is a statistically significant amount of data collected in the database, utilize this data to analyze energy usage of existing building stock. This information would be valuable for researchers, utilities, agencies, building owners, designers, and energy auditors.
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I. INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVE ASHRAE developed a uniform Energy Audit Form and Procedures as a part of a previous research project, ASHRAE Special Project SP-56. The objective of this research, ASHRAE Research Project RP-669, was to utilize, test, and evaluate the proposed Energy Audit Form and Procedures and to make informed recommendations for their improvements based on the experience of those performing the evaluation. An additional objective was to produce and analyze a trial database to determine the adequacy of the data collected to normalize and compare building energy performance. The goal was to establish forms and procedures to be used by experienced auditors in the auditing of a variety of buildings in the field. BACKGROUND As a part of the US Department of Energy's Commercial Retrofit Research Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to develop improvements to tools, procedures and techniques used to perform energy audits in commercial buildings. It was felt that certain aspects of the energy audit process are weak and contain levels of uncertainty which affect the quality of the audit results. PNL engaged ASHRAE to conduct a study to identify the areas of uncertainty that affect the quality and credibility of commercial building energy audits and to develop a plan to improve those aspects of the process. The work was performed as ASHRAE Special Project SP-56 by a project team identified by ASHRAE. The Proposed ASHRAE Energy Audit Form and Procedures being evaluated in this project (RP-669) were developed by SP-56. Thefirstphase of the work by SP-56 was to assess the audit tools and procedures in order to identify and prioritize the areas of need and to develop recommendations for work to be conducted in the second phase. The assessment performed during thefirstphase identified the need to develop the scope of work involved for the various levels of analysis, and the need for a standard format for reporting the results of an analysis. The second phase of the work by SP-56 resulted in the development of a document entitled "Development of a Guide for Analyzing and Reporting Building Characteristics and Energy Use in Commercial Buildings" (The Guide). The Proposed Energy Audit Form and Procedures which were evaluated in RP-669 are contained in The Guide and are included as Appendix A in this report.

The Guide outlines the purpose and various levels of an energy analysis. It also develops the typical procedures to be followed for each level of analysis, and uniform means of reporting certain building, system and energy use characteristics as well as the results of an analysis. It is intended to provide guidance to energy analysts and to provide some standardization of the results of the analysis. It can also be used by building owners to provide an understanding of results to be expectedfromthe analyst, and what level of analysis may be appropriate for a facility. The use of uniform reporting methods will facilitate sharing of data, and may eventually lead to the development of a building energy and functional usage database for use by the profession. RP-669 resultedfromthe need to evaluate, test, and refine the Proposed Energy Audit Form and Procedures developed by SP-56 before its release and widespread use by the energy auditing community. In addition, RP-669 takes thefirststep toward developing and evaluating the usable database of building energy and functional usage envisioned in SP-56. SCOPE OF WORK In order to fulfill the objectives, the following scope of work was developed for the project. Data would be transferredfrompreviously completed level 2 or higher energy audits to the Proposed Energy Audit Form (the Proposed Form). The Proposed Form would be completed by experienced auditors for 100 buildings of various types, sizes, and usesfromdiverse climate and fuel cost regions in the United States and Canada. Comments and recommendationsfromthe auditors andfromthe Project Monitoring Subcommittee would be solicited in order to evaluate and improve the Proposed Form. A trial database would be developed and the informationfromthe completed forms would be input and analyzed. A report would be prepared summarizing the data collected, analysis conducted,findings,trial database, and recommended form changes. The principal aims of the project were to: 1) Analyze the effectiveness of Proposed Forms vs. those used for the original audits. 2) Identify strengths and weaknesses of the Proposed Form. 3) Recommend improvements to the Proposed Form. 4) Discuss how well data collected with the Proposed Form can be incorporated into a database. 5) Determine if the collected data is adequate to normalize and compare building energy performance.
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H. PROCEDURE Thefirststep of the project was to assemble a list of 100 buildings which had previously had level 2 or higher energy audits performed on them. Informationfromthe audits would be transferred to the Proposed Form as a means of evaluating the Proposed Form without the time and expense of performing new audits. In order to ensure a diversity of climatic andfiielcost regions, 25 buildingsfromeach of the following regions were selected: 1) 2) 3) 4) Southeast - Hot, humid Southwest - Hot, dry Northeast - Cold (>6,000 degree days), high fuel cost Northwest - Mid, low fuel cost.

The buildings in the Southeast were provided by Sud Associates, in the Southwest by ADM Associates, in the Northeast by Landsberg Engineering/The Fleming Group, and in the Northwest by ADM Associates (11 buildings) and Prism Engineering (14 buildings). The auditors (the contractor and the subcontractors) provided a list of approximately 50 commercial or institutional buildings on which they had performed audits in their region(s). These buildings were to represent a broad cross section with respect to: 1) 2) 3) 4) Building Type Building Size Fuel Sources Building Energy Costs.

From the 50 buildings per region, 25 were chosen for the study based on the above criteria. A list of these buildings with key characteristics is included in Appendix C. Tables II-1, -2, and -3 summarize the distribution of building types, climatic zones, size, and heating fuel for the buildings included in the study.

TABLE H-l: DISTRIBUTION OF SELECTED BUILDINGS BUILDING TYPE VS. LOCATION Location Tvoe Office Lodging Apartments Education Food Sendee Health Care Retail Assembly Other Total SE 3 1 1 3 2 4 5 4 2 25 NE 5 1 1 4 1 4 2 5 2 25 SW 7 0 0 5 3 4 5 0 1 25 NW 10 2 0 1 4 3 3 1 1 25 Total 25 4 2 13 10 15 15 10 6 100

TABLE H-2: DISTRIBUTION OF SELECTED BUILDINGS BUILDING TYPE VS. GROSS FLOOR AREA Gross Floor Area - Square Feet Type Office Lodging Apartments Education Food Service Health Care Retail Assembly Other Total 0-20.000 9 0 0 1 9 4 6 3 0 32 20,000-50,000 9 1 1 3 1 3 4 6 2 30 6 50,000-100,000 3 1 1 6 0 2 3 0 2 18 >100,000 4 2 0 3 0 6 2 1 2 20

TABLE H-3: DISTRIBUTION OF SELECTED BUILDINGS BUILDING TYPE VS. HEATING FUEL
Energy Form Type Office Lodging Apartments Education Food Service Health Care Retail Assembly Other Total # 2 Oil 1 0 0 2 0 3 1 4 0 11 Natural Gas 15 2 1 8 7 7 7 3 3 53 Electricity 9 2 0 2 2 3 5 1 1 25 Steam 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 Other 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 2 2 9

Data from several buildings per climatic region were transferred from the auditors' original audit form or report to the Proposed Form. Each auditor was requested to submit comments on the Proposed Form, based on their experience, regarding how the Proposed Form compared to the original data collected on the building and how it could be improved. The complete commentsfromauditors are included as Appendix D of this report. Some of the more common and salient comments are summarized below: 1) Improvements to format of form. 2) Define building area to use and stay consistent. 3) Is the form an audit tool or database entry form? 4) Clarify which parts of the form to be included in the database and make them easier to input. 5) More information needed about weather data. 6) Need expanded list of space types.
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7) Expand the list of HVAC system types and revise their structure to make it more useful as a database analysis tool. 8) Need information on electrical load profile. 9) Basic envelope construction should be included in the database. 10) Include units commonly used in Canada. Based on the comments, the Proposed Form was revised and presented to the Research Subcommittee of TC 9.6, the sponsors of the research project, at the ASHRAE annual meeting in Orlando in June 1994. The presentation of the revised Proposed Form to this committee resulted in additional comments and suggestions for revisions. These suggestions were also incorporated into the form. Concurrent with this process the trial database was developed. Though not intended to be a final database to be distributed to the public, every effort was made to create a database that was easy to use, both for the person inputting the data and the analyst who may use the data. The database was not intended to contain all the informationfromthe Proposed Form, but primarily the building, energy, and space function data that could be quantified. The items to be included in the database were discussed with and approved by the Project Monitoring Subcommittee (PMS). On-screen data entry forms were created which would, for example, allow energy usage to be input in original units (e.g. therms, CCF, MCF, or Gigajoules for natural gas) and then automatically converted to a common unit (e.g. 1000 BTUs for all energy sources) for storage in the database. The entry forms were also created to follow logically along with the revised Proposed Form to facilitate ease of entry. Datafromseveral buildings were input into the trial database for preliminary analysis. The database and revised Proposed Form were distributed to the subcontractors and presented to the TC 9.6 Research Subcommittee meeting at the ASHRAE winter meeting in Chicago in January 1995. Comments and suggestionsfromboth were incorporated into the database and Proposed Form, and they were distributed to the subcontractors for completion. The newly revised Proposed Form and the trial database were completed for all 100 buildings by the auditors. Additional comments and evaluation were received at this time based on the experience of completing all the forms and the database. After the forms and data were received and compiled, the data in the database was analyzed based on several parameters: building type, fuel type, climate zone, square footage, fuel usage, operating cost, etc. The Proposed Form was revised again based on the comments receivedfromthe auditors and the inputfromthe PMS. It was then formatted infinalform on a word processor. The Energy Audit Form in its final form is attached in Appendix B of this report.

m. CONCLUSIONS SELECTION OF BUILDINGS The procedure for obtaining a cross section of buildings was very successful. A diverse cross section of climate zones, audit levels, building types, building sizes, heating fuels, and fuel costs were included. This allowed for evaluation of the Proposed Formfromthe perspective of several experienced auditors and of audits on a varied building stock. Inclusion of one subcontractor from Canada also added an important perspective for making the form accessible to a broader audience. ENERGY AUDIT FORM The process of transferring datafromexisting audits to the Proposed Form proved valuable for evaluating and improving the form. At the most basic level it pointed out errors and deficiencies in the Proposed Form. It also resulted in improvements in content and format. In addition, it helped clarify what information would be valuable in a database and how to make it clear to the auditorfillingout the form. The use of the contractor and three subcontractors tofillout the form and enter data into the database resulted in valuable inputfrommany experienced auditors. One of the primary results of this research project was to end up with a reviewed, modified, and tested Energy Audit Form ready for distribution to the auditing community. The perspective of the auditors who completed forms, the members of the PMS, and those who made suggestions at the TC 9.6 Research Subcommittee meetings was invaluable in improving the form. The Proposed Form was modified, based on this input, several times before the majority of the datafromthe 100 buildings were input. The result was that not only was the Proposed Form tested, but that the revised form was thoroughly tested. An important aspect of the Energy Audit Form is inclusion of Space Functions for the building being analyzed. SP-56 recognized the need to not only analyze building energy usage with respect to building type; but also to the functions which take place in that building, termed here "space functions". While it is very difficult to actually determine the energy usage per space function in a building without extensive monitoring and/or analysis, total building energy usage can be analyzed based on the building's space function breakdown. As far as the investigators are aware, this has not been done in other surveys of building energy usage. In order to be consistent with other ASHRAE work, it was suggested that the list of Space FunctionsfromStandard 90.1 be incorporated. This was done, but with some reservations. The 90.1 Space Functions are largely based on appropriate lighting levels for various spaces. This results in a large number of space types that add confusion, not clarity, to a space function analysis. For example, there are more subdivisions of office areas and sporting arenas/spaces than are necessary for the purposes of the Energy Audit Form. Further, the numbering system for 9

Space Functions in 90.1 is sequential instead of having numbered groupings of "super" categories such as "office", "athletic", "retail", etc. with numbered subcategories. Instead of merely choosing between "enclosed offices" and "open offices with partitions", this requires the auditor to choose between, for example, accounting offices with partitions 3.5-4.5 feet below the ceiling and accounting offices with partitions less than 3.5 feet below the ceiling. These distinctions are too fine. The Energy Audit Form, in its revised form, can be valuable to the industry in two important ways. First, it provides a guide to a building owner or auditor as to what information should be collected, analyzed, and reported for an energy audit. It standardizes information to be collected without trying to dictate or constrain the actual analysis of the data. In this capacity, it can be used to improve the overall level of energy auditing in thefield,as well as give a building owner an idea of what should be expected from an energy audit. Second, the Energy Audit Form can serve as a data collection form for entry into a database. Because of its standardized format and database friendly entries, it serves as an excellent tool for this purpose. TRIAL DATABASE The trial database was developed in order to determine how well data collected with the Proposed Form could be incorporated into a database, and to determine if the collected data is adequate to normalize and compare building energy performance. The trial database proved to be an effective tool for collecting and analyzing this data. The custom input forms and programs allowed for streamlined data input, once the relevant data was entered in the paper Energy Audit Form, requiring only about 15 minutes to enter the data. Use of such a database on a widespread basis would permit the collection and analysis of a lot of valuable information for building owners, utilities, agencies, and energy analysts. Perhaps the most valuable use would be to compare energy usage any individual building to the entire building stock of similar buildings with similar space functions, cfimate, energy sources, and fuel costs. Examples of sample analyses performed using the database are included in Appendix E. Concurrent development of the trial database and revision of the Proposed Form gave guidance to the revisions to the Proposed Form. For example, Building Types were assigned numbers instead ofjust being listed by name, permitting quantifiable and sortable entry in the database. The trial database was developed using Paradox 4.0 for DOS. This was chosen because of its ability to run on nearly any PC, without Windows, and because of its widespread use. As it turned out, the Paradox for DOS programming language was not always well suited to developing the input and report forms desired for this project. Thus, the programmer was forced to create some constructions that were, at times, complicated and confusing. It may be determined that a 10

different database program would be more appropriate if afinal,full featured database is developed. Development of such afinaldatabase, suitable for distribution and use by the public, is beyond the scope of work of this project. If, however, it is developed, it should build on the structure and features of the trial database and include, at a minimum, the following features: 1) Follow the input format of the paper Energy Audit Form, 2) Provide input forms that allow entry of data in native units for each energy source and convert them to a common unit for storage in the database. Custom report forms could then convert this unit to any unit desired by an analyst. 3) Provide ability to input energy cost information in various currencies, at a minimum US and Canadian dollars, with current exchange rates. This would allow for normalization of energy costs, which would be necessary for meaningful analysis. 4) Include space function information on buildings, as is collected on the Energy Audit Form, in a format in which is can be easily extracted for analysis. 5) Include ability to "pack" and "unpack" the data to facilitate transfer via disk or modem to a central location which maintains the database. 6) Provide some basic output reports, as well as the ability to easily develop custom reports for analysis of the data. 7) Be streamlined enough to require minimal time to enter the data, 15 to 20 minutes at the most. 8) Be a stand alone application which does not require the user to own a separate, proprietary software application. Monthly energy usage and cost information, by meter, was incorporated into the database. However, it is the opinion of the investigators that it should not be included, in such detail, in a final database for distribution. A facility may have several meters for several fuels, and the information would become cumbersome. While this information may prove useful for a researcher, this benefit is outweighed by the increase in database complexity, unwieldy quantity of information, and amount of time required by an auditor to enter this data. Inclusion of this information could easily double the amount of time required by the auditor to input information into the database, thus reducing the likelihood of getting the database filled in at all. An alternative would be to input the total monthly energy usage and cost information per fuel without separating it out per meter. This would provide more valuable information with less data input time. 11

IV. UTILIZATION RESULTS The principle products resultingfromthis research project are: 1) An improved, evaluated, and tested Energy Audit Form ready for use in thefieldby the energy auditing industry, 2) A trial database developed, tested, and revised. While not ready for widespread distribution, it is available for guidance and to be built upon to develop a polished database. RELATIONSHIP OF THIS WORK TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE Energy Audit Form and Procedures This research project, ASHRAE RP-669, evaluated, tested, and revised the Energy Audit Form and Procedures which were developed as a part of ASHRAE SP-56. The revised forms provide a standardized tool for collecting and reporting building and energy information for conducting an energy audit on a commercial or institutional building. The form and procedures outlined here do not attempt to proscribe analysis procedures and techniques, or define lists of potential energy conservation opportunities. Building Energy Database Databases of energy usage in commercial buildings in the United States already exist. Most notable is the database on building energy usage collected and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy. Other collections of data are also availablefromutility companies, state or provincial governments, and the Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA). The database resultingfromthis project differs from most other building energy usage databases in two fundamental ways: 1) The building and energy usage information is collected, on site, by an engineer or energy analyst as a part of an energy audit. 2) The database includes detailed information about the space functions of the building. Energy usage could be analyzed not only based on building type, but also the functional usage of the building.

