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The arts 1 1 9 9 16 22 30 43 54 67 73 73 80 96 106
Fine art Drawing Architecture Painting Conceptual art Language Literature
Performing arts Music Theatre Dance
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 115 120
The arts are a vast subdivision of culture, composed of many creative endeavors and disciplines. It is a broader term than "art", which as a description of a field usually means only the visual arts. The arts encompass visual arts, literary arts and the performing arts – music, theatre, dance and film, among others. This list is by no means comprehensive, but only meant to introduce the concept of the arts.
A good definition of the arts is given Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts by the Free Dictionary as "imaginative, creative, and nonscientific branches of knowledge considered collectively, esp. as studied academically". The singular term art is defined by the Irish Art Encyclopedia  as follows: "Art is created when an artist creates a beautiful object, or produces a stimulating experience that is considered by his audience to have artistic merit." So, one could conclude that art is the process that leads to a product (the artwork or piece of art), which is then examined and analyzed by experts in the field of the arts or simply enjoyed by those who appreciate the arts. The same source states: Art is a global activity which encompasses a host of disciplines, as evidenced by the range of words and phrases which have been invented to describe its various forms. Examples of such phraseology include: Fine Arts, Liberal Arts, Visual Arts, Decorative Arts, Applied Arts, Design, Crafts, Performing Arts, and so on. The term art commonly refers to the "Visual Arts", as an abbreviation of creative art or fine art. For example, the history of art is described as "the history of the visual arts of painting, sculpture and architecture. It is the history of one of the fine arts, others of which are the performing arts and literature. It is also one of the humanities. The term sometimes encompasses theory of the visual arts, including aesthetics." In the article for fine art, we read: Confusion often occurs when people mistakenly refer to the Fine Arts but mean the Performing Arts (Music, Dance, Drama, etc.). However, there is some disagreement here: e.g., at York University (Toronto, Canada) Fine Arts is a faculty that includes the [visual arts], design and the "Performing Arts". Furthermore, creative writing is frequently considered a fine art as well. To illustrate the previous statements, the College of Fine Arts at Stephen F. Austin State University (Nacogdoches, TX) consists of the Schools of "Art, Music and Theatre", while one of the Bachelor of Fine Arts degrees at the University of British Columbia is attached to the Creative Writing Program.
The arts More work would be required to standardize the use of the terms "art" and "fine art", but for the purpose of this article the definition of "the arts" is not problematic, because it includes all the arts. One artist has even suggested that "[it] would really simplify matters if we could all just stick with visual, auditory, performance or literary – when we speak of The Arts – and eliminate “Fine” altogether".
For all intents and purposes, the history of the arts begins with the history of art, as dealt with elsewhere. Furthermore, the history of the Performing Arts and Literature have been described in other articles --(Please see: Outline of performing arts; History of literature; prehistoric music). Some examples of creative art through the ages can be summarized here, as excerpted from the history of art. The arts might have origins in early human evolutionary prehistory. According to a recent suggestion, several forms of audio and visual arts (rhythmic singing and drumming on external objects, dancing, body and face painting) were developed very early in hominid evolution by the forces of natural selection in order to reach an altered state of consciousness. In this state, which Jordania calls battle trance, hominids and early human were losing their individuality, and were acquiring a new collective identity, where they were not feeling fear or pain, and were religiously dedicated to the group interests, in total disregards of their individual safety and life. This state was needed to defend early hominids from predators, and also to help to obtain food by aggressive scavenging. Ritualistic actions involving heavy rhythmic music, rhythmic drill, coupled sometimes with dance and body painting had been universally used in traditional cultures before the hunting or military sessions in order to put them in a specific altered state of consciousness and raise the morale of participants.  Ancient Greek art saw the veneration of the animal form and the development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise, beauty and anatomically correct proportions. Ancient Roman art depicted gods as idealized humans, shown with characteristic distinguishing features (i.e. Zeus' thunderbolt). In Byzantine and Gothic art of the Middle Ages, the dominance of the church insisted on the expression of biblical and not material truths. Eastern art has generally worked in a style akin to Western medieval art, namely a concentration on surface patterning and local colour (meaning the plain colour of an object, such as basic red for a red robe, rather than the modulations of that colour brought about by light, shade and reflection). A characteristic of this style is that the local colour is often defined by an outline (a contemporary equivalent is the cartoon). This is evident in, for example, the art of India, Tibet and Japan. Religious Islamic art forbids iconography, and expresses religious ideas through geometry instead. The physical and rational certainties depicted by the 19th-century Enlightenment were shattered not only by new discoveries of relativity by Einstein  and of unseen psychology by Freud, but also by unprecedented technological development. Paradoxically the expressions of new technologies were greatly influenced by the ancient tribal arts of Africa and Oceania, through the works of Paul Gauguin and the Post-Impressionists, Pablo Picasso and the Cubists, as well as the Futurists and others.By Arun ÏĒ
An artist's palette
The various arts
In the Middle Ages, Artes Liberales (liberal arts) taught in medieval universities as part of the Trivium: (grammar, rhetoric, and logic) and the Quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy), and the Artes Mechanicae (mechanical arts) such as metalworking, farming, cooking, business and the making of clothes or cloth. The modern distinctions between "artistic" and non-artistic skills did not develop until the Renaissance. In modern academia, the arts are usually grouped with or a subset of the Humanities. Some subjects in the Humanities are history, linguistics, literature, and philosophy. Newspapers typically include a section on the arts. Traditionally, the arts are classified as seven although the list has been expanded to nine. These being Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Music, Poetry, Dance, Theater/Cinema, with the modern non-traditional additions of Photography and Comics .
Further information: Plastic arts, Work of art
Drawing is a means of making an image, using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques. It generally involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface. Common tools are graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoals, pastels, and markers. Digital tools which simulate the effects of these are also used. The main techniques used in drawing are: line drawing, hatching, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling, stippling, and blending. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draftswoman or draughtsman.
Gastronomy is the study of the relationship between culture and food. It is often thought erroneously that the term gastronomy refers exclusively to the art of cooking (see Culinary art), but this is only a small part of this discipline; it cannot always be said that a cook is also a gourmet. Gastronomy studies various cultural components with food as its central axis. Thus it is related to the Fine Arts and Social Sciences, and even to the Natural Sciences in terms of the digestive system of the human body.
Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, "a master builder", from αρχι- "chief, leader" and τεκτων, "builder, carpenter")etymology is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. A wider definition would include within its scope the design of the total built environment, from the macrolevel of town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture to the microlevel of creating furniture. Architectural design usually must address both feasibility and cost for the builder, as well as function and aesthetics for the user.
The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece
In modern usage, architecture is the art and discipline of creating an actual, or inferring an implied or apparent plan of any complex object or system. The term can be used to connote the implied architecture of abstract things such as music or mathematics, the apparent architecture of natural things, such as geological formations or the structure of biological cells, or explicitly planned architectures of human-made things such as software, computers, enterprises, and databases, in addition to buildings. In every usage, an architecture may be seen as a subjective mapping from a human perspective (that of the user in the case of abstract or physical artifacts) to the elements or components of some kind of structure or system, which preserves the relationships among the elements or components. Planned architecture manipulates space, volume, texture, Table of architecture, Cyclopaedia, 1728 light, shadow, or abstract elements in order to achieve pleasing aesthetics. This distinguishes it from applied science or engineering, which usually concentrate more on the functional and feasibility aspects of the design of constructions or structures. In the field of building architecture, the skills demanded of an architect range from the more complex, such as for a hospital or a stadium, to the apparently simpler, such as planning residential houses. Many architectural works may be seen also as cultural and political symbols, and/or works of art. The role of the architect, though changing, has been central to the successful (and sometimes less than successful) design and implementation of pleasingly built environments in which people live.
Painting taken literally is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a vehicle (or medium) and a binding agent (a glue) to a surface (support) such as paper, canvas, wood panel or a wall. However, when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this activity in combination with drawing, composition and other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Painting is also used to express spiritual motifs and ideas; sites of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery to The Sistine Chapel to the human body itself. Colour is the essence of painting as sound is of music. Colour is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but elsewhere white may be. Some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists, including Goethe, Kandinsky, Newton, have written their own colour theory. Moreover the use of language is only a generalization for a colour equivalent. The word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in variations on the pure red of the spectrum. There is not a the Western world. formalized register of different colours in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as C or C#, although the Pantone system is widely used in the printing and design industry for this purpose. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, for example, collage. This began with Cubism and is not painting in strict sense. Some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, cement, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet or Anselm Kiefer. Modern and contemporary art has moved away from the historic value of craft in favour of concept; this has led some to say that painting, as a serious art form, is dead, although this has not deterred the majority of artists from continuing to practise it either as whole or part of their work.
Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. The inception of the term in the 1960s referred to a strict and focused practice of idea-based art that often defied traditional visual criteria associated with the visual arts in its presentation as text. However, through its association with the Young British Artists and the Turner Prize during the 1990s, its popular usage, particularly in the UK, developed as a synonym for all contemporary art that does not practise the traditional skills of painting and sculpture.
A debate exists in the fine arts and video game cultures over whether video games can be counted as an art form. Some cite games such as Shadow of the Colossus and Myst as prime examples of video games as an art form.  Others, such as game designer Hideo Kojima, profess that video games are a type of service, not an art form.  In May of 2011, the National Endowment of the Arts included video games in its redefinition of what is considered a work of art.
Literature is literally "acquaintance with letters" as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (from the Latin littera meaning "an individual written character (letter)"). The term has generally come to identify a collection of writings, which in Western culture are mainly prose, both fiction and non-fiction, drama and poetry. In much, if not all of the world, texts can be oral as well, and include such genres as epic, legend, myth, ballad, other forms of oral poetry, and as folktale.
The performing arts differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own body, face, presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some art object. Performing arts include acrobatics, busking, comedy, dance, magic, music, opera, operetta, film, juggling, martial arts, marching arts such as brass bands and theatre.
Shakespeare wrote some of the best known works in English literature.
Artists who participate in these arts in front of an audience are called performers, including actors, comedians, dancers, musicians, and singers. Performing arts are also supported by workers in related fields, such as songwriting and stagecraft. Performers often adapt their appearance, such as with costumes and stage makeup, etc. There is also a specialized form of fine art in which the artists perform their work live to an audience. This is called Performance art. Dance was often referred to as a plastic art during the Modern dance era.
Music is an art form whose medium is sound. Common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. Music ranges from strictly organized compositions (and their recreation in performance), through improvisational music to aleatoric forms. Music can be divided into genres and subgenres, although the
A musical score by Mozart. Play
The arts dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to individual interpretation, and occasionally controversial. Within "the arts", music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art, and auditory art.
Theatre or theater (Greek "theatron", θέατρον) is the branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle — indeed any one or more elements of the other performing arts. In addition to the standard narrative dialogue style, theatre takes such forms as opera, ballet, mime, kabuki, classical Indian dance, Chinese opera and mummers' plays.
Dance (from Old French dancier, perhaps from Frankish) generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. Dance is also used to describe methods of non-verbal communication (see body language) between humans or animals (bee dance, mating dance), motion in inanimate objects (the leaves danced in the wind), and certain musical forms or genres. Choreography is the art of making dances, and the person who does this is called a choreographer. People danced to relieve stress. Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, cultural, aesthetic, artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement (such as Folk dance) to codified, virtuoso techniques such as ballet. In sports, gymnastics, figure skating and synchronized swimming are dance disciplines while Martial arts 'kata' are often compared to dances.
A Ballroom dance exhibition
• • • • • • • • Architecture criticism Visual art criticism Dance criticism Film criticism Literary criticism Music journalism Television criticism Theatre criticism
 For example here is the Art (singular) History department of Chicago (http:/ / arthistory. uchicago. edu/ ) which explicitly refers to "visual arts" on its welcome page.  For example here is the UNC School of the Arts (http:/ / www. uncsa. edu/ ) (plural) which offers dance, design, drama and so on.  http:/ / www. thefreedictionary. com/ arts Entry on The Free Dictionary provided by Collins English Dictionary  http:/ / www. visual-arts-cork. com/ index. htm  http:/ / www. visual-arts-cork. com/ art-definition. htm#definition A Working Definition of Art (2009)  Faculty of Fine Arts, York University (http:/ / www. yorku. ca/ finearts/ )  College of Fine Arts (Stephen F. Austin State University) (http:/ / www. finearts. sfasu. edu/ )  The Creative Writing Program at UBC (http:/ / www. creativewriting. ubc. ca/ programs_bfa_about. shtml)  An About.com article by artist and educator, Shelley Esaak, answering the question: What Is Visual Art? (http:/ / arthistory. about. com/ cs/ reference/ f/ visual_arts. htm?p=1) in relation to the other arts.  Joseph Jordania, 2011. Why do People Sing? Music in Human Evolution,pg 98-102  William McNeil, 1995. Keeping Together in Time: Dance and Drill in Human History. Cambridge: Harvard University Press  Jonathan Pieslak. 2009. Sound Targets: American Soldiers and Music in the Iraq War. Indiana University Press  http:/ / books. guardian. co. uk/ review/ story/ 0,,1035752,00. html  http:/ / www. fordham. edu/ halsall/ mod/ modsbook36. html  Keppler, Victor (in English). A life of color photography: The eighth art. W. Morrow & Co. ASIN B00085HDEI.  Dierick, Charles (in Dutch). Het Belgisch Centrum van het Beeldverhaal. Brussels: Dexia Bank / La Renaissance du Livre. p. 11. ISBN 2-8046-0449-7.  Turner prize history: Conceptual art Tate gallery (http:/ / www. tate. org. uk/ britain/ turnerprize/ history/ issue_conceptual. htm) tate.org.uk. Accessed August 8, 2006  "From the Archives: Going Through Game Informer's Past". Game Informer (200): 83. December 2009.  Ebert, Roger. "Okay, kids, play on my lawn" (http:/ / blogs. suntimes. com/ ebert/ 2010/ 07/ okay_kids_play_on_my_lawn. html). Chicago Sun-Times. .  "Kojima Says "Games Are Not Art"" (http:/ / kotaku. com/ 150043/ kojima-says-games-are-not-art). . Retrieved 2011-01-06. Kotaku (2006)  "US Government Declares 'Video Games Are Art'" (http:/ / www. ibtimes. com/ articles/ 145535/ 20110513/ us-government-declares-video-games-are-art. htm). International Business Times. 13 May 2011. . Retrieved 24 August 2011.
• Does time fly?—Peter Galison's Empires of Time, a historical survey of Einstein and Poincare, intrigues Jon Turney (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/sep/06/featuresreviews.guardianreview9). Jon Turney. The Guardian, Saturday 6 September 2003 • Contradictions of the Enlightenment: Darwin, Freud, Einstein (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/ modsbook36.html)
Fine art or the fine arts encompass art forms developed primarily for aesthetics and/or concept rather than practical application. Art is often a synonym for fine art, as employed in the term "art gallery". Historically, the five greater fine arts were painting, sculpture, architecture, music and poetry, with minor arts including drama and dancing. Today, the fine arts commonly include the visual art and performing art forms, such as painting, sculpture, collage, decollage, assemblage, installation, calligraphy, music, dance, theatre, architecture, film, photography, conceptual art, and printmaking. However, in some institutes of learning or in museums fine art, and frequently the term fine arts (pl.) as well, are associated exclusively with visual art forms.
One definition of fine art is "a visual art considered to have been created primarily for aesthetic purposes and judged for its beauty and meaningfulness, specifically, painting, sculpture, drawing, watercolor, graphics, and architecture." The word "fine" does not so much denote the quality of the artwork in question, but the purity of the discipline. This definition tends to exclude visual art forms that could be considered craftwork or applied art, such as textiles. The visual arts has been described as a more inclusive and descriptive phrase for current art practice, and the explosion of media in which high art is now more recognized to occur. The term is still often used outside of the arts to denote when someone has perfected an activity to a very high level of skill. For example, one might metaphorically say that "Pelé took football to the level of a fine art."
Self Portrait with Two Circles, oil on canvas, Rembrandt c. 1665–1669.
Black Square, oil on canvas, Kasimir Malevich. 1913
That fine art is seen as being distinct from applied arts is largely the result of an issue raised in Britain by the conflict between the followers of the Arts and Crafts Movement, including William Morris, and the early modernists, including Virginia Woolf and the Bloomsbury Group. The former sought to bring socialist principles to bear on the arts by including the more commonplace crafts of the masses within the realm of the arts, while the modernists sought to keep artistic endeavor as exclusive and esoteric. Confusion often occurs when people mistakenly refer to the fine arts but mean the performing arts (music, dance, drama, etc.). However, there is some disagreement here, as, for example, at York University, fine arts is a faculty that includes the "traditional" fine arts, design, and the "performing arts". Furthermore, creative writing is frequently considered a fine art as well.
An illustration is a visualization such as a drawing, painting, photograph or other work of art that stresses subject more than form. The aim of an illustration is to elucidate or decorate textual information (such as a story, poem or newspaper article) by providing a visual representation.
Dürer's Rhinoceros, woodcut, 1515.
Painting and drawing
Drawing is a form of visual expression and is one of the major forms within the visual arts. Common instruments include graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoals, chalk, pastels, markers, stylus, or various metals like silverpoint. There are a number of subcategories of drawing, including cartooning. Certain drawing methods or approaches, such as "doodling" and other informal kinds of drawing such as drawing in the fog a shower leaves on a bathroom mirror, or the surrealist method of "entopic graphomania", in which dots are made at the sites of impurities in a blank sheet of paper, and lines are then made between the dots, may or may not be considered as part of "drawing" as a "fine art."
Goya, 1795, Self-Portrait
Comics are a graphic medium in which images are utilised in order to convey a sequential narrative. Comics are typically seen as a low art,      although there are a few exceptions, such as Krazy Kat and Barnaby. In the late 20th and early 21st century there has been a movement to rehabilitate the medium.
Mosaics are images formed with small pieces of stone or glass, called tesserae. They can be decorative or functional. An artist who designs and makes mosaics is called a mosaic artist or a mosaicist.
Mosaic of Christ Pantocrator from Hagia Sophia.
Printmaking and imaging
Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, which is called a print. Each print is considered an original, as opposed to a copy. The reasoning behind this is that the print is not a reproduction of another work of art in a different medium — for instance a painting — but rather an image designed from inception as a print. An individual print is also referred to as an impression. Prints are created from a single original surface, known technically as a matrix. Common types of matrices include: plates of metal, usually copper or zinc for engraving or etching; stone, used for lithography; blocks of wood for woodcuts, linoleum for linocuts and fabric in Melencolia I, 1514, Dürer the case of screen-printing. But there are many other kinds, discussed below. Multiple nearly identical prints can be called an edition. In modern times each print is often signed and numbered forming a "limited edition." Prints may also be published in book form, as artist's books. A single print could be the product of one or multiple techniques.
Fiber art is a style of fine art which uses textiles such as fabric, yarn, and natural and synthetic fibers. It focuses on the materials and on the manual labour involved as part of its significance.
Calligraphy is a type of visual art. It is often called the art of fancy lettering (Mediavilla 1996: 17). A contemporary definition of calligraphic practice is "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious and skillful manner" (Mediavilla 1996: 18). Modern calligraphy ranges from functional hand-lettered inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where the abstract expression of the handwritten mark may or may not compromise the legibility of the letters (Mediavilla 1996). Classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may create all of these; characters are historically disciplined yet fluid and spontaneous, improvised at the moment of writing (Pott 2006 and 2005; Zapf 2007 and 2006).
Folio from a Koran (8–9th century), Abbasid Kufic Calligraphy.
Fine art photography refers to photographs that are created to fulfill the creative vision of the artist. Fine art photography stands in contrast to photojournalism and commercial photography. Photojournalism provides visual support for stories, mainly in the print media. Fine art photography is created primarily as an expression of the artist’s vision, but has also been important in advancing certain causes. The work of Ansel Adams in Yosemite and Yellowstone provides an example. Adams is one of the most widely E. J. Bellocq, c. 1912 recognized fine art photographers of the 20th century, and was an avid promoter of conservation. While his primary focus was on photography as art, his work raised public awareness of the beauty of the Sierra Nevada and helped to build political support for their protection.
Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping hard or plastic material, commonly stone (either rock or marble), metal, or wood. Some sculptures are created directly by carving; others are assembled, built up and fired, welded, molded, or cast. Because sculpture involves the use of materials that can be moulded or modulated, it is considered one of the plastic arts. The majority of public art is sculpture. Many sculptures together in a garden setting may be referred to as a sculpture garden.
Head Ife Terracotta, Nigeria, C12th–C14th
Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. The inception of the term in the 1960s referred to a strict and focused practice of idea-based art that often defied traditional visual criteria associated with the visual arts in its presentation as text. However, through its association with the Young British Artists and the Turner Prize during the 1990s, its popular usage, particularly in the UK, developed as a synonym for all contemporary art that does not practise the traditional skills of painting and sculpture.
An Oak Tree by Michael Craig-Martin. 1973
Dance is an art form that generally refers to movement of the body, usually rhythmic and to music, used as a form of expression, social interaction or presented in a spiritual or performance setting. Dance is also used to describe methods of non-verbal communication (see body language) between humans or animals (bee dance, patterns of behaviour such as a mating dance), motion in inanimate objects (the leaves danced in the wind), and certain musical genres. In sports, gymnastics, figure skating and synchronized swimming are dance disciplines while martial arts kata are often compared to dances.
Edgar Degas, Ballet Rehearsal, 1873
Modern Western theatre is dominated by realism, including drama and comedy. Another popular Western form is musical theatre. Classical forms of theatre, including Greek and Roman drama, classic English drama including Shakespeare and Marlowe and French theater including Molière is still performed today. In addition, performances of classic Eastern forms such as Noh and Kabuki can be found in the West, although with less frequency.
The Royal Opera House, London
Fine arts film is a term that encompasses motion pictures and the field of film as a fine art form. A fine arts movie theater is a venue, usually a building, for viewing such movies. Films are produced by recording images from the world with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or special effects. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating — or indoctrinating — citizens. The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue.
Still from Un Chien Andalou a 1929 film by Luis Buñuel and artist Salvador Dalí
Cinematography is the discipline of making lighting and camera choices when recording photographic images for the cinema. It is closely related to the art of still photography, though many additional issues arise when both the camera and elements of the scene may be in motion. Independent filmmaking often takes place outside of Hollywood, or other major studio systems. An independent film (or indie film) is a film initially produced without financing or distribution from a major movie studio. Creative, business, and technological reasons have all contributed to the growth of the indie film scene in the late 20th and early 21st century.
Architecture is frequently considered a fine art, especially if its aesthetic components are spotlighted (in contrast to structural-engineering or construction-management components). Architectural works are perceived as cultural and political symbols and works of art. Historical civilizations are often known primarily through their architectural achievements. Such buildings as the pyramids of Egypt and the Roman Colosseum are cultural symbols, and are an important link in public consciousness, even The Pantheon when scholars have discovered much about a past civilization through other means. Cities, regions and cultures continue to identify themselves with (and are known by) their architectural monuments.
There is a debate in the games industry, academia and video game culture regarding the stature of games as a fine art.     Film critic Roger Ebert has argued that games can never be art, as he claims they lack the authorial control seen in film, and leave too much up to choice.
• Avant-garde music is frequently considered both a performing art and a fine art. • Creative writing (distinct from journalism or technical writing, as well as distinct from most forms of academic writing and organizational communications) is, as previously mentioned, frequently considered a fine art. • Electronic Media (perhaps the newest medium for fine art, since it utilizes modern technologies such as computer hardware and software from production to presentation. Includes amongst other things video, digital photography, digital printmaking and interactive pieces). • Textiles, including quilt art and "wearables" or "pre-wearables" are frequently considered fine art if part of an art display. • Western art music is a performing art and frequently considered a fine art.
In the United States an academic course of study in fine art may include the Bachelor of Arts in Fine Art, or a Bachelor of Fine Arts, and/or a Master of Fine Arts degree — traditionally the terminal degree in the field. Doctor of Fine Arts degrees (earned, as opposed to honorary degrees) have begun to emerge at some US academic institutions, however.
    "Vancouver Art Gallery, in Vancouver, BC, Canada" (http:/ / www. vanartgallery. bc. ca/ ). Vanartgallery.bc.ca. . Retrieved 2010-05-18. http:/ / www. archive. org/ stream/ encyclopaediabri10chisrich#page/ 354/ mode/ 2up "Dictionary.com ''Unabridged''" (http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ browse/ fine+ art). Dictionary.reference.com. . Retrieved 2010-05-18. Dowd, Douglas Bevan; Hignite, Todd (2006). Strips, Toons, and Bluesies: Essays in Comics and Culture. Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 1568986211.  Varnedoe, Kirk; Gopnik, Adam (1990). Modern Art and Popular Culture: Readings in High & Low. Abrams in association with the Museum of Modern Art. ISBN 0870703560.  Bollinger, Tim (2000). Nga Pakiwaituhi o Aotearoa: New Zealand Comics, Horrocks, Dylan (ed.). ed. Comics in the Antipodes: a low art in a low place. Hicksville Press. ISBN 0-473-06708-0.  Gold, Glen David (2005). Masters of American Comics, Carlin, John, Karasik, Paul & Walker, Brian (ed.). ed. Jack Kirby. Yale University Press. p. 262. ISBN 030011317X.  Fielder, Leslie (2004) . Arguing Comics: Literary Masters on a Popular Medium, Heer, Jeet & Worcester, Kent (ed.). ed. The Middle Against Both Ends. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 132. ISBN 1578066875.  Groensteen, Thierry (2000). Comics & Culture: Analytical and Theoretical Approaches to Comics, Anne Magnussen & Hans-Christian Christiansen (ed.). ed. Why are Comics Still in Search of Cultural Legitimization?. Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 8772895802.  Gilbert Seldes, The 7 Lively Arts, Harper, 1924, ASIN B000M1MMBC  Turner prize history: Conceptual art Tate gallery (http:/ / www. tate. org. uk/ britain/ turnerprize/ history/ issue_conceptual. htm) tate.org.uk. Retrieved August 8, 2006.  Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. "britannica" (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ eb/ article-9110116/ dance). britannica. . Retrieved 2010-05-18.  The Tower Bridge, the Eiffel Tower and the Colosseum are representative of the buildings used on advertising brochures.  "Games as Art: The Aesthetics of Play". Visible Language (40): 66. December 2006.  Barker, C. (June 27, 2007). "Hollywood & Games Summit: Clive Barker Talks Games As Art" (http:/ / www. gamasutra. com/ php-bin/ news_index. php?story=14478). . Retrieved 10 November 2010.  Adams, E. (March 24, 2001). "Will Computer Games Ever Be A Legitimate Art Form?" (http:/ / www. designersnotebook. com/ Lectures/ ArtForm/ artform. htm). Game Developers’ Conference. . Retrieved 10 November 2010.  [ |Pearce, C. (http:/ / cpandfriends. com/ )] (February 2010). "Play's the Thing: Games as Fine Art" (http:/ / www. arthistoryofgames. com/ ). SCAD. .
 "From the Archives: Going Through Game Informer's Past". Game Informer (200): 83. December 2009.  Ebert, R. (16 April 2010). "Video Games Can Never Be Art" (http:/ / blogs. suntimes. com/ ebert/ 2010/ 04/ video_games_can_never_be_art. html). Chicago Sun-Times. . Retrieved 10 November 2010.
• Ballard, A. (1898). Arrows; or, Teaching a fine art (http://books.google.com/books?id=Nf4BAAAAYAAJ). New York: A.S. Barnes & Company. • Caffin, Charles Henry. (1901). Photography as a fine art; the achievements and possibilities of photographic art in America (http://books.google.com/books?id=_c1AAAAAIAAJ). New York: Doubleday, Page & Co. • Crane, L., & Whiting, C. G. (1885). Art and the formation of taste: six lectures (http://books.google.com/ books?id=2KkCAAAAYAAJ). Boston: Chautauqua Press. Chapter 4 : Fine Arts (http://books.google.com/ books?id=2KkCAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA102) • Hegel, G. W. F., & Bosanquet, B. (1905). The introduction to Hegel's Philosophy of fine art (http://books. google.com/books?id=YmgRAAAAYAAJ). London: K. Paul, Trench &. • Hegel, G. W. F. (1998). Aesthetics: lectures on fine art (http://books.google.com/books?id=Iw-maVonxV4C). Oxford: Clarendon Press. • Neville, H. (1875). The stage: its past and present in relation to fine art (http://books.google.com/ books?id=gS5DAAAAIAAJ). London: R. Bentley and Son. • Rossetti, W. M. (1867). Fine art, chiefly contemporary: notices re-printed, with revisions (http://books.google. com/books?id=AL0DAAAAYAAJ). London: Macmillan. • Torrey, J. (1874). A theory of fine art (http://books.google.com/books?id=x_cNAAAAYAAJ). New York: Scribner, Armstrong, and Co. • Weale, J. (1860). Rudimentary dictionary of terms used in architecture, civil, architecture, naval, building and construction, early and ecclesiastical art, engineering, civil, engineering, mechanical, fine art, mining, surveying, etc (http://books.google.com/books?id=9qwAAAAAMAAJ). London: Weale.
Drawing is a form of visual art that makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium. Common instruments include graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoal, chalk, pastels, markers, styluses, and various metals (such as silverpoint). An artist who practices or works in drawing may be called a draughtsman or draftsman. A small amount of material is released onto the two dimensional medium, leaving a visible mark. The most common support for drawing is paper, although other materials, such as cardboard, plastic, leather, canvas, and board, may be used. Temporary drawings may be made on a blackboard or whiteboard or indeed almost anything. The Male nude by Annibale Carracci, 16th century medium has been a popular and fundamental means of public expression throughout human history. The relatively easy availability of basic drawing instruments makes drawing more universal than most other media.
Drawing is a form of visual expression and is one of the major forms within the visual arts. There are several categories of drawing, including cartooning. Certain drawing methods or approaches, such as "doodling," other informal kinds of drawing, and the surrealist method of "entopic graphomania", in which dots are made at the sites of impurities in a blank sheet of paper, and lines are then made between the dots, may or may not be considered part of "drawing" as a "fine art". Likewise, tracing—drawing on a thin piece of paper, sometimes designed for that purpose (tracing paper), around the outline of preexisting shapes that show through the paper—is also not considered fine art, although it may be part of the draughtsman's preparation. The word drawing is both (1) a noun and (2) the present-participle and gerund forms of the verb draw. To draw is to produce a drawing. A quick, unrefined drawing may be called a sketch. Drawing is generally concerned with the marking of lines and areas of tone onto paper. Traditional drawings were monochrome, or at least had little colour, while modern colored-pencil Madame Palmyre with Her Dog, 1897. Henri de drawings may approach or cross a boundary between drawing and Toulouse-Lautrec painting. In Western terminology, however, drawing is distinct from painting, even though similar media often are employed in both tasks. Dry media, normally associated with drawing, such as chalk, may be used in pastel paintings. Drawing may be done with a liquid medium, applied with brushes or pens. Similar supports likewise can serve both: painting generally involves the application of liquid paint onto prepared canvas or panels, but sometimes an underdrawing is drawn first on that same support. Drawing is often exploratory, with considerable emphasis on observation, problem-solving, and composition. Drawing is also regularly used in preparation for a painting, further obfuscating
Drawing their distinction.
It is not known when art or drawing was established. Sketches and paintings have been produced since prehistoric times, as demonstrated by cave and rock paintings. By the 12th to 13th centuries A.D., monks were preparing illuminated manuscripts on vellum and parchment in monasteries throughout Europe and were using lead styli to draw lines for their writings and for the outlines for their illuminations. Soon artists generally were using silver to make drawings and underdrawings. Initially they used and re-used wooden tablets with prepared ground for these drawings. When paper became generally available, from the 14th century onwards, artists' drawings, both preparatory studies and finished works, became increasingly common.
Since the 14th century, each century has produced artists who have created great drawings. • Notable draftsmen of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries include Leonardo da Vinci, Albrecht Dürer, Michelangelo, Raphael, and Donatello. • Notable draftsmen of the 17th century include Claude, Nicolas Poussin, Rembrandt, Guercino, and Peter Paul Rubens. • Notable draftsmen of the 18th century include Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, and Antoine Watteau. • Notable draftsmen of the 19th century include Paul Cézanne, Aubrey Beardsley, Jacques Louis David, Pierre-Paul Prud'hon, Edgar Degas, Théodore Géricault, Francisco Goya, Jean Ingres, Odilon Redon, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Honoré Daumier, and Vincent van Gogh. • Notable draftsmen of the 20th century include Käthe Kollwitz, Max Beckmann, Jean Dubuffet, Egon Schiele, Arshile Gorky, Paul Klee, Oscar Kokoschka, Alphonse Mucha, M. C. Escher, André Masson, Jules Pascin, and Pablo Picasso.
The medium is the means by which ink, pigment or color are delivered onto the drawing surface. Most drawing media are either dry (e.g. graphite, charcoal, pastels, Conté, silverpoint), or use a fluid solvent or carrier (marker, pen and ink). Watercolor pencils can be used dry like ordinary pencils, then moistened with a wet brush to get various painterly effects. Very rarely, artists have drawn with (usually decoded) invisible ink. Metalpoint drawing usually employs either of two metals: silver or lead. More rarely used are gold, platinum, copper, brass, bronze and tinpoint.
Almost all draughtsmen use their hands and fingers to apply the media, with the exception of some handicapped individuals who draw with their mouth or feet. Prior to working on an image, the artist will likely want to gain an understanding of how the various media will work. The different drawing implements can be tried on practice sheets in order to determine value and texture, and how to apply the implement in order to produce various effects. The stroke of the drawing implement can be used to control the appearance of the image. Ink drawings typically use hatching, which consists of groups of parallel lines. Cross-hatching uses hatching in two or more different directions to create a darker tone. Broken hatching, or lines with intermittent breaks, is used to form lighter tones, and by controlling the density of the breaks a graduation of tone can be achieved. Stippling, uses dots to produce tone, texture or shade.
Drawing Sketch drawings use similar techniques, although with pencils and drawing sticks continuous variations in tone can be achieved. For best results the lines in a sketch are typically drawn to follow the contour curves of the surface, thus producing a depth effect. When drawing hair, the lines of the sketch follow the direction of the hair growth. Typically a drawing will be filled in based on which hand the artist favors. A right-handed artist will want to draw from left to right in order to avoid smearing the image. Sometimes the artist will want to leave a section of the image blank while filling in the remainder of the picture. A frisket can be used for this purpose. The shape of the area to be preserved is cut out of the frisket, and the resulting shape is then applied to the drawing surface. This will protect the surface from receiving any stray marks before it is ready to be filled in. Another method to preserve a section of the image is to apply a spray-on fixative to the surface. This will hold loose material more firmly to the sheet and prevent it from smearing. However the fixative spray typically uses chemicals that can negatively affect the respiratory system, so it should be employed in a well-ventilated area such as outdoors.
Paper comes in a variety of different sizes and qualities, ranging from newspaper grade up to high quality and relatively expensive paper sold as individual sheets. Papers can vary in texture, hue, acidity, and strength when wet. Smooth paper is good for rendering fine detail, but a more "toothy" paper will hold the drawing material better. Thus a coarser material is useful for producing deeper contrast. Newsprint and typing paper may be useful for practice and rough sketches. Tracing paper is used to experiment over a half-finished drawing, and to transfer a design from one sheet to another. Cartridge paper is the basic type of drawing paper sold in pads. Bristol board and even heavier acid-free boards, frequently with smooth finishes, are used for drawing fine detail and do not distort when wet media (ink, washes) are applied. Vellum is extremely smooth and suitable for very fine detail. Coldpressed watercolor paper may be favored for ink drawing due to its texture. Acid-free, archival quality paper keeps its color and texture far longer than wood pulp based paper such as newsprint, which will turn yellow and become brittle much sooner. The basic tools are a drawing board or table, pencil sharpener and eraser, and for ink drawing, blotting paper. Other tools used are circle compass, ruler, and set square. Fixative is used to prevent pencil and crayon marks from smudging. Drafting tape is used to secure paper to drawing surface, and also to mask an area to keep it free of accidental marks sprayed or spattered materials and washes. An easel or slanted table is used to keep the drawing surface in a suitable position, which is generally more horizontal than the position used in painting.
Shading is the technique of varying the tonal values on the paper to represent the shade of the material as well as the placement of the shadows. Careful attention to reflected light, shadows, and highlights can result in a very realistic rendition of the image. Blending uses an implement to soften or spread the original drawing strokes. Blending is most easily done with a medium that does not immediately fix itself, such as graphite, chalk, or charcoal, although freshly applied ink can be smudged, wet or dry, for some effects. For shading and blending, the artist can use a blending stump, tissue, a kneaded eraser, a fingertip, or any combination of them. A piece of chamois is useful for creating smooth textures, and for removing material to lighten the tone. Continuous tone can be achieved with graphite on a smooth surface without blending, but the technique is laborious, involving small circular or oval strokes with a somewhat blunt point. Shading techniques that also introduce texture to the drawing include hatching and stippling. There are a number of other methods for producing texture in the picture: in addition to choosing a suitable paper, the type of drawing material and the Line drawing in sanguine by Leonardo da Vinci drawing technique will result in different textures. Texture can be made to appear more realistic when it is drawn next to a contrasting texture; a coarse texture will be more obvious when placed next to a smoothly blended area. A similar effect can be achieved by drawing different tones close together; a light edge next to a dark background will stand out to the eye, and almost appear to float above the surface.
Measuring the dimensions of a subject while blocking in the drawing is an important step in producing a realistic rendition of the subject. Tools such as a compass can be used to measure the angles of different sides. These angles can be reproduced on the drawing surface and then rechecked to make sure they are accurate. Another form of measurement is to compare the relative sizes of different parts of the subject with each other. A finger placed at a point along the drawing implement can be used to compare that dimension with other parts of the image. A ruler can be used both as a straightedge and a device to compute proportions. When attempting to draw a complicated shape such as a human figure, it is helpful at first to represent the form with a set of primitive shapes. Almost any form can be represented by some combination of the cube, sphere, cylinder, and cone. Once these basic shapes have been assembled into a likeness, then the drawing can be refined into a more accurate and polished form. The lines of the primitive shapes are removed and replaced by the final likeness. Drawing the underlying construction is a fundamental skill for representational art and is taught in many books and schools, as its correct application will resolve most uncertainties about smaller details and make the final image look self-consistent. A more refined art of figure drawing relies upon the artist possessing a deep understanding of anatomy and the human proportions. A trained artist is familiar with the skeleton structure, joint location, muscle placement, tendon movement, and how the different parts work together during movement. This allows the artist to render more natural poses that do not appear artificially stiff. The artist is also familiar with how the proportions vary depending on the age of the subject, particularly when drawing a portrait.
Linear perspective is a method of portraying objects on a flat surface so that the dimensions shrink with distance. The parallel, straight edges of any object, whether a building or a table, will follow lines that eventually converge at infinity. Typically this point of convergence will be along the horizon, as buildings are built level with the flat surface. When multiple structures are aligned with each other, such as buildings along a street, the horizontal tops and bottoms of the structures will all typically converge at a vanishing point. When both the fronts and sides of a building are drawn, then the parallel lines forming a side converge at a second point along the horizon (which may be off the drawing paper.) This is a "two-point perspective". Converging the vertical lines to a point in the sky then produces a "three-point perspective". Depth can also be portrayed by several techniques in addition to the perspective approach above. Objects of similar size should appear ever smaller the further they are from the viewer. Thus the back wheel of a cart will appear slightly smaller than the front Two-point perspective drawing wheel. Depth can be portrayed through the use of texture. As the texture of an object gets further away it becomes more compressed and busy, taking on an entirely different character than if it was close. Depth can also be portrayed by reducing the amount of contrast of more distant objects, and also by making the colors more pale. This will reproduce the effect of atmospheric haze, and cause the eye to focus primarily on objects drawn in the foreground.
The composition of the image is an important element in producing an interesting work of artistic merit. The artist plans the placement of elements in the art in order to communicate ideas and feelings with the viewer. The composition can determine the focus of the art, and result in a harmonious whole that is aesthetically appealing and stimulating. The illumination of the subject is also a key element in creating an artistic piece, and the interplay of light and shadow is a valuable method in the artist's toolbox. The placement of the light sources can make a considerable difference in the type of message that is being presented. Multiple light sources can wash out any wrinkles in a person's face, for instance, and give a more youthful appearance. In contrast, a single light source, such as harsh daylight, can serve to highlight any texture or interesting features. When drawing an object or figure, the skilled artist pays attention to both the area within the silhouette and what lies outside. The exterior is termed the negative space, and can be as important in the representation as the figure. Objects placed in the background of the figure should appear properly placed wherever they can be
Chiaroscuro study drawing by William-Adolphe Bouguereau
viewed. A study is a draft drawing that is made in preparation for a planned final image. Studies can be used to determine the appearances of specific parts of the completed image, or for experimenting with the best approach for accomplishing
Drawing the end goal. However a well-crafted study can be a piece of art in its own right, and many hours of careful work can go into completing a study.
Computer art is the use of digital tools to produce images under the direct manipulation of the artist, usually through a pointing device such as a tablet or a mouse. It is distinguished from computer-generated art, which is produced by a computer using mathematical models created by the artist. Computer art is also distinct from digital manipulation of photographs, in that it is an original construction "from scratch". Photographic elements may be incorporated into such works, but they are not the primary basis or source for them.
 http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ browse/ draughtsman  See grisaille and chiaroscuro  Cennino Cennini, The Craftsman's Handbook (Il Libra dell'Arte), trans. David V. Thompson, Jr. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1933  This use of hatching is to be distinguished from the use of a hatching system in heraldry to indicate tincture (i.e. what "color", in layman's language, the arms are) in a monochromatic context.)  Mayer, Ralph. The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques. Viking. ISBN 0-670-83701-6.
Picture produced by Drawing Machine 2, an image generated from a mathematical model
• Betty Edwards, The New Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain, HarperCollins Publishers Ltd; 3Rev Ed edition, 2001, ISBN 978-0007116454 • Brommer, Gerald F. Exploring Drawing. Worcester, Massachusetts: Davis Publications. 1988. • Bodley Gallery, New York, N.Y., Modern master drawings, 1971, OCLC 37498294. • Frank Lohan, Pen & Ink Techniques, Contemporary Books, 1978, ISBN 0-8092-7438-8. • J. D. Hillberry, Drawing Realistic Textures in Pencil, North Light Books, 1999, ISBN 0-89134-868-9. • Landa, Robin. Take a line for a walk: A Creativity Journal. Boston: Wadsworth, 2011. ISBN: 978-1111839222 • Spears, Heather. The Creative Eye. London: Arcturus. 2007. ISBN 978-0-572-03315-6. • World Book, Inc. The World Book Encyclopedia Volume 5, 1988, ISBN 0-7166-0089-7. • Drawing/Thinking: Confronting an Electronic Age, edited by Marc Treib, 2008, ISBN, 0-415-77560-4.
• Timeline of Drawing Development in Children (http://www.learningdesign.com/Portfolio/DrawDev/ kiddrawing.html) • On Drawing (http://nasonart.com/writing/ondrawing2.html), an essay about the craft of drawing, by artist Norman Nason
Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων – arkhitekton, from ἀρχι- "chief" and τέκτων "builder, carpenter, mason") is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. "Architecture" can mean: • The art and science of design and erecting buildings and other physical structures. • A general term to describe buildings and other infrastructures. • A style and method of design and construction of buildings and other physical structures. • The practice of an architect, where architecture means to offer or render professional services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings, that have as their principal purpose human occupancy or use.
Brunelleschi, in the building of the dome of Florence Cathedral, not only transformed the cathedral and the city of Florence, but also the role and status of the architect.
Section and elevation of Brunelleschi's dome.
• Design activity, from the macro-level (urban design, landscape architecture) to the micro-level (construction details and furniture). • The term "architecture" has been adopted to describe the activity of designing any kind of system, and is commonly used in describing information technology. In relation to buildings, architecture has to do with the planning, designing and constructing form, space and ambience that reflect functional, technical, social, environmental, and aesthetic considerations. It requires the creative manipulation and coordination of material, technology, light and shadow. Architecture also encompasses the pragmatic aspects of realizing buildings and structures, including scheduling, cost estimating and construction administration. As documentation produced by architects, typically drawings, plans and technical specifications, architecture defines the structure and/or behavior of a building or any other kind of system that is to be or has been constructed.
Theory of architecture
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century CE. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, utilitas, venustas,  which translate roughly as – • Durability – it should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. • Utility – it should be useful and function well for the people using it • Beauty – it should delight people and raise their spirits. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leone Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty primarily as a matter of proportion, although ornament also played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean. The most important aspect of beauty was therefore an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially; and was based on universal, recognisable truths. The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari. The treatises, by the 18th century, had been translated into Italian, French, Spanish and English. In the early nineteenth century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts (1836) that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only “true Christian form of architecture.” The 19th century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men ... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health, power, and pleasure".
The Parthenon, Athens, Greece, "the supreme  example among architectural sites." (Fletcher).
St Mary's Cathedral, Killarney, designed by A.W.N. Pugin
For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance. His work goes on to state that a building is not truly a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned". For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the very least. On the difference between the ideals of "architecture" and mere "construction", the renowned 20th C. architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone, wood, and concrete, and with these materials you build houses and palaces: that is construction. Ingenuity is at work. But suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful. That is Architecture". By contrast, the le Corbusier's contemporary, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said that architecture begins "when 2 bricks are put together."
Modern concepts of architecture
The great 19th century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be entirely subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use, perception and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but also aesthetic, psychological and cultural.
The National Congress of Brazil, designed by Oscar Niemeyer.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of (architectural) formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary; it can also be a purposeless quest for perfection or originality which degrades form into a mere instrumentality".
Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, empiricism, structuralism, poststructuralism, and phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner which is environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling, water and waste management and lighting.
Sydney Opera House, Australia designed by Jørn Utzon.
Origins and vernacular architecture
Building first evolved out of the dynamics between needs (shelter, security, worship, etc.) and means (available building materials and attendant skills). As human cultures developed and knowledge began to be formalized through oral traditions and practices, building became a craft, and "architecture" is the name given to the most highly formalized and respected versions of that craft. It is widely assumed that architectural success was the product of a Vernacular architecture in Norway. process of trial and error, with progressively less trial and more replication as the results of the process proved increasingly satisfactory. What is termed vernacular architecture continues to be produced in many parts of the world. Indeed, vernacular buildings make up most of the built world
Architecture that people experience every day. Early human settlements were mostly rural. Due to a surplus in production the economy began to expand resulting in urbanization thus creating urban areas which grew and evolved very rapidly in some cases, such as that of Çatal Höyük in Anatolia and Mohenjo Daro of the Indus Valley Civilization in modern-day Pakistan.
In many ancient civilizations, such as that of Egypt and Mesopotamia, architecture and urbanism reflected the constant engagement with the divine and the supernatural, and many ancient cultures resorted to monumentality in architecture to represent symbolically the political power of the ruler, the ruling elite, or the state itself.
The Pyramids at Giza
The architecture and urbanism of the Classical civilizations such as the Greek and the Roman evolved from civic ideals rather than religious or empirical ones and new building types emerged. Architectural styles
developed. Texts on architecture have been written since ancient time. These texts provided both general advice and specific formal prescriptions or canons. Some examples of canons are found in the writings of the 1st-century BCE Roman military engineer Vitruvius, the Kao Gong Ji of ancient China and Vaastu Shastra of ancient India and Manjusri Vasthu Vidya Sastra of Sri Lanka. Some of the most important early examples of canonic architecture are religious.
The architecture of different parts of Asia developed along different lines from that of Europe; Buddhist, Hindu and Sikh architecture each having different characteristics. Buddhist architecture, in particular, showed great regional diversity. In many Asian countries a pantheistic religion led to architectural forms that were designed specifically to enhance the natural landscape.
Kinkaku-ji (Golden Pavilion), Kyoto, Japan
Islamic architecture began in the 7th century CE, incorporating a blend of architectural forms from the ancient Middle East and Byzantium, but also developing features to suit the religious and social needs of the society. Examples can be found throughout the Middle East, North Africa, Spain and the Indian Sub-continent. The widespread application of the pointed arch was to influence European architecture of the Medieval period.
The Taj Mahal (1632–1653), in India
The medieval builder
In Europe, in both the Classical and Medieval periods, buildings were not often attributed to specific individuals and the names of architects remain frequently unknown, despite the vast scale of the many religious buildings extant from this period. During the Medieval period guilds were formed by craftsmen to organize their trade and written contracts have survived, particularly in relation to ecclesiastical buildings. The role of architect was usually one with that of master mason, or Magister lathomorum as they are sometimes described in contemporary documents.
Notre Dame de Paris, France
Renaissance and the architect
With the Renaissance and its emphasis on the individual and humanity rather than religion, and with all its attendant progress and achievements, a new chapter began. Buildings were ascribed to specific architects – Brunelleschi, Alberti, Michelangelo, Palladio – and the cult of the individual had begun. There was still no dividing line between artist, architect and engineer, or any of the related vocations, and the appellation was often one of regional preference. At this stage, it was still possible for an artist to design a bridge as the level of structural calculations involved was within the scope of the generalist.