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RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 1) Develop a database, based on the trial database developed in this project, to disseminate to the industry to provide a tool for collecting building and energy information on existing building stock. Included in this would necessarily be a determination of the most effective method of distribution. Reliance purely on voluntary data entry and submission of the database may not result in adequate response. Other means of encouraging compliance may be to get utilities or federal agencies to require completion of the database in conjunction with their energy audits. Also, it would be necessary to develop a central repository for the database and a means for keeping it updated, maintained, and available to interested parties for analysis. Reports should be published on a regular basis to distribute the most up-to-date content and analysis of the database. 2) Following up on item 1) above, once there is a statistically significant amount of data collected in the database, utilize this data to analyze energy usage of existing building stock. This information would be valuable for researchers, utilities, agencies, building owners, designers, and energy auditors. ASHRAE HANDBOOK Chapter 32 - "Energy Management" of the 1995 ASHRAE Handbook - HVAC Applications discusses energy management and energy auditing. It also includes tables of energy usage information compiledfromDOE/EIA surveys. The Energy Audit Form and Procedures could be mentioned in this context as an energy auditing tool. Also, information gatheredfromthe proposed database could be incorporated into this chapter.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY ASHRAE. 1987. An Assessment of the Energy Auditing Process in Commercial Buildings. ASHRAE Special Project Report 56.
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ASHRAE. 1989. Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings Except Low-rise Residential Buildings. ASHRAMES Standard 90.1-19Z9. ASHRAE. 1990. Standard Methods of Measuring and Expressing Building Energy Performance. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 105-1984 (RA 90). ASHRAE. 1990. A Guide for Analyzing and Reporting Energy Use and Characteristics of Commercial Buildings. Prepared for Pacific Northwest Laboratory by ASHRAE. 1989, 6 revised 1990. ASHRAE. 1995.1995 ASHRAE Handbook - HVAC Applications. CTBSE. 1991. Applications Manual, Energy Audits and Surveys. The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, London, England. MacDonald, J.M., T.R. Sharp, andM.B. Gettings. 1989. A Protocol for Monitoring Energy Efficiency Improvements in Commercial and Related Buildings. ORNL/Con-291. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. SBCCI. 1988. Standard Building Code, 1988 Edition. Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc., Birmingham, AL. U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. 1989. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey for 1989, Building Questionnaire. Form EIA-871A.

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APPENDIX A ENERGY AUDIT FORM AND PROCEDURES, AS ORIGINALLY PROPOSED BY SP-56

APPENDIX I
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE AND WALK-THROUGH DATA Table of Contents Page Preface Preliminary Energy Use Building Characteristics Energy Performance Energy and Cost Indices Walk-Through Data Space Function Analysis Building Data Lighting Systems Data HVAC Systems Data Special Loads 1-2 1-3 1-3 1-5 1-5 1-10 1-10 1-12 1-13 1-14 1-14

1-1

PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE AND WALK-THROUGH DATA PREFACE


The data required in the Preliminary Energy Use Analysis section, pages 1-1 through I9, can ususally be obtained from the owner-operator of the building without a visit to the building. The forms utilize standard definitions for building area, building type, and energy usage. The result is the development of energy cost, indices which can be used to compare with other, similar buildings, and to make a rough determination of the need for further evaluation. If no further evaluation is conducted, this data is expected to have some value in the development of a building energy-use data base. The information required in the Walk-Through Data section, pages 1-10 through 1-14, can be obtained without conducting a detailed analysis of the building. A major goal of data collected in this seciton is to define the various SPACE FUNCTIONS in the building. This information, in conjuction with specific information on the building itself, the HVAC system type(s) and the lighting system(s) will enable the analyst to commence a more detailed assessment of building energy performance. It is intended that the information requested can contribute to the establishment of a large, useful data base of building functions and energy use. Therefore, the analyst is strongly urged to provide all possible information in the format provided.

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PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE


BUILDING CHARACTERISTICS Building ID For 19 City. Gross conditioned area1 Number of conditioned floors - above grade. Primary Year of Construction2 Primary Building Type3 (Check one only)
Office Lodging [] [ ] Hotel [ ] Motel [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] Seniors Family Retirement Home Other - Define Retail Drycleaning Supermarket General Merchancise Shopping Mall Without Tenant Loads Shopping Mall Without Tenant Lighting Load Shopping Mall Other - Define

19 Lat sq.ft. below grade. Long.

Zip/Postal Code.

Apartment

Education

[ ] Primary [ ] Secondary [ ] University [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] Restaurant-Full Service Fast Food Take Out Lounge Nursing Home Psychiatric Clinic Active Treatment Hospital

Industrial

Laboratory Manufacturing Warehouse Warehouse - Refrigerated Jail Transport Terminal Multi-Bldg. Complex Other - Define

Food Service

Other

HealthCare

Assembly

Theatre Museum/Gallery Church/Synagogue Arena/Gym Arena/Rink Other Assembly (Define)

1 All floor area contained within the outside finished surface of permanent outer building walls including basements, mechanical equipment floors and penthouses (ANSI Standard 265.1-1980, "Construction Area"). No exclusions are made for shafts, stairs or atria. Conditioned area is that area provided with heating or colling to maintain temperature between 50F and 86F (ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 105-1984). 2

The median year for construction of at least 5 1 % of the conditioned space. Building Type as characterized by at least 51% of the conditioned space.

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Preliminary Building Usage Period4 Average Hours/Week Average Weeks/Year

Schedule during months of

Optional Usage Schedule

Days Hour Open Hour Close Peak no. of employees Avg. no. of employees Peak no. of customers Avg. No. of customers

TH

SAT

SUN

HOL

Schedule during months of

Days Hour Open Hour Close Peak no. of employees Avg. no. of employees Peak no. of customers Avg. No. of customers

TH

SAT

SUN

HOL
.

Usage for at least 51% of the conditioned space.

ENERGY PERFORMANCE SUMMARY


ENERGY TYPE TOTAL ANNUAL USE CONVERSION MULTIPLIER To Thousands Btu See Next Page THOUSANDS OF BTU TOTAL ANNUAL COST
$

ELECTRICITY

NATURAL GAS

STEAM HOT WATER CHILLED WATER OlL# PROPANE COAL OTHER A B

ENERGY AND COST INDICES Energy Index (A * Gross Conditioned Area) Cost Index (B + Gross Conditioned Area) Annual Maximum metered demand KW(C) Maximum Demand Index (C x 1,000 * Gross Conditioned Area) TOTAL WATER USE Further Analysis recommended? Y/N Explain KGAL/YR W/SQ.FT. MBTU/SQ.FT./YR $/SQ.FT./YR

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Multipliers for Conversion to Thousands of BTU (Ref ASHRAE Standard 105-1984 for unusual fuels)

Fuel Electricity

Measured Units KWH MWH CCF MCF Therm m US Gallon Litres Imp. Gallons 1000 LBS Therm 1000 BTU 1000 BTU Ton Hours US Gallon Imp. Gallons Litres US Gallon Imp. Gallons Litres Tons

Conversion Multiplier 3.41 3413 103. 1030. 100 36.4 91.6 24.2 110 1000 100 1.0 1.0 12.0 139. 167 36.7 154 185 40.7 25,400

Natural Gas

Propane

Steam

Hot Water Chilled Water

Oil # 2

Oil # 6

Anthracite Coal

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ENERGY (Check one in each column)

TYPE Natural Gas

UNITS CCF MCF THERM CU. THERMS 1000 LBS THERM 1000 BTU BTU 1000 BTU TON HOURS KWH MWH KGAL (DEFINE UNITS)

Steam

Hot Water

Chilled Water

Electricity

Water Other

Serves More Than 5% Total Heating Fuel Cooling Fuel Domestic Water Heating Fuel Kitchen Equipment Laundry Equipment Other Processing Equipment

Energy Type (from above)

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METERED CONSUMPTION FOR METER #

METERING PERIOD DAY/MONTH/YEAR From To

CONSUMPTION

"E"IF ELECTRICTY ONLY KW ESTIMATE K W _ KVA_


Measured Demand Billed Demand CONSUMPTION $

C O S T
DEMAND $ TOTAL $

(D

Total
Utility Company ApplicableRate Schedule Number

(1) ccf, therms, hWh, gal, etc.

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DELIVERED CONSUMPTION FOR FUEL #

ENERGY
DELIVERY DATE 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 USE OF INVENTORY TOTAL CONSUMPTION C D
INVENTORY: AT DATE 0 INVENTORY: 365 DAYS AFTER DATE 0 USE OF INVENTORY (A-B) COST OF INVENTORY USED (C) x LATEST PRICE

DELIVERY AMOUNT

TOTAL COST

TYPE OIL#1 OIL 2 OIL 4 OIL 5L OIL 6 PROPANE COAL OTHER

UNITS US GAL IMP GAL UTRES

TONS (DEFINE UNITS)

SERVES MORE THAN 5% OF:


Heating Fuel Cooling Fuel Electric Generator Fuel Domestic Hot Water Fuel Kitchen Equipment Laundry Equipment Other Processing Equipment

(A)

(B) (Q (D)

I-9

WALK-THROUGH DATA
SPACE FUNCTION ANALYSIS Building ID For 19
SPACE NUMBER? FUNCTION TYPE
3

-19
D Unaccounted Total

CONDITIONED AREA SQ.FT. USAGE FOR SPACE7 TYPES 1 - 30 HRS/WK WKS/YR

Arena/Stadium Auditorium Classroom Computer Room-Raised Floor Conference Room Dining Drafting/Accounting Gallery Display
Gymnasium

Atrium
Conditioned Parking Garage

Corridor/Stairway Locker/Small Storage Mechanical/Electrical Sleeping Storage Vacant Walk-in Cold Storage

Ice Rink Jail Ceil Kitchen Laboratory


Laundry Living Area Locker/Shower

Lobby/Reception Lounge Manufacturing Process Material Handling/Loading Office Patient Care Patient Treatment Production/Shop Area Reading Room Retail Refrigerated Display Retail General Shopping Mall Common Area Surgical Suite/Recovery Swimming Pool Optional information for SPACE FUNCTION ANALYSIS (provided separately for each space 1. served by HVAC system type: w/sq.ft 2. served by lighting system type:

'Separata Zones with 10% of conditioned space *Ma(of Space Function Types 'See detailed Usage Schedule, page 1-11

1-10

DETAILED USAGE SCHEDULE


(OPTIONAL)

Schedule during months of

Optional Usage Schedule

Days Hour Open Hour Close Peak no. of employees Avg. no. of employees Peak no. of customers Avg. No. of customers

TH

SAT

SUN

HOL

Schedule during months of Days Hour Open Hour Close Peak no. of employees Avg. no. of employees Peak no. of customers Avg. No. of customers

TH

SAT

SUN

HOL

1-11

BUILDING DATA

GROSS CONDITIONED AREA Gross Heated Only Gross Cooled Only Gross Heated and Cooled Total Gross Conditioned Area BUILDING SHELL CHARACTERISTICS Insulated Y/N Total Exposed Above Grade Wall Area (sf) Glazing area (% of exposed wall area) Roof area (sf) Floor Surface area exposed to outdoor conditions (sf) Above grade wall area common with other conditioned building (sf) OPERATION & MAINTENANCE Discuss/describe operation and maintenance procedures as pertaining to building efficiency or longevity. sq.ft. sq.ft. sq.ft. sq.ft

1-12

LIGHTING SYSTEMS DATA

Average installed load including ballast in more than 51% of occupied space Switches Accessible to more than 51% of occupants Special Automatic Controls Y/N? Y/N?

_w/sq.ft.

Major Liqhtina Types 1 = Ruorescent 2 = Incandescent 3 = Mercury Vapor 4 = Sodium 5 = Other

% of Occupied Area

1-13

HEATING, VENTILATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM DATA

Check all that apply in a significant way (affect > 5% of floor area or energy consumption)

Centrifugal Chiller Reciprocating Chiller Absorption Chiller Hot Water Boiler Steam Boiler Hot Air Furnace Electric Resistance Coils Central Heat Pump Active Solar Equipment Energy Recovery Equipment Thermal Storage Systems Cogeneration Systems Packaged Heat Pumps Air Row Modulation Controls Lighting Controls Humid ifiers/Dehumidifters Cooling Tower Comfort Control by Reheat Free Cooling

SPECIAL LOADS
Significant Energy Requirements not normally associated with this buPding type (for example: unconditioned Parking Garage Lighting. Ventilation, Outdoor Heated Pool, Snow Melting)

Describe KW

Peak Load MBH

Operating Period HRS/WK WKS/YR

Meter Number

1-14

APPENDIX II
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES BUILDING AND SYSTEMS INFORMATION Table of Contents Page Preface Envelope Characteristics Lighting System Characteristics HVAC Systems Characteristics Inventory of Major HVAC Equipment Domestic Hot Water Characteristics Other Systems Characteristics 11-2 113 11-4 115 11-6 11-7 118

11-1

BUILDING AND SYSTEMS INFORMATION PREFACE


The forms in this section are intended to provide general guidance in preparing a report on the analysis of the building and its systems. It is not uncommon for the final report to be disseminated to and used by people with a wide variety of interests, including finance, management, operation, maintenance and engineering. Therefore, within practical constraints of time and budget, the analyst is encouraged to be as thorough and clear as possible in collecting and presenting the measured data and the descriptions thereof.