La Rotonda (1567), Italy by Palladio
Early modern and the industrial age
With the emerging knowledge in scientific fields and the rise of new materials and technology, architecture and engineering began to separate, and the architect began to concentrate on aesthetics and the humanist aspects, often at the expense of technical aspects of building design. There was also the rise of the "gentleman architect" who usually dealt with wealthy clients and concentrated predominantly on visual qualities derived usually from historical prototypes, typified by the many country houses of Great Britain that were created in the Neo Gothic or Scottish Baronial styles. Formal architectural training in the Paris Opera by Charles Garnier (1875), France 19th century, for example at Ecole des Beaux Arts in France, gave much emphasis to the production of beautiful drawings and little to context and feasibility. Effective architects generally received their training in the offices of other architects, graduating to the role from draughtsmen or clerks. Meanwhile, the Industrial Revolution laid open the door for mass production and consumption. Aesthetics became a criterion for the middle class as ornamented products, once within the province of expensive craftsmanship, became cheaper under machine production. Vernacular architecture became increasingly ornamental. House builders could use current architectural design in their work by combining features found in pattern books and architectural journals.
Modernism and reaction of architecture
The turn of the twentieth century gave rise to many new lines of thought that served as precursors to Modern Architecture. Many architects felt that buildings had become overly decorated and burdened with various styles that they could no longer be honest to the function. They felt that architecture should not be an accumulation of past traditions but that it should be adapted toward the common man. The Modernists wanted buildings that were beautiful not in overwhelming decoration but beautiful in simplicity Notable among these is the Deutscher Werkbund, formed in 1907 to produce better The Bauhaus Dessau architecture department quality machine made objects. The rise of the profession of industrial from 1925 by Walter Gropius design is usually placed here. Following this lead, the Bauhaus school, founded in Weimar, Germany in 1919, redefined the architectural bounds prior set throughout history, viewing the creation of a building as the ultimate synthesis—the apex—of art, craft, and technology. The Bauhaus is credited as one of the birthplaces of the modernist movement. Many notable artists, designers, and architects taught at the Bauhaus such as Mies van der Rohe, Marcel Breuer, and Walter Gropius. After the outbreak of World War II, the Bauhaus was closed by the Nazis. As a result, many of the teachers and students fled to other countries and spread their ideas. When Modern architecture was first practiced, it was an avant-garde movement with moral, philosophical, and aesthetic underpinnings. Immediately after World War I, pioneering modernist architects sought to develop a completely new style appropriate for a new post-war social and economic order, focused on meeting the needs of the middle and working classes. They rejected the architectural practice of the academic refinement of historical styles which served the rapidly declining aristocratic order. The approach of the Modernist architects was to reduce buildings to pure forms, removing historical references and ornament in favor of functionalist details. Buildings displayed their functional and structural elements, exposing steel beams and concrete surfaces instead of hiding them behind decorative forms. Architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright developed Organic architecture in which the form was defined by its environment and purpose, with an aim to promote harmony between human habitation and the natural world with prime examples being Robie House and Falling Water.
Fallingwater, Organic architecture by Frank Lloyd Wright.
Architects such as Mies van der Rohe, Philip Johnson and Marcel Breuer worked to create beauty based on the inherent qualities of building materials and modern construction techniques, trading traditional historic forms for simplified geometric forms, celebrating the new means and methods made possible by the Industrial Revolution, including steel-frame construction, which gave birth to high-rise superstructures. By mid-century, Modernism had morphed into the International Style, an aesthetic epitomized in many ways by the Twin Towers of New York's World Trade Center.
The Crystal Cathedral, California, by Philip
Many architects resisted Modernism, finding it devoid of the Johnson (1980) decorative richness of ornamented styles and as the founders of that movement lost influence in the late 1970s, Postmodernism developed as a reaction against its austerity. Postmodernism viewed Modernism as being too extreme and even harsh in regards to design. Instead, Postmodernists combined Modernism with older styles from before the 1900's to form a middle ground. Robert Venturi's contention that a "decorated shed" (an ordinary building which is functionally designed inside and embellished on the outside) was better than a "duck" (an ungainly building in which the whole form and its function are tied together) gives an idea of these approaches.
Part of the architectural profession, and also some non-architects, responded to Modernism and Postmodernism by going to what they considered the root of the problem. They felt that architecture was not a personal philosophical or aesthetic pursuit by individualists; rather it had to consider everyday needs of people and use technology to give a livable environment. The Design Methodology Movement involving people such as Christopher Alexander started searching for more people-oriented Postmodern design at Gare do Oriente, Lisbon, designs. Extensive studies on areas such as behavioral, environmental, Portugal, by Santiago Calatrava. and social sciences were done and started informing the design process. As the complexity of buildings began to increase (in terms of structural systems, services, energy and technologies), architecture started becoming more multi-disciplinary. Architecture today usually requires a team of specialist professionals, with the architect being one of many, although usually the team leader. Starting in the 1980s and into the new millennium, the field of architecture saw the rise of specializations for each project type, technological expertise or project delivery methods. In addition, there has been an increased separation of the 'design' architect  from the 'project' architect. The main reason for the shift is because architecture has become much more complicated. Architecture has become more than just building but has morphed into an extensive process involving durability, quality, money, and compliance to local laws. Every detail must be taken into account by the architecture firm. A great structure can no longer be the design of one person but must be the work of many.
Green roof planted with native species at L'Historial de la Vendée, a new museum in western France.
Architecture Moving the issue of environmental sustainability into the mainstream is a significant development in the architecture profession. Within the past several decades, architects have realized that buildings must take into account their effect upon the environment. Major examples of this can be found in greener roof designs, biodegradable materials,and more attention to a structure's energy usage. This major shift in architecture has also changed architecture schools to focus more the environment. Sustainability in architecture was pioneered in the 1960s by architects such as Buckminster Fuller, Frank Lloyd Wright, Sim Van der Ryn, in the 1970s Ian McHarg in the US and Brenda and Robert Vale in the UK and New Zealand. There has been an acceleration in the number of buildings which seek to meet green building sustainable design principles. Sustainable practices that were at the core of vernacular architecture increasingly provide inspiration for environmentally and socially sustainable contemporary techniques. The U.S. Green Building Council's LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) rating system has been instrumental in this. An example of an architecturally innovative green building is the Dynamic Tower which will be powered by wind turbines and solar panels.
 "Gov.ns.ca" (http:/ / www. gov. ns. ca/ legislature/ legc/ bills/ 60th_1st/ 3rd_read/ b115. htm). Gov.ns.ca. . Retrieved 2011-07-02.  Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method  D. Rowland – T.N. Howe: Vitruvius. Ten Books on Architecture. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1999, ISBN 0-521-00292-3  Translated by Henry Wotton, in 1624, as "firmness, commodity and delight" (http:/ / www. gardenvisit. com/ landscape/ LIH/ history/ vitruvius. htm#ch1-3)  "Vitruvius" (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ L/ Roman/ Texts/ Vitruvius/ home. html). Penelope.uchicago.edu. . Retrieved 2011-07-02.  Françoise Choay, Alberti and Vitruvius, editor, Joseph Rykwert, Profile 21, Architectural Design, Vol 49 No 5-6  John Ruskin, The Seven Lamps of Architecture, G. Allen (1880), reprinted Dover, (1989) ISBN 0-486-26145-X  Le Corbusier, Towards a New Architecture, Dover Publications(1985). ISBN 0-486-25023-7  Rondanini, Nunzia Architecture and Social Change Heresies II, Vol. 3, No. 3, New York, Neresies Collective Inc., 1981.  From the 7th–5th centuries BCE.  A design architect is one who is responsible for the design.  A project architect is one who is responsible for ensuring the design is built correctly and who administers building contracts – in non-specialist architectural practices the project architect is also the design architect and the term refers to the differing roles the architect plays at differing stages of the process.  OneWorld.net (2004-03-31). "Vernacular Architecture in India" (http:/ / el. doccentre. info/ eldoc/ 0411/ dwvernacular_architecture. html). El.doccentre.info. . Retrieved 2011-07-02.  Other energy efficiency and green building rating systems include Energy Star, Green Globes, and CHPS (Collaborative for High Performance Schools).  "AssociatedPress" (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=Bq-QUkE1DGM& fmt=18). AssociatedPress. . Retrieved 2008-12-21.
References External links
• World Architecture Community (http://www.worldarchitecture.org), World Architecture Community • Architecture.com (http://www.architecture.com), published by Royal Institute of British Architects • Architectural centers and museums in the world (http://www.uia-architectes.org/texte/england/Menu-7/ 1-musees.html), list of links from the UIA • Architecture Week (http://www.architectureweek.com/today.html) • American Institute of Architects (http://www.aia.org) • Glossary of Architecture Terms (http://www.theenglishdictionary.org/label/architecture) (with dictionary definitions)
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface (support base). The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is also used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. Paintings may have for their support such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, copper or concrete, and may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, gold leaf as well as objects. Painting is a mode of expression and the forms are numerous. Drawing, composition or abstraction and other aesthetics may serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, be loaded with narrative content, symbolism, emotion or be political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by spiritual motifs and ideas; examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery to Biblical scenes rendered on the interior walls and ceiling of The Sistine Chapel, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other scenes of eastern religious origin.
The Mona Lisa, by Italian painter Leonardo da Vinci, is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the world.
What enables painting is the perception and representation of intensity. Every point in space has different intensity, which can be represented in painting by black and white and all the gray shades between. In practice, painters can articulate shapes by juxtaposing surfaces of different intensity; by using just color (of the same intensity) one can only represent symbolic shapes. Thus, the basic means of painting are distinct from ideological means, such as geometrical figures, various points of view and organization (perspective), and symbols. For example, a painter perceives that a particular white wall has different intensity at each point, due to shades and reflections from nearby objects, but ideally, a white wall is still a white wall in pitch darkness. In technical drawing, thickness of line is also ideal, demarcating ideal outlines of an object within a perceptual frame different from the one used by painters.
Chen Hongshou (1598–1652), Leaf album painting (Ming Dynasty)
Color and tone
Painting Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are of music. Color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, white is. Some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists, including Goethe, Kandinsky, and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover the use of language is only a generalization for a color equivalent. The word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations on the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as C or C♯ in music. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic and derived (complementary or mixed) colors (like red, blue, green, brown, etc.). Painters deal practically with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phtalocyan, Paris blue, indigo, cobalt, ultramarine, and so on. Psychological, symbolical meanings of color are not strictly speaking means of painting. Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music (like "C") is analogous to light in painting, "shades" to dynamics, and coloration is to painting as specific timbre of musical instruments to music—though these do not necessarily form a melody, but can add different contexts to it.
Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, for example, collage, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense. Some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, cement, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to paint color onto a digital canvas using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required.
Georges Seurat (1859–91), Circus Sideshow (1887–88)
Rhythm is important in painting as well as in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence", then there can be rhythm in paintings. These pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, melody, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art and it directly affects the esthetical value of that work. This is because the esthetical value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom (of movement) of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the esthetical value.
The oldest known paintings are at the Grotte Chauvet in France, claimed by some historians to be about 32,000 years old. They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment and show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth or humans often hunting. However the earliest evidence of painting has been discovered in two rock-shelters in Arnhem Land, in northern Australia. In the lowest layer of material at these sites there are used pieces of ochre estimated to be 60,000 years old. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of rock painting preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the Kimberley region of North-Western Australia, that is dated 40 000 years old.  There are examples of cave paintings all over the world—in India, France, Spain, Portugal, China, Australia, etc.
Cave painting of aurochs, (Bos primigenius primigenius), Lascaux, France, prehistoric art
In Western cultures oil painting and watercolor painting have rich and complex traditions in style and subject matter. In the East, ink and color ink historically predominated the choice of media with equally rich and complex traditions. The invention of photography had a major impact on painting. In 1829, the first photograph was produced. From the mid to late 19th century, photographic processes improved and, as it became more widespread, painting lost much of its historic purpose to provide an accurate record of the observable world. There began a series of art movements into the 20th century where the Renaissance view of the world was steadily eroded, through Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism and Dadaism. Eastern and African painting, however, continued a long history of stylization and did not undergo an equivalent transformation at the same time. Modern and Contemporary Art has moved away from the historic value of craft and documentation in favour of concept; this led some to say in the 1960s that painting, as a serious art form, is dead. This has not deterred the majority of living painters from continuing to practice painting either as whole or part of their work. The vitality and versatility of painting in the 21st century belies the premature declarations of its demise. In an epoch characterized by the idea of pluralism, there is no consensus as to a representative style of the age. Important works of art continue to be made in a wide variety of styles and aesthetic temperaments, the marketplace being left to judge merit. Among the continuing and current directions in painting at the beginning of the 21st century are Monochrome painting, Hard-edge painting, Geometric abstraction, Appropriation, Hyperrealism, Photorealism, Expressionism, Minimalism, Lyrical Abstraction, Pop Art, Op Art, Abstract Expressionism, Color Field painting, Neo-expressionism, Collage, Intermedia painting, Assemblage painting, Computer art painting, Postmodern painting, Neo-Dada painting, Shaped canvas painting, environmental mural painting, traditional figure painting, Landscape painting, Portrait painting, and paint-on-glass animation.
Aesthetics and theory
Aesthetics is the study of art and beauty; it was an important issue for such 18th and 19th century philosophers as Kant or Hegel. Classical philosophers like Plato and Aristotle also theorized about art and painting in particular; Plato disregarded painters (as well as sculptors) in his philosophical system; he maintained that painting cannot depict the truth—it is a copy of reality (a shadow of the world of ideas) and is nothing but a craft, similar to shoemaking or iron casting. By the time of Leonardo painting had become a closer representation of the truth than painting was in Ancient Greece. Leonardo da Vinci, on the contrary, said that "Pittura est cousa mentale" (painting is a thing of the mind). Kant distinguished between Beauty and the Sublime, in terms that clearly gave priority to the former. Although he did not refer particularly to painting, this concept was taken up by painters such as Turner and Caspar David Friedrich.
Hegel recognized the failure of attaining a universal concept of beauty and in his aesthetic essay wrote that Painting is one of the three "romantic" arts, along with Poetry and Music for its symbolic, highly intellectual purpose.  Painters who have written theoretical works on painting include Kandinsky and Paul Klee.  Kandinsky in his essay maintains that painting has a spiritual value, and he attaches primary colors to essential feelings or concepts, something that Goethe and other writers had already tried to do. Iconography is the study of the content of paintings, rather than their style. Erwin Panofsky and other art historians first seek to understand the things depicted, then their meaning for the viewer at the time, and then analyze their wider cultural, religious, and social meaning. In 1890, the Parisian painter Maurice Denis famously asserted: "Remember that a painting—before being a warhorse, a naked woman or some story or other—is essentially a flat surface covered with colors assembled in a certain order." Thus, many 20th-century developments in painting, such as Cubism, were reflections on the means of painting rather than on the external world, nature, which had previously been its core subject. Recent contributions to thinking about painting has been offered by the painter and writer Julian Bell. In his book What is Painting?, Bell discusses the development, through history, of the notion that paintings can express feelings and ideas. In Mirror of The World Bell writes: ‘A work of art seeks to hold your attention and keep it fixed: a history of art urges it onwards, bulldozing a highway through the homes of the imagination.’
Apelles or the Art of painting (detail), relief of the Giotto's Bell Tower in Florence, Italy, Nino Pisano, 1334–1336
Different types of paint are usually identified by the medium that the pigment is suspended or embedded in, which determines the general working characteristics of the paint, such as viscosity, miscibility, solubility, drying time, etc.
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil—especially in early modern Europe, linseed oil. Often an oil such as linseed was boiled with a resin such as
Honoré Daumier (1808–79), The Painter
Painting pine resin or even frankincense; these were called 'varnishes' and were prized for their body and gloss. Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in northern Europe, and by the height of the Renaissance oil painting techniques had almost completely replaced tempera paints in the majority of Europe.
Pastel is a painting medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder. The pigments used in pastels are the same as those used to produce all colored art media, including oil paints; the binder is of a neutral hue and low saturation. The color effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments than that of any other process. Because the surface of a pastel painting is fragile and easily smudged, its preservation requires protective measures such as framing under glass; it may also be sprayed with a fixative. Nonetheless, when made with permanent pigments and properly cared for, a pastel painting may endure unchanged for centuries. Pastels are not susceptible, as are paintings made with a fluid medium, to the cracking and discoloration that result from changes in the color, opacity, or dimensions of the medium as it dries.
Acrylic paint is fast drying paint containing pigment suspension in acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints can be diluted with water, but become water-resistant when dry. Depending on how much the paint is diluted (with water) or modified with acrylic gels, media, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolor or an oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other media. The main practical difference between most acrylics and oil paints is the inherent drying time. Oils allow for more time to blend colors and apply even glazes over underpaintings. This slow drying aspect of oil can be seen as an advantage for certain techniques, but in other regards it impedes the artist trying to work quickly.
Watercolor is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water soluble vehicle. The traditional and most common support for watercolor paintings is paper; other supports include papyrus, bark papers, plastics, vellum or leather, fabric, wood, and canvas. In East Asia, watercolor painting with inks is referred to as brush painting or scroll painting. In Chinese, Korean, and Japanese painting it has been the dominant medium, often in monochrome black or browns. India, Ethiopia and other countries also have long traditions. Fingerpainting with watercolor paints originated in China.
Ink paintings are done with a liquid that contains pigments and/or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing with a pen, brush, or quill. Ink can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubilizers, surfactants, particulate matter, fluorescers, and other materials. The components of inks serve many purposes; the ink’s carrier, colorants, and other additives control flow and thickness of the ink and its appearance when dry.
Encaustic painting, also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added. The liquid/paste is then applied to a surface—usually prepared wood, though canvas and other materials are often used. The simplest encaustic mixture can be made from adding pigments to beeswax, but there are several other recipes that can be used—some containing other types of waxes, damar resin, linseed oil, or other ingredients. Pure, powdered pigments can be purchased and used, though some mixtures use oil paints or other forms of pigment. Metal tools and special brushes can be used to shape the paint before it cools, or heated metal tools can be used to
Painting manipulate the wax once it has cooled onto the surface. Other materials can be encased or collaged into the surface, or layered, using the encaustic medium to adhere it to the surface.
Fresco is any of several related mural painting types, done on plaster on walls or ceilings. The word fresco comes from the Italian word affresco [afˈfresːko] which derives from the Latin word for "fresh". Frescoes were often made during the Renaissance and other early time periods. Buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, fresh, lime mortar or plaster, for which the Italian word for plaster, intonaco, is used. A secco painting, in contrast, is done on dry plaster (secco is "dry" in Italian). The pigments require a binding medium, such as egg (tempera), glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall.
Fresco by Dionisius representing Saint Nicholas in a Ferapontov Monastery
Gouache is a type of paint consisting of pigment suspended in water. Gouache differs from watercolor in that the particles are larger, the ratio of pigment to water is much higher, and an additional, inert, white pigment such as chalk is also present. Like all watermedia, it is diluted with water. This makes gouache heavier and more opaque, with greater reflective qualities.
Enamels are made by painting a substrate, typically metal, with frit, a type of powdered glass. Minerals called color oxides provide coloration. After firing at a temperature of 750–850 degrees Celsius (1380–1560 degrees Fahrenheit), the result is a fused lamination of glass and metal. Enamels have traditionally been used for decoration of A Fresco "White Angel" from Mileševa, Serbia precious objects, but have also been used for other purposes. In the 18th century, enamel painting enjoyed a vogue in Europe, especially as a medium for portrait miniatures. In the late 20th century, the technique of porcelain enamel on metal has been used as a durable medium for outdoor murals.
Aerosol paint (also called spray paint) is a type of paint that comes in a sealed pressurized container and is released in a fine spray mist when depressing a valve button. A form of spray painting, aerosol paint leaves a smooth, evenly coated surface. Standard sized cans are portable, inexpensive and easy to store. Aerosol primer can be applied directly to bare metal and many plastics. Speed, portability and permanence also make aerosol paint a common graffiti medium. In the late 1970s, street graffiti writers' signatures and murals became more elaborate and a unique style developed as a factor of the aerosol medium and the speed required for illicit work. Many now recognize graffiti and street art as a unique art form and specifically manufactured aerosol paints are made for the graffiti artist. A stencil can be used to protect a surface except the specific shape that is to be painted. Stencils can be purchased as movable letters, ordered as professionally cut logos, or hand-cut by artists.
Tempera, also known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigment mixed with a water-soluble binder medium (usually a glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size). Tempera also refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera paintings are very long lasting, and examples from the first centuries AD still exist. Egg tempera was a primary method of painting until after 1500 when it was superseded by the invention of oil painting. A paint which is commonly called tempera (although it is not) consisting of pigment and glue size is commonly used and referred to by some manufacturers in America as poster paint.
Water miscible oil paint
Water miscible oil paints (also called "water soluble" or "water-mixable") is a modern variety of oil paint which is engineered to be thinned and cleaned up with water, rather than having to use chemicals such as turpentine. It can be mixed and applied using the same techniques as traditional oil-based paint, but while still wet it can be effectively removed from brushes, palettes, and rags with ordinary soap and water. Its water solubility comes from the use of an oil medium in which one end of the molecule has been altered to bind loosely to water molecules, as in a solution.
The painter of the old harbor – Honfleur (France)
Style is used in two senses: It can refer to the distinctive visual elements, techniques and methods that typify an individual artist's work. It can also refer to the movement or school that an artist is associated with. This can stem from an actual group that the artist was consciously involved with or it can be a category in which art historians have placed the painter. The word 'style' in the latter sense has fallen out of favor in academic discussions about contemporary painting, though it continues to be used in popular contexts. Such movements or classifications include the following:
Modernism Modernism describes both a set of cultural tendencies and an array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Modernism was a revolt against the conservative values of realism.  The term encompasses the activities and output of those who felt the "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic, social and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world. A salient characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness. This often led to experiments with form, and work that draws attention to the processes and materials used (and to the further tendency of abstraction). Impressionism The first example of modernism in painting was impressionism, a school of painting that initially focused on work done, not in studios, but outdoors (en plein air). Impressionist paintings demonstrated that human beings do not see objects, but instead see light itself. The school gathered adherents despite internal divisions among its leading practitioners, and became increasingly influential. Initially rejected from the most important commercial show of the time, the government-sponsored Paris Salon, the Impressionists organized yearly group exhibitions in commercial
Painting venues during the 1870s and 1880s, timing them to coincide with the official Salon. A significant event of 1863 was the Salon des Refusés, created by Emperor Napoleon III to display all of the paintings rejected by the Paris Salon. Abstract styles Abstract painting uses a visual language of form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world. Abstract expressionism was an American post-World War II art movement which had a combination of the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as Futurism, the Bauhaus and Synthetic Cubism and the image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic. Action painting, sometimes called "gestural abstraction", is a style of painting in which paint is spontaneously dribbled, splashed or smeared onto the canvas, rather than being carefully applied. The resulting work often emphasizes the physical act of painting itself as an essential aspect of the finished work or concern of its artist. The style was widespread from the 1940s until the early 1960s, and is closely associated with abstract expressionism (some critics have used the terms "action painting" and "abstract expressionism" interchangeably). Other modernist styles include: • Expressionism • Cubism • Pop art Other styles Outsider art The term outsider art was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for art brut (French: [aʁ bʁyt], "raw art" or "rough art"), a label created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created outside the boundaries of official culture; Dubuffet focused particularly on art by insane-asylum inmates. Outsider art has emerged as a successful art marketing category (an annual Outsider Art Fair has taken place in New York since 1992). The term is sometimes misapplied as a catch-all marketing label for art created by people outside the mainstream "art world," regardless of their circumstances or the content of their work. Photorealism Photorealism is the genre of painting based on using the camera and photographs to gather information and then from this information, creating a painting that appears to be very realistic like a photograph. The term is primarily applied to paintings from the United States art movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s. As a full-fledged art movement, Photorealism evolved from Pop Art   and as a counter to Abstract Expressionism. Hyperrealism is a genre of painting and sculpture resembling a high-resolution photograph. Hyperrealism is a fully fledged school of art and can be considered an advancement of Photorealism by the methods used to create the resulting paintings or sculptures. The term is primarily applied to an independent art movement and art style in the United States and Europe that has developed since the early 2000s. Surrealism Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. Surrealist artworks feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement.
Painting Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities of World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy and social theory. Other styles include:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Art Deco Baroque CoBrA Color Field Constructivism Digital painting Fauvism Folk Futurism Graffiti Hard-edge Impressionism Lyrical Abstraction Mannerism • • • • • • • • • • • • • Minimalism Miniature Naïve art Neo-classicism Op art Orientalism Orphism Painterly Pinstriping Pluralism Pointillism Post-painterly Abstraction Postmodernism • • • • • • • • • • • • • Precisionism Primitive Realism Regionalism Rococo Romantic realism Romanticism Socialist realism Street Art Superstroke Stuckism Tachism Tonalism
• Chinese • • • • • • Tang Dynasty Ming Dynasty Shan shui Ink and wash painting Hua niao Southern School
• Zhe School • Wu School • Contemporary • Japanese • Yamato-e • Rimpa school • Emakimono • Kanō school • Shijō school • Superflat • Korean
• Persian miniature • Mughal miniature • Ottoman miniature
• • • • • • • • Bengal school Kangra Madhubani Mysore Rajput Mughal Samikshavad Tanjore
• Tingatinga • Blue Rhino Maps
Contemporary Art 1950s
• • • • • • Abstract Expressionism American Figurative Expressionism Bay Area Figurative Movement Lyrical Abstraction New York Figurative Expressionism New York School
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Abstract expressionism American Figurative Expressionism Abstract Imagists Bay Area Figurative Movement Color field Computer art Conceptual art Fluxus Happenings Hard-edge painting Lyrical Abstraction Minimalism Neo-Dada New York School Nouveau Réalisme Op Art Performance art Pop Art Postminimalism Washington Color School Kinetic art
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Arte Povera Ascii Art Bad Painting Body art Artist's book Feminist art Installation art Land Art Lowbrow (art movement) Photorealism Postminimalism Process Art Video art Funk art Pattern and Decoration
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Appropriation art Culture jamming Demoscene Electronic art Figuration Libre Graffiti Art Live art Mail art Postmodern art Neo-conceptual art Neo-expressionism Neo-pop Sound art Transgressive art Transhumanist Art Video installation Institutional Critique
• • • • • • • • • • • • Bio art Cyberarts Cynical Realism Digital Art Information art Internet art Massurrealism Maximalism New media art Software art New European Painting Young British Artists
• • • • • • • • • • Classical realism Relational art Street art Stuckism Superflat Pseudorealism Videogame art Superstroke VJ art Virtual art
Some painting idioms are described below.
Allegory is a figurative mode of representation conveying meaning other than the literal. Allegory communicates its message by means of symbolic figures, actions or symbolic representation. Allegory is generally treated as a figure of rhetoric, but an allegory does not have to be expressed in language: it may be addressed to the eye, and is often found in realistic painting. An example of a simple visual allegory is the image of the grim reaper. Viewers understand that the image of the grim reaper is a symbolic representation of death.
In Spanish art, a bodegón is a still life painting depicting pantry items, such as victuals, game, and drink, often arranged on a simple stone slab, and also a painting with one or more figures, but significant still life elements, typically set in a kitchen or tavern. Starting in the Baroque period, such paintings became popular in Spain in the second quarter of the 17th century. The tradition of still life painting appears to have started and was far more popular in the contemporary Low Bodegón or Still Life with Pottery Jars, by Countries, today Belgium and Netherlands (then Flemish and Dutch Francisco de Zurbarán. 1636, Oil on canvas; 46 x 84 cm; Museo del Prado, Madrid artists), than it ever was in southern Europe. Northern still lifes had many sub-genre's; the breakfast piece was augmented by the trompe-l'œil, the flower bouquet , and the vanitas. In Spain there were much fewer patrons for this sort of thing, but a type of breakfast piece did become popular, featuring a few objects of food and tableware laid on a table.
Body painting is a form of body art. Unlike tattoo and other forms of body art, body painting is temporary, painted onto the human skin, and lasts for only several hours, or at most (in the case of Mehndi or "henna tattoo") a couple of weeks. Body painting that is limited to the face is known as face painting. Body painting is also referred to as (a form of) temporary tattoo; large scale or full-body painting is more commonly referred to as body painting, while smaller or more detailed work is generally referred to as temporary tattoos.
Figure painting is a form of the visual arts in which the artist uses a live model as the subject of a two-dimensional piece of artwork using paint as the medium. The live model can be either nude or partly or fully clothed and the painting is a representation of the full body of the model. It is analogous in most respects to figure drawing, which is usually done in crayon, ink, pencil, watercolor or mixed media on paper. Some artists well known for figure painting are Peter Paul Rubens, Edgar Degas, and Édouard Manet.
Illustration paintings are those used as illustrations in books, magazines, and theater or movie posters and comic books. Today, there is a growing interest in collecting and admiring the original artwork. Various museum exhibitions, magazines and art galleries have devoted space to the illustrators of the past. In the visual art world, illustrators have sometimes been considered less important in comparison with fine artists and graphic designers. But as the result of computer game and comic industry growth, illustrations are becoming valued as popular and profitable art works that can acquire a wider market than the other two, especially in Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and USA.
Landscape painting is a term that covers the depiction of natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, and especially art where the main subject is a wide view, with its elements Two Lovers by Reza Abbasi, 1630. arranged into a coherent composition. In other works landscape backgrounds for figures can still form an important part of the work. Sky is almost always included in the view, and weather is often an element of the composition. Detailed landscapes as a distinct subject are not found in all artistic traditions, and develop when there is already a sophisticated tradition of representing other subjects. The two main traditions spring from Western painting and Chinese art, going back well over a thousand years in both cases.
Portrait paintings are representations of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness, personality, and even the mood of the person. The art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and especially Roman sculpture, where sitters demanded individualized and realistic portraits, even unflattering ones. One of the best-known portraits in the Western world is Leonardo da Vinci's painting titled Mona Lisa, which is a painting of an unidentified woman.
A still life is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural (food, flowers, plants, rocks, or shells) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, and so on). With origins in the Middle Ages and Ancient Greek/Roman art, still life paintings give the artist more leeway in the arrangement of design elements within a composition than do paintings of other types of subjects such as landscape or portraiture. Still life paintings, particularly before 1700, often contained religious and allegorical symbolism relating to the objects depicted. Some modern still life breaks the two-dimensional barrier and employs three-dimensional mixed media, and uses found objects, photography, computer graphics, as well as video and sound.
A Veduta is a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting of a cityscape or some other vista. This genre of landscape originated in Flanders, where artists such as Paul Brill painted vedute as early as the 16th century. As the itinerary of the Grand Tour became somewhat standardized, vedute of familiar scenes like the Roman Forum or the Grand Canal recalled early ventures to the Continent for aristocratic Englishmen. In the later 19th century, more personal "impressions" of cityscapes replaced the desire for topographical accuracy, which was satisfied instead by painted panoramas.
 Merriam-Webster Online (http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ paint)  http:/ / www. aboriginalartonline. com/ art/ rockage. php  Craig, Edward. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Genealogy to Iqbal, page 278. Routledge, 1998. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=5m5z_ca-qDkC& pg=PA276& lpg=PA276& dq=hegel+ three+ romantic+ arts+ painting+ poetry+ music& source=bl& ots=a2CrMVe65v& sig=3unWnE0hYbgHXDbsNfrb96fmZvk& hl=en& ei=1uY_S_ioFZO1lAf_se2UBw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=7& ved=0CCEQ6AEwBjgK#v=onepage& q=hegel three romantic arts painting poetry music& f=false)  "Painting and music are the specially romantic arts. Lastly, as a union of painting and music comes poetry, where the sensuous element is more than ever subordinate to the spirit." Excerpted from Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 (http:/ / www. hegel. net/ en/ eb1911. htm#331)  Marcel Franciscono Paul Klee: His Work and Thought, part 6 'The Bauhaus and Düsseldorf', chap. 'Klee's theory courses', p. 246 and under 'notes to pages 245–54' p.365  Moshe Barasch (2000) Theories of art – from impressionism to Kandinsky (http:/ / books. google. ie/ books?id=R_2wIujisH4C), part IV 'Abstract art', chap. 'Color' pp.332–3  http:/ / uk. encarta. msn. com/ encyclopedia_761563353/ abstract_art. html Encyclopedia Encarta  Review by art historian David Cohen, artnet.com (http:/ / www. artnet. com/ Magazine/ index/ cohen/ cohen8-16-99. asp)  London Review of Books, 29 November 2007. (http:/ / www. lrb. co. uk/ v29/ n23/ peter-campbell/ global-moods)  Mayer, Ralph,The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques, Third Edition, New York: Viking, 1970, p. 312.  Mayer, Ralph. The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques. Viking Adult; 5th revised and updated edition, 1991. ISBN 0-670-83701-6  Marjorie B. Cohn, Wash and Gouache, Fogg Museum, 1977.  Mayer, Ralph,The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques, Third Edition, New York: Viking, 1970, p. 375.  McNally, Rika Smith, "Enamel", Oxford Art Online  Mayer, Ralph,The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques, Third Edition, New York: Viking, 1970, p. 371.  John Barth (1979) The Literature of Replenishment, later republished in The Friday Book'(1984)'.  Gerald Graff (1975) Babbitt at the Abyss: The Social Context of Postmodern. American Fiction, TriQuarterly, No. 33 (Spring 1975), pp. 307–37; reprinted in Putz and Freese, eds., Postmodernism and American Literature.  Gardner, Helen, Horst De la Croix, Richard G. Tansey, and Diane Kirkpatrick. Gardner's Art Through the Ages (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991). ISBN 0-15-503770-6. p. 953.  Rudolph Arnheim, Visual Thinking  Shapiro, David/Cecile (2000): Abstract Expressionism. The politics of apolitical painting. p. 189-190 In: Frascina, Francis (2000): Pollock and After. The critical debate. 2nd ed. London: Routledge  Boddy-Evans, Marion. "Art Glossary: Action Painting" (http:/ / painting. about. com/ od/ artglossarya/ g/ defactionpaint. htm). About.com. . Retrieved 20 August 2006.  Roger Cardinal, Outsider Art, London, 1972  Lindey, Christine Superrealist Painting and Sculpture, William Morrow and Company, New York, 1980, pp. 27–33.  Chase, Linda, Photorealism at the Millennium, The Not-So-Innocent Eye: Photorealism in Context. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. New York, 2002. pp 14–15.  Nochlin, Linda, The Realist Criminal and the Abstract Law II, Art In America. 61 (November – December 1973), P. 98.  Bredekamp, Horst, Hyperrealism – One Step Beyond. Tate Museum, Publishers, UK. 2006. p. 1
• A Treatise on Painting by Leonardo da Vinci (Kessinger Publishing) (http://www.kessinger.net/ searchresults-orderthebook.php?ISBN=1417948353) • Alberti, Leone Battista, De Pictura (On Painting), 1435. On Painting, in English (http://www.noteaccess.com/ Texts/Alberti/), De Pictura, in Latin (http://www.liberliber.it/biblioteca/a/alberti/de_pictura/html/depictur. htm) • Doerner, Max – The Materials of the Artist and Their Use in Painting: With Notes on the Techniques of the Old Masters (http://www.amazon.com/Materials-Artist-Their-Use-Painting/dp/015657716X) • Kandinsky – Concerning the Spiritual in Art (Dover Publications) (http://store.doverpublications.com/ 0486234118.html) • The Journal of Eugene Delacroix (Phaidon Press) (http://www.phaidon.com/Default.aspx/Web/ the-journal-of-eugene-delacroix-9780714833590) • Masterpieces of painting (http://www.fineartlib.info/). • The Letters of Vincent van Gogh (Penguin Classics) (http://us.penguinclassics.com/nf/Book/BookDisplay/ 0,,9780140446746,00.html) • Russian painters art in very high definition (http://lookatart.ru). • Most famous painters art in very high definition (http://lookatart.ru/index2.html). • Paintings of the Louvre (http://www.elrelojdesol.com/paintings-of-the-louvre/index.htm)
• Daniel, H., (1971) "Encyclopedia of Themes and Subjects in Painting; Mythological, Biblical, Historical, Literary, Allegorical, and Topical". New York, Harry N. Abrams Inc.
Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. Many of the works, sometimes called installations, of the artist Sol LeWitt may be constructed by anyone simply by following a set of written instructions. This method was fundamental to LeWitt's definition of Conceptual art, one of the first to appear in print:
Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965)
In conceptual art the idea or concept is the most important aspect of the work. When an artist uses a conceptual form of art, it means that all of the planning and decisions are made beforehand and the execution is a perfunctory affair. The idea becomes a machine that makes the art.
 —Sol LeWitt
Tony Godfrey, author of Conceptual Art (Art & Ideas) (1998), asserts that conceptual art questions the nature of art, a notion that Joseph Kosuth elevated to a definition of art itself in his seminal, early manifesto of conceptual art, "Art after Philosophy" (1969). The notion that art should examine its own nature was already a potent aspect of (the influential art critic) Clement Greenberg's vision of Modern art during the 1950s. With the emergence of an
Conceptual art exclusively language-based art in the 1960s, however, conceptual artists such as Joseph Kosuth, Lawrence Weiner and the English Art & Language group began a far more radical interrogation of art than was previously possible (see below). One of the first and most important things they questioned was the common assumption that the role of the artist was to create special kinds of material objects.   Through its association with the Young British Artists and the Turner Prize during the 1990s, in popular usage, particularly in the UK, "conceptual art" came to denote all contemporary art that does not practice the traditional skills of painting and sculpture. It could be said that one of the reasons why the term "conceptual art" has come to be associated with various contemporary practices far removed from its original aims and forms lies in the problem of defining the term itself. As the artist Mel Bochner suggested as early as 1970, in explaining why he does not like the epithet "conceptual", it is not always entirely clear what "concept" refers to, and it runs the risk of being confused with "intention." Thus, in describing or defining a work of art as conceptual it is important not to confuse what is referred to as "conceptual" with an artist's "intention."
The French artist Marcel Duchamp paved the way for the conceptualists, providing them with examples of prototypically conceptual works — the readymades, for instance. The most famous of Duchamp's readymades was Fountain (1917), a standard urinal basin signed by the artist with the pseudonym "R.Mutt", and submitted for inclusion in the annual, un-juried exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists in New York (it was rejected). In traditional terms, a commonplace object such as a urinal cannot be said to be art because it is not made by an artist or with any intention of being art, nor is it unique or hand-crafted. Duchamp's relevance and theoretical importance for future "conceptualists" was later acknowledged by US artist Joseph Kosuth in his 1969 essay, "Art after Philosophy," when he wrote: "All art (after Duchamp) is conceptual (in nature) because art only exists conceptually." In 1956, recalling the infinitesimals of G.W. Leibniz, quantities which Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917. Photograph by could not actually exist except conceptually, the founder of Lettrism, Alfred Steiglitz Isidore Isou, developed the notion of a work of art which, by its very nature, could never be created in reality, but which could nevertheless provide aesthetic rewards by being contemplated intellectually. Also called Art esthapériste ('infinite-aesthetics'). Related to this, and arising out of it, is excoördism, the current incarnation of the Isouian movement, defined as the art of the infinitely large and the infinitely small. In 1961 the term "concept art," coined by the artist Henry Flynt in his article bearing the term as its title, appeared in a Fluxus publication. However it assumed a different meaning when employed by Joseph Kosuth and the English Art and Language group, who discarded the conventional art object in favour of a documented critical inquiry into the artist's social, philosophical and psychological status. By the mid-1970s they had produced publications, indexes, performances, texts and paintings to this end. In 1970 Conceptual Art and Conceptual Aspects, the first dedicated conceptual art exhibition, was mounted at the New York Cultural Center.
The Critique of Formalism and the Commodification of Art
Conceptual art emerged as a movement during the 1960s. In part, it was a reaction against formalism as it was then articulated by the influential New York art critic Clement Greenberg. According to Greenberg Modern art followed a process of progressive reduction and refinement toward the goal of defining the essential, formal nature of each medium. Those elements that ran counter to this nature were to be reduced. The task of painting, for example, was to define precisely what kind of object a painting truly is: what makes it a painting and nothing else? As it is of the nature of paintings to be flat objects with canvas surfaces onto which colored pigment is applied, such things as figuration, 3-D perspective illusion and references to external subject matter were all found to be extraneous to the essence of painting, and ought to be removed. Some have argued that conceptual art continued this "dematerialization" of art by removing the need for objects altogether, while others, including many of the artists themselves, saw conceptual art as a radical break with Greenberg's kind of formalist Modernism. Later artists continued to share a preference for art to be self-critical, as well as a distaste for illusion. However, by the end of the 1960s it was certainly clear that Greenberg's stipulations for art to continue within the confines of each medium and to exclude external subject matter no longer held traction. Conceptual art also reacted against the commodification of art; it attempted a subversion of the gallery or museum as the location and determiner of art, and the art market as the owner and distributor of art. Lawrence Weiner said: "Once you know about a work of mine you own it. There's no way I can climb inside somebody's head and remove it." Many conceptual artists' work can therefore only be known about through documentation which is manifested by it, e.g. photographs, written texts or displayed objects, which some might argue are not in themselves the art. It is sometimes (as in the work of Robert Barry, Yoko Ono, and Weiner himself) reduced to a set of written instructions describing a work, but stopping short of actually making it—emphasising that the idea is more important than the artifact.
Language and/as art
Language was a central concern for the first wave of conceptual artists of the 1960s and early 1970s. Although the appearance of text in art was by no means novel, it was not until the 1960s that the artists Lawrence Weiner, Edward Ruscha, Joseph Kosuth, Robert Barry, and the English Art & Language group began to produce art by exclusively linguistic means. Where previously language was presented as one kind of visual element alongside others, and Lawrence Weiner. Bits & Pieces Put Together to subordinate to an overarching composition (see for example Synthetic Present a Semblance of a Whole, The Walker Art Cubism), the conceptual artists used language in place of brush and Center, Minneapolis, 2005. canvas, and allowed it to signify in its own right. Of Lawrence Weiner's works Anne Rorimer writes, "The thematic content of individual works derives solely from the import of the language employed, while presentational means and contextual placement play crucial, yet separate, roles." The British philosopher and theorist of conceptual art Peter Osborne suggests that among the many factors that influenced the gravitation toward language-based art, of vital importance for conceptualism was the turn to linguistic theories of meaning in both Anglo-American analytic philosophy, and structuralist and post structuralist Continental philosophy during the middle of the twentieth century. This linguistic turn "reinforced and legitimized" the direction the conceptual artists took. Osborne also notes that the early conceptualists were the first generation of artists to complete degree-based university training in art.
Conceptual Art and Artistic Skill
"By adopting language as their exclusive medium, Weiner, Barry, Wilson, Kosuth and Art & Language were able to sweep aside the vestiges of authorial presence manifested by formal invention and the handling of materials." An important difference between conceptual art and more "traditional" forms of art-making goes to the question of artistic skill. Although it is often the case that skill in the handling of traditional media plays little role in conceptual art, it is difficult to argue that no skill is required to make conceptual works, or that skill is always absent from them. John Baldessari, for instance, has presented realist pictures that he commissioned professional sign-writers to paint; and many conceptual performance artists (e.g. Stelarc, Marina Abramovic) are technically accomplished performers and skilled manipulators of their own bodies. It is thus not so much an absence of skill or hostility toward tradition that defines conceptual art as an evident disregard for conventional, modern notions of authorial presence and individual artistic expression (or genius).
The first wave of the "conceptual art" movement extended from approximately 1967 to 1978. Early "concept" artists like Henry Flynt, Robert Morris, and Ray Johnson influenced the later, widely accepted movement of conceptual art. Conceptual artists like Dan Graham, Hans Haacke, and Lawrence Weiner have proven very influential on subsequent artists, and well known contemporary artists such as Mike Kelley or Tracey Emin are sometimes labeled "second- or third-generation" conceptualists, or "post-conceptual" artists. Many of the concerns of the conceptual art movement have been taken up by contemporary artists. While they may or may not term themselves "conceptual artists", ideas such as anti-commodification, social and/or political critique, and ideas/information as medium continue to be aspects of contemporary art, especially among artists working with installation art, performance art, net.art and electronic/digital art.
Controversy in the UK
In Britain, the rise to prominence of the Young British Artists (YBAs) after the 1988 Freeze show, curated by Damien Hirst, and subsequent promotion of the group by the Saatchi Gallery during the 1990s, generated a media backlash, where the phrase "conceptual art" came to be a term of derision applied to much contemporary art. This was amplified by the Turner Prize whose more extreme nominees (most notably Hirst and Emin) caused a controversy annually. The Stuckist group of artists, founded in 1999, proclaimed themselves Stuckist artists leave a coffin, marked "The death "pro-contemporary figurative painting with ideas and anti-conceptual of conceptual art", outside the White Cube gallery art, mainly because of its lack of concepts." They also called it in Shoreditch, July 25, 2002. pretentious, "unremarkable and boring" and on July 25, 2002 deposited a coffin outside the White Cube gallery, marked "The Death of Conceptual Art".  They staged yearly demonstrations outside the Turner Prize. In 2002, Ivan Massow, the Chairman of the Institute of Contemporary Arts branded conceptual art "pretentious, self-indulgent, craftless tat" and in "danger of disappearing up its own arse ... led by cultural tsars such as the Tate's Sir Nicholas Serota." Massow was consequently forced to resign. At the end of the year, the Culture Minister, Kim Howells (an art school graduate) denounced the Turner Prize as "cold, mechanical, conceptual bullshit". In October 2004 the Saatchi Gallery told the media that "painting continues to be the most relevant and vital way that artists choose to communicate."
Notable examples of conceptual art
• 1953 : Robert Rauschenberg exhibits Erased De Kooning Drawing, a drawing by Willem De Kooning which Rauschenberg erased. It raised many questions about the fundamental nature of art, challenging the viewer to consider whether erasing another artist's work could be a creative act, as well as whether the work was only "art" because the famous Rauschenberg had done it. • 1956 : Isidore Isou introduces the concept of infinitesimal art in Introduction à une esthétique imaginaire (Introduction to Imaginary Aesthetics). • 1957: Yves Klein, Aerostatic Sculpture (Paris). This was composed of 1001 blue balloons released into the sky from Galerie Iris Clert to promote his Proposition Monochrome; Blue Epoch exhibition. Klein also exhibited 'One Minute Fire Painting' which was a blue panel into which 16 firecrackers were set. For his next major exhibition, The Void in 1958, Klein declared that his paintings were now invisible and to prove it he exhibited an empty room. • 1960: Yves Klein's action called A Leap Into The Void, in which he attempts to fly by leaping out of a window. He stated: "The painter has only to create one masterpiece, himself, constantly." • 1960: The artist Stanley Brouwn declares that all the shoe shops in Amsterdam constitute an exhibition of his work. • 1961: Robert Rauschenberg sent a telegram to the Galerie Iris Clert which said: 'This is a portrait of Iris Clert if I say so.' as his contribution to an exhibition of portraits.