11-2

ENVELOPE CHARACTERISTICS
Building ID For 19 19

Construction Code

R Value

Glass Shading Coefficient

Area (sq.ft)

(Include miniature building floor plan, showing orientation)

CONSTRUCTION TYPE CODES


Walls W0=Other VV1=Wood W2=Masonry W3=Concrete, Above Grade W4=Concrete, Below Grade W5=Metal W6=Stone W7=Glass W8=Adjacent Building Roofs R0=Other R1 = Concrete Deck R2=Wood Deck R3=Metal Deck Windows Sash Type GO=Other Fixed, Wood Sash: G11 = Single Glaze G21 = Double Glaze Operable, Wood Sash: Gl2=Single Glaze G22=Double Glaze Fixed, Metal Sash: G13=Single Glaze G23=Double Glaze Operable, Metal Sash: G14=Single Glaze G24=Double Glaze Doors DO=Other D1 = Solid Wood D2=Hollow Wood D3=Uninsulated metal D4=Metal, Insulated Core D5 - Glass (> 85%)

II-3

LIGHTING SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS

Describe in detail, include typical ceiling plans. Utilize space function format, (refer to page 1-10) Typical watts/sq.ft. design Typical watts/sq.ft. installed, by type of light source (refer to page 1-13) Types of controls Operating schedules Light levels, footcandles (fc), 3 feet above floor, without daylight Operating and maintenance problems

II-4

HVAC SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS


Describe in detail, include floor plans and sketches. - Fuel Source - Fuel Conversion Equipment - Distribution Method - Terminal Type - Equipment Capacity Control Description and Setting Operating Periods Space Temperature Setting and Setback Operating and Maintenance Problems

Heating System

Cooling System

11-5

Inventory of Major HVAC Equipment

Designation

Location

Model

Size

Capacity Serves

Operating Hours/Yr

Remark

11-6

DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS

Describe in detail Fuel Source Distribution Storage Hours required Hours operated

Domestic Hot Water System

11-7

OTHER SYSTEMS CHARACTERISTICS Describe in detail, include schematics as needed. Include any operating and maintenance problems. Laundry

Food Preparation

Conveying System

Other

11-8

APPENDIX III
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Page Preface Energy Analysis Summary Recommended Energy Conservation Measures Components of Annual Energy Use III-2 1 13 11 14 11 15 1-

111-1

ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS PREFACE


The forms in this section are intended to report the results of the calculations and recommendations of the analyst. The forms provide a breakdown of energy use and cost by system components as well as recommendations for modifications. System interaction must be properly accounted for when combining more than one modification. The economics of each modification may vary, depending upon the order in which they are accomplished.

1 12 1-

ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY


Building ID For 19

19

MBTU/ SQ.FT./YR ACTUAL USE TARGET TECHNICAL" POTENTIAL SAVINGS A B C (A-B)

$/ SQ.FT./YR

$/YR

SAVINGS FROM MEASURES D RECOMMENDED FOR IMPLEMENTATION (SEE ATTACHED) REMAINING TECHNICAL POTENTIAL SAVING TO BE DEFINED REALISTICALLY ACHIEVABLE POTENTIAL SAVINGS STILL TO BE DEFINED TOTAL ACHIEVABLE SAVINGS (D+F) E (C-D) F

COST OF NEXT STAGE IN ANALYSIS COST OF MEASURES RECOMMENDED (D) COST TO IMPLEMENT (I) REALISTICALLY ACHIEVABLE POTENTIAL SAVINGS AND POSSIBLE RANGE TOTAL REMAINING G+H +1 IMPLEMENTATION COST

$ $ $

(G) (H)

C %)

'SOURCE

III-3

RECOMMENDED ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES

Measure Description

ENERGY TYPE(S)

UNITS SAVED

$/YR SAVED

IMPLEMENTATION COST

EXTRA OPER+ MAINT COST

SIMPLE PAYBACK (YRS)

1. 2. 3. Combined effect of 1.2,3 4. 5. Combined effect of 1.2,3,4,5

III-4

COMPONENTS OF ANNUAL ENERGY USE

Electricity KW Space Heating Space Cooling Fans Pumps DHW Generator Lighting Within Conditioned Area Outside Conditioned Area Other Receptacles Kitchen Laundry Central Computer Conveyance Laboratory Equipment Other (describe) Unaccounted TOTAL | KBTU

Fuel KBTU

Other KBTU

Total KBTU

Total Cost

% of Total Cost

III-5

APPENDIX B REVISED ENERGY AUDIT FORM AND PROCEDURES

APPENDIX I ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES


PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE AND WALK-THROUGH DATA Table of Contents

Preface Preliminary Energy Use Building Characteristics Energy Performance Energy and Cost Indices Walk-Through Data Space Function Analysis BuildingData Lighting Systems Data HVAC Systems Data Special Loads

I_2 1-3 1-3 1-6 1-6 1-11 1-11 1-14 1-15 1-16 1-16

1-1

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES


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APPENDIX I PREUKMABYEMEBBYUSE AMD WmTHBOUBHDATA

Preface
The data required in the Preliminary Energy Use Analysis section, pages 1-3 through 1-10, can usually be obtainedfromthe owner-operator of the building without a visit to the building. The forms utilize standard definitions for building area, building type, and energy usage. The result is the development of energy cost indices, which can be used to compare with other similar buildings and to make a rough determination of the need for further evaluation. If no further evaluation is conducted, this data is expected to have some value in the development of a building energy-use database. The information required in the Walk-Through Data section, pages 1-11 through 1-16, can be obtained without conducting a detailed analysis of the building. A major goal of data collected in this section is to define the various SPACE FUNCTIONS in the building. This information, in conjunction with specific information on the building itself, the HVAC system type(s), and the lighting system(s) will enable the analyst to commence a more detailed assessment of building energy performance. It is intended that the information requested can contribute'to the establishment of a large, useful database of building functions and energy use. Therefore, the analyst is strongly urged to provide all possible information in the format provided. Shaded areas indicate information which is input into the database.

1-2

APPENDIXI ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES PRELIMINARY ENERGYUSE ANALYSIS

Building Characteristics
Building ID _ Date of Audit City. Lat Month State/Province HDD HDD .sq.ft. .sq.ft. above grade. Primary2 Year Zip/Postal Code _ (Base 65 F) For Year of Data _ (Base 18 C) For Year of Data

Long.

CDD. CDD

Gross Floor Area 1 . Conditioned Area1 Number of conditionedfloors Year of Construction:

Climate Zone (1-38). (see attached sheet) . below grade Secondary HealthCare 61 62 63 64 69 Nursing Home Psychiatric Clinic Active Treatment Hospital Other-Define

Primary Building Type:3 (Check one only) Office Low-rise 12 [ High-rise Other - Define 21 22 23 24 25 29 High-rise Low-rise Convention Resort Residential Other - Define

Hotel/Motel

Retail

Apartment

31 p Low-rise High-rise 32 Retirement Home 33 Other - Define 39 41 | 42 | 43 | 491 Primary Secondary University Other - Define

71 [ ] Drycleaning Supermarket 72 General Merchandise 73 Shopping Mall Without Tenant Loads 74 Shopping Mall Without Tenant 75 Lighlhg Loads Shopping Mall 76 Specialty Shop 77 Bakery 78 Other - Define 79

Assembly

Education

81 f 1 Theatre Museum/Gallery 82 Church/Synagogue 83 Arena/Gym 84 Arena/Rink 85 89 j Other - Define 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 99 Laboratory Warehouse Warehouse - Refrigerated Recreation/Athletic Facility Jail Transport Terminal Multi-Bldg. Complex Other - Define

Food Services 51 52 53 54

Restaurant - Full Service Fast Food Take Out Lounge 59] Other-Define

Other

Grossfloorarea is allfloorarea contained within the outsidefinishedsurface of permanent outer building walls including basements, mechanical equipmentfloorsand penthouses (ANSI Standard Z65.1-1980, "Construction Area'O- No exclusions are made for shafts, stairs or atria. Conditioned area is that area provided with heating or cooling to maintain temperature between 50F and 86F (ANS1/ASHRAE Standard 105-1984). The median year for construction of at least 51% of the conditioned space. Building Type as characterized by at least 51% of the conditioned space.
wwawwwwwMwaww

1-3

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

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Climate Data Grouped by Zones


Based on ACP Tables from ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989
Zone Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 HDD50 Range 0 0 1-1000 1-1000 1-1000 1-1000 1-1000 1-1000 1-1000 1-1000 1-1000 1-1000 1-1000 1-1000 1-1000 1-1000 1-1000 1-1000 1001-1750 1001-1750 1001-1750 1001-1750 1001-1750 1001-1750 1751-2600 2601-3200 1751-3200 1751-3200 1751-3200 1751-3200 3201-4000 3201-4000 4001-5000 3201-4000 4001-5000 5001-6500 2501-6500 >6500 CDD65 Range 3001-4500 >4500 0-1150 0-300 0-300 301-1150 1151-2000 1151-2000 1151-2000 2001-3250 2001-3250 2001-3250 2001-3250 2001-3250 3701-4500 3251-3700 3701-4500 3251-3700 0-500 501-1150 1-1150 1151-2000 1151-2000 2001-3250 501-1150 501-1150 1-500 0-1150 1151-2000 1151-2000 501-1150 0-500 0-1150 0-1150 0-1150 0-1150 >100 >100 VSEW Range >800 >845 560-845 >845 >845 >845 560-845 560-845 >845 560-845 560-845 >845 >845 >845 >845 >845 >845 >845 560-845 560-845 >845 560-845 >845 560-845 560-845 560-845 560-845 >845 560-845 >845 560-845 560-845 560-845 >845 >845 560-845 >560 >560 0-18000 0-18000 >18000 0-18000 0-18000 >18000 >18000 1-3000 >3000 1-3000 >3000 CDH80 Range HDD6S Range Example Cities Barbers Point Hilo, Honolulu, Lihue Guantanamo Bay, Kwajalein, San Juan, Wake Island Areata, North Bend Oakland, Point Mugu, Sunnyvale San Francisco, Santa Maria El Toro, Long Beach, Los Angeles, San Diego Augusta, Birmingham, Cape Hatteras, Cherry Point Atlanta, Greenville Fresno, Red Bluft Sacramento Charleston, Houston, Jackson, New Orleans Little Rock Austin, Bakersfield, El Paso, Fort Worth, Tampa Wichita Falls China Lake, Las Vegas, Tucson Miami, West Palm Beach Brownsville, Corpus Christi, Orlando, Kingsville Laredo, Yuma Phoenix Olympia, Portland OR, Salem, Seattle/Tacoma Asheville, Medford Prescott, Winslow, Yucca Flats Charlotte, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Raleigh, Albuquerque, Lubbock, Oklahoma City, Roswell Fort Smith, Memphis, Tulsa Baltimore, Boston, Columbus, New York, Akron, Chicago, Detroit, Hartford, Pittsburgh Redmond, Yakima, Spokane Boise, Denver, Reno, Salt Lake City Lexington, Louisville, Saint Louis, Springfield Dodge City, Grand Junction Albany, Buflalo, Rapid City, Des Moines, Milwaukee Great Falls, Helena, Missoula, Portlan ME, Sheridan Bangor, Huron, Minneapolis, Rochester, Sioux Falls Casper, Cheyenne, Ely, North Platte Bryce Canyon, Eagle, Rock Springs Bismarck, Duluth, Fargo, International Falls Adak, Anchorage, Juneau, Kodiak, Yakutat Bethel Fairbanks, King Salmon, Nome, Summit

1-3000 >3000 1-3000 >3000

For more example cities in the U.S., see ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 Appendix C. 1-4

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES


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Preliminary Building Usage Period4


Average Hours/Week Average Number of Occupants during Normal Occupied Period Average Weeks/Year After Hours Cleaning (y/n) -

Total Building Usage Schedule


Schedule during months of Days Hour Open Hour Close Peak no. of employees Avg. no. of employees Peak no.' of customers Avg. no. of customers M T W Th F Sat Sun Hoi

Schedule during months of Days Hour Open Hour Close Peak no. of employees Avg. no. of employees Peak no. of customers Avg. no. of customers M T W Th F Sat Sun Hoi

Usage for at least 51% of the conditioned space.

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

APPENDIX/ PREUMINARYEHERGYUSEANDWALK-TMWUGHDATA Summary THOUSANDS OF BTU (KBTU) TOTAL ANNUAL COST ($)

Energy Performance ENERGY TYPE TOTAL ANNUAL USE UNITS

CONVERSION MULTIPLIER To Thousands Btu See Next Page

ELECTRICITY

NATURAL GAS STEAM HOT WATER CHILLED WATER OIL# PROPANE COAL OTHER A

If other than $US, average currency unit per $US conversion rate for past year.

Energy and Cost Indices


Energy Index (A + Gross Floor Area) Cost Index (B -*- Gross Floor Area) Seasonal Maximum metered electrical demand Summer kW or kVA (C) Winter. kWor kVA(D) ,W/sq.ft .W/sq.ft. $/yr. kBTU/sq.ft./yr. . $/sq.ft./yr.

Maximum Demand Index (MAX of C or D X 1,000 -^ Gross Floor Area), (MAX of C or D X 1,000 -s- Conditioned Area). TOTAL WATER USE . kGal/yr or CuFt/yr

Further Analysis recommended? Y/N, Explain

1-6

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

APPENDIX I PRELIMINARYEHERGYUSE AND WALKTHROUGHDATA

Multipliers for Conversion to Thousands ofBtu


(Ref ASHRAE Standard 105-1984 for unusual fuels)

Fuel Electricity Natural Gas

Measured Units kWh mWh CCF MCF Therm Cu. Meter GigaJoule 1000 BTU 1000 lbs. Therm 1000 BTU 1000 BTU Ton Hour US Gallon Imp. Gallon Liter US Gallon Imp. Gallon Liter US Gallon Liter Imp. Gallon Ton

Conversion Multiplier 3.413 3413 103 1030 100 36.4 947.8 1.0 1000 100 1.0 1.0 12.0 139 167 36.7 154 185 40.7 91.6 24.2 110 25,400

Purchased Steam

Purchased Hot Water Purchased Chilled Water Oil #2

Oil #6

Propane

Anthracite Coal

1-7

APPENDIX!