Jacek Tylicki, Stone sculpture, "Give If You Can - Take If You Have To". Palolem Island, India, 2008
Maurizio Bolognini, Programmed Machines, Nice, France, 1992-97: hundreds of computers are programmed to generate an inexhaustible flux of random images which nobody would see
• 1961: Piero Manzoni exhibited Artist's shit, tins purportedly containing his own feces (although since the work would be destroyed if opened, no-one has been able to say for sure). He put the tins on sale for their own weight in gold. He also sold his own breath (enclosed in balloons) as Bodies of Air, and signed people's bodies, thus declaring them to be living works of art either for all time or for specified periods. (This depended on how much they are prepared to pay). Marcel Broodthaers and Primo Levi are amongst the designated 'artworks'. • 1962: Christo's Iron Curtain work. This consists of a barricade of oil barrels in a narrow Paris street which caused a large traffic jam. The artwork was not the barricade itself but the resulting traffic jam. • 1962: Yves Klein presents Immaterial Pictorial Sensitivity in various ceremonies on the banks of the Seine. He offers to sell his own 'pictorial sensitivity' (whatever that was, he did not define it) in exchange for gold leaf. In these ceremonies the purchaser gave Klein the gold leaf in return for a certificate. Since Klein's sensitivity was
Conceptual art immaterial, the purchaser was then required to burn the certificate whilst Klein threw half the gold leaf into the Seine. (There were seven purchasers.) • 1962: Piero Manzoni created The Base of the World, thereby exhibiting the entire planet as his artwork. • 1963: George Brecht's collection of Event-Scores, Water Yam, is published as the first Fluxkit by George Maciunas. • 1963: Henry Flynts article Concept Art is published in "An Anthology of Chance Operations"; a collection of artworks and concepts by artists and musicians that was published by Jackson Mac Low and La Monte Young (ed.). "An Anthology of Chance Operations" documented the development of Dick Higgins vision of intermedia art in the context of the ideas of John Cage and became an early Fluxus masterpiece. Flynt's "concept art" devolved from his idea of "cognitive nihilism" and from his insights about the vulnerabilities of logic and mathematics. • 1964: Yoko Ono publishes Grapefruit: A Book of Instructions and Drawings. An example of Heuristic art, or a series of instructions for how to obtain an aesthetic experience. • 1965: A complex conceptual art piece by John Latham called Still and Chew. He invites art students to protest against the values of Clement Greenberg's Art and Culture (much praised and taught in London's St. Martin's School of Art where Latham taught). Pages of Greenberg's book (borrowed from the college library) are chewed by the students, dissolved in acid and the resulting solution returned to the library bottled and labelled. Latham was then fired from his part-time position. • 1965: with Show V, immaterial sculpture the Dutch artist Marinus Boezem introduced Conceptual Art in the Netherlands. In the show various air doors are placed where people can walk through them. People have the sensory experience of warmth, air.Three invisble air doors, which arise as currents of cold and warm are blown into the room, are indicated in the space with bundles of arrows and lines. The articulation of the space which arises is the result of invisible processes which influence the conduct of persons in that space, and who are included in the system as co-performers. • Joseph Kosuth dates the concept of One and Three Chairs in the year 1965. The presentation of the work consists of a chair, its photo and a blow up of a definition of the word "chair". Kosuth has chosen the definition from a dictionary. Four versions with different definitions are known. • 1966: N.E. Thing Co. Ltd. (Iain and Ingrid Baxter of Vancouver) exhibited Bagged Place the contents of a four room apartment wrapped in plastic bags. The same year they registered as a corporation and subsequently organized their practice along corporate models, one of the first international examples of the "aesthetic of administration." • 1967: Sol LeWitt´s Paragraphs on Conceptual Art were published by the American art journal Artforum. The Paragraphs mark the progression from Minimal to Conceptual Art. • 1968: Lawrence Weiner relenquishes the physical making of his work and formulates his "Declaration of Intent," one of the most important conceptual art statements following LeWitt's "Paragraphs on Conceptual Art." The declaration, which underscores his subsequent practice reads: "1. The artist may construct the piece. 2. The piece may be fabricated. 3. The piece need not be built. Each being equal and consistent with the intent of the artist the decision as to condition rests with the receiver upon the occasion of receivership." • Friedrich Heubach launches the magazine Interfunktionen in Cologne, Germany, a publication that excelled in artists' projects. It originally showed a Fluxus influence, but later moved toward Conceptual art. • 1969: Robert Barry's Telepathic Piece at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, of which he said 'During the exhibition I will try to communicate telepathically a work of art, the nature of which is a series of thoughts that are not applicable to language or image'. • The first issue of "Art-Language" is published in May. It is subtitled as "The Journal of conceptual art" and edited by Terry Atkinson, David Bainbridge, Michael Baldwin and Harold Hurrell. The editors are English members of
Conceptual art the artists group Art & Language. • 1969: Vito Acconci creates "Following Piece," in which he follows randomly selected members of the public until they disappear into a private space. The piece is presented as photographs. • The English journal "Studio International" published Joseph Kosuth´s article "Art after Philosophy" in three parts (October–December). It became the most discussed article on "Conceptual Art". • 1970: Painter John Baldessari exhibits a film in which he sets a series of erudite statements by Sol LeWitt on the subject of conceptual art to popular tunes like 'Camptown Races' and 'Some Enchanted Evening'. • 1970: Douglas Huebler exhibits a series of photographs which were taken every two minutes whilst driving along a road for 24 minutes. • 1970: Douglas Huebler asks museum visitors to write down 'one authentic secret'. The resulting 1800 documents are compiled into a book which, by some accounts, makes for very repetitive reading as most secrets are similar. • 1971: Hans Haacke's 'Real Time Social System'. This piece of systems art detailed the real estate holdings of the third largest landowners in New York City. The properties were mostly in Harlem and the Lower East Side, were decrepit and poorly maintained, and represented the largest concentration of real estate in those areas under the control of a single group. The captions gave various financial details about the buildings, including recent sales between companies owned or controlled by the same family. The Guggenheim museum cancelled the exhibition, stating that the overt political implications of the work constituted "an alien substance that had entered the art museum organism". There is no evidence to suggest that the trustees of the Guggenheim were linked financially to the family which was the subject of the work. • 1972: Fred Forest buys an area of blank space in the newspaper Le Monde and invites readers to fill it with their own works of art. • General Idea launch File magazine in Toronto. The magazine functioned as something of an extended, collaborative artwork. • 1974: Cadillac Ranch near Amarillo, Texas. • 1975-76: Three issues of the journal "The Fox" were published in New York. The editor was Joseph Kosuth. "The Fox" became an important platform for the American members of Art & Language. Karl Beveridge, Ian Burn, Sarah Charlesworth, Michael Corris, Joseph Kosuth, Andrew Menard, Mel Ramsden and Terry Smith wrote articles which thematized the context of contemporary art. These articles exemplify the development of an institutional critique within the inner circle of Conceptual Art. The criticism of the art world integrates social, political and economic reasons. • 1977: Walter De Maria's 'Vertical Earth Kilometer' in Kassel, Germany. This was a one kilometer brass rod which was sunk into the earth so that nothing remained visible except a few centimeters. Despite its size, therefore, this work exists mostly in the viewer's mind. • 1977: John Fekner creates hundreds of environmental and conceptual outdoor works consisting of stenciled words, symbols, dates and icons spray painted in New York, Sweden, Canada, England and Germany. • 1989: Christopher Williams' Angola to Vietnam is first exhibited. The work consists of a series of black-and-white photographs of glass botanical specimens from the Botanical Museum at Harvard University, chosen according to a list of the thirty-six countries in which political disappearances were known to have taken place during the year 1985. • 1990: Ashley Bickerton and Ronald Jones included in "Mind Over Matter: Concept and Object" exhibition of ”third generation Conceptual artists” at the Whitney Museum of American Art. • 1991: Ronald Jones exhibits objects and text, art, history and science rooted in grim political reality at Metro Pictures Gallery.
Conceptual art • 1991: Charles Saatchi funds Damien Hirst and the next year in the Saatchi Gallery exhibits his The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living, a shark in formaldehyde in a vitrine. • 1992: Maurizio Bolognini starts to "seal" his Programmed Machines: hundreds of computers are programmed and left to run ad infinitum to generate inexhaustible flows of random images which nobody would see. • 1993: Matthieu Laurette established his artistic birth certificate by taking part in a French TV game called 'Tournez manège' (The Dating Game) where the female presenter asked him who he was, to which he replied: 'A multimedia artist'. Laurette had sent out invitations to an art audience to view the show on TV from their home, turning his staging of the artist into a performed reality. • 1993: Vanessa Beecroft holds her first performance in Milan, Italy, using models to act as a second audience to the display of her diary of food. • 1999: Tracey Emin is nominated for the Turner Prize. Part of her exhibit is My Bed, her dishevelled bed, surrounded by detritus such as condoms, blood-stained knickers, bottles and her bedroom slippers. • 2001: Martin Creed wins the Turner Prize for The Lights Going On and Off, an empty room in which the lights go on and off. • 2004: Andrea Fraser's video Untitled, a document of her sexual encounter in a hotel room with a collector (the collector having agreed to help finance the technical costs for enacting and filming the encounter) is exhibited at the Friedrich Petzel Gallery. It is accompanied by her 1993 work Don't Postpone Joy, or Collecting Can Be Fun, a 27-page transcript of an interview with a collector in which the majority of the text has been deleted. • 2005: Simon Starling wins the Turner Prize for Shedboatshed, a wooden shed which he had turned into a boat, floated down the Rhine and turned back into a shed again.
Notable conceptual artists
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Vito Acconci Vikky Alexander Art & Language Marina Abramović Billy Apple Shusaku Arakawa Michael Asher Mireille Astore John Baldessari Artur Barrio Robert Barry Lothar Baumgarten Joseph Beuys Mel Bochner Marinus Boezem Allan Bridge Marcel Broodthaers Chris Burden Daniel Buren Victor Burgin John Milton Cage
• Sophie Calle • Roberto Chabet
Conceptual art • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Martin Creed Jan Dibbets Mark Divo Marcel Duchamp Olafur Eliasson John Fekner Henry Flynt Andrea Fraser Kendell Geers Thierry Geoffroy Gilbert and George Felix Gonzalez-Torres Allan Graham Dan Graham Hans Haacke Iris Häussler Oliver Herring Jenny Holzer Greer Honeywill Zhang Huan Douglas Huebler General Idea David Ireland Ray Johnson Ronald Jones Ilya Kabakov On Kawara Jonathon Keats Mary Kelly Yves Klein Joseph Kosuth Barbara Kruger Yayoi Kusama John Latham Matthieu Laurette Sol LeWitt Richard Long Mark Lombardi Piero Manzoni Danny Matthys Allan McCollum Cildo Meireles Marta Minujín Linda Montano N.E. Thing Co. Ltd. (Iain & Ingrid Baxter)
• Bruce Nauman • Yoko Ono
Conceptual art • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Roman Opalka Dennis Oppenheim Adrian Piper William Pope.L Dmitri Prigov Martha Rosler Allen Ruppersberg Bodo Sperling Hiroshi Sugimoto Stelarc Tyler Turkle Jacek Tylicki Mierle Laderman Ukeles Wolf Vostell Gillian Wearing Peter Weibel Lawrence Weiner
• Roger Welch • Christopher Williams
Books: • Peter Osborne, Conceptual Art (Themes and Movements), Phaidon, 2002 (See also the external links for Robert Smithson) • Klaus Honnef, Concept Art, Cologne: Phaidon, 1972 • Ermanno Migliorini, Conceptual Art, Florence: 1971 • Ursula Meyer, ed., Conceptual Art, New York: Dutton, 1972 • Lucy R. Lippard, Six Years: the Dematerialization of the Art Object From 1966 to 1972. 1973. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. • Gregory Battcock, ed., Idea Art: A Critical Anthology, New York: E. P. Dutton, 1973 • Juan Vicente Aliaga & José Miguel G. Cortés, ed., Arte Conceptual Revisado/Conceptual Art Revisited, Valencia: Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 1990 • Thomas Dreher, Konzeptuelle Kunst in Amerika und England zwischen 1963 und 1976 (Thesis Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München), Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1992 • Robert C. Morgan, Conceptual Art: An American Perspective, Jefferson, NC/London: McFarland, 1994 • Robert C. Morgan, Art into Ideas: Essays on Conceptual Art, Cambridge et al.: Cambridge University Press, 1996 • Tony Godfrey, Conceptual Art, London: 1998 • Alexander Alberro & Blake Stimson, ed., Conceptual Art: A Critical Anthology, Cambridge, Mass., London: MIT Press, 1999 • John Roberts, The Intangibilities of Form: Skill and Deskilling in Art After the Readymade, London and New York: Verso Books, 2007 • Michael Newman & Jon Bird, ed., Rewriting Conceptual Art, London: Reaktion, 1999 • Anne Rorimer, New Art in the 60s and 70s: Redefining Reality, London: Thames & Hudson, 2001 • Daniel Marzona, Conceptual Art, Cologne: Taschen, 2005 • Michael Corris, ed., Conceptual Art: Theory, Practice, Myth, Cambridge, Mass.,: Cambridge University Press, 2004
Conceptual art • Peter Goldie and Elisabeth Schellekens, Who's afraid of conceptual art?, Abingdon [etc.] : Routledge, 2010. VIII, 152 p. : ill. ; 20 cm ISBN 0-415-42281-7 hbk : ISBN 978-0-415-42281-9 hbk : ISBN 0-415-42282-5 pbk : ISBN 978-0-415-42282-6 pbk Exhibit catalogues: • • • • • • • • • • • • January 5–31, 1969, exh.cat., New York: Seth Siegelaub, 1969 When Attitudes Become Form, exh.cat., Bern: Kunsthalle Bern, 1969 557,087, exh.cat., Seattle: Seattle Art Museum, 1969 Konzeption/Conception, exh.cat., Leverkusen: Städt. Museum Leverkusen et al., 1969 Conceptual Art and Conceptual Aspects, exh.cat., New York: New York Cultural Center, 1970 Art in the Mind, exh.cat., Oberlin, Ohio: Allen Memorial Art Museum, 1970 Information, exh.cat., New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1970 Software, exh.cat., New York: Jewish Museum, 1970 Situation Concepts, exh.cat., Innsbruck: Forum für aktuelle Kunst, 1971 Art conceptuel I, exh.cat., Bordeaux: capcMusée d’art contemporain de Bordeaux, 1988 L'art conceptuel, exh.cat., Paris: ARC–Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 1989 Christian Schlatter, ed., Art Conceptuel Formes Conceptuelles/Conceptual Art Conceptual Forms, exh.cat., Paris: Galerie 1900–2000 and Galerie de Poche, 1990
• Reconsidering the Object of Art: 1965-1975, exh.cat., Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art, 1995 • Global Conceptualism: Points of Origin, 1950s-1980s, exh.cat., New York: Queens Museum of Art, 1999
Notes and references
 Facsimile of original instructions for Wall Drawing 811 by Phil Gleason, with a view of the installed work at Franklin Furnace. October 1996. (http:/ / www. franklinfurnace. org/ history/ flow/ lewitt/ lewitt. html)  "Paragraphs on Conceptual Art", Artforum, June 1967.  Godrey, Tony (1988). Conceptual Art (Art & Ideas). London: Phaidon Press Ltd. ISBN 978-0714833880.  Joseph Kosuth, "Art After Philosophy" (1969). Reprinted in Peter Osborne, Conceptual Art: Themes and movements, Phaidon, London, 2002. p. 232  Art & Language, Art-Language (journal): Introduction (1969). Reprinted in Osborne (2002) p. 230  Ian Burn, Mel Ramsden: "Notes On Analysis" (1970). Reprinted in Osborne (2003), p. 237. E.g. "The outcome of much of the 'conceptual' work of the past two years has been to carefully clear the air of objects."  Turner prize history: Conceptual art Tate gallery (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20041211013930/ http:/ / www. tate. org. uk/ britain/ turnerprize/ history/ issue_conceptual. htm) tate.org.uk. Accessed August 8, 2006  Tony Godfrey, Conceptual Art, London: 1998. p. 28  The first text in which the category "concept art" appeared was written by Henry Flynt around 1961-1963. (http:/ / www. henryflynt. org/ aesthetics/ conart. html)  Artlex.com (http:/ / www. artlex. com/ ArtLex/ c/ conceptualart. html)  Rorimer, p. 11  Lucy Lippard & John Chandler, "The Dematerialization of Art", Art International 12:2, February 1968. Reprinted in Osborne (2002), p. 218  Rorimer, p. 12  "Ed Ruscha and Photography" (http:/ / www. artic. edu/ aic/ exhibitions/ exhibition/ ruscha). The Art Institute of Chicago. March 1–June 1, 2008. . Retrieved 14 September 2010.  Anne Rorimer, New Art in the Sixties and Seventies, Thames & Hudson, 2001; p. 71  Rorimer, p. 76  Peter Osborne, Conceptual Art: Themes and movements, Phaidon, London, 2002. p. 28  Osborne (2002), p. 28  stuckism.com (http:/ / www. stuckism. com/ clown2000. html)  Cripps, Charlotte. "Visual arts: Saying knickers to Sir Nicholas (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qn4158/ is_20040907/ ai_n12797891), The Independent, 7 September 2004. Retrieved from findarticles.com, 7 April 2008.  The Guardian (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ uk_news/ story/ 0,3604,634797,00. html)  The Daily Telegraph (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ main. jhtml?xml=/ news/ 2002/ 11/ 01/ nart01. xml)  Reynolds, Nigel 2004 "Saatchi's latest shock for the art world is – painting" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ main. jhtml?xml=/ news/ 2004/ 10/ 02/ nsaat02. xml) The Daily Telegraph 10 February 2004. Accessed April 15, 2006
 Brenson, Michael (19 October 1990). "Review/Art; In the Arena of the Mind, at the Whitney" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9C0CEFDA113CF93AA25753C1A966958260& sec=& spon=& pagewanted=all). The New York Times. .  Smith, Roberta. "Art in review: Ronald Jones Metro Pictures" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9D0CE2DB1539F934A15751C1A967958260), The New York Times, 27 December 1991. Retrieved 8 July 2008.  Sandra Solimano (ed.) (2005) (in English), Maurizio Bolognini. Programmed Machines 1990-2005, Genoa: Villa Croce Museum of Contemporary Art, Neos, ISBN 8887262470  BBC Online (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/ arts/ 1698032. stm)  The Times (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ article/ 0,,2-1905555,00. html)
• Conceptual Art (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/conceptual-art) entry by Elisabet Shellekens in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy • Sol LeWitt, "Paragraphs on Conceptual Art" (http://www.ddooss.org/articulos/idiomas/Sol_Lewitt.htm) • Conceptualism (http://www.art.dostweb.com/) • pdf file of An Anthology of Chance Operations (1963) (http://ubu.com/historical/young/index.html) containing Henry Flynt's "Concept Art" essay at UbuWeb • Minus Space.com (http://www.minusspace.com/), reductive and concept-based art • conceptual artists, books on conceptual art and links to further reading (http://the-artists.org/ artistsbymovement/Conceptual-Art/) • Conceptual Paradise - Wiki On Conceptual Art / Conceptual Artists (http://weblab.uni-lueneburg.de/ conceptual-paradise)
Language may refer either to the specifically human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, or to a specific instance of such a system of complex communication. The scientific study of language in any of its senses is called linguistics. The approximately 3000–6000 languages that are spoken by humans today are the most salient examples, but natural languages can also be based on visual rather than auditory stimuli, for example in sign languages and written language. Codes and other kinds of artificially constructed communication systems such as those used for computer programming can also be called languages. A language in this sense is Arnold Lakhovsky, The Conversation (circa a system of signs for encoding and decoding information. The English 1935) word derives ultimately from Latin lingua, "language, tongue", via Old French. When used as a general concept, "language" refers to the cognitive faculty that enables humans to learn and use systems of complex communication. Language as a communication system is thought to be fundamentally different from and of much higher complexity than those of other species as it is based on a complex system of rules relating symbols to their meanings, resulting in an infinite number of possible innovative utterances from a finite number of elements. Language is thought to
have originated when early hominids first started cooperating, adapting earlier systems of communication based on expressive signs to include a theory of other minds and shared intentionality. This development is thought to have coincided with an increase in brain volume, and many linguists see the structures of language as having evolved to serve specific communicative functions. Language is processed in many different locations in the human brain, but especially in Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. Humans acquire language through social interaction in early childhood, and children generally speak fluently when they are around three years old. The use of language has become deeply entrenched in human culture and, apart from being used to communicate and share information, it also has social and cultural uses, such as signifying group identity, social stratification and for social grooming and entertainment. The word "language" can also be used to describe the set of rules that makes this possible, or the set of utterances that can be produced from those rules. All languages rely on the process of semiosis to relate a sign with a particular meaning. Spoken and signed languages contain a Cuneiform is one of the first known forms of phonological system that governs how sounds or visual symbols are written language, but spoken language is believed used to form sequences known as words or morphemes, and a syntactic to predate writing by tens of thousands of years at system that governs how words and morphemes are used to form least. phrases and utterances. Written languages use visual symbols to represent the sounds of the spoken languages, but they still require syntactic rules that govern the production of meaning from sequences of words. Languages evolve and diversify over time, and the history of their evolution can be reconstructed by comparing modern languages to determine which traits their ancestral languages must have had for the later stages to have occurred. A group of languages that descend from a common ancestor is known as a language family. The languages that are most spoken in the world today belong to the Indo-European family, which includes languages such as English, Spanish, Russian and Hindi; the Sino-Tibetan languages, which include Mandarin Chinese, Cantonese and many others; Semitic languages, which include Arabic, Amharic and Hebrew; and the Bantu languages, which include Swahili, Zulu, Shona and hundreds of other languages spoken throughout Africa.
The word "language" has at least two basic meanings: language as a general concept, and "a language" (a specific linguistic system, e.g. "French"). In French, the language used by Ferdinand de Saussure who first explicitly formulated the distinction, uses the word langage for language as a concept and langue as the specific instance of language. When speaking of language as a general concept, several different definitions can be used that stress different aspects of the phenomenon. These definitions also entail different approaches and understandings of language, and they inform different and often incompatible schools of linguistic theory.
A mental faculty, organ or instinct
One definition sees language primarily as the mental faculty that allows humans to undertake linguistic behaviour: to learn languages and produce and understand utterances. This definition stresses the universality of language to all humans and the biological basis of the human capacity for language as a unique development of the human brain.  This view often understands language to be largely innate, for example as in Chomsky's theory of Universal Grammar, Jerry Fodor’s extreme innatist theory. These kinds of definitions are often applied by studies of language within a cognitive science framework and in neurolinguistics.
A formal symbolic system
Another definition sees language as a formal system of signs governed by grammatical rules of combination to communicate meaning. This definition stresses the fact that human languages can be described as closed structural systems consisting of rules that relate particular signs to particular meanings. This structuralist view of language was first introduced by Ferdinand de Saussure, and his structuralism remains foundational for most approaches to language today. Some proponents of this view of language have advocated a formal approach to studying the structures of language, privileging the formulation of underlying abstract rules that can be understood to generate observable linguistic structures. The main proponent of such a theory is Noam Chomsky, who defines language as a particular set of sentences that can be generated from a particular set of rules. The structuralist viewpoint is commonly used in formal logic, semiotics, and in formal and structural theories of grammar, the most commonly used theoretical frameworks in linguistic description. In the philosophy of language these views are associated with philosophers such as Bertrand Russell, early Wittgenstein, Alfred Tarski and Gottlob Frege.
A tool for communication
Yet another definition sees language as a system of communication that enables humans to cooperate. This definition stresses the social functions of language and the fact that humans use it to express themselves and to manipulate objects in their environment. Functional theories of grammar explain grammatical structures by their communicative functions, and understands the grammatical structures of language to be the result of an adaptive process by which grammar was "tailored" to serve communicative needs of its users. This view of language is associated with the study of language in pragmatic, cognitive and interactional frameworks, as well as in socio-linguistics and linguistic anthropology. Functionalist theories tend to study grammar as a dynamic phenomenon]], as structures that are always in the process of changing as they are employed by their speakers. This view leads to the study of linguistic typology being of importance, as it can be shown that processes of grammaticalization tend to follow trajectories that are partly dependent on typology. In the philosophy of language these views are often associated with Wittgenstein’s later works and with ordinary language philosophers such as G. E. Moore, Paul Grice, John Searle and J. L. Austin.
What makes human language unique
Human language is unique in comparison to other forms of communication, such as those used by animals, because it allows humans to produce an infinite set of utterances from a finite set of elements, and because the symbols and grammatical rules of any particular language are largely arbitrary, so that the system can only be acquired through social interaction. The known systems of communication used by animals, on the other hand, can only express a finite number of utterances that are mostly genetically transmitted. Human language is also unique in that its complex structure has evolved to serve a much wider range of functions than any other kinds of communication system.
The study of language
The study of language, linguistics, has been developing into a science since the first grammatical descriptions of particular languages in India more than 2000 years ago. Today linguistics is a science that concerns itself with all aspects relating to language, examining it from all of the theoretical viewpoints described above. The academic study of language is conducted within many different disciplinary areas and from different theoretical angles, all of which inform modern approaches to linguistics.: For example, Descriptive linguistics examines the grammar of single languages so that people can learn the languages; theoretical linguistics develops theories how best to conceptualize language as a faculty, based on date from the various extant human languages; sociolinguistics studies how languages are used for social purposes informing in turn the study of the social functions of language and grammatical description; neurolinguistics studies how language is processed in the human brain, and allows the experimental testing of theories about the language faculty; computational linguistics builds on thoretical and descriptive linguistics to construct computational models of language often aimed at processing natural language, or at testing linguistic hypotheses; and historical linguistics relies on grammatical and lexical descriptions of languages to trace their individual histories and reconstruct trees of language families by using the comparative method.
The formal study of language began in India with Pāṇini, the 5th century BC grammarian who formulated 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology. Pāṇini’s systematic classification of the sounds of Sanskrit into consonants and vowels, and word classes, such as nouns and verbs, was the first known instance of its kind. In the Middle East Sibawayh ( )ﺳﯿﺒﻮﯾﻪmade a detailed description of Arabic in 760 AD in his monumental work, Al-kitab fi al-nahw ( ,ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮThe Book on Grammar), the first known author to distinguish between sounds and phonemes (sounds as units of a linguistic system).
Ancient Tamil inscription at the Brihadeeswara
Western interest in the study of languages began as early as in the Temple in Thanjavur  East, but the grammarians of the classical languages did not use the same methods or reach the same conclusions as their contemporaries in the Indic world. Early interest in language in the West was a part of philosophy, not of grammatical description. The first insights into semantic theory were made by Plato in his Cratylus dialogue, where he argues that words denote concepts that are eternal and exist in the world of ideas. This work is the first to use the word etymology to describe the history of a word's meaning. Around 280 BC one of Alexander the Great’s successors founded a university (see Musaeum) in Alexandria, where a school of philologists studied the ancient texts in and taught Greek to speakers of other languages. This school was the first to use the word "grammar" in its modern sense, Plato had used the word in its original meaning as "téchnē grammatikḗ" (Τέχνη Γραμματική), the "art of writing," which is also the title of one of the most important works of the Alexandrine school by Dionysius Thrax. Throughout the Middle Ages the study of language was subsumed under the topic of philology, the study of ancient languages and texts, practiced by such educators as Roger Ascham, Wolfgang Ratke and John Amos Comenius.
In the 18th century, the first use of the comparative method by William Jones sparked the rise of comparative linguistics. Bloomfield attributes "the first great scientific linguistic work of the world" to Jacob Grimm, who wrote Deutsche Grammatik. It was soon followed by other authors writing similar comparative studies on other language groups of Europe. The scientific study of language was broadened from Indo-European to language in general by Wilhelm von Humboldt, of whom Bloomfield asserts:
Language "This study received its foundation at the hands of the Prussian statesman and scholar Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767—1835), especially in the first volume of his work on Kavi, the literary language of Java, entitled Über die Verschiedenheit des menschlichen Sprachbaues und ihren Einfluß auf die geistige Entwickelung des Menschengeschlechts (‘On the Variety of the Structure of Human Language and its Influence upon the Mental Development of the Human Race’)."
Early in the 20th century, de Saussure introduced the idea of language as a "semantic code." Substantial additional contributions similar to this came from Louis Hjelmslev, Émile Benveniste and Roman Jakobson, which are characterized as being highly systematic.
In the 1960'es Noam Chomsky built on earlier work of Zellig Harris to formulate the generative theory of language. According to this theory the most basic form of language is a set of syntactic rules that are universal for all humans and which underlies the grammars of all human languages. This set of rules is called Universal Grammar, and for Chomsky describing it is the primary objective of the discipline of linguistics. For this reason the grammars of individual languages are only of importance to linguistics, in so far as they allow us to discern the universal underlying rules from which the observable linguistic variability is generated.
Language and its parts
When described as a system of symbolic communication, language is traditionally seen as consisting of three parts: signs, meanings and a code connecting signs with their meanings. The study of how signs and meanings are combined, used and interpreted is called semiotics. Signs can be composed of sounds, gestures, letters or symbols, depending on whether the language is spoken, signed or written, and they can be combined into complex signs such as words and phrases. When used in communication a sign is encoded and transmitted by a sender through a channel to a receiver who decodes it (a signal). Some of the properties that define human language as opposed to other communication systems are: the arbitrariness of the linguistic sign, meaning that there is no predictable connection between a linguistic sign and its meaning; the duality of the linguistic system, meaning that linguistic structures are built by combining elements into larger structures that can be seen as layered, e.g. how sounds build words and words build phrases; the discreteness of the elements of language, meaning that the elements out of which linguistic signs are constructed are discrete units, e.g. sounds and words, that can be distinguished from each other and rearranged in different patterns; and the productivity of the linguistic system, meaning that the finite number of linguistic elements can be combined into a theoretically infinite number of combinations. The rules under which signs can be combined to form words and phrases are called syntax or grammar. The meaning that is connected to individual signs, words and phrases is called semantics. The division of language into separate but connected systems of sign and meaning goes back to the first linguistic studies of de Saussure and is now used in almost all branches of linguistics.
Languages express meaning by relating a sign to a meaning. Thus languages must have a vocabulary of signs related to specific meaning—the English sign "dog" denotes, for example, a member of the genus Canis. In a language, the array of arbitrary signs connected to specific meanings is called the lexicon, and a single sign connected to a meaning is called a lexeme. Not all meanings in a language are represented by single words-often semantic concepts are embedded in the morphology or syntax of the language in the form of grammatical categories. All languages contain the semantic structure of predication— a structure that predicates a property, state or action. Traditionally
Language semantics has been understood as the study of how speakers and interpreters assign truth values to statements, so that meaning is understood as the process by which a predicate can be said to be true or false about an entity, e.g. "[x [is y]]" or "[x [does y]]." Recently, this model of semantics has been complemented with more dynamic models of meaning that incorporate shared knowledge about the context in which a sign is interpreted into the production of meaning. Such models of meaning are explored in the field of pragmatics.
Sounds and symbols
The ways in which spoken languages use sounds to construct meaning is studied in phonology. The study of how humans produce and perceive vocal sounds is called phonetics. In spoken language meaning is constructed when sounds become part of a system in which some sounds can contribute to expressing meaning and others do not. In any given language only a limited number of the many distinct sounds that can be created by the human vocal apparatus contribute to constructing meaning. Sounds as part of a linguistic system are called phonemes. All spoken languages have phonemes of at least two different categories: vowels and consonants that can be combined into forming syllables. Apart from segments such as consonants and vowels, some languages also use sound in other ways to convey meaning. Many languages, for example, use stress, pitch, duration and tone to distinguish meaning. Because these phenomena operate outside of the level of single segments they are called suprasegmental. Writing systems represent the sounds of human speech using visual symbols. The Latin alphabet (and those on which it is based or that have been derived from it) is based on the representation of single sounds, so that words are constructed from letters that generally denote a single consonant or vowel in the structure of the word. In syllabic scripts, such as the Inuktitut syllabary, each sign represents a whole syllable In logographic scripts each sign represents an entire word. Because all languages have a very large number of words, no purely logographic scripts are known to exist. In order to represent the sounds of the world’s languages in writing, linguists have developed an International Phonetic Alphabet, designed to represent all of the discrete sounds that are known to contribute to meaning in human languages.
Grammar is the study of how meaningful elements (morphemes) within a language can be combined into utterances. Morphemes can either be free or bound. If they are free to be moved around within an utterance, they are usually called words, and if they are bound to other words or morphemes, they are called affixes. The way in which meaningful elements can be combined within a language is governed by rules. The rules obtaining for the internal structure of words are called morphology. The rules of the internal structure of the phrases and sentences are called syntax. Grammatical categories Grammar can be described as a system of categories, and a set of rules that determine how categories combine to form different aspects of meaning. Languages differ widely in whether categories are encoded through the use of categories or lexical units. However, several categories are so common as to be nearly universal. Such universal categories include the encoding of the grammatical relations of participants and predicates by grammatically distinguishing between their relations to a predicate, the encoding of temporal and spatial relations on predicates, and a system of grammatical person governing reference to and distinction between speakers and addressees and those about whom they are speaking.
Language Word classes Languages organize their parts of speech into classes according to their functions and positions relative to other parts. All languages, for instance, make a basic distinction between a group of words that prototypically denote things and concepts and a group of words that prototypically denote actions and events. The first group, which includes English words such as "dog" and "song," are usually called nouns. The second, which includes "run" and "sing," are called verbs. Other common categories are adjectives, words that describe properties or qualities of nouns such as "red" or "big". The word classes also carry out differing functions in grammar. Prototypically verbs are used to construct predicates, while nouns are used as arguments of predicates. In a sentence such as "Sally runs," the predicate is "runs," because it is the word that predicates a specific state about its argument "Sally." Some verbs such as "curse" can take two arguments, e.g. "Sally cursed John." A predicate that can only take a single argument is called intransitive, while a predicate that can take two arguments is called transitive. Many other word classes exist in different languages, such as conjunctions that serve to join two sentences and articles that introduces a noun. Morphology Many languages use the morphological processes of inflection to modify or elaborate on the meaning of words. In some languages words are built of several meaningful units called morphemes, the English word "unexpected" can be analyzed as being composed of the three morphemes "un-", "expect" and "-ed". Morphemes can be classified according to whether they are roots to which other bound morphemes called affixes are added, and bound morphemes can be classified according to their position in relation to the root: prefixes precede the root, suffixes follow the root and infixes are inserted in the middle of a root. Affixes serve to modify or elaborate the meaning of the root. Some languages change the meaning of words by changing the phonological structure of a word, for example the English word "run" which in the past tense is "ran". Furthermore morphology distinguishes between processes of inflection which modifies or elaborates on a word, and derivation which instead creates a new word from an existing one - for example in English "sing" which can become "singer" by adding the derivational morpheme -er which derives an agentive noun from a verb. Languages differ widely in how much they rely on morphology - some languages, traditionally called polysynthetic languages, make extensive use of morphology, so that they express the equivalent of an entire English sentence in a single word. For example the Greenlandic word "oqaatiginerluppaa" "(he/she) speaks badly about him/her" which consists of the root oqaa and six suffixes. Syntax Languages that use inflection to convey meaning often do not have strict rules for word order in a sentence. For example in Latin both Dominus servos vituperabat and Servos vituperabat dominus mean "the master was cursing the slaves", because servos "slaves" is in the accusative case showing that they are the grammatical object of the sentence and dominus "master" is in the nominative case showing that he is the subject. Other languages, however, use little or no inflectional processes and instead use the sequence of words in relation to each other to describe meaning. For example in English the two sentences "the slaves were cursing the master" and "the master was cursing the slaves" mean different things because the role of grammatical subject is encoded by the noun being in front of the verb and the role of object is encoded by the noun appearing after the verb. Syntax then, has to do with the order of words in sentences, and specifically how complex sentences are structured by grouping words together in units, called phrases, that can occupy different places in a larger syntactic structure.
Language Below is a graphic representation of the syntactic analysis of the sentence "the cat sat on the mat". The sentence is analysed as being constituted by a noun phrase, a verb and a prepositional phrase; the prepositional phrase is further divided into a preposition and a noun phrase; and the noun phrases consist of an article and a noun.
Further information: Language acquisition and Second-language acquisition All healthy, normally-developing human beings learn to use language. Children acquire the language or languages used around them – whichever languages they receive sufficient exposure to during childhood. The development is essentially the same for children acquiring signed or spoken languages. This learning process is referred to as first-language acquisition, since unlike many other kinds of learning it requires no direct teaching or specialized study. In The Decent of Man, naturalist Charles Darwin called this process, "an instinctive tendency to acquire an art." First language acquisition proceeds in a fairly regular sequence, though there is a wide degree of variation in the timing of particular stages among normally-developing infants. From birth, newborns respond more readily to human speech than to other sounds. Around one month of age, babies appear to be able to distinguish between different speech sounds. Around six months of age, a child will begin babbling, producing the speech sounds or handshapes of the languages used around them. Words appear around the age of 12 to 18 months; the average vocabulary of an eighteen-month old child is around 50 words. A child's first utterances are holophrases (literally "whole-sentences"), utterances that use just one word to communicate some idea. Several months after a child begins producing words, she or he will produce two-word utterances, and within a few more months begin to produce telegraphic speech, short sentences that are less grammatically complex than adult speech, but that do show regular syntactic structure. From roughly the age of three to five years, a child's ability to speak or sign is refined to the point that it resembles adult language.
Language and culture
Languages, understood as the particular set of speech norms of a particular community, are also a part of the larger culture of the community that speak them. Humans use language as a way of signalling identity with one cultural group and difference from others. Even among speakers of one language several different ways of using the language exist, and each is used to signal affiliation with particular subgroups within a larger culture. Linguists and anthropologists, particularly sociolinguists, ethnolinguists and linguistic anthropologists have specialized in studying how ways of speaking vary between speech communities.
A community's ways of using language is a part of the community's culture, just as other shared practices are, it is way of displaying group identity. Ways of speaking function not only to facilitate communication, but also to identify the social position of the speaker. Linguists use the term varieties, a term that encompasses geographically or socioculturally defined dialects as well as the jargons or styles of subcultures, to refer to the different ways of speaking a language. Linguistic anthropologists and sociologists of language define communicative style as the ways that language is used and understood within a particular culture. Languages do not differ only in pronunciation, vocabulary or grammar, but also through having different "cultures of speaking". Some cultures for example have elaborate systems of "social deixis", systems of signalling social distance through linguistic means. In English, social deixis is shown mostly though distinguishing between addressing
"The Tower of Babel" by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Oil on board, 1563. The Tower of Babel symbolises the division of mankind by a multitude of tongues provided through divine intervention.
Language some people by first name and others by surname, but also in titles such as "Mrs.", "boy", "Doctor" or "Your Honor", but in other languages such systems may be highly complex and codified in the entire grammar and vocabulary of the language. For instance, in several languages of east Asia, such as Thai, Burmese and Javanese, different words are used according to whether a speaker is addressing someone of higher or lower rank than oneself in a ranking system with animals and children ranking the lowest and gods and members of royalty as the highest.
Theories about the origin of language can be divided according to their basic assumptions. Some theories are based on the idea that language is so complex that one can not imagine it simply appearing from nothing in its final form, but that it must have evolved from earlier pre-linguistic systems among our pre-human ancestors. These theories can be called continuity based theories. The opposite viewpoint is that language is such a unique human trait that it cannot be compared to anything found among non-humans and that it must therefore have appeared fairly suddenly in the transition from pre-hominids to early man. These theories can be defined as discontinuity based. Similarly some theories see language mostly as an innate faculty that is largely genetically encoded, while others see it as a system that is largely cultural, that is learned through social Skull of Homo Neanderthalensis interaction. Currently the only prominent proponent of a discontinuity theory discovered in La Chapelle Aux of human language origins is Noam Chomsky. Chomsky proposes that 'some Saints, France. It is unknown random mutation took place, maybe after some strange cosmic ray shower, and it whether Neanderthal humans had reorganized the brain, implanting a language organ in an otherwise primate language. brain'. While cautioning against taking this story too literally, Chomsky insists that 'it may be closer to reality than many other fairy tales that are told about evolutionary processes, including language'. Continuity based theories are currently held by a majority of scholars, but they vary in how they envision this development. Those who see language as being mostly innate, for example Steven Pinker, hold the precedents to be animal cognition, whereas those who see language as a socially learned tool of communication, such as Michael Tomasello see it as having developed from animal communication, either primate gestural or vocal communication. Other continuity based models see language as having developed from music. Because the emergence of language is located in the early prehistory of man, the relevant developments have left no direct historical traces and no comparable processes can be observed today. Theories that stress continuity often look at animals to see if, for example, primates display any traits that can be seen as analogous to what pre-human language must have been like. Alternatively early human fossils can be inspected to look for traces of physical adaptation to language use or for traces of pre-linguistic forms of symbolic behaviour. It is mostly undisputed that pre-human australopithecines did not have communication systems significantly different from those found in great apes in general, but scholarly opinions vary as to the developments since the appearance of Homo some 2.5 million years ago. Some scholars assume the development of primitive language-like systems (proto-language) as early as Homo habilis, while others place the development of primitive symbolic communication only with Homo erectus (1.8 million years ago) or Homo heidelbergensis (0.6 million years ago) and the development of language proper with Homo sapiens sapiens less than 100,000 years ago. Linguistic analysis, used by Johanna Nichols, a linguist at the University of California, Berkeley, to estimate the time required to achieve the current spread and diversity in modern languages today, indicates that vocal language arose at least 100,000 years ago.
Human languages are usually referred to as natural languages, and the science of studying them falls under the purview of linguistics. A common progression for natural languages is that they are considered to be first spoken and then written, and then an understanding and explanation of their grammar is attempted. Languages live, die, polymorph, move from place to place, and change with time. Any language that ceases to change or develop is categorized as a dead language. Conversely, any language that is in a continuous state of change is known as a living language or modern language. It is for these reasons that the biggest challenge for a speaker of a foreign language is to remain immersed in that language in order to keep up with the changes of that language. Making a principled distinction between one language and another is sometimes nearly impossible. For instance, there are a few dialects of German similar to some dialects of Dutch. The transition between languages within the same language family is sometimes gradual (see dialect continuum). Some like to make parallels with biology, where it is not possible to make a well-defined distinction between one species and the next. In either case, the ultimate difficulty may stem from the interactions between languages and populations. (See Dialect or August Schleicher for a longer discussion.) The concepts of Ausbausprache, Abstandsprache and Dachsprache are used to make finer distinctions about the degrees of difference between languages or dialects. A sign language (also signed language) is a language which, instead of acoustically conveyed sound patterns, uses visually transmitted sign patterns (manual communication, body language) to convey meaning—simultaneously combining hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms or body, and facial expressions to fluidly express a speaker's thoughts. Hundreds of sign languages are in use around the world and are at the cores of local Deaf cultures.
An artificial language is a language the phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary of which have been consciously devised or modified by an individual or group, instead of having evolved naturally. There are many possible reasons to construct a language: to ease human communication (see international auxiliary language and code); to bring fiction or an associated constructed world to life; for linguistic experimentation; for artistic creation; and for language games. The expression "planned language" is sometimes used to mean international auxiliary languages and other languages designed for actual use in human communication. Some prefer it to the term "artificial" which may have pejorative connotations in some languages. Outside the Esperanto community, the term language planning means the prescriptions given to a natural language to standardize it; in this regard, even "natural languages" may be artificial in some The first book ever published about respects. Prescriptive grammars, which date to ancient times for classical Esperanto, the world's most widely spoken constructed language. languages such as Latin, Sanskrit, and Chinese are rule-based codifications of natural languages, such codifications being a middle ground between naive natural selection and development of language and its explicit construction.
Mathematics, Logics and computer science use artificial entities called formal languages (including programming languages and markup languages, and some that are more theoretical in nature). These often take the form of character strings, produced by a combination of formal grammar and semantics of arbitrary complexity. A programming language is a formal language endowed with semantics that can be utilized to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer, to perform specific tasks. Programming languages are defined using syntactic and semantic rules, to determine structure and meaning respectively.
The ASCII Table, a scheme for encoding character strings.
Programming languages are employed to facilitate communication about the task of organizing and manipulating information, and to express algorithms precisely. Some authors restrict the term "programming language" to those languages that can express all possible algorithms; sometimes the term "computer language" is applied to artificial languages that are more limited.
The term "animal languages" is often used for non-human systems of communication. Linguists and semioticians do not consider these to be true "language", but describe them as animal communication on the basis on non-symbolic sign systems, because the interaction between animals in such communication is fundamentally different in its underlying principles from human language. According to this approach, since animals aren't born with the ability to reason the term "culture", when applied to animal communities, is understood to refer to something qualitatively different than in human communities. Language, communication and culture are more complex amongst humans. A dog may successfully communicate an aggressive emotional state with a growl, which may or may not cause another dog to keep away or back off. Similarly, when a human screams in fear, it may or may not alert other humans of impending danger. Both of these examples communicate, but both are not what would generally be called language.
Figure-Eight-Shaped Waggle Dance of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera) indicating a food source to the right of the direction of the sun outside the hive. The abdomen of the dancer appears blurred because of the rapid motion from side to side
In several publicized instances, non-human animals have been taught to understand certain features of human language. Karl von Frisch received the Nobel Prize in 1973 for his proof of the sign communication and its variants of the bees. Chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans have been taught hand signs based on American Sign Language. The African Grey Parrot, Alex, which possessed the ability to mimic human speech with a high degree of accuracy, is suspected of having had sufficient intelligence to comprehend some of the speech it mimicked. Though animals can be taught to understand parts of human language, they are unable to develop a language. While proponents of animal communication systems have debated levels of semantics, these systems have not been found to have anything approaching human language syntax.
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Literature (from Latin litterae (plural); letter) is the art of written works, and is not bound to published sources (although, under circumstances unpublished sources can be exempt). The word literature literally means "acquaintance with letters" and the pars pro toto term "letters" is sometimes used to signify "literature," as in the figures of speech "arts and letters" and "man of letters." The two major classifications of literature are poetry and prose. "Literature" is differentiated from popular and ephemeral classes of writing. Terms such as "literary fiction" and "literary merit" are used to distinguish individual works as art-literature rather than vernacular writing, and some critics exclude works from being "literary", for example, on grounds of weak or faulty style, use of slang, poor characterization and shallow or contrived construction. Others exclude all genres such as romance, crime and mystery, science fiction, horror and fantasy. Pop lyrics, which are not technically a written medium at all, have also been drawn into this controversy.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the earliest known literary works. This Babylonian epic poem arises from stories in the Sumerian language. Although the Sumerian stories are older (probably dating to at least 2100 B.C.), it was probably composed around 1900 BC. The epic deals with themes of heroism, friendship, loss, and the quest for eternal life. Different historical periods are reflected in their literature. National and tribal sagas, accounts of the origin of the world and of customs, and myths which sometimes carry Old book bindings at the Merton College, Oxford library moral or spiritual messages predominate in the pre-urban eras. The epics of Homer, dating from the early to middle Iron age, and the great Indian epics of a slightly later period, have more evidence of deliberate literary authorship, surviving like the older myths through oral tradition for long periods before being written down. As a more urban culture developed, academies provided a means of transmission for speculative and philosophical literature in early civilizations, resulting in the prevalence of literature in Ancient China, Ancient India, Persia and Ancient Greece and Rome. Many works of earlier periods, even in narrative form, had a covert moral or didactic purpose, such as the Sanskrit Panchatantra or the Metamorphoses of Ovid. Drama and satire also developed as urban culture provided a larger public audience, and later readership, for literary production. Lyric poetry (as opposed to epic poetry) was often the speciality of courts and aristocratic circles, particularly in East Asia where songs were collected by the Chinese aristocracy as poems, the most notable being the Shijing or Book of Songs. Over a long period, the poetry of popular pre-literate balladry and song interpenetrated and eventually influenced poetry in the literary medium. In ancient China, early literature was primarily focused on philosophy, historiography, military science, agriculture, and poetry. China, the origin of modern paper making and woodblock printing, produced one of the world's first print cultures. Much of Chinese literature originates with the Hundred Schools of Thought period that occurred during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BCE). The most important of these include the Classics of Confucianism, of Daoism, of Mohism, of Legalism, as well as works of military science (e.g. Sun Tzu's The Art of War) and Chinese history (e.g. Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian). Ancient Chinese literature had a heavy emphasis on historiography. The Chinese kept consistent and accurate court records after the year 841 BCE, with the
Literature beginning of the Gonghe regency of the Western Zhou Dynasty. An exemplary piece of narrative history of ancient China was the Zuo Zhuan, which was compiled no later than 389 BCE, and attributed to the blind 5th century BCE historian Zuo Qiuming. In ancient India, literature originated from stories that were originally orally transmitted. Early genres included drama, fables, sutras and epic poetry. Sanskrit literature begins with the Vedas, dating back to 1500–1000 BCE, and continues with the Sanskrit Epics of Iron Age India. The Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts. The Samhitas date to roughly 1500–1000 BCE, and the "circum-Vedic" texts, as well as the redaction of the Samhitas, date to c. 1000-500 BCE, resulting in a Vedic period, spanning the mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, or the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age. The period between approximately the 6th to 1st centuries BC saw the composition and redaction of the two most influential Indian epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, with subsequent redaction progressing down to the 4th century AD. In ancient Greece, the epics of Homer, who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey, and Hesiod, who wrote Works and Days and Theogony, are some of the earliest, and most influential, of Ancient Greek literature. Classical Greek genres included philosophy, poetry, historiography, comedies and dramas. Plato and Aristotle authored philosophical texts that are the foundation of Western philosophy, Sappho and Pindar were influential lyrical poets, and Herodotus and Thucydides were early Greek historians. Although drama was popular in Ancient Greece, of the hundreds of tragedies written and performed during the classical age, only a limited number of plays by three authors still exist: Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. The plays of Aristophanes provide the only real examples of a genre of comic drama known as Old Comedy, the earliest form of Greek Comedy, and are in fact used to define the genre. Roman histories and biographies anticipated the extensive mediaeval literature of lives of saints and miraculous chronicles, but the most characteristic form of the Middle Ages was the romance, an adventurous and sometimes magical narrative with strong popular appeal. Controversial, religious, political and instructional literature proliferated during the Renaissance as a result of the invention of printing, while the mediaeval romance developed into a more character-based and psychological form of narrative, the novel, of which early and important examples are the Chinese Monkey and the German Faust books. In the Age of Reason philosophical tracts and speculations on history and human nature integrated literature with social and political developments. The inevitable reaction was the explosion of Romanticism in the later 18th century which reclaimed the imaginative and fantastical bias of old romances and folk-literature and asserted the primacy of individual experience and emotion. But as the 19th-century went on, European fiction evolved towards realism and naturalism, the meticulous documentation of real life and social trends. Much of the output of naturalism was implicitly polemical, and influenced social and political change, but 20th century fiction and drama moved back towards the subjective, emphasising unconscious motivations and social and environmental pressures on the individual. Writers such as Proust, Eliot, Joyce, Kafka and Pirandello exemplify the trend of documenting internal rather than external realities. Genre fiction, conventionally equated with escapism and static formulas, also threw reality into question in its distinctive 20th-Century developments, through the enquiries of the ever-skeptical detective and the alternative realities of science fiction. The separation of "mainstream" and "genre" forms (including journalism) continued to blur during the period up to our own times.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German writer and author of the Faust books
A poem is a composition written in verse (although verse has been equally used for epic and dramatic fiction). Poems rely heavily on imagery, precise word choice, and metaphor; they may take the form of measures consisting of patterns of stresses (metric feet) or of patterns of different-length syllables (as in classical prosody); and they may or may not utilize rhyme. One cannot readily characterize poetry precisely. Typically though, poetry as a form of literature makes some significant use of the formal properties of the words it uses – the properties of the written or spoken form of the words, independent of their meaning. Meter depends on syllables and on rhythms of speech; rhyme and alliteration depend on the sounds of words. Arguably, poetry pre-dates other forms of literature. Early examples include the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (dated from around 2700 B.C.), parts of the Bible, the surviving works of Homer (the Iliad and the Odyssey), and the Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. In cultures based primarily on oral traditions the formal characteristics of poetry often have a mnemonic function, and important texts: legal, genealogical or moral, for example, may appear first in verse form. Some poetry uses specific forms. Examples include the haiku, the limerick, and the sonnet. A traditional haiku written in Japanese relate to nature, contain seventeen onji (syllables), distributed over three lines in groups of five, seven, and five, and should also have a kigo, a specific word indicating a season. A limerick has five lines, with a rhyme scheme of AABBA, and line lengths of 3,3,2,2,3 stressed syllables. It traditionally has a less reverent attitude towards nature. Poetry not adhering to a formal poetic structure is called "free verse". Language and tradition dictate some poetic norms: Persian poetry always rhymes, Greek poetry rarely rhymes, Italian or French poetry often does, English and German poetry can go either way. Perhaps the most paradigmatic style of English poetry, blank verse, as exemplified in works by Shakespeare and Milton, consists of unrhymed iambic pentameters. Some languages prefer longer lines; some shorter ones. Some of these conventions result from the ease of fitting a specific language's vocabulary and grammar into certain structures, rather than into others; for example, some languages contain more rhyming words than others, or typically have longer words. Other structural conventions come about as the result of historical accidents, where many speakers of a language associate good poetry with a verse form preferred by a particular skilled or popular poet. Works for theatre (see below) traditionally took verse form. This has now become rare outside opera and musicals, although many would argue that the language of drama remains intrinsically poetic. In recent years, digital poetry has arisen that takes advantage of the artistic, publishing, and synthetic qualities of digital media.