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES


*ma

Energy
(Check one in each column, where applicable)
TYPE Electricity Natural Gas UNITS kWh mWh CCF MCF Therms Cu. Meters GigaJoules 1000 BTU 1000 Lbs. Therms 1000 BTU 1000 BTU Ton Hours kGal US Gal Imp. Gal Liters US Gal Imp. Gal Liters (Define units')

Purchased Steam

Purchased Hot Water Purchased Chilled Water Water Oil

Propane

Other

Serves More Than 5% of Total Primary Heating Fuel Cooling Fuel Domestic Water Heating Fuel Kitchen Cooking Equipment Laundry Equipment Other Processing Equipment

Energy Type (from above) Secondary

1-8

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

APPENDIX! PRttmMRYMRGYUSEaNDWM-THROUGHDm

Metered Consumption for Meter # Fuel Type


METERING PERIOD DAY/MONTH/YEAR CONSUMPTION Unitss To # of days "E"IF ESTIMATE ELECTRICITY ONLY kW kVA
Measured Demand

COST 6 - 7

kW
Billed Demand

Consumptions

Demand $

TotalS

TA*O1

UtiHty Conlpany Applicable Rate Schedule IS umber

CCF, therms, kWh, gal, etc. Costs should include tax, fees, contract charges, etc. 7 If other than SUS currency, enter exchange rate on page 1-6. 1-9

APPENDIX I

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

Delivered Consumption for Fuel


DELIVERY DATE DELIVERY AMOUNT TOTAL COST7

ENERGY TYPE OIL#l OIL #2 OIL#4 OIL#5L OIL #6 PROPANE COAL OTHER UNITS US GAL IMP GAL LITERS

0 1 2 3
4

5 6 7 S 9 10 1! 12 13 14 15 16 17 IS 19 20
USE OF INVENTORY TOTAL CONSUMPTION

;TONS (DEFINE UNITS)

SERVES MORE THAN 5% OF: Heating Fuel Cooling Fuel Electric Generator Fuel Domestic Hot Water Fuel Kitchen Equipment Laundry Equipment Other Processing Equipment
INVENTORY: AT DATE 0 INVENTORY:
365 DAYS AFTER DATE 0 . USE OF INVENTORY (A-B) _ COST OF INVENTORY USED_ (C)x LATEST PRICE

(A)
(B)

_(D)

If other than $US currency, enter exchange rate on page 1-6. 1-10

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

APPENDIX I PREUMINARYENERGYUSEANDWALK-THROUGHDATA WALK-THROUGH DATA

Space Function Analysis


Bunding ID.
SPACE NUMBER8 FUNCTION TYPE9 CONDITIONED AREA.SF USAGEFOR SPACE10 HRS/WK WKS/YR PRINCIPAL LIGHTING TYPE PRINCIPAL TERMINAL HVAC TYPE

UNACCOUNTED

Function Tvpe
Auditorium 1 Auditorium Corridor 2 Corridor Classroom/Lecture Hall 3 Classroom/Lecture Hall Electrical/Mechanical Equipment Room 4 General 5 Control Room FoodService 6 Fast Food/Cafeteria 7 Leisure Dining 8 Bar/Lounge 9 Kitchen Recreation/Lounge 10 Recreational/Lounge

Stair 11 Active Traffic 12 Emergency Exit Toilet and Washroom 13 Toilet and Washroom Garage 14 Auto and Pedestrian Circulation 15 Parking Area Laboratory 16 Laboratory Library 17 Audio Visual 18 Stack Area 19 Card Filing & Cataloguing 20 Reading Area Lobby (General) 21 Reception and Waiting 22 Elevator Lobbies

Atrium (Multi-Story) 23 First 3 Floors 24 Each Additional Floor Locker Room and Shower 25 Locker Room and Shower Offices (Partitions > 4.5 ft below ceiling) Enclosed offices, all open plan offices without partitions or with partitions lower than 4.5 ft below the ceiling. 26 Reading, Typing & Filing 27 Drafting 28 Accounting Offices (Partitions 3.5 - 4.5 ft below2ceiling) Open plan offices 900 ft or larger with partitions 3.5 to 4.5 ft below the ceiling. 29 Reading, Typing & Filing 30 Drafting 31 Accounting

8 9
10

Separate Zones with at least 10% of conditioned space. Major Space Function Types
See detailed Usage Schedule, page 1-13 1-11

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES


Offices (Partitions <3.5 ft below ceiling) Open plan offices 900 ft2 or larger with partitions higher than 3.5 ft below the ceiling. Offices less than 900 ft2 shall use types 26,27, or 28. Common Activity Areas 35 Conference/Meeting Room 36 Computer/Office Equipment 37 Inactive Filing 38 Mail Room Shop (Non-Industrial) 39 Machinery 40 Electrical/Electronic 41 Painting 42 Carpentry 43 Welding Storage & Warehouse 44 Inactive Storage 45 Bulky Active Storage 46 Fine Active Storage 47 Material Handling Unlisted Space 48 Unlisted Space Airport, Bus & Rail Station 49 Baggage Area 50 Concourse/Main Thruway 51 Ticket Counter 52 Waiting & Lounge Area Bank 53 Customer Area 54 Banking Activity Area Barber & Beauty Parlor 55 Barber & Beauty Parlor Church, Synagogue, Chapel 56 Worship/Congregational 57 Preaching & Sermon/Choir Dormitory 58 Bedroom 59 Bedroom with Study 60 Study Hall Fire & Police Department 61 Fire Engine Room 62 Jail Cell Hospital/Nursing Home 63 Corridor 64 Dental Suite/Exam/ Treatment 65 Emergency 66 Laboratory 67 Lounge/Waiting Room 68 Medical Supphes 69 Nursery 70 Nurse Station 71 Occiu/Physical Therapy 72 Patient Room 73 Pharmacy 74 Radiology

MPPEHDOtl PREUMINWEHERGYUSEAHDmLK-THROUGHDJITA
Surgery &O.B. Suites 75 General Area 76 Operating Room 77 Recovery Bowling 113 Approach Area 114 Lanes Boxing/Wrestling (Platform) 115 Amateur 116 Professional Gymnasium 117 General Exercise & Recreation Handball/Racquetball/Squash 118 Club 119 Tournament Ice Hockey 120 Amateur 121 College/Professional Skating Rink 122 Recreational 123 Exhibition/Professional Swimming 124 Recreational 125 Exhibition 126 Underwater Tennis 127 Recreational (Class ffl) 128 Club/College (Class H) 129 Professional (Class I) Table Tennis 130 Club 131 Tournament HVAC Types (from page 1-16) 30 Single Zone 31MuItiZone 32 Dual Duct 33 Variable Air Volume 34 Reheat Coils 35 Fan Coil Units 36 Electric Resistance 37 Packaged Terminal Air Conditioner 38 Economizer 39 Steam/Hot Water Radiator/ Convector Lighting Types 1 Fluorescent 2 Incandescent 3 Mercury Vapor 4 Sodium 5 Metal Halide 6 Other

Hotel/Conference Center 78 Banquet/Multipurpose Room 79 Bathroom/Powder Room 80 Guest Room 81 Public Area 82 Exhibition hall 83 Conference/Meeting 84 Lobby 85 Reception Desk Laundry 86 Washing 87 Ironing & Sorting Museum & Gallery 88 General Exhibition 89 Inspection/Restoration 90 Inactive Artifacts Storage 91 Active Artifacts Storage Post Office 92 Lobby 93 Sorting & Mailing Service Station/Auto Repair 94 Service Station Theater 95 Performance Arts 96 Motion Picture 97 Lobby Retail Establishments (Merchandising & Circulation Area) Applicable to all lighting, including accent and display lighting, installed in merchandising and circulation areas. 98 Type A (Mass Merchandising) 99 Type B (Service Retail) 100 Type C (Mixed Use Retail) 101 Type D (Specialty Shop) 102 Type E (Fine Merchandise) 103 Type F (Service Establishment) 104 Mall Concourse Retail Support 105 Tailoring 106 Dressing/Fitting Rooms All Sports 107 Seating Area Badminton 108 Club 109 Tournament Basketball/Volleyball 110 Intramural 111 College 112 Professional

1-12

ENERGY AHHIYSIS PROCEDURES

APPENDIX I mUMimYmBBYBSEAHOWUMTHHOUBHam

Detailed Usage Schedule (OPTIONAL) Usage Schedule for Major Space Types Space Type Schedule during months of Days Hour Open Hour Close Peak no. of employees Avg. no. of employees Peak no. of customers Avg. no. of customers M T W Th F Sat Sun Hoi

Schedule during months of Days Hour Open Hour Close Peak no. of employees Avg. no. of employees Peak no. of customers Avg. no. of customers M T W Th F Sat Sun Hoi

1-13

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES


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PBEUMIMABYENERGY USE AMD

APPENDIXI WmiUBOOGBDATA

Building Data
GROSS CONDITIONED AREA Gross Heated Only Gross Cooled Only Gross Heated and Cooled
;

sq.ft. sq.ft. sq.ft.

BUILDING SHELL CHARACTERISTICS Total Exposed Above Grade Wall Area (sf) Glazing area (% of exposed wall area) Roof area (sf) Floor surface area exposed to outdoor conditions (sf) Above grade wall area common with other conditioned building (sf) . Insulated? Y/N Insulated? Y/N Insulated? Y/N Insulated? Y/N

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE Discuss/describe operation and maintenance procedures pertaining to building energy efficiency or longevity.

1-14

ENERGY AHAIYSIS PROCEDURES

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Lighting Systems Data

Average installed load including ballast in more than 51 % of occupied space Switched Accessible to more than 51% of occupants Special Automatic Controls Y/N? Y/N?

w/sq.ft.

Major Lighting Types 1 = Fluorescent 2 = Incandescent 3 = Mercury Vapor 4 = Sodium 5=MetalHalide 6 = Other
.

% of Occupied Area

1-15

APPENDIX I ENERGY ANAIYSIS PROCEDURES

Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning System Data


Check all that apply in a significant way (affect > 5% offloorarea or energy consumption) Primary Cooling 10 Centrifugal Chiller 11 Reciprocating Chiller 12 Screw Chiller 13 Absorption Chiller 14 Cooling Tower 15 Package DX 16 Split DX 36 Electric Resistance 37 Packaged Terminal Air Conditioner 38 Economizer 39 Steam/Hot Water Radiator/ Convector Other 50 Cogeneration 51 Energy Monitoring and Control System 52 On-site Generation 53 Active Solar Equipment 54 Energy Recovery 55 Thermal Storage 56 Humidifiers/Dehumidifiers 57 Dessicant System 58 Evaporative Cooling 59 Other Define

[1]

Primary Heating 20 Hot Water Boiler 21 Steam Boiler 22 Furnace 23 Ground Source Heat Pump 24 Air Source Heat Pump AHU/Terminal Systems 30 Single Zone 31 Mufti Zone 32 Dual Duct 33 Variable Air Volume 34 Reheat Coils 35 Fan Coil Units

[ ]

Special Loads
Significant Energy Requirements not normally associated with this building type (for example: unconditioned Parking Garage Lighting, Ventilation, Outdoor Heated Pool, Snow Melting, Extensive Outdoor Lighting, Process) Describe Peak Load kW kBTU /hr Avg. Load kW kBTU /hr Operating Hrs/Wk Period Wks/Yr Meter Number

1-16

APPENDIX II

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES


BUILDING AND SYSTEMS INFORMATION Table of Contents

Preface Envelope Characteristics Lighting System Characteristics HVAC Systems Characteristics Inventory of Major HVAC Equipment Domestic Hot Water Characteristics Other Systems Characteristics

n-2 II-3 II-4 II-5 II-6 II-7 II-8

n-i

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES


MMMMMMIMMMM^

APPENDIXII BUIIDINBAMD SYSTEMS INFORMATWH

Preface
The forms in this section are intended to provide general guidance in preparing a report on the analysis of the building and its systems. It is not uncommon for thefinalreport to be disseminated to and used by people with a wide variety of interests, including finance, management, operation, maintenance, and engineering. Therefore, within practical constraints of time and budget, the analyst is encouraged to be as thorough and clear as possible in collecting and presenting the measured data and the descriptions thereof.

H-2

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES


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Envelope Characteristics
Building ID. Date of Audit Month Year

Construction Code

RValue

Glass Shading Coefficient

Area (sq.ft.)

(Include miniature building floor plan, showing orientation)

Construction Type Codes


Walls WO = Other Wl=Wood W2 = Masonry W3 = Concrete, Above Grade W4 = Concrete, Below Grade W5= Metal W6 = Stone W7 = Glass W8 = Adjacent Building Doors DO = Other Dl = Solid Wood D2 = Hollow Wood D3 = Uninsulated Metal D4 = Metal, Insulated Core D5 = Glass (<85%) Roofs R0 = Other Rl = Concrete Deck R2 = WoodDeck R3 = MetalDeck Windows Sash Type GO = Other Fixed, Wood Sash: Gl 1 = Single Glaze Operable, Wood Sash: G12 = Single Glaze Fixed, Metal Sash: G13 = Single Glaze Operable, Metal Sash: G14 = Single Glaze

G21 = Double Glaze G22 = Double Glaze G23 = Double Glaze G24 = Double Glaze

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ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

APPiNOUU BUIIDINGANDSYSTEMSINFORMATWH
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Lighting System Characteristics


Describe in detail, include typical ceiling plans. Utilize space function format. (Refer to page 1-11) Typical watts/sq.ft. Operating schedules Types of controls Operating and maintenance problems Typical watts/sq.ft. Installed, by type of light source (Refer to page 1-15) Light levels, footcandles (fc), 3 feet abovefloor,without daylight % of lamps not functioning

H-4

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

MPPEMDUU BUIIDINGANDSYSTIMSINFOBMRWH
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HVAC System Characteristics

Describe in detail, includingfloorplans sketches. and Fuel Source Fuel Conversion Equipment Distribution Method Terminal Type Equipment Capacity Control Description and Setting Operating Periods Space Temperature Setting and Setback Operating and Maintenance Problems

Heating System

Cooling System

n-5

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ENERGY AHAIYSIS PROCEDURES BUILDIHG WD SYSTEMS IHFOHMATWH

Inventory of Major HVAC

Equipment

This table format is intended as a guide. The information collected on systems need not be restricted to the format or categories below.

Designation

Location

Model/ Type

Size

Capacity Serves

Operating Hours/Yr.

Remark

n-6

ENERGY AKflLYSIS PROCEDURES


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Domestic Hot Water System Characteristics

Describe in detail Fuel Source Storage Hours Operated Distribution Hours Required

Domestic Hot Water System

n-7

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ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES BUIIDIHBAND SYSTEMSINFORMATION

Other System Characteristics


Describe in detail, include schematics as needed. Include any operating and maintenance problems. Laundry

Food Preparation

Conveying System (Elevators, etc.)

Other

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APPENDIX III

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES


ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS Table of Contents
Preface Energy Analysis Summary Recommended Energy Conservation Measures Components of Annual Energy Use DI-2 ni-3 III-4 DI-5

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ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

EHEBGYAN/UYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMEHDATIONS

Preface
The forms in this section are intended to report the results of the calculations and recommendations of the analyst. The forms provide a breakdown of energy use and cost by system components as well as recommendations for modifications. System interaction must be properly accounted for when combining more than one modification. The economics of each modification may vary, depending upon the order in which they are accomplished.

m-2

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

APPENDUIU ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY ANDRECOMMENDATIONS

Energy Analysis Summary


Building ID Date of Audit Month Year

KBTU/SQ. FT./YR. Actual Use Target1 "Technical" Potential Savings SavingsfromMeasures Recommended for Implementation (see attached) Remaining Technical Potential Savings to be Defined Realistically Achievable Potential Savings still to be Defined Total Achievable Savings (D+F) Cost of Next Stage in Analysis Cost of Measures Recommended (D) Cost to Implement Potential Savings Still to be Defined Total Implementation Cost (G+H+I) $ $ $ $ A B C (A-B) D E (C-D) F

$/SQ.FT./YR.

$/YR.

(G) (H) ( %)(I)

Source: ffl-3

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ENERGY ANM.YSIS PBOCEDURES

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Recommended Energy Conservation Measures

Measure Description

Energy Type(s)

Units Saved

$/Yr. Saved

Implementation Cost

Extra Oper + Maint Cost

Simple Payback (Yrs.)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Total

m-4

ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES


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APPENDIXIII ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Components of Annual Energy Usage

Electricity

Fuel

Other kBTU

Total kBTU

% of Total Usage

Total Cost

% of Total Cost

kWh 1 kBTU kBTU Space Heating Space Cooling Fans Pumps DHW Generator Lighting Within Conditioned Area. Outside Conditioned Area Other Receptacles Kitchen Laundry Central Computer Conveyance Laboratory Equipment Other (describe) Unaccounted TOTAL See fuel conversion factors page 1-7.

m-5

APPENDIX C LIST OF BUILDINGS ANALYZED

Building id NE01 NE02 NE03 NE04 NE05 NE06 NE07 NE08 NE09 NE10 NE11 NE12 NE13 NE14 NE15 NE16 NE17 NE18 NE19 NE20 NE21 NE22 NE23 NE24 NE25 NW01 NW02 NW03 NW04 NW05 NW06 NW07 NW08 NW09 NW10 NW11 NW12 NW13 NW14 NW15

City Syracuse Oswego Oswego Alexandria Bay Syracuse Watertown Beaver Falls Watertwon Albany Harris Johnstown Albany Napanoch Albany Albany Albany Albany Albany Albany Albany Albany Albany Syracuse Syracuse Syracuse IDAHO FALLS IDAHO FALLS IDAHO FALLS IDAHO FALLS IDAHO FALLS IDAHO FALLS IDAHO FALLS IDAHO FALLS IDAHO FALLS IDAHO FALLS IDAHO FALLS Vancouver Richmond Port Coqultlam Vancouver

State Gross area NY 73760 NY 29756 NY 17600 NY 31092 NY 138700 NY 30680 NY 7200 NY 38500 NY 25830 NY 250000 NY 60635 NY 330000 NY 48600 NY 43183 NY 43847 NY 27816 NY 83110 NY 53800 NY 66700 NY 50832 NY 29388 NY 10555 41378 NY NY 20000 NY 6000 ID 3627 ID 27720 ID 5776 ID 21600 ID 4019 ID 2570 38064 CA ID 8000 ID 9858 ID 11700 ID 2400 BC 213706 BC 1006000 BC 74136 BC 110000

Heating Fuel Natural Gas Natural Gas Oil #2 Oil #2 Natural Gas Natural Gas Oil #2 Natural Gas Oil #2 Oil #6 Natural Gas Oil #2 Oil #6 Steam Oil #6 Oil #6 Oil #6 Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas

Build Type Education:Primary Office Office Heath:Hospital Heath.Nursing Home Education:Primary Asnr.Church/Synagogu AptrOther AsmrOther Heath:Hospital Office Education.Secondary OthenJai! Education:Other Asm:Arena/Rink Asm:Arena/Gym OthenTransport Term RetailiGeneral Mse Lodging:Motel Retail: Other Health:Clinic Food:Restaurant Asm:Churcn/Synagogu Office Office Food:Fast Food Retail:Supermarket RetailiGeneral Mse Food:Restaurant Food:Restaurant Food:Fast Food Office Office Office Health:Clinic Health:Other Heatrr.Hospital OthenOther Education:Secondary AsrruTheatre

Energy Cost ($/sq ft/yr)


$0.76 $2.16 $0.79 $2.58 $1.81 $0.50 $0.23 $0.42 $0.59 $2.04 $0.58 $1.74 $2.41 $1.83 $0.27 $0.38 $1.95 $1.24 $1.63 $1.71 $2.49 $6.67 $0.79 $2.30 $1.19 $2.05 $2.63 $1.26 $2.69 $6.17 $3.34 $0.40 $1.42 $0.58 $0.97 $0.36 $0.92 $1.80 $0.80 $1.37

Energy Use (kBTU/sq ft/yr)


97.65 126.36 128.84 222.27 201.83 55.95 30.77 63.98 92.68 367.28 80.37 161.17 430.28 262.43 63.14 119.27 396.41 63.18 149.76 111.49 119.30 452.05 84.69 152.97 28.70 311.08 285.81 107.07 379.49 878.42 354.49 34.28 123.00 41.99 74.28 29.67 133.86 254.29 109.66 143.59

Building id NW16 NW17 NW18 NW19 NW20 NW21 NW22 NW23 NW24 NW25 SW01 SW02 SW03 SW04 SW05 SW06 SW07 SW08 SW09 SW10 SW11 SW12 SW13 SW14 SW15 SW16 SW17 SW18 SW19 SW20 SW21 SW22 SW23 SW24 SW25 se01 se02 se03 se04 se05

City Bumaby Kamloops Vancouver Vancouver Vancouver Richmond Vancouver Vancouver Vancouver Vancouver RIVERSIDE RIVERSIDE RIVERSIDE RIVERSIDE RIVERSIDE RIVERSIDE RIVERSIDE RIVERSIDE RIVERSIDE LAJOLLA ENCINITAS SAN DIEGO SAN DIEGO CHULA VISTA ESCONDIDO EL CAJON CHULA VISTA LA MESA SAN DIEGO CARLSBAD SAN DIEGO SAN DIEGO. SAN DIEGO SAN DIEGO SAN MARCOS La Grange Lenoir Asheville Cornelius Columbia

State BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA NC NC NC NC SC

Gross area 33000 48700 5250 225700 116400 110000 273000 113000 50000 106000 54400 61500 17775 192400 197800 113300 53000 30700 383100 4270 3650 3264 2728 2188 2049 10828 11040 15612 19950 20678 21018 16800 35884 33060 111128 64500 31600 120000 43000 71580

Heating Fuel Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Steam None Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Oil #2 Electricity Electricity Electricity Natural Gas

Build Type Office Office Retail: Other Lodging:Hotel Lodging:Hotel Office Office Office Office Office Education-Primary Education:University Education:Secondary Retail:General Mse Retail:General Mse Education:Secondary Education:Primary Office Heath:Hospital FoodrRestaurant Health:Other Food:Other Retail: Other Food:Fast Food Office Retail:Supermarket Office Office Health:Other Office Retail: Other Office Office Health:Clinic OthenWhse Refrig Heath:Nursing Home Office Education:Other Lodging:Hotel Office

Energy Cost ($/sq ft/yr)


$1.08 $1.19 $1.66 $0.79 $0.36 $1.19 $1.09 $1.50 $1.25 $0.95 $0.68 $2.30 $0.93 $1.04 $1.21 $1.51 $0.95 $11.47 $2.83 $5.97 $1.21 $4.06 $5.26 $11.46 $1.09 $2.89 $0.58 $1.36 $2.02 $2.74 $1.32 $0.97 $0.83 $1.49 $0.94 $1.69 $0.00 $1.42 $0.60 $1.58

Energy Use (kBTU/sq ft/yr)


108.59 109.47 124.37 109.82 31.84 99.59 97.28 115.83 113.52 86.31 22.04 130.99 49.60 41.76 43.80 59.14 39.09 441.42 181.62 506.93 65.94 406.80 209.91 618.47 43.88 139.05 75.68 73.01 120.63 105.34 54.58 47.59 37.47 74.48 38.11 110.24 161.25 71.74 42.69 89.27

Building id se06 se07 se08 se09 se10 sell se12 se13 se14 se15 se16 se17 se18 se19 se20 se21 se22 se23 se24 se25

Citv Bluefield Alexandria Rodanthe Lenoir Hickory Statesville Davidson Atlantic Beach Elon College Homestead Cullowhee Misenheimer Sparta Cornelius Banner Elk Shallotte Lexington Jacksonville Burgaw Durham

State Gross area WV 62892 VA 57093 NC 6500 NC 46000 NC 365461 NC 15700 NC 32960 NC 34000 NC 73000 FL 23314 NC 81785 NC 13047 NC 3700 NC 7900 NC 86887 NC 7425 NC 23490 NC 98000 NC 27556 NC 116214

Heating Fuel Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Oil #2 Natural Gas Oil #2 Oil #6 Electricity Propane Electricity Oil #2 Electricity Oil #2 Electricity Oil #2 Coal

Build Type Office OtherrOther Retail:Supermarket OtherOther Heath:HospitaI Asm:Other RetaiLSupermarket Asm:Other Education:University Asm:Other AptrOther Asnr.Church/Synagogu Food:Fast Food Retail:General Mse Heath:Hospital Food:Restaurant Retail:Shopping Mall Retail.-General Mse Education-Primary Heath:Hospital

Energy Cost ($/sq ft/yr) $2.02 $1.05 $0.32 $2.05 $2.26 $3.44 $3.30 $1.55 $1.10 $3.31 $0.60 $0.61 $7.89 $0.76 $2.13 $3.09 $1.97 $1.33 $1.06 $3.78

Energy Use (kBTU/sq ft/yr) 198.68 64.01 12.56 110.05 317.78 265.47 197.00 74.37 100.86 194.05 127.81 7.60

496.48 40.44 274.78


102.05 106.11 63.73 99.82 255.58

APPENDIX D COMMENTS BY AUDITORS

PRELIMINARY COMMENTS ON ASHRAE ENERGY AUDIT FORM Jerome Hay and Mohd Mateen SUD ASSOCIATES, P.A. GENERAL COMMENTS 1. The energy audit form takes about four to five man hours to fill out the complete information. Most of the information collected during the energy audit and during the development of energy conservation measures are included in the form. Therefore this form can be modified in the form of an energy audit report to avoid repetition of work. The form in its present size is too big to be used in a database. The contents of the present form have to be reduced so that it can be used in the database. From this form, the part for the database has to be separated from the energy audit report. The energy audit form has extensive information on the present energy usage but very less information on energy conservation measures. Expect for brief title of the energy conservation measures, description of these measures are not given any where in the report. As a part of energy usage, the average price of different fuels used is not available in the report. Enough information is available in the report about the fuel usage to calculate the average prices of different fuels used. But the actual price of different fuels as charged by the fuel suppliers is not available in the form. At most places in the form, the units to be reported are not mentioned and are sometimes confusing. The use of MBTU and KBTU within the same form is confusing. MBTU is often used for 1000 BTU in the industry, so its use here should be clarified or eliminated. A comprehensive guide has to be provided in filling out these forms. The present guide accompanying the energy audit form does not provide clear understanding as to what is needed in the forms. The problems that were encountered while completing the form are discussed in the accompanying section.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS PAGE I-3 1. 2. Is the time period mentioned for the building same as that of electricity usage period. While describing the location of the building, the state in which the building is located should be mentioned. In order to compare and normalize data from around the country, more information on location and weather conditions may be necessary. Heating and Cooling Degree Days may be satisfactory. Average and extreme temperatures, humidities, and insolation would be nice, but probably excessive at this level. Another way of classifying building type is by the use of SIC numbers. These codes describe in detail the building operation.

3.

4.

PAGE 1-7 1. Oil as fuel source is not mentioned. Comment has to be made that only primary fuel has be reported as energy source for heating/cooling/DHW/etc.

PAGE I-8 1. Space has to be provided for writing units below the consumption. After the units, the number for note 1 should be printed. The average price of the fuel should be calculated and the price of the fuel as given by the utility company be reported.

2.

PAGE I-9 1. In case this page is used, a note should be written whether the total consumption was estimated or from actual bills.

WALK-THROUGH DATA PAGE MO 1. It is not clear why there are two columns of space function types and if there is any intended difference between the two. The space function types should be numbered to simplify input into the table. Do these types has to be from the table below. Thirty space function types are mentioned in the table. The first column has 30 entries, the second has 9. What is intended? What is the source of these space types? Perhaps they should be standardized with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989, which identifies space types primarily with lighting density characteristics in mind. Would a motel room be considered "sleeping", "living area", have a specific space type for it? It may be more instructive for normalizing the data to have space type floor areas broken down by percent of total instead of SF. It may be helpful to have both. There should be separate rows for conditioned and unconditioned floor areas within the space function type. Is the definition of conditioned area same as given on page I-3. Optional information for HVAC and lighting should either be put into tabular form here, or left until the more thorough sections in Section II. The format presented on this page is confusing and would be difficult to input into a database in a meaningful way. For the lighting, the types or only the w/sq. ft. for each space be reported.

2.

3.

4.

5. 6.

7.

8.

PAGE 1-11 1. Not clear what top chart and bottom chart should represent, with the top one stating "Optional Usage Schedule". If used by space type, then the preliminary schedule on I-4 is redundant. This detailed level of information is not normally recorded for low level 2 analysis.

PAGE 1-13 1. Perhaps this information should be incorporated into a Space Function type of format, similar to, or included with, sheet 1-10. This way lighting for each space type could be compared with the criteria set up in Standard 90.1-1989, particularly if the Space Function format is the same as in 90.1-1989.

PAGE 1-14 1. Doesn't include DX cooling, either split or packaged. Also doesn't include split heat pump. In case all the system names cannot be mentioned, then space can be provided to enter type of the system.

BUILDING SYSTEMS AND INFORMATION PAGE II-3 1. Wall areas not always available for low level II analysis.

PAGE II-6 1. 2. Not enough space in chart, as presented, to write requested information. The model should include manufacturer's name, model number and serial number. Explanation is needed for describe the size and capacity of the equipment. Should have space to report units used.

PAGE II-8 1. Should include space for Exhaust Systems.

ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

PAGE IH-3 1. What is the difference between "cost of measures recommended" and "cost to implement"? Inconsistent labeling of blanks with letters. Perhaps it should state "Cost to Implement Realistically Achievable Potential Savings Still to Be Defined (F)", with its corresponding blank on the right being labeled (I). What should units for "Realistically Achievable Potential Savings and Possible Range" be? It should be shown on form to provide for consistent results. Instead of "Total Remaining Implementation Cost", it should simply state "Total Implementation Cost".

2.

3.

PAGE 111-4 1. Need more room for reporting of savings of more than one fuel in a single measure along with space to input units. In case there are more than six modifications, similar table is needed below. Some energy conservation modifications results in extra usage of certain fuel. These usage should be shown.

2.

PAGE III-5 1. In the component of electricity usage, kwh should be reported as the unit.

PRELIMINARY COMMENTS ON ASHRAE ENERGY AUDIT FORM Ish Sud SUD ASSOCIATES PREUMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS Page No. 1-3 (a) Primary year of construction may not be available for older buildings that have undergone several additions and renovations. Perhaps an option to provide a range should be available. What is meant by the term "Optional Usage Schedule" above the first table? The instructions should specify if the hours include regular cleaning and custodial work. Exact metering dates may not be available.

1-4 (a) 1-4 (b) I-8 (a)

WALK-THROUGH DATA 1-10(a) The table should be able to accommodate more than four space types. Even a modest building is likely to have at least four .space types (e.g., office, lobby, corridor, mechanical/electrical). The space names should be numbered. Provide a place to list space types not included in the list (Other ).

1-10(b) 1-10(c)

l-12(a)

A part of the wall or glass may be insulated. Instead of Y/N, we may want to ask "% insulated."

1-14(a) 1-14(b)

Need to provide space to mark a simple DX split system. Need to provide space for including systems not included in the list. (Other )

BUILDING SYSTEMS AND INFORMATIONS II-3 (a) . In addition to the "Area" column, we should provide space for"%." (This is more important for entering previous audits onto forms, because wall areas may not have been calculated.) This table is very inadequate. It needs a major redesign.