An essay consists of a discussion of a topic from an author's personal point of view, exemplified by works by Michel de Montaigne or by Charles Lamb. 'Essay' in English derives from 'attempt.' Thus, one can find open-ended, provocative and/or inconclusive poems. The term "essays" first applied to the self-reflective musings of Michel de Montaigne--even today he has a reputation as the father of this literary form. Genres related to the essay may include: • the memoir, saying the story of an author's life from the author's personal point of view • the epistle: usually a formal, didactic, or elegant letter. • works by Lady Murasaki, the Arabic Hayy ibn Yaqdhan by Ibn Tufail, the Arabic Theologus Autodidactus by Ibn al-Nafis, and the Chinese Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong. Early novels in Europe did not count as significant litera perhaps because "mere" prose writing seemed easy and unimportant. It has become clear, however, that prose writing can provide aesthetic pleasure without adhering to
Literature poetic forms. Additionally, the freedom authors gain in not having to concern themselves with verse structure translates often into a more complex plot or into one richer in precise detail than one typically finds even in narrative poetry. This freedom also allows an author to experiment with many different literary and presentation styles—including poetry—in the scope of a single novel.
Other prose literature
Philosophical, historical, journalistic, and scientific writings are traditionally ranked as literature. They offer some of the oldest prose writings in existence; novels and prose stories earned the names "fiction" to distinguish them from factual writing or nonfiction, which writers historically have crafted in prose.
As advances and specialization have made new scientific research inaccessible to most audiences, the "literary" nature of science writing has become less pronounced over the last two centuries. Now, science appears mostly in journals. Scientific works of Aristotle, Copernicus, and Newton still possess great value, but since the science in them has largely become outdated, they no longer serve for scientific instruction. Yet, they remain too technical to sit well in most programmes of literary study. Outside of "history of science" programmes, students rarely read such works.
Philosophy, too, has become an increasingly academic discipline. More of its practitioners lament this situation than occurs with the sciences; nonetheless most new philosophical work appears in academic journals. Major philosophers through history—Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Descartes, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche—have become as canonical as any writers. Some recent philosophy works are argued to merit the title "literature", such as some of the works by Simon Blackburn; but much of it does not, and some areas, such as logic, have become extremely technical to a degree similar to that of mathematics.
A great deal of historical writing ranks as literature, particularly the genre known as creative nonfiction. So can a great deal of journalism, such as literary journalism. However these areas have become extremely large, and often have a primarily utilitarian purpose: to record data or convey immediate information. As a result the writing in these fields often lacks a literary quality, although it often and in its better moments has that quality. Major "literary" historians include Herodotus, Thucydides and Procopius, all of whom count as canonical literary figures.
Law offers a less clear case. Some writings of Plato and Aristotle, the law tables of Hammurabi of Babylon, or even the early parts of the Bible could be seen as legal literature. Roman civil law as codified in the Corpus Juris Civilis during the reign of Justinian I of the Byzantine Empire has a reputation as significant literature. The founding documents of many countries, including Constitutions and Law Codes, can count as literature; however, most legal writings rarely exhibit much literary merit, as they tend to be rather garrulous.
A play or drama offers another classical literary form that has continued to evolve over the years. It generally comprises chiefly dialogue between characters, and usually aims at dramatic / theatrical performance (see theatre) rather than at reading. During the 18th and 19th centuries, opera developed as a combination of poetry, drama, and music. Nearly all drama took verse form until comparatively recently. Shakespeare could be considered drama. Romeo and Juliet, for example, is a classic romantic drama generally accepted as literature. Greek drama exemplifies the earliest form of drama of which we have substantial knowledge. Tragedy, as a dramatic genre, developed as a performance associated with religious and civic festivals, typically enacting or developing upon well-known historical or mythological themes. Tragedies generally presented very serious themes. With the advent of newer technologies, scripts written for non-stage media have been added to this form. War of the Worlds (radio) in 1938 saw the advent of literature written for radio broadcast, and many works of Drama have been adapted for film or television. Conversely, television, film, and radio literature have been adapted to printed or electronic media.
The term oral literature refers not to written, but to oral traditions, which includes different types of epic, poetry and drama, folktales, ballads. However the use of this oxymoron is controversial and not generally accepted by the scientific community. Some prefer to avoid the etymological question using "oral narrative tradition", "oral sacred tradition", "oral poetry" or directly using epics or poetry (terms that do not necessarily imply writing), others prefer to create neologisms as orature.
Other narrative forms
• Electronic literature is a literary genre consisting of works which originate in digital environments. • Films, videos and broadcast soap operas have carved out a niche which often parallels the functionality of prose fiction. • Graphic novels and comic books present stories told in a combination of sequential artwork, dialogue and text.
Genres of literature
Further information: List of literary genres A literary genre is a category of literature.
A literary technique or literary device can be used by works of literature in order to produce a specific effect on the reader. Literary technique is distinguished from literary genre as military tactics are from military strategy. Thus, though David Copperfield employs satire at certain moments, it belongs to the genre of comic novel, not that of satire. By contrast, Bleak House employs satire so consistently as to belong to the genre of satirical novel. In this way, use of a technique can lead to the development of a new genre, as was the case with one of the first modern novels, Pamela by Samuel Richardson, which by using the epistolary technique strengthened the tradition of the epistolary novel, a genre which had been practiced for some time already but without the same acclaim. Literary criticism implies a critique and evaluation of a piece of literature and in some cases is used to improve a work in progress or classical piece. There are many types of literary criticism and each can be used to critique a piece in a different way or critique a different aspect of a piece.
Literary works have been protected by copyright law from unauthorised reproduction since at least 1710. Literary works are defined by copyright law to mean any work, other than a dramatic or musical work, which is written, spoken or sung, and accordingly includes (a) a table or compilation (other than a database), (b) a computer program, (c) preparatory design material for a computer program, and (d) a database. It should be noted that literary works are not limited to works of literature, but include all works expressed in print or writing (other than dramatic or musical works).
 A Hyatt Mayor, Prints and People, Metropolitan Museum of Art/Princeton, 1971, nos 1-4. ISBN 0-691-00326-2  Gavin Flood sums up mainstream estimates, according to which the Rigveda was compiled from as early as 1500 BCE over a period of several centuries. Flood 1996, p. 37  Aristophanes: Clouds K.J.Dover (ed), Oxford University Press 1970, Intro. page X.  The Statute of Anne 1710 and the Literary Copyright Act 1842 used the term "book". However, since 1911 the statutes have referred to literary works.  University of London Press v. University Tutorial Press 
• English Literature Forum (http://www.englishliteratureforum.com) • Carpe Diem Online Library (http://www.carpediem.im/forumdisplay.php/86-Library) • Project Gutenberg Online Library (http://www.gutenberg.org/) • Abacci (http://www.abacci.com/books/default.asp) – Project Gutenberg texts matched with Amazon reviews • Internet Book List (http://www.iblist.com) similar to IMDb but for books • Internet Archive Digital eBook Collection (http://www.archive.org/details/texts)
Major forms Dance · Music · Opera · Theatre · Circus Minor forms Magic · Puppetry Genres Drama · Tragedy · Comedy · Tragicomedy · Romance · Satire · Epic · Lyric
The performing arts are those forms art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own body, face, and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some physical art object. The term "performing arts" first appeared in the English language in the year 1711.
Types of performing arts
Performing arts include the dance, music, opera, theatre, magic, Spoken word, circus arts and musical theatre. Artists who participate in performing arts in front of an audience are called performers, including actors, comedians, dancers, magicians, musicians, and singers. Performing arts are also supported by workers in related fields, such as songwriting and stagecraft. Performers often adapt their appearance, such as with costumes and stage makeup, etc. There is also a specialized form of fine art in which the artists perform their work live to an audience. This is called performance art. Most performance art also involves some form of plastic art, perhaps in the creation of props. Dance was often referred to as a plastic art during the Modern dance era. Chris Lipman
Theatre is the branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle—indeed any one or more elements of the other performing arts. In addition to the standard narrative dialogue style of plays, theatre takes such forms as plays, musicals, opera, ballet, illusion, mime, classical Indian dance, kabuki, mummers' plays, improvisational theatre, stand-up comedy, pantomime, and non-conventional or arthouse theatre.
Dance (from Old French dancier, perhaps from Frankish) generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. Dance is also used to describe methods of non-verbal communication (see body language) between humans or animals (bee dance, mating dance), motion in inanimate objects (the leaves danced in the wind), and certain music genres.
A scene from The Nutcracker ballet (Watch  ).
Choreography is the art of making dances, and the person who does this is called a choreographer. Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, cultural, aesthetic artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement (such as folk dance) to codified, virtuoso techniques such as ballet. In sports, gymnastics, figure skating, and synchronized swimming are dance disciplines while martial arts "kata" are often compared to dances.
History of Western performing arts
Starting in the 6th century BC, the Classical period of performing art began in Greece, ushered in by the tragic poets such as Sophocles. These poets wrote plays which, in some cases, incorporated dance (see Euripides). The Hellenistic period began the widespread use of comedy. However by the 6th century AD, Western performing arts had been largely ended, as the Dark Ages began. Between the 9th century and 14th century, performing art in the West was limited to religious historical enactments and morality plays, organized by the Church in celebration of holy days and other important events.
In the 15th century performing arts, along with the arts in general, saw a revival as the Renaissance began in Italy and spread throughout Europe plays, some of which incorporated dance were performed and Domenico da Piacenza was credited with the first use of the term ballo (in De Arte Saltandi et Choreas Ducendi) instead of danza (dance) for his baletti or balli which later came to be known as Ballets. The first Ballet per se is considered to be Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx's Ballet Comique de la Reine (1581).
Sophocles, as depicted in the Nordisk familjebok.
By the mid-16th century commedia dell'arte became popular in Europe, introducing the use of improvisation. This period also introduced the Elizabethan masque, featuring music, dance and elaborate costumes as well as professional theatrical companies in England. William Shakespeare's plays in the late 16th century developed from this new class of professional performance. In 1597, the first opera, Dafne was performed and throughout the 17th century, opera would rapidly become the entertainment of choice for the aristocracy in most of Europe, and eventually for large numbers of people living in cities and towns throughout Europe.
commedia dell'arte show, dated 1657. (Louvre)
The introduction of the proscenium arch in Italy during the 17th century established the traditional theater form that persists to this day. Meanwhile, in England, the Puritans forbid acting, bringing a halt to performing arts which lasted until 1660. After this period, women began to appear in both French and English plays. The French introduced a formal dance instruction in the late 17th century. It is also during this time that the first plays were performed in the American Colonies. During the 18th century the introduction of the popular opera buffa brought opera to the masses as an accessible form of performance. Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro and Don Giovanni are landmarks of the late 18th century opera.
Performing arts At the turn of the 19th century Beethoven and the Romantic movement ushered in a new era that lead first to the spectacles of grand opera and then to the musical dramas of Giuseppe Verdi and the Gesamtkunstwerk (total work of art) of the operas of Richard Wagner leading directly to the music of the 20th century. The 19th century was a period of growth for the performing arts for all social classes, technical advances such as the introduction of gaslight to theatres, burlesque, minstrel dancing, and variety theater. In ballet, women make great progress in the previously male-dominated art. Modern dance began in the late 19th century and early 20th century in response to the restrictions of traditional ballet. Konstantin Stanislavski's "System" revolutionized acting in the early 20th century, and continues to have a major influence on actors of stage and screen to the current day. Both impressionism and modern realism were introduced to the stage during this period. The arrival of Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes (1909–1929) revolutionised ballet and the performing arts generally throughout the Western world, most importatntly through Diaghilev's emphasis on collaboration, which brought choreographers, dancers, set designers/artists, composers and musicians together to revitalise and revolutionise ballet. With the invention of the motion picture in the late 19th century by Thomas Edison, and the growth of the motion picture industry in Hollywood in the early 20th century, film became a dominant performance medium throughout the 20th and 21st centuries.
Isadora Duncan, one of the developers of free dance.
Rhythm and blues, a cultural phenomenon of black America became came to prominence in the early 20th century, influencing a range of later popular music styles internationally. In the 1930s Jean Rosenthal introduced what would become modern stage lighting, changing the nature of the stage as the Broadway musical became a phenomenon in the United States.
Post-World War II performing arts were highlighted by the resurgence of both ballet and opera in the Western world. Postmodernism in performing arts dominated the 1960s to large extent. Rock and roll evolved from rhythm and blues during the 1950s, and became the staple musical form of popular entertainment.
Eastern performing arts
The earliest recorded theatrical event dates back to 2000 BC with the passion plays of Ancient Egypt. This story of the god Osiris was performed annually at festivals throughout the civilization, marking the known beginning of a long relationship between theatre and religion. The most popular forms of theater in the medieval Islamic world were puppet theatre (which included hand puppets, shadow plays and marionette
Portrait of Alvin Ailey.
Performing arts productions) and live passion plays known as ta'ziya, where actors re-enact episodes from Muslim history. In particular, Shia Islamic plays revolved around the shaheed (martyrdom) of Ali's sons Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali. Live secular plays were known as akhraja, recorded in medieval adab literature, though they were less common than puppetry and ta'ziya theater.
In Iran there are other forms of theatrical events such as Naghali (story telling), ٰRu-Howzi, Siah-Bazi, Parde-Khani,Mareke giri...
Folk theatre and dramatics can be traced to the religious ritualism of the Vedic peoples in the 2nd millennium BC. This folk theatre of the misty past was mixed with dance, food, ritualism, plus a depiction of events from daily life. It was the last element which made it the origin of the classical theatre of later times. Many historians, notably D. D. Kosambi, Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya, Adya Rangacharaya, etc. have referred to the prevalence of ritualism amongst Indo-Aryan tribes in which some members of the tribe acted as if they were wild animals and some others were the hunters. Those who acted as mammals like goats, buffaloes, reindeer, monkeys, etc. were chased by those playing the role of hunters. Bharata Muni (fl. 5th–2nd century BC) was an ancient Indian writer best known for writing the Natya Shastra of Bharata, a theoretical treatise on Indian performing arts, including theatre, dance, acting, and music, which has been compared to Aristotle's Poetics. Bharata is often known as the father of Indian theatrical arts. His Natya Shastra seems to be the first attempt to develop the technique or rather art, of drama in a systematic manner. The Natya Shastra tells us not only what is to be portrayed in a drama, but how the portrayal is to be done. Drama, as Bharata Muni says, is the imitation of men and their doings (loka-vritti). As men and their doings have to be respected on the stage, so drama in Sanskrit is also known by the term roopaka which means portrayal. The Ramayana and Mahabharata can be considered the first recognized plays that originated in India. These epics provided the inspiration to the earliest Indian dramatists and they do it even today. Indian dramatists such as Bhasa in the 2nd century BC wrote plays that were heavily inspired by the Ramayana and Mahabharata. Kālidāsa in the 1st century BC, is arguably considered to be ancient India's greatest dramatist. Three famous romantic plays written by Kālidāsa are the Mālavikāgnimitram (Mālavikā and Agnimitra), Vikramuurvashiiya (Pertaining to Vikrama and Urvashi), and Abhijñānaśākuntala (The Recognition of Shakuntala). The last was inspired by a story in the Mahabharata and is the most famous. It was the first to be translated into English and German. In comparison to Bhasa, who drew heavily from the epics, Kālidāsa can be considered an original playwright. The next great Indian dramatist was Bhavabhuti (c. 7th century). He is said to have written the following three plays: Malati-Madhava, Mahaviracharita and Uttar Ramacharita. Among these three, the last two cover between them, the entire epic of Ramayana. The powerful Indian emperor Harsha (606–648) is credited with having written three plays: the comedy Ratnavali, Priyadarsika, and the Buddhist drama Nagananda. Many other dramatists followed during the Middle Ages. There were many performing art forms in the southern part of India, Kerala is such a state with different such art forms like Kathakali, Chakyar koothu and there were many prominent artists like Painkulam Raman Chakyar and others.
There are references to theatrical entertainments in China as early as 1500 BC during the Shang Dynasty; they often involved music, clowning and acrobatic displays. The Tang Dynasty is sometimes known as "The Age of 1000 Entertainments". During this era, Emperor Xuanzong formed an acting school known as the Children of the Pear Garden to produce a form of drama that was primarily musical. During the Han Dynasty, shadow puppetry first emerged as a recognized form of theatre in China. There were two distinct forms of shadow puppetry, Cantonese southern and Pekingese northern. The two styles were differentiated by the method of making the puppets and the positioning of the rods on the puppets, as opposed to the type of play performed by the puppets. Both styles generally performed plays depicting great adventure and fantasy, rarely was this very stylized form of theatre used for political propaganda. Cantonese shadow puppets were the larger of the two. They were built using thick leather which created more substantial shadows. Symbolic color was also very prevalent; a black face represented honesty, a red one bravery. The rods used to control Cantonese puppets were attached perpendicular to the puppets’ heads. Thus, they were not seen by the audience when the shadow was created. Pekingese puppets were more delicate and smaller. They were created out of thin, translucent leather usually taken from the belly of a donkey. They were painted with vibrant paints, thus they cast a very colorful shadow. The thin rods which controlled their movements were attached to a leather collar at the neck of the puppet. The rods ran parallel to the bodies of the puppet then turned at a ninety degree angle to connect to the neck. While these rods were visible when the shadow was cast, they laid outside the shadow of the puppet; thus they did not interfere with the appearance of the figure. The rods attached at the necks to facilitate the use of multiple heads with one body. When the heads were not being used, they were stored in a muslin book or fabric lined box. The heads were always removed at night. This was in keeping with the old superstition that if left intact, the puppets would come to life at night. Some puppeteers went so far as to store the heads in one book and the bodies in another, to further reduce the possibility of reanimating puppets. Shadow puppetry is said to have reached its highest point of artistic development in the 11th century before becoming a tool of the government. In the Sung Dynasty, there were many popular plays involving acrobatics and music. These developed in the Yuan Dynasty into a more sophisticated form with a four or five act structure. Yuan drama spread across China and diversified into numerous regional forms, the best known of which is Beijing Opera, which is still popular today.
Further information: Ramakien In Thailand, it has been a tradition from the Middle Ages to stage plays based on plots drawn from Indian epics. In particular, the theatrical version of Thailand's national epic Ramakien, a version of the Indian Ramayana, remains popular in Thailand even today.
In Cambodia, at the ancient capital Angkor Wat, stories from the Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata have been carved on the walls of temples and palaces. Similar reliefs are found at Borobudur in Indonesia.
During the 14th century, there were small companies of actors in Japan who performed short, sometimes vulgar comedies. A director of one of these companies, Kan'ami (1333–1384), had a son, Zeami Motokiyo (1363–1443) who was considered one of the finest child actors in Japan. When Kan'ami's company performed for Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (1358–1408), the Shogun of Japan, he implored Zeami to have a court education for his arts. After Zeami succeeded his father, he continued to perform and adapt his style into what is today Noh. A mixture of pantomime and vocal acrobatics, this style has fascinated the Japanese for hundreds of years. Japan, after a long period of civil wars and political disarray, was unified and at peace primarily due to shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (1600–1668). However, alarmed at increasing Christian growth, he cut off contact from Japan to Europe and China and outlawed Christianity. When peace did come, a flourish of cultural influence and growing merchant class demanded its own entertainment. The first form of theatre to flourish was Ningyō jōruri (commonly referred to as Bunraku). The founder of and main contributor to Ningyō jōruri, Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653–1725), turned his form of theatre into a true art form. Ningyō jōruri is a highly stylized form of theatre using puppets, today about 1/3d the size of a human. The men who control the puppets train their entire lives to become master puppeteers, when they can then operate the puppet's head and right arm and choose to show their faces during the performance. The other puppeteers, controlling the less important limbs of the puppet, cover themselves and their faces in a black suit, to imply their invisibility. The dialogue is handled by a single person, who uses varied tones of voice and speaking manners to simulate different characters. Chikamatsu wrote thousands of plays during his lifetime, most of which are still used today. Kabuki began shortly after Bunraku, legend has it by an actress named Okuni, who lived around the end of the 16th century. Most of Kabuki's material came from Nõ and Bunraku, and its erratic dance-type movements are also an effect of Bunraku. However, Kabuki is less formal and more distant than Nõ, yet very popular among the Japanese public. Actors are trained in many varied things including dancing, singing, pantomime, and even acrobatics. Kabuki was first performed by young girls, then by young boys, and by the end of the 16th century, Kabuki companies consisted of all men. The men who portrayed women on stage were specifically trained to elicit the essence of a woman in their subtle movements and gestures.
 http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=DBeUxXSNiFc  Moreh, Shmuel (1986), "Live Theater in Medieval Islam", in David Ayalon, Moshe Sharon, Studies in Islamic History and Civilization, Brill Publishers, pp. 565–601, ISBN 965264014X
• Bibliography of Performing Arts In The East (http://asia-perfo-arts.com/) • Braziliam's performance group: Tutu-Maramba, Researchs of Performances and Body's Arts (http://www. tutumaramba.com.br/)
A painting on an Ancient Greek vase depicts a music lesson (c. 510 BC). Medium Originating culture Originating era Sound various Paleolithic
Major forms Dance · Music · Opera · Theatre · Circus Minor forms Magic · Puppetry Genres Drama · Tragedy · Comedy · Tragicomedy · Romance · Satire · Epic · Lyric
Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Its common elements are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. The word derives from Greek μουσική (mousike; "art of the Muses"). The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. Music ranges from strictly organized compositions (and their recreation in performance), through improvisational music to aleatoric forms. Music can be divided into genres and subgenres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to individual interpretation, and occasionally controversial. Within "the arts", music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art, and auditory art. There is also a strong connection between music and mathematics. To many people in many cultures, music is an important part of their way of life. Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres" and "it is music to my ears" point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, saying, for example, "There is no noise, only sound." Musicologist Jean-Jacques Nattiez summarizes the relativist, post-modern viewpoint: "The border between music and noise is always culturally defined—which implies that, even within a single society, this border does not always pass through the same place; in short, there is rarely a consensus ... By all accounts there is no single and intercultural universal concept defining what music might be."
Prehistoric music can only be theorized based on findings from paleolithic archaeology sites. Flutes are often discovered, carved from bones in which lateral holes have been pierced; these are thought to have been blown at one end like the Japanese shakuhachi. The Divje Babe flute, carved from a cave bear femur, is thought to be at least 40,000 years old. Instruments such as the seven-holed flute and various types of stringed instruments have been recovered from the Indus Valley Civilization archaeological sites. India has one of the oldest musical traditions in the world—references to Indian classical music (marga) are found in the Vedas, ancient scriptures of the Hindu tradition. The earliest and largest collection of prehistoric musical instruments was found in China and dates back to between 7000 and 6600 BC. The Hurrian song, found on clay tablets that date back to approximately 1400 BC, is the oldest surviving notated work of music.