11-6 (a)

ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION ill-3 (a) 111-4 (a) Ill4 (b) 111-4 (c) III-4 (d) This table is confusing. What should go into Line (I)? Into (+ %)? Electrical savings should also include a space for KWD savings. Some ECMs will involve more than one type of fuel. For example, lighting mods will save KWH and KWD while increasing the heating fuel usage. What is the purpose of the intermediate combined effects? (e.g., combined effect of 1, 2,3) Need more space in each row to accommodate more than one fuel type. Also need rows to accommodate more than 5 ECMs. Ill5 (a) Ill5 (b) Since cooling can involve electrical demand, allocating its cost may be quite involved. Need to include space for electricalusage (KWH).

PREUMINARY COMMENTS ON AHSRAE ENERGY AUDIT RFORM Jay Parkarinen ADM ASSOCIATES, INC.

The present format of combined report guide and database entry form was confusing to me. It was difficult to determine which information is intendent as a report instruction and which information is intended to be entered in the database. The report guide and database entry form should be separate documents. The concept of energy analysis levels is good, but in the present format forces the user to input same data in several places. Maybe this can be addressed if a separate data entry form for each analysis level is provided.

GENERAL COMMENTS The questions and data tables need more explanation and refinement. Also, the units to be used in each answer should be defined. Below I have noted some problems encountered while completing the form. Again, the major problem was to interpret each question - is for database or is this intended as report guideline?

PREUMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS General: Page Page Page Page Page Page Page 1-3 I-4 I-4 I-4 I-7 I-7 I-9 Collect square footage data by heated, cooled and unconditioned area. Is the time period "19 - 19 " for billing period? How are the schedule months entered, in a list format? In the schedule table - is closed indicated by 0-0? Format of operating hours "24 hr" or "AM, PM" format? How is the table on this page used? How are dual fuels entered? Ex. kitchen equipment is 50% electric, 50% gas. Same comments as page I-7.

WALK-THROUGH DATA Page Page Page Page Page 1-10 1-10 1-10 1-10 1-10 What is the purpose of time period "19 - 1 9 " in this section? Any function types entered as names or codes? Space type codes are referenced, but not defined. Are hours added in the total column? Where is information for lighting and HVAC entered, and how is it referenced to a space? How are these schedules referenced to different space areas? Is glazing insulation referring to the window frame insulation? Does occupied space refer to all non-vacant space? Lighting percentages per occupied areas is complicated to calculate. Ex. A building has fluorescent (25 kW) and incandescent (10KW) lighting throughout the building. How is this entered?

Page Page Page Page

1-11 1-12 1-13 1-13

Page 1-14

Missing equipment Package DX, Evaporative Cooler, etc.

BUILDING SYSTEMS AND INFORMATION Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page II-3 I1-4 H-5 II-6 II-6 II-6 il-6 II-6 II-7 II-7 II-8 What is the purpose of time period "19 -19 " in this section? How is the information in this section entered in the database? How is the information in this section entered in the database? Define the "Model" - is it manufacturer's model number? Is the "Size" the physical size of the unit? What are the units of capacity? Are operating hours/year full load hours or available hours? If a building has 20 3-ton units, are these entered one on each line? What is referenced by DHW distribution? Are hours reported per day or per year? Where is refrigeration, office and other common equipment described?

ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS Page III3 Page III3 Page III-5 Unclear what is included in cost to implement. Also unclear on two last items on this page. Electricity should be reported in KWh on this page instead of KBTU.

PREUMINARY COMMENTS ON ASHRAE ENERGY AUDIT FORM THE FLEMING GROUP, P.A.
PREUMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS PAGE 1-4 Buildings are typically closed for selected weeks rather than months. PAGE 1-5 Taking information on water consumption is a good idea. It has never been in the scope of work on our Energy Studies, so I cannot fill it out. PAGE 1-6 The conversion factors should be incorporated into the table on Page 1-5. ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGE 111-4 An additional column is needed for BTU savings so that they can be added up and placed on Page 11 1 3.

Comments On ASHRAE Energy Audit Form and Database

GENERAL In our review of the audit form, we have attempted to be as critical as possible in order to provide insight on possible improvements to the form. We have also attempted to provide inputfroma Canadian perspective. The comments are broken down by page number. Comments regarding the database follow. FORMAT Although the design of the form is set up so that different levels of analysis can be carried out, the drawback is that there is significant repetition throughout the audit form. Specific examples are provided in this document. Perhaps a sectional breakdown with general, building, energy, lighting, and mechanical would prevent this overlap. The form seems to have multiple purposes: 1. to determine whether or not to proceed with an energy analysis 2. to provide a comparison to other buildings 3. to be used as a tool for data collection 4. to be used for reporting and executive summary 5. to be an input form for a database 6. to provide recommendations . Given the above, the form may be trying to do too much. An alternative may be to separate the "Energy Audit Form"from"Energy Audit Procedures" so that the Form can be used for data entry and the Procedures can be used as a guide. Thefinalsection of the form incorporates elements of an "Energy Study" that would typically be based on an analysis of the facility and not just the audit. Notwithstanding any of the above, our comments apply to the document in the current format. A title page for the entire document outlining how the sectionsfittogether may be useful. At a minimum, the following data should be shown: Energy Analysis Procedures Section I Preliminary Energy Use Walk Through Data Section II Building and System Information Section III Energy Analysis andSummary Recommendations

Prism Engineering Ltd.

Comments On ASHRAE Energy Audit Form and Database SECTION I - PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE Page 1-3 Provide a metric option for HDD with an 18C base. We question the use of CDD as a measure of cooling requirements, especially in cooler Canadian climates. Provide a definition of conditionedfloorarea as a footnote. For example, are heated garages included in conditioned space? Page 1-4 What is the difference between "occupants" in the top part of the form and "employees, customers" in the usage table. These entries are repetitive. Average hours/week should be derived from usage table. 24 hour time is recommended for usage schedule. After hours cleaning may be an appropriate input. Page 1-5 Should the data be for the most recent complete year? Most recent 12 months? A base year? An average of 3 years? Add units of energy type to table. Adding energy costs into database for Canadian sites may be misleading because costs are in Canadian dollars. Database will have to differentiate currencies. Should costs include total billed, which will may include taxes and other municipal charges? Use of ekWh/ftVyr is more predominant in Canada than kBTU/ftVyr as an energy index. Define winter/summer months for the demand entries. How do you handle the swing seasons? There are too many indices. Decide on an area to use (gross or conditioned) throughout. The 'further analysis' question appears too early in the questionnaire. Only the obvious savings potential can be identified at this point and additional savings will almost always be feasible. Page 1-6 Add natural gas conversion for gigajoules (GJ) of 947.813. Page 1-7 Why not combine table with page 1-5. Add GJ units for natural gas. Keep order of energy types the same as page 1-5. Page 1-8 Leave line to input meter number (i.e. Meter # ). Leave line to input fuel type at top of the units column. Should the data be for the most recent complete year, the most recent 12 months or a base year? # days and use per day eliminates variance in billing period. Our province uses power factor penalties instead of KVA and so power factor is more relevant. Demand and consumption cost breakdown was not available for our audits but could be derived from rate. Consider putting 2 tables of meters data per page. It may make more sense to put the metered data before the energy summary and/or to refer to the metered data sheets on the energy performance summary .

Prism Engineering Ltd.

Comments On ASHRAE Energy Audit Form and Database SECTION I - WALK THROUGH DATA Page 1-10 Is this date different from audit date page 1-3 ? Add a row for space name (i.e. office, kitchen) instead of only function. ASHRAE 90.1 is categories may be too detailed (office may be a combination of 26 through 34 and not just one of these codes). Lighting information should be on page I-13 and not here. Page 1-12 The inputting of areas is repetitive. Could this be combined with 1-10 areas? The building shell data is detailed for a walk through audit. What purpose does it serve at this stage? A sketch of the building, surrounding buildings, and orientation may be more useful to get an understanding of the environment. For example, the presence of shading devices or solar film would seem more beneficial than the actual glaring area. Page 1-13 Use space codes from page 1-10. Page 1-14 Sections such as cooling, heating, ventilation, and controls may improve the HVAC input section. Lighting controls does not belong. Clarify the definition of special loads. Is all outside lighting special or simply large amounts? Are controls pneumatic, electric or DDC? SECTION H - ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES PageH-2 The preface leaves the impression that this section is setting up the structure of a report. What is really needed is a more detailed audit, one that is more complete than the walk through conducted in section I. This section should have the forms required to collect the data that is needed for the energy analysis. PageII-3 The data is used only for simulations and in that case more detail is required so is this data relevant? If you want building plan, a grid on 1/2 page would be useful. Page II-4 This page is too general: to identify the energy saving potential of the lighting systems requires more detailed audit information. Need more than w/ft2: need to know how space light levels compare to code requirements. Use space type codesfromearlier. Lighting system characteristics collected in the audit should include: - luminaire description or spec of each typical fixture; - lighting system voltage; - typical wall, ceiling and floor surface colours and dimensions for redesigns.

Prism Engineering Ltd.

Comments On ASHRAE Energy Audit Form and Database PageH-5 Many of the same commentsfrompage II-4 apply. Need section for ventilation and for controls. Equipment capacity overlaps with page II-6. With this lack of structure, inconsistency will occur between people completing form. PageII-6 Column widths are too narrow. For major HVAC equipment should identify drive type (constant speed or ASD), belt type (v-belt or synchronous) and motor type (regular, E.E.). Maybe a notes column is needed. Consider separate table forfens,pumps and plant equipment as different information is needed. Useful fen information would be: control, HP, CFM, motor efficiency, load factor, and driver/driven rpm. PageH-7 Provide more structure by numbering items and/or providing blank spaces next to or below the topic. How about controls? Setpoint? What is meant by distribution? Pagen-8 Usually beyond the scope of typical HVAC and lighting systems audit. Are these examples of special loads on page 1-14? SECTION m - ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS Pagem-3 Actual Use isfrompage 1-5. How is the target determined? What happens if the entry for E is negative? Is it not clear what is meant by cost of next stage of analysis. Is this the engineering required to achieve implement the measures? This table is confusing and need some explanations. Is kBtu/frVyr be based on 'conditioned' or 'gross' area? Pagem-4 Operator & Maintenance may be savings and not cost (i.e. fewer lamps to replace after retrofit) Should also allow for possibility that one measure can save more than one energy type (i.e. natural gas and electricity). Table is oriented towards consumption savings with no input space for peak shedding measures. Include column for demand savings. More explanation of measures is required somewhere in the report. Table is too constraining as it now appears. Add % savings to summary table. Column to narrow for Units Saved. PageD3-5 Column width not adequate. The energy breakdown may be more suited to Section II or before the energy savings in Section HI.

Prism Engineering Ltd.

Comments On ASHRAE Energy Audit Form and Database DATABASE Page 1-3 Doesn't ask for "month" in input form, only in "ParadoxYViewYTable" or "Add A New Building". Can't add more than two upgrades. When you enter "99 - Other" there is no where to specify a description of "Other". Building Type "Fl" doesn't work. Page 1-5 Can't find "Energy and Cost Indices" output. Page 1-7 Only Primary appears in input form. Need to go to "Paradox\View\Tables" to enter Secondary or "Add A New Building". No place to enter "GJ" and no entry for "Laundry Equipment" Page 1-8 Consumption for "Natural Gas" has been entered in "GJ" Date in database is ordered month/day/year but in the audit form it is ordered day/ month/year. Page 1-10 Forced to enter something in 'Tag" field. Doesn't ask for "Unconditioned Area" in "Add A New Building" or in database "Update", but you can . enter it in "ParadoxYViewYTables". Page 1-12 Only the 1st column of shell characteristics is only in database. Both columns are in "ParadoxWiewYTables" & "Add A New Building". Page 1-13 When asked to press "Fl" for list, it takes you to "Editing a Table" and there's no list. Won't allow entry at "Switch Accessible" in database. Must go into "Paradox\View\Tables" or "Add A New Building". Only accepts 1 entry per building for major lighting types. Page 1-14 Hand-written notes are in "ParadoxWiewYTables" only and not in the input form. "Packaged Heat Pumps" is not in "Add A New Building". Where it asks "Other" you can't enter any description. Incorrect unit for special loads: database uses kWh twice while audit form uses kW and KBTU. Asks for value in 2nd entry. Can't press enter to continue, tells you to enter a 'Value" or you can press "Fl" for list. There is no list. Will only accept 1 entry for special loads. After entering in "Add A New Building" the entries don't show in 'Tables". You must go into 'Tables" and re-enter in "Edit" mode. General It would be easier if the database entry followed the order of the audit form. Also, it would be convenient if the buildings were sorted numerically instead of all l's than all 2's etc... (i.e. 11 follows 1)

Prism Engineering Ltd.

APPENDIX E SAMPLE DATABASE ANALYSES

Gross area 2049 2188 2400 2570 2728 3264 3627 3650 3700 4019 4270 5250 5776 6000 6500 7200 7425 7900 8000 9858 10555 10828 11040 11700 13047 15612 15700 16800 17600 17775 19950 20000 20678 21018 21600 23314 23490 25830 27556 27720 27816 29388 29756 30680 30700 31092 31600 32960 33000 33060 34000 35884 38064 38500

Heating Fuel Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Propane Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Electricity Electricity Oil #2 Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Electricity Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Oil #2 Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Oil #2 Oil #2 Oil #2 Oil #2 Natural Gas Oil #6 Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Oil #2 Electricity Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Oil #2 Electricity Electricity Natural Gas

Build Type

Energy Cost ($/sq ft/yr) Office $1.09 Food:Fast Food $11.46 $0.36 Health:Other Food:Fast Food $3.34 Retail: Other $5.26 $4.06 Food:Other $2.05 Food:Fast Food $1.21 HealthrOther $7.89 Food:Fast Food Food:Restaurant $6.17 Food:Restaurant $5.97 $1.66 Retail: Other $1.26 Retail:General Mse Office $1.19 Retail:Supermarket $0.32 Asm:Church/Synagogu $0.23 Food:Restaurant $3.09 Retail:General Mse $0.76 Office $1.42 Office $0.58 Food:Restaurant $6.67 $2.89 Retail:Supermarket Office $0.58 Health:Clinic $0.97 AsnrChurch/Synagogu $0.61 Office $1.36 Asm:Other $3.44 Office $0.97 Office $0.79 EducationrSecondary $0.93 Health:Other $2.02 Office $2.30 Office $2.74 $1.32 Retail: Other $2.69 Food: Restaurant $3.31 Asm:Other Retail:Shopping Mall $1.97 Asm:Other $0.59 $1.06 Education:Primary Retail:Supermarket $2.63 Asm:Arena/Gym $0.38 Health:Clinic $Z49 Office $216 $0.50 EducatJonPrimary Office $11.47 $2.58 Heath:Hospital Office $0.00 Retail.Supermarket $3.30 Office $1.08 $1.49 Heaith:Clinic $1.55 Asm:Other $0.83 Office Office $0.40 $0.42 AptOther

Energy Use (kBTU/sq ft/yr) 43.88 618.47 29.67 354.49 209.91 406.80 311.08 65.94 496.48 878.42 506.93 124.37 107.07 28.70 12.56 30.77 102.05 40.44 123.00 41.99 452.05 139.05 75.68 74.28 . 7.60 73.01 265.47 47.59 128.84 49.60 120.63 152.97 105.34 54.58 379.49 194.05 106.11 9Z68 99.82 285.81 119.27 119.30 126.36 55.95 441.42 222.27 161.25 197.00 108.59 74.48 74.37 37.47 34.28 63.98

Heating Degree Days 1285 1285

Cooling Degree Days 150 150

1285 1285 1285 1285 5404 6678 2682 7376 2469 3440

150 150 150 150 68.4 551 1556 455 1904 1561

6888 1285 1285 3418 1285 3792 1285 6792 2103 1285 6678 1285 1285 3231 6888 2469 6888 6888 6792 7376 2103 7239 3600 3440 5404 1285 2513 1285 7376

654 150 150 1465 150 1265 150 435 670 150 551 150 150 1672 654 1904 654 654 435 461 670 455 1146 1561 68.4 150 1844 150 461

Gross area 41378 . 43000 43183 43847 46000 48600 48700 50000 50832 53000 53800 54400 57093 60635 61500 62892 64500 66700 71580 73000 73760 74136 81785 83110 86887 98000 106000 110000 110000 111128 113000 113300 116214 116400 120000 138700 192400 197800 213706 225700 250000 273000 330000 365461 383100 1006000

Heating Fuel Natural Gas Electricity Steam Oil #6 Electricity Oil #6 Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Oil #2 Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Oil #6 Oil #6 Oil #2 Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas Steam None Natural Gas Electricity Oil #6 Natural Gas OH #2 Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas

Energy Cost ($/sq ft/yr) Asm:Church/Synagogu $0.79 Lodging: Hotel $0.60 Education:Other $1.83 Asm:Arena/Rink $0.27 OthenOther $2.05 Other Jail $2.41 $1.19 Office Office $1.25 Retail: Other $1.71 Education:Primary $0.95 RetailiGeneral Mse $1.24 Education:Primary $0.68 OthenOther $1.05 Office $0.58 Education: University $2.30 Office $2.02 Heath:Nursing Home $1.69 Lodging: Motel $1.63 Office $1.58 Education:University $1.10 Education: Primary $0.76 EducatiomSecondary $0.80 Apt Other $0.60 $1.95 OthenTransport Term Heath:Hospital $2.13 RetailiGeneral Mse $1.33 Office $0.95 Asm:Theatre $1.37 Office $1.19 OtherWhse Refrig $0.94 Office $1.50 Education:Secondary $1.51 Heath: Hospital $3.78 Lodging:Hotel $0.36 Education:Other $1.42 Heath:Nursing Home $1.81 RetaifcGeneral Mse $1.04 RetailiGeneral Mse $1.21 Heath: Hospital $0.92 Lodging:Hotel $0.79 Heath:Hospital $2.04 Office $1.09 Education:Secondary . $1.74 Heath: Hospital $2.26 Heath:Hospital $2.83 OthenOther $1.80

Build Type

Energy Use (kBTU/sq ft/yr) 84.69 42.69 262.43 63.14 110.05 430.28 109.47 113.52 111.49 39.09 63.18 22.04 64.01 80.37 130.99 198.68 110.24 149.76 89.27 100.86 97.65 109.66 127.81 396.41 274.78 63.73 86.31 143.59 99.59 38.11 115.83 59.14 255.58 31.84 71.74 201.83 41.76 43.80 133.86 109.82 367.28 97.28 161.17 317.78 181.62 254.29

Heating Degree Days 6678 3342 6888 6888 3660 6087 6586 5404 6888 2103 6888 2103 7232 2103 3124 6888 3537 6678 5404 4155 6888 5923 3410 5404 5404 5404 1285 5404 2103 3614 5404 4139 6678 2103 2103 5404 5404 7447 5404 6888 3754 2103 5404

Cooling Degree Days 551 1546 654 654 1146 622 45 68.4 654 670 654 670 420 670 1611 654 1479 551 68.4 784 654 167 1454 68.4 68.4 68.4 150 68.4 670 1387 68.4 914 551 670 670 68.4 68.4 272 68.4 654 1270 670 68.4

Gross area 2049 6000 8000 9858 11040 15612 16800 17600 20000 20678 29756 30700 31600 33000 35884 38064 48700 50000 60635 62892 71580 106000 110000 113000 273000

Heating Fuel Natural Gas Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Oil #2 Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas Electricity Electricity Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Electricity Natural Gas

Build Type Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office

Energy Cost ($/sq ft/vr) $1.09 $1.19 $1.42 $0.58 $0.58 $1.36 $0.97 $0.79 $2.30 $2.74 $2.16 $11.47 $0.00 $1.08 $0.83 $0.40 $1.19 $1.25 $0.58 $2.02 $1.58 $0.95 $1.19 $1.50 $1.09 Average Energy Cost ($/sq ft/yr) $1.61

Energy Use (kBTU/sq ft/yr) 43.88 28.70 123.00 41.99 75.68 73.01 47.59 128.84 15297 105.34 126.36 441.42 161.25 108.59 37.47 34.28 109.47 113.52 80.37 198.68 89.27 86.31 99.59 115.83 97.28 Average Energy Use (kBTU/sq ft/vr)

Heating Degree Days 1285 6678 1285 1285 1285 6792 6678 1285 6792 2103 3600 5404 1285 6586 5404 7232 5404 5404 5404 5404 Average Heating Degree Days 4330

Cooling Degree Days 150 551 150 150 150 435 551 150 435 670 1146 68.4 150 45 68.4 420 68.4 68.4 68.4 68.4 Average Cooling Degree Days 278

108.83

Gross area 2049 15612 16800 20000 29756 30700 33000 48700 50000 60635 62892 71580 106000 110000 273000

Heating Fuel Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas . Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas

Build Type Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office

Energy Cost ($/sq ftfyr) $1.09 $1.36 $0.97 $2.30 $2.16 $11.47 $1.08 $1.19 $1.25 $0.58 $Z02 $1.58 $0.95 $1.19 $1.09 Average Energy Cost ($/sq ftfyr) $2.02

Energy Use (kBTU/sq ftfyr) 43.88 73.01 47.59 152.97 126.36 441.42 108.59 109.47 113.52 80.37 198.68 89.27 86.31 99.59 97.28 Average Energy Use (kBTU/sq ftfyr) 124.55 Energy Use (kBTU/sq ftfyr) 28.70 123.00 41.99 75.68 105.34 161.25 37.47 34.28 115.83 Average Energy Use (kBTU/sq ftfyr) 80.40

Heating Degree Days 1285 1285 1285 6678 6792 2103 5404 6586 5404 7232

Cooling Degree Days 150 150 150 551 435 670 68.4 45 68.4 420

5404 5404 5404 Average Heating Degree Days 4636 Heating Degree Days 6678 1285 1285 3600 1285 5404 Average Heating Degree Days 3256

68.4 68.4 68.4 Average Cooling Degree Days 224 Cooling Degree Days 551 150 150 1146 150 68.4 Average Cooling Degree Days

Gross area 6000 8000 9858 11040 20678 31600 35884 38064 113000

Heating Fuel Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity

Build Type Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office Office

Energy Cost ($/sq ftfyr) $1.19 $1.42 $0.58 $0.58 $2.74 $0.00 $0.83 $0.40 $1.50 Average Energy Cost ($/sq ftfyr) $1.03

369

Gross area 111128 2049 53000 106000 110000 21018 113300 53800 5250 29756 273000 48700 30700 30680 2728 50000 110000 38500 60635 16800 33000 50832 20000 41378 17775 73760 73000 74136 33060 213706 15612 66700 138700 61500 10828 1006000 15700 10555 19950 383100 365461 2188 3264 4270

Heating Fuel Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas

Fuel Use (kBTU/sq ft/yr) Other.Whse Refrig 2.11 Office 2.24 5.15 Education:Primary 14.80 Office Office 17.16 4.51 Retail: Other Education:Secondary 7.71 30.56 Retail.General Mse Retail: Other 25.90 Office 32.71 Office 30.85 Office 38.28 Office 12.88 EducationPrimary 46.79 Retail: Other 8.91 Office 40.11 Asm:Theatre 42.16 Apt:Other 59.52 Office 65.75 Office 12.24 Office 53.44 Retail: Other 71.07 Office 69.75 70.72 Asm:Church/Synagogu Education:Secondary 24.65 Education:Primary 87.94 Education:University 51.57 81.85 Education:Secondary Health:Clinic 20.36 Heath:Hospital 89.57 Office 24.79 Lodging:Motel 144.81 Heath:Nursing Home 144.10 Education.University 53.89 RetailrSupermarket 32.99 OthenOther 158.74 Asm:Other 134.60 253.15 Food:Restaurant 50.99 Health:Other Heath:Hospital 85.29 Heath:Hospital 193.50 Food:Fast Food 211.65 298.68 Food:Other 330.70 Food:Restaurant

Build Type

Fuel Use Heating Degree Days (kBTU/sq ft/yr/HDD) 1285 1.64 1285 1.75 2103 2.45 5404 2.74 5404 3.18 1285 3.51 2103 3.67 6888 4.44 5404 4.79 4.82 6792 5404 5.71 6586 5.81 2103 6.12 7376 6.34 1285 6.93 5404 7.42 5404 7.80 7376 8.07 9.09 7232 1285 9.53 5404 9.89 6888 10.32 6678 10.44 6678 10.59 2103 11.72 6678 13.17 3537 14.58 5404 15.15 1285 15.85 5404 16.57 1285 19.29 6888 21.02 6678 21.58 25.63 2103 1285 . 25.67 29.38 5404 35.50 3792 36.75 6888 39.68 1285 2103 40.56 51.54 3754 164.71 1285 232.44 1285 257.36 1285

Average Fuel Use (kBTU/sq ft/yr) 73.62

Average Average Heating Fuel Use Degree Days (kBTU/sq ft/yr/HDD) 4154.25 28.07

Gross area 34000 7200 23490 25830 330000 64500 17600 31092 27556 86887

Heating Fuel Oil #2 Oil #2 Oil #2 Oil #2 Oil #2 Oil #2 Oil #2 Oil #2 Oil #2 Oil #2

Fuel Use (kBTU/sq fl/yr) Asm:Other 7.36 Asm:Church/Synagogu 25.19 24.66 RetaihShopping Mail 78.08 Asm:Other 82.80 EducatiomSecondary Heath:Nursing Home 51.52 Office 115.28 Heath:Hospital 158.49 EducationrPrimary 78.43 Heath:Hospital 193.23 Average Fuel Use (kBTU/sq ft/yr) 81.50

Build Type

Fuel Use Heating Degree Days (kBTU/sq ft/yr/HDD) 2513 2.93 7376 3.42 3231 7.63 6888 11.34 6888 12.02 3124 16.49 6792 16.97 7239 21.89 2469 31.77 5923 32.62 Average Average Heating Fuel Use Degree Days (kBTU/sq ft/yr/HDD) 5244.3 15.71

APPENDIX F DATABASE DOCUMENTATION AND DATA DICTIONARY

Sud Assoc. Trial Database


for ASHRAE Energy Audit Form
Date printed: August 26,1994 This documentation describes the Sud & Assoc Trial Database. Purpose: The database's purpose is to provide a database collecting the data from ASHRAE energy audit forms, in order to allow researchers to have a convenient way to access and analyze the data. The trial database is a menu-driven Paradox application. It is intended to be very simple to use. The nature of this database is to collect information for research, which means that familiarity with Paradox is essential simply because the designers cannot forsee in advance every use to which this database will be put. At least in the beginning, users of the database will have to go into Paradox and create their own queries and reports. Audience: This documentation is aimed at both the end user and the experienced Paradox user. Thefirstsection describing the application interface to the database is aimed more at thefirsttime user who needs to add data and perform routine tasks. The data dictionary which follows describes in detail the design of the database, the modules involved, and the table layouts. It will be useful to experienced Paradox users who want to use Paradox to query the database, and to developers who need to modify the application.

Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 2

Installation Procedure
Installing the database is very simple, as long as you have a hard drive C: and have already installed Paradox. The databasefilesget installed in the Paradox directory, so unless you dont mind thesefilesbeing mixed up with the applicationfilesin your PDOX40 directory, you should reinstall Paradox in a different directory, perhaps C:\PDOXASHR. The install disk has a program called install.com that will install the database automatically. 1. Reinstall Paradox in the PDOXASHR directory if you so choose. 2. Put the ASHRAE database install disk into thefloppydisk drive, and remember what letter the drive is. 3. Go to DOS (or open a DOS window under Windows) 4. Run the install program: A:> install - this assumes that the diskette is in A; You will need to answer questions about your source and destination drives, etc. 5. Watch the database unpack itself. (This may take a while, depending on how fast or slow your computer is.) 6. To start the application, get to the Paradox directory where you installed the database and type: paradox 0001 from the DOS prompt, or in Paradox's main mode you can type Alt-FlO, Play, Return, select 0001fromthe list, and Return again.

Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 4

Main Application
The application interface to the database is menu-driven, and has complete help on-line (at any of the menu selections, you may press Fl and receive context-specific help on the selection: why it is there and typical uses for it). The application is meant to be used by people inexperienced with Paradox to add new data to the database, and to run the preinstalled reports. Since at the time the database was written it was not known what kind of reports and queries users would want, going further and doing your own ad-hoc queries requires that you go into the main Paradox desktop and do them yourself. Experience with Paradox is required for this. Each menu in the application represents a broad area of things that can be done with the database (entering data, doing reports, and so on). Sub-menus handle specific functions within those broad areas (or even have sub-menus of their own). The menus have been organized into a logical progression adding data, querying, reporting, etc. and less important things are farther to the right than more important things. Several menus are present which do not currently do anything but tell you that they don't do anything. These are provided for future growth, since their functionality is strongly anticipated to be needed in the future. When the trial database is turned into the real database, it is expected that these will be fully functional. For the time being, ignore anything that doesn't seem to do anything useful. A description of the menus and what they do follows. They are arranged as much as possible "in order", so reading through this description will tell you how to use the database. Enter Data The Enter Data menu allows you to input data you have on the ASHRAE energy audit forms into the database. Add A New Building: This is the main selection for adding a new building to the database. It starts up a program which will guide you through the process. It automatically load up the correct data entry forms and runs the correct programs, so you will not have to worry about doing everything in therightorder. We've tried to make the data entry as close to the paper forms as possible, but it has not always been possible. There are a few differences between the paper forms and the order you enter things here. The order in which things must be input is: building data, special datafrom1-14, space function datafrom1-10, andfinallyenergy use and costfrom1-5. The guide program is described in detail below. Update Old Data: allows forms-based updates of data already entered.

Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 5

Types: Allows addition/maintenance of exisitng types. Guide Program When you choose "Add A New Building"fromthe data entry menu, the guide program is run. It is responsible for taking you step by step through the data entry process, running the right programs and data entry screens at the right times. First, you are asked to give a Building YD. This is the most important piece of information. It must uniquely identify the building. Step One: Data Entry Form After you input a Building ID, you then see the data entry form for the building. Input the information directly as you see it on the sheet. If you see something on the sheet that doesn't come up on the screen, it is either not supposed to be in the database or you will come back to it later. Warning: Years should be input as complete numbers! Use '1984' instead of'84'. If you put in an abbreviated year, it will be taken literally 0084. Step Two: Special Information You may add as many special information items as you like. Because of this, a dialogue box will keep popping up asking for a description. When you've given all the descriptions you want to, press Enter without typing anything in the dialogue box, and it will go on to the next item. Warning: The "description"fieldis only 20 characters long. If your description exceeds that, make up a one or two word summary and use it as the description, and then type the full description into the provided memofield.Or just skip the rest the description is only useful as a way to uniquely identify each different special information entry. The description must be unique. Step Three: Space Functions The space functions entry works the same way as the special information, you may add as many spaces as you like. Because of this, a dialogue box will keep popping up asking for a space. Spaces must be between A and Z. When youVe given all the spaces you want to, press Enter without typing anything in the dialogue box, and it will go on to the next item. Step Four: Energy Use and Cost

Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 6 This is the most interesting part of the program. You have to specify the units for each type of energy, and because of that we made it so that pick lists would pop up. This is important because of consistency: people would type M**3, M cubed, meters cubed, m3, and so on. But, given our dialogue box, you have to pick it the way we want it to look. Query Database Very unfinished. This menu was notfinishedbecause it could not be anticipated what querying people would want to do. Reports The demonstration report availablefromthis menu generates a report that tells you the square footage, heating & cooling type, energy index, and cost index for a specific type of building that you supply. It also summarizes the range of high, low, and average values for that building type. Import/Export Ship: takes your local database, and packs it up onto afloppydisk so you can ship it back to the master database. Unship: the opposite of ship it takes a shipped database off afloppyand adds it into the existing database. Ship and unship require the programs 'zip.exe' and unzdp.exe' to be present in the Paradox directory. They are installed there by the installation process. Do not move or delete these, or you won't be able to ship the database off. Import and Export: Nothing, this is here for future expansion. If people want to be able to import datafromanother data set, an ASCIIfile,or somewhere else, this menu will accomodate it. It will also handle saving data in other formats like QP. Maintenance Nothing, this is here for future expansion. It is intended for functions that do not have anything to do with entering, retrieving, or viewing data in the database. It is instead for functions that do something to the database itself. Exit Returns you to Paradox. No exit to DOS is availablerightnow perhaps later this menu will give people a choice as to what they can exit to.

Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 7 Help For the totally clueless, a generic help screen is provided. It says basically to press Fl in specific menu selections for specific help. It is not designed to be a selfcontained help system.

Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 8

Design Notes
General Concerns All Paradox conventions were adhered to. All default edit keys, default menu instructions, etc. Even the color scheme was kept as the default, since it is very possible this application will have to run on a wide variety of monitors. At the same time, every attempt was made to go along with the exisiting paper-based forms. In several cases, however, due to the natural structure of the tables and the omission of parts of the forms, the data on the forms was compressed greatly and items from several pages were put together into one form. Units are vital and important to this project. Every attempt has been made to make sure the user is entering the right units for the figures. Paradox is a royal pain in the rear end to deal with. For example, you put brackets around field names everywhere, except for the CMAX, CMIN, and CAVERAGE functions which require quotes. (Why?) And Paradox has so many modes that the program has to deal with. And Paradox does not support views the way dBASE does, so a lot of copying and rearranging has to be done. There are no bigflawsin Paradox, just millions of small, inconsistent and poorly designed annoyances. A lot of the stuff that was done in this application is just to work around Paradox's limitations, and approaches sheer hackery. Not through any negligent design on the programmer's part, just because it had to be done. Tampering with this database is not recommended, since even to me it is a house of cards that wouldn't take much to break. Hopefully this documentation will help a little. Also, read the comments in the scripts. Scripts Several things are PAL programs because there was no alternative. Given a choice, the design has strived to use the application generator and built-in forms, reports, screens, etc. instead of PAL code. This way, the application is easier to modify later on. Modifying application generator objects is a lot easier than modifying someone else's PAL code. But, Paradox's limitations have been reached over and over, and more and more scripts were written. Mode notes: One of Paradox's most frustrating features are all of its different operating modes. All of these scripts are designed to be calledfroman application workshop application, and assume they're in the main desktop mode. They furthermore freely change modes without a care, knowing that the application will reset itself into main desktop mode after the scripts exit. If you call the scriptsfromother places, unpredictable results will occur.

Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 9

GUIDE.SC: The guide program that guides the user through entering the information for one building. This had to be done as a script because total control over Paradox was needed. It freely calls other forms. CONVERT. SC: Paradox won't allow a form to use pick lists. And this part of the application is so sensitive to pick lists that a script had to be used. Also, tremendous amounts of calculations must be done, so writing a script is a lot easier than the alternatives. Note: GUIDE communicates with CONVERT through a global variable. (There's probably a better way to do it, but the programmer responsible for this hack was so tired offightingParadox over every little detail he took the easy way out here.) If the variable MYBUHJD is set to a non-blank value, CONVERT assumes it is the Building ID for which the user wants to add energy use & cost information and does not prompt the user for a Building ID. Otherwise, CONVERT prompts for a Building ID. This global variable is blanked by GUIDE after GUIDE isfinishedrunning to minimalize confusion. You can use, at your own risk, this calling convention to pass a Building ID to CONVERT. It is not recommended. DEMO.SC: This script generates the demo report. It uses a table called DEMOTMP to store its intermediate values, and as something to reportfromusing a standard Paradox report designer generated report (you have to attach these reports to a table!). This is a program, because the calculations it does for the energy and cost indices are too big to fit into a report's calculated fields. Since joining tables is necessary to generate the indices (the square footage must be linked to the energy consumption), the fully qualified arrow names (e.g. [Building->Gross Area] and [Enrguse->Electricity]) are too long tofitinto a report's calculated field. SHIP.SC: In order to pack up what is in the local database and ship it off to the master database, a script was written. It prompts the user and sets things up, then calls SHIP.BAT to do the actual work. Interactive prompting is much easier in Paradox than in a batchfile(since we'd have to distribute something to do the prompting with the database if we wanted to do it in a batchfile),so Paradox does the user interfacing and passes parameters to the batchfile.The batchfilemust, of course, be present in order to do this. UNSHIP.SC: Unpacks the shipped database and adds the records in it to the existing database. It also is a user-interface driver that calls UNSHIP.BAT. It then users Paradox code to add the recordsfromthe shipped database to the current database. WARNING: The database'sfilesare renamed to begin with the letter X. This is done because if we unshipped the database with the regular names, the act of unzipping the files would clobber the exisiting database! That would not be a good idea, so instead the databasefilesare renamed to an X name and then packed up. When they are unpacked the records in the Xfilesare added to the regular database through Paradox code.

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WARNING: SHIP and UNSHIP assume that: 1) the database willfiton afloppydisk (which it should, since no database other than the master database should grow that large) and 2) there is enough room on the hard drive for a second copy of the database If either of these assumptions is not valid, the ship/unship parts of the database will have to be rewritten to use less resources. This is the quick & dirty approach!

Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 11

DATA DICTIONARY
The data dictionary is a list of allfieldsand tables in the database, along with any important comments explaining why things were done the way they were. For the trial database, it is important both for developers who need to know what is going on inside the structure of the database and for end users. Since this database will be for research purposes, crunching through data for ad hoc purposes, it is expected that a lot of time will be spent on formulating ad-hoc queries and writing ad-hoc reports. Naming Conventions: Most names are spelled out in complete words as they appear on the forms. Only in extremely long cases are abbreviations used, and these are as standard or intuitive as possible. Paradox forces table names to be eight characters, so the names of tables get fairly creative to convey something meaningful in such a short space. Table Organization: The database has three types of tables. The first is the building table, the main table that has the main information about the building. Subordinate tables have additional information about the building, but separated offinto things that stand more or less by themselves. Lastly, lookup tables translate our made-up tag numbers into human comprehensible descriptions. Key: in all tables (except lookups), the building ID is the key. It must uniquely identify a building. Zero or nothing? The data set this database is designed to deal with has a lot of N/A data, i.e. partial data sets where it is okay to omit somefields.This database takes the following approach to dealing with this: blank data on the forms is entered into the database as blank data. That way, the Paradox BLANK keyword can be used in searches. Field descriptions are standard paradox pictures: Ax means an alphanumericfieldx characters long, M is a memofield,N is a number, and $ is dollars. Units (in parens) and other notes are listed after thefieldtype and width. Paradox does not have a logical type like dBASE does. This database uses the convention of y/n for all logicals.

Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 12 BUILDING Building Table The building table is the main table in the database. It contains physical characteristics about the building and its spaces. The design of this database has placed as many physical characteristics about the building as possible into this one table, since users will be making queries that will use the characteristics to limit searches to buildings with certain similarities. Then, the users will make calculations like the indices based on the datafromthose buildings. Building Table Concerns: 1. Canadian addresses do not have zip codes. But, since 10 characters are included for the additional four numbers in US zip codes, there is more than enough room for the "ABC XYZ" style Canadian and British addresses. 2. Latitude and Longitude are expressed in degrees. Hours and minutes are not allowed, since Paradox does not have any way to easily handle this kind of data and the database designers do not really care about latitude and longitude. (The latitude and longitudefieldscan befractions,so hours and minutes could be converted tofractionsof a degree.) It is assumed that the latitude and longitude are North America, since there is no provision in the database for any directions. If this assumption is not true, something will have to be modified. No. i.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Field Name Building ID Month Year City State Zip Latitude Longitude Gross Area Total Gross Cond Area Gross Heated Only Gross Cooled Only Gross Heated And Cooled Gross Exp Above Grade Gross Exp Above Percent Glazing Area

Pic Additional Info A20* N N A20 A2 or Canadian A10 degrees A5 A5 degrees N sq.ft. N sq.ft. sq. ft. N N sq. ft. N sq. ft. N sq. ft. % N % N

Trial Database for Sud Assoc page 13

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

Glazing Area Percent Roof Area Roof Area Percent Outdoor Exposed Floor Outdoor Exposed Fl Perc Above Grade Common Above Grade Common Perc Cond Floors Above Grade Cond Floors Below Grade Heating Degree Days Cooling Degree Days Primary Year Constructed Sec Year Constructed Building Type Average Hours Per Week Average Weeks Per Year Average No of Occupants Summer Metered Demand Winter Metered Demand Total Water Use Per Yr Total Water Cost Per Yr Special Description Peak Load KW Peak Load KW Peak Load MBH Equip Use Hours Per Week Equip Use Weeks Per Year Centrifugal Chiller Reciprocating Chiller Absorption Chiller Hot Water Boiler Steam Boiler Hot Air Furnace Electric Resistance Coils Air Source Heat Pump Active Solar Equipment Energy Recovery Equipment Thermal Storage Systems Cogeneration Systems

N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N M20 N N N N N . Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al

sq.ft.
%

sq.ft.
%

sq. ft.
%

year year lookup in B 0..52

watts/sq. ft.
$

(unused) (unused) (unused) (unused) y/n y/n y/n y/n y/n y/n y/n y/n y/n y/n y/n y/n

Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 14

55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78

Packaged Heat Pumps Air Flow Modulation Ctrl Lighting Controls Humidifiers Dehumidifiers Cooling Tower Comfort Control by Reheat Free Cooling Onsite Generation Direct Expansion Packaged DX Cooling Split DX Cooling Evaporative Cooling Water Src Heat Pump Other Heating Fuel Primary Heating Fuel Secondary Cooling Fuel Primary Cooling Fuel Secondary Domestic Hot Water Prim Domestic Hot water Sec Kitchen Equipment Prim Kitchen Equipment Sec Other Proc Equip Prim Other Proc Equip Sec

Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al N N N N N N N N N N

(unused) y/n y/n y/n y/n y/n y/n y/n (unused) y/n y/n y/n y/n y/n lookup in ENRGTYPE lookup in ENRGTYPE lookup in ENRGTYPE lookup in ENRGTYPE lookup in ENRGTYPE lookup in ENRGTYPE lookup in ENRGTYPE lookup in ENRGTYPE lookup in ENRGTYPE lookup in ENRGTYPE

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ENRGCOST Energy Cost The energy cost table stores the total annual cost of eachtypeof &el for the year the data is being entered. ASSUMPTION: if a category is not applicable, a $0.00 is stored for it. This table does not allow entry of data for any building not in the building table already. 1 Building ID 2 Electricity 3 Natural Gas 4 Steam 5 Hot Water 6 Chilled Water 7 Oil #2 8 Oil #6 9 Propane 10 Coal A20*
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

(dollar amount) all!

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ENRGUSE Energy Use Thefieldsin this table are all in terms of 1000 BTUs. The data input program will allow the user to input data in native units, and will convert the data to 1000 BTUs before storing in this table. To output data in units other than 1000 BTUs, further conversions will be necessary. ASSUMPTION: 0 will be entered if the type of fuel is not used. This table does not allow entry of data for any building not in the building table already. 1 Building IDA20* 2 Electricity 3 Natural Gas 4 Steam 5 Hot Water 6 Chilled Water 7 Oil #2 8 Oil #6 9 Propane 10 Coal N N N N N N N N N (1000 BTUs) -all!

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SPACE The Space table is for space functions. This table has a multiplefieldkey in order to allow one building to have many different spaces in the database. To uniquely identify a record, both a Building ID and a Space ID must be provided. This design allows for many different spaces to be entered for one building, and it allows searches to be conducted easily. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Building ID A20* Space ID Al* Function Type N Conditioned Area N Usage Hours Per Week N Usage Weeks Per Year N Primary Lighting Type N Average Installed Load N one letter, A-Z > lookup in FUNTYPE table sq. ft. > lookup in LITETYPE table watts/sq. ft.

Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 18 SPECIAL The special table is for special equipment that makes a building's data abnormal compared to other similar buildings. Like the Space table, the Special table has a multiplefieldkey. To uniquely identify a record, a Building ID and an Equipment Type must be specified. This allows one building to have many different types of equipment listed in the database. It also allows for searches based on other factors (like all buildings with equipment that uses more than 10,000 KWH at its peak) without regards to the key. WARNING: A newfieldwas added, not on the form itself. The "Equipment Type"fieldis for the description. Ordinarily, this would be a memofield,but: the problem was a memo field can't be a key. The A20 Equipment Typefieldwas created to satisfy the requirements for a key. A memofieldis provided for people who can'tfitthe description into 20 characters. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Building ID Equipment Type A20* Complete Description Equip Peak Load KWH Equip Peak Load MBH Equip Hours Per Week Equip Weeks Per Year A20* M20 N N N N

Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 19 LIGHT

1 2 3 4 5 6

Building ID Light Type Percent of Installed Load Avg Installed Load Switches Accessible Special Auto Controls

A20* N N N Al Al

lookup in LITETYPE table


%

watts/sq. ft. y/n y/n

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TAGS The tag tables are meant to help consistency and user-frendliness. 1. Rule #1 of database design is to allow users to pick things out of a list if possible, because it cuts down on errors. 2. The tags allow for maximum consistency, because it forces people to use our previously-determined names for things. Otherwise, the result would be some people writing KWH, others writing Kilowatt Hours, others writing K-Wh, others writing K, and searching the database would not be easy. BLDGTYPE: Building Type 1 Tag N 2 Description A20 ENRGTYPE: Energy Type 1 Tag N 2 Description A20 FUNTYPE: Space Function Type 1 Tag N 2 Description A20 LITETYPE: Lighting Type 1 Tag N 2 Description A20