References in the Bible
Music and theatre scholars studying the history and anthropology of Semitic and early Judeo-Christian culture have discovered common links in theatrical and musical activity between the classical cultures of the Hebrews and those of later Greeks and Romans. The common area of performance is found in a "social phenomenon called litany," a form of prayer consisting of a series of invocations or supplications. The Journal of Religion and Theatre notes that among the earliest forms of litany, "Hebrew litany was accompanied by a rich musical tradition:" "While Genesis 4.21 identifies Jubal as the “father of all such as handle the harp and pipe,” the Pentateuch is nearly silent about the practice and instruction of music in the early life of Israel. Then, in I Samuel 10 and the texts that follow, a curious thing happens. “One finds in the biblical text,” writes Alfred Sendrey, "David with his harp" Paris Psalter, c. 960, Constantinople “a sudden and unexplained upsurge of large choirs and orchestras, consisting of thoroughly organized and trained musical groups, which would be virtually inconceivable without lengthy, methodical preparation.” This has led some scholars to believe that the prophet Samuel was the patriarch of a school, which taught not only prophets and holy men, but also sacred-rite musicians. This public music school, perhaps the earliest in recorded history, was not restricted to a priestly class—which is how the shepherd boy David appears on the scene as a minstrel to King Saul."
Western cultures have had a major influence on the development of music. The history of the music of the Western cultures can be traced back to Ancient Greece times. Ancient Greece Music was an important part of social and cultural life in Ancient Greece. Musicians and singers played a prominent role in Greek theater. Mixed-gender choruses performed for entertainment, celebration, and spiritual ceremonies. Instruments included the double-reed aulos and a plucked string instrument, the lyre, principally the special kind called a kithara. Music was an important part of education, and boys were taught music starting at age six. Greek musical literacy created a flowering of music development. Greek music theory included the Greek musical modes, that eventually became the basis for Western religious and classical music. Later, influences from the Roman
Music Empire, Eastern Europe, and the Byzantine Empire changed Greek music.
The Middle Ages
The medieval era (476 A.D. to 1400 A.D.) started with the introduction of chanting into Roman Catholic Church services. Western Music then started becoming more of an art form with the advances in music notation. The only European Medieval repertory that survives from before about 800 is the monophonic liturgical plainsong of the Roman Catholic Church, the central tradition of which was called Gregorian chant. Alongside these traditions of sacred and church music there existed a vibrant tradition of secular song. Examples of composers from this period are Léonin, Pérotin and Guillaume de Machaut. From the Renaissance music era, much of the surviving music of 14th century Europe is secular. By the middle of the 15th century, composers and singers used a smooth polyphony for sacred musical compositions. Prominent composers from this era are Guillaume Dufay, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Thomas Morley, and Orlande de Lassus.
Renaissance music (c. 1400 A.D. to 1600 A.D.) was more focused on secular themes. Around 1450, the printing press was invented, and that helped to disseminate musical styles more quickly and across a larger area. Thus, music could play an increasingly important role in daily life. Musicians worked for the church, courts and towns. Church choirs grew in size, and the church remained an important patron of music. However, musical activity shifted to the courts. Kings and princes competed for the finest composers. Many leading important composers came from Holland, Belgium, and northern France, called the Franco-Flemish composers. They held important positions throughout Europe, especially in Italy. Other countries with vibrant musical lives include Germany, England, and Spain.
Allegory of Music, by Filippino Lippi
J.S.Bach Toccata und Fuge
During the Baroque music expanded in range and complexity. The era of Baroque music (1600 to 1750) began when the first operas were written and when contrapuntal music became prevalent. German Baroque composers wrote for small ensembles including strings, brass, and woodwinds, as well as choirs, pipe organ, harpsichord, and clavichord. During the Baroque period, several major music forms were defined that lasted into later periods when they were expanded and evolved further, including the fugue, the invention, the sonata, and the concerto. The late Baroque style was polyphonically complex and ornamental and rich in its melodies. Composers from the Baroque era include Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, and Georg Philipp Telemann.
W.A. Mozart Symphony 40 g-moll
The music of the Classical Period (1750 A.D. to 1830 A.D.) looked to the art and philosophy of Ancient Greece and Rome, to the ideals of balance, proportion and disciplined expression. It has a lighter, clearer and considerably simpler texture, and tended to be almost voicelike and singable. New genres were discovered. The main style was the homophony, where prominent melody and accompaniment are clearly distinct. Importance was given to instrumental music. It was dominated by further evolution of musical forms initially defined in the Baroque period: the sonata, the concerto, and the symphony. Others main kinds were trio, string quartet, serenade and divertimento. The sonata was the most important and developed form. Although Baroque composers also wrote sonatas, the Classical style of sonata is completely distinct. All of the main instrumental forms of the Classical era were based on the dramatic structure of the sonata. One of the most important evolutionary steps made in the Classical period was the development of public concerts. The aristocracy would still play a significant role in the sponsorship of musical life, but it was now possible for composers to survive without being its permanent employees. The increasing popularity led to a growth in both the number and range of the orchestras. The expansion of orchestral concerts necessitated large public spaces. As a result of all these processes, symphonic music (including opera and oratorio) became more extroverted. The best known composers of the Classicism are Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Christoph Willibald Gluck, Johann Christian Bach, Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert. Beethoven and Schubert are also considered to be composers in evolution towards the Romanticism.
R. Wagner Die Walküre
Romantic Music (c. 1810 A.D. to 1900 A.D.) turned the rigid styles and forms of the Classical era into more passionate and expressive pieces. It attempted to increase emotional expression and power to describe deeper truths or human feelings. The emotional and expressive qualities of music came to take precedence over technique and tradition. Romantic composers grew in idiosyncrasy, and went further in the syncretism of different art-forms (such as literature), history (historical figures), or nature itself with music. Romantic love was a prevalent theme in many works composed during this period. In some cases the formal structures from the classical period were preserved, but in many others existing genres, forms, and functions were improved. Also, new forms were created that were deemed better suited to the new subject matter. In 1800, the music developed by Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert introduced a more dramatic, expressive style. In Beethoven's case, motifs, developed organically, came to replace melody as the most significant compositional unit. Later Romantic composers such as Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Gustav Mahler used more elaborated chords and more dissonance to create dramatic tension. They generated complex and often much longer musical works. During Romantic period tonality was at its peak. The late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the orchestra, and in the role of concerts as part of urban society.
Indian classical music is one of the oldest musical traditions in the world. The Indus Valley civilization has sculptures that show dance and old musical instruments, like the seven holed flute. Various types of stringed instruments and drums have been recovered from Harrappa and Mohenjo Daro by excavations carried out by Sir Mortimer Wheeler. The Rigveda has elements of present Indian music, with a musical notation to denote the metre and the mode of chanting. Indian classical music (marga) is monophonic, and based on a single melody line or raga rhythmically organized through talas. Hindustani music was influenced by the Persian performance practices of the Afghan Mughals. Carnatic music popular in the southern states, is largely devotional; the majority of the songs are addressed to the Hindu deities. There are a lot of songs emphasising love and other social issues. Asian music covers the music cultures of Arabia, Central Asia, East Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. Chinese classical music, the traditional art or court music of China, has a history stretching over around three thousand years. It has its own unique systems of musical notation, as well as musical tuning and pitch, musical instruments and styles or musical genres. Chinese music is pentatonic-diatonic, having a scale of twelve notes to an octave (5 + 7 = 12) as does European-influenced music. Persian music is the music of Persia and Persian language countries: musiqi, the science and art of music, and muzik, the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983). See also: Music of Iran, Music of Afghanistan, Music of Tajikistan, Music of Uzbekistan.
20th and 21st century music
With 20th century music, there was a vast increase in music listening as the radio gained popularity and phonographs were used to replay and distribute music. The focus of art music was characterized by exploration of new rhythms, styles, and sounds. Igor Stravinsky, Arnold Schoenberg, and John Cage were all influential composers in 20th century art music. The invention of sound recording and the ability to edit music gave rise to new sub-genre of classical music, including the acousmatic  and Musique concrète schools of electronic composition.
Double bassist Reggie Workman, tenor saxophone Jazz evolved and became an important genre of music over the player Pharoah Sanders, and drummer Idris course of the 20th century, and during the second half of that Muhammad performing in 1978 century, rock music did the same. Jazz is an American musical artform that originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States from a confluence of African and European music traditions. The style's West African pedigree is evident in its use of blue notes, improvisation, polyrhythms, syncopation, and the swung note. From its early development until the present, jazz has also incorporated music from 19th and 20th century American popular music. Jazz has, from its early 20th century inception, spawned a variety of subgenres, ranging from New Orleans Dixieland (1910s) to 1970s and 1980s-era jazz-rock fusion.
Rock music is a genre of popular music that developed in the 1960s from 1950s rock and roll, rockabilly, blues, and country music. The sound of rock often revolves around the electric guitar or acoustic guitar, and it uses a strong back beat laid down by a rhythm section of electric bass guitar, drums, and keyboard instruments such as organ, piano, or, since the 1970s, analog synthesizers and digital ones and computers since the 1990s. Along with the guitar or keyboards, saxophone and blues-style harmonica are used as soloing instruments. In its "purest form," it "has three chords, a strong, insistent back beat, and a catchy melody." In the late 1960s and early 1970s, it branched out into different subgenres, ranging from blues rock and jazz-rock fusion to heavy metal and punk rock, as well as the more classical influenced genre of progressive rock and several types of experimental rock genres.
Performance is the physical expression of music. Often, a musical work is performed once its structure and instrumentation are satisfactory to its creators; however, as it gets performed, it can evolve and change. A performance can either be rehearsed or improvised. Improvisation is a musical idea created without premeditation, while rehearsal is vigorous repetition of an idea until it has achieved cohesion. Musicians will sometimes add improvisation to a well-rehearsed idea to create a unique performance. Many cultures include strong traditions of solo and performance, such Chinese Naxi musicians as in Indian classical music, and in the Western art-music tradition. Other cultures, such as in Bali, include strong traditions of group performance. All cultures include a mixture of both, and performance may range from improvised solo playing for one's enjoyment to highly planned and organised performance rituals such as the modern classical concert, religious processions, music festivals or music competitions. Chamber music, which is music for a small ensemble with only a few of each type of instrument, is often seen as more intimate than symphonic works.
Many types of music, such as traditional blues and folk music were originally preserved in the memory of performers, and the songs were handed down orally, or aurally (by ear). When the composer of music is no longer known, this music is often classified as "traditional." Different musical traditions have different attitudes towards how and where to make changes to the original source material, from quite strict, to those that demand improvisation or modification to the music. A culture's history may also be passed by ear through song.
The detail included explicitly in the music notation varies between genres and historical periods. In general, art music notation from the 17th through the 19th century required performers to have a great deal of contextual knowledge about performing styles. For example, in the 17th and 18th century, music notated for solo performers typically indicated a simple, unadorned melody. However, performers were expected to know how to add stylistically appropriate ornaments, In a score or on a performer's such as trills and turns. In the 19th century, art music for solo performers may give music part, this sign indicates that a general instruction such as to perform the music expressively, without describing the musician should perform a in detail how the performer should do this. The performer was expected to know trill—a rapid alternation between two notes. how to use tempo changes, accentuation, and pauses (among other devices) to obtain this "expressive" performance style. In the 20th century, art music notation often became more explicit and used a range of markings and annotations to indicate to performers how they should play or sing the piece. In popular music and jazz, music notation almost always indicates only the basic framework of the melody, harmony, or performance approach; musicians and singers are expected to know the performance conventions and styles associated with specific genres and pieces. For example, the "lead sheet" for a jazz tune may only indicate the melody and the chord changes. The performers in the jazz ensemble are expected to know how to "flesh out" this basic structure by adding ornaments, improvised music, and chordal accompaniment.
Music is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace. Amateur musicians compose and perform music for their own pleasure, and they do not derive their income from music. Professional musicians are employed by a range of institutions and organisations, including armed forces, churches and synagogues, symphony orchestras, broadcasting or film production companies, and music schools. Professional musicians sometimes work as freelancers, seeking contracts and engagements in a variety of settings.
Jean-Gabriel Ferlan performing at a 2008 concert at the collège-lycée Saint-François Xavier
There are often many links between amateur and professional musicians. Beginning amateur musicians take lessons with professional musicians. In community settings, advanced amateur musicians perform with professional musicians in a variety of ensembles and orchestras. In some cases, amateur musicians attain a professional level of competence, and they are able to perform in professional performance settings. A distinction is often made between music performed for the benefit of a live audience and music that is performed for the purpose of being recorded and distributed through the music retail system or the broadcasting system. However, there are also many cases where a live performance in front of an audience is recorded and distributed (or broadcast).
"Composition" is often classed as the creation and recording of music via a medium by which others can interpret it (i.e., paper or sound). Many cultures use at least part of the concept of preconceiving musical material, or composition, as held in western classical music. Even when music is notated precisely, there are still many decisions that a performer has to make. The process of a performer deciding how to perform music that has been previously composed and notated is termed interpretation. Different performers' interpretations of the same An old songbook showing a composition music can vary widely. Composers and song writers who present their own music are interpreting, just as much as those who perform the music of others or folk music. The standard body of choices and techniques present at a given time and a given place is referred to as performance practice, whereas interpretation is generally used to mean either individual choices of a performer, or an aspect of music that is not clear, and therefore has a "standard" interpretation. In some musical genres, such as jazz and blues, even more freedom is given to the performer to engage in improvisation on a basic melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic framework. The greatest latitude is given to the performer in a style of performing called free improvisation, which is material that is spontaneously "thought of" (imagined) while being performed, not preconceived. Improvised music usually follows stylistic or genre conventions and even "fully composed" includes some freely chosen material. Composition does not always mean the use of notation, or the known sole authorship of one individual. Music can also be determined by describing a "process" that creates musical sounds. Examples of this range from wind chimes, through computer programs that select sounds. Music from random elements is called Aleatoric music, and is associated with such composers as John Cage, Morton Feldman, and Witold Lutosławski. Music can be composed for repeated performance or it can be improvised: composed on the spot. The music can be performed entirely from memory, from a written system of musical notation, or some combination of both. Study of
Music composition has traditionally been dominated by examination of methods and practice of Western classical music, but the definition of composition is broad enough to include spontaneously improvised works like those of free jazz performers and African drummers such as the Ewe drummers.
Notation is the written expression of music notes and rhythms on paper using symbols. When music is written down, the pitches and rhythm of the music is notated, along with instructions on how to perform the music. The study of how to read notation involves music theory, harmony, the study of performance practice, and in some cases an understanding of historical performance methods. Sheet music is written representation of music. This is Written notation varies with style and period of music. In Western a homorhythmic (i.e., hymn-style) arrangement of a Art music, the most common types of written notation are scores, traditional piece entitled Adeste Fideles, in standard which include all the music parts of an ensemble piece, and parts, two-staff format for mixed voices. which are the music notation for the individual performers or singers. In popular music, jazz, and blues, the standard musical notation is the lead sheet, which notates the melody, chords, lyrics (if it is a vocal piece), and structure of the music. Scores and parts are also used in popular music and jazz, particularly in large ensembles such as jazz "big bands." In popular music, guitarists and electric bass players often read music notated in tablature (often abbreviated as "tab"), which indicates the location of the notes to be played on the instrument using a diagram of the guitar or bass fingerboard. Tabulature was also used in the Baroque era to notate music for the lute, a stringed, fretted instrument. Notated music is produced as sheet music. To perform music from notation requires an understanding of both the rhythmic and pitch elements embodied in the symbols and the performance practice that is associated with a piece of music or a genre.
Musical improvisation is the creation of spontaneous music. Improvisation is often considered an act of instantaneous composition by performers, where compositional techniques are employed with or without preparation. Improvisation is a major part of some types of music, such as blues, jazz, and jazz fusion, in which instrumental performers improvise solos and melody lines. In the Western art music tradition, improvisation was an important skill during the Baroque era and during the Classical era; solo performers and singers improvised virtuoso cadenzas during concerts. However, in the 20th and 21st century, improvisation played a smaller role in Western Art music.
Music theory encompasses the nature and mechanics of music. It often involves identifying patterns that govern composers' techniques and examining the language and notation of music. In a grand sense, music theory distills and analyzes the parameters or elements of music – rhythm, harmony (harmonic function), melody, structure, form, and texture. Broadly, music theory may include any statement, belief, or conception of or about music. People who study these properties are known as music theorists. Some have applied acoustics, human physiology, and psychology to the explanation of how and why music is perceived. Music has many different fundamentals or elements. These are, but are not limited to: pitch, beat or pulse, rhythm, melody, harmony, texture, allocation of voices, timbre or color, expressive qualities (dynamics and articulation), and form or structure. Pitch is a subjective sensation, reflecting generally the lowness or highness of a sound. Rhythm is the arrangement of sounds and silences in time. Meter animates time in regular pulse groupings, called measures or bars. A melody is a
Music series of notes sounding in succession. The notes of a melody are typically created with respect to pitch systems such as scales or modes. Harmony is the study of vertical sonorities in music. Vertical sonority refers to considering the relationships between pitches that occur together; usually this means at the same time, although harmony can also be implied by a melody that outlines a harmonic structure. Notes can be arranged into different scales and modes. Western music theory generally divides the octave into a series of 12 notes that might be included in a piece of music. In music written using the system of major-minor tonality, the key of a piece determines the scale used. Musical texture is the overall sound of a piece of music commonly described according to the number of and relationship between parts or lines of music: monophony, heterophony, polyphony, homophony, or monody. Timbre, sometimes called "Color" or "Tone Color" is the quality or sound of a voice or instrument. Expressive Qualities are those elements in music that create change in music that are not related to pitch, rhythm or timbre. They include Dynamics and Articulation. Form is a facet of music theory that explores the concept of musical syntax, on a local and global level. Examples of common forms of Western music include the fugue, the invention, sonata-allegro, canon, strophic, theme and variations, and rondo. Popular Music often makes use of strophic form often in conjunction with Twelve bar blues. Analysis is the effort to describe and explain music.
Further information: Hearing (sense) and Psychoacoustics The field of music cognition involves the study of many aspects of music including how it is processed by listeners. Rather than accepting the standard practices of analyzing, composing, and performing music as a given, much research in music cognition seeks instead to uncover the mental processes that underlie these practices. Also, research in the field seeks to uncover commonalities between the musical traditions of disparate cultures and possible cognitive "constraints" that limit these musical systems. Questions regarding musical innateness, and emotional responses to music are also major areas of research in the field.
Deaf people can experience music by feeling the vibrations in their body, a process that can be enhanced if the individual holds a resonant, hollow object. A well-known deaf musician is the composer Ludwig van Beethoven, who composed many famous works even after he had completely lost his hearing. Recent examples of deaf musicians include Evelyn Glennie, a highly acclaimed percussionist who has been deaf since age twelve, and Chris Buck, a virtuoso violinist who has lost his hearing. This is relevant because it indicates that music is a deeper cognitive process than unexamined phrases such as, "pleasing to the ear" suggests. Much research in music cognition seeks to uncover these complex mental processes involved in listening to music, which may seem intuitively simple, yet are vastly intricate and complex. University of Montreal researcher Valorie Salimpoor and her colleagues have now shown that the pleasurable feelings associated with emotional music are the result of dopamine release in the striatum--the same anatomical areas that underpin the anticipatory and rewarding aspects of drug addiction.
A chamber music group consisting of stringed instrument players, a flautist, and a harpsichordist perform in Salzburg
This Song Dynasty (960–1279) painting, entitled the "Night Revels of Han Xizai," shows Chinese musicians entertaining guests at a party in a 10th century household.
Music is experienced by individuals in a range of social settings ranging from being alone to attending a large concert. Musical performances take different forms in different cultures and socioeconomic milieus. In Europe and North America, there is often a divide between what types of music are viewed as a "high culture" and "low culture." "High culture" types of music typically include Western art music such as Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and modern-era symphonies, concertos, and solo works, and are typically heard in formal concerts in concert halls and churches, with the audience sitting quietly in seats. Other types of music—including, but not limited to, jazz, blues, soul, and country—are often performed in bars, nightclubs, and theatres, where the audience may be able to drink, dance, and express themselves by cheering. Until the later 20th century, the division between "high" and "low" musical forms was widely accepted as a valid distinction that separated out better quality, more advanced "art music" from the popular styles of music heard in bars and dance halls. However, in the 1980s and 1990s, musicologists studying this perceived divide between "high" and "low" musical genres argued that this distinction is not based on the musical value or quality of the different types of music. Rather, they argued that this distinction was based largely on the socioeconomics standing or social class of the performers or audience of the different types of music. For example, whereas the audience for Classical symphony concerts typically have above-average incomes, the audience for a rap concert in an inner-city area may have below-average incomes. Even though the performers, audience, or venue where non-"art" music is performed may have a lower socioeconomic status, the music that is performed, such as blues, rap, punk, funk, or ska may be very complex and sophisticated. When composers introduce styles of music that break with convention, there can be a strong resistance from academic music experts and popular culture. Late-period Beethoven string quartets, Stravinsky ballet scores, serialism, bebop-era jazz, hip hop, punk rock, and electronica have all been considered non-music by some critics when they were first introduced. Such themes are examined in the sociology of music. The sociological study of music, sometimes called sociomusicology, is often pursued in departments of sociology, media studies, or music, and is closely related to the field of ethnomusicology.
Media and technology
Further information: Computer music The music that composers make can be heard through several media; the most traditional way is to hear it live, in the presence, or as one of the musicians. Live music can also be broadcast over the radio, television or the Internet. Some musical styles focus on producing a sound for a performance, while others focus on producing a recording that mixes together sounds that were never played "live." Recording, even of essentially live styles, often uses the ability to edit and splice to produce recordings considered better than the actual performance.
A 12-inch (30-cm) 331⁄3 rpm record (left), a 7-inch 45 rpm record (right), which are both analog sound storage mediums, and a CD (above), a digital medium.
As talking pictures emerged in the early 20th century, with their prerecorded musical tracks, an increasing number of moviehouse orchestra musicians found themselves out of work. During the 1920s live musical performances by orchestras, pianists, and theater organists were common at first-run theaters. With the coming of the talking motion pictures, those featured performances were largely eliminated. The American Federation of Musicians (AFM) took out newspaper advertisements protesting the replacement of live musicians with mechanical playing devices. One 1929 ad that appeared in the Pittsburgh Press features an image of a can labeled "Canned Music / Big Noise Brand / Guaranteed to Produce No Intellectual or Emotional Reaction Whatever" Since legislation introduced to help protect performers, composers, publishers and producers, including the Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 in the United States, and the 1979 revised Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works in the United Kingdom, recordings and live performances have also become more accessible through computers, devices and Internet in a form that is commonly known as Music-On-Demand. In many cultures, there is less distinction between performing and listening to music, since virtually everyone is involved in some sort of musical activity, often communal. In industrialized countries, listening to music through a recorded form, such as sound recording or watching a music video, became more common than experiencing live performance, roughly in the middle of the 20th century. Sometimes, live performances incorporate prerecorded sounds. For example, a disc jockey uses disc records for scratching, and some 20th century works have a solo for an instrument or voice that is performed along with music that is prerecorded onto a tape. Computers and many keyboards can be programmed to produce and play Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) music. Audiences can also become performers by participating in karaoke, an activity of Japanese origin centered on a device that plays voice-eliminated versions of well-known songs. Most karaoke machines also have video screens that show lyrics to songs being performed; performers can follow the lyrics as they sing over the instrumental tracks.
The advent of the Internet has transformed the experience of music, partly through the increased ease of access to music and the increased choice. Chris Anderson, in his book The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, suggests that while the economic model of supply and demand describes scarcity, the Internet retail model is based on abundance. Digital storage costs are low, so a company can afford to make its whole inventory available online, giving customers as much choice as possible. It has thus become economically viable to offer products that very few people are interested in. Consumers' growing awareness of their increased choice results in a closer association between listening tastes and social identity, and the creation of thousands of niche markets. Another effect of the Internet arises with online communities like YouTube and MySpace. MySpace has made social networking with other musicians easier, and greatly facilitates the distribution of one's music. YouTube also has a large community of both amateur and professional musicians who post videos and comments. Professional musicians also use YouTube as a free publisher of promotional material. YouTube users, for example, no longer only download and listen to MP3s, but also actively create their own. According to Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, in their book Wikinomics, there has been a shift from a traditional consumer role to what they call a "prosumer" role, a consumer who both creates and consumes. Manifestations of this in music include the production of mashes, remixes, and music videos by fans.
The music industry refers to the business industry connected with the creation and sale of music. It consists of record companies, labels and publishers that distribute recorded music products internationally and that often control the rights to those products. Some music labels are "independent," while others are subsidiaries of larger corporate entities or international media groups. In the 2000s, the increasing popularity of listening to music as digital music files on MP3 players, iPods, or computers, and of trading music on file sharing sites or buying it online in the form of digital files had a major impact on the traditional music business. Many smaller independent CD stores went out of business as music buyers decreased their purchases of CDs, and many labels had lower CD sales. Some companies did well with the change to a digital format, though, such as Apple's iTunes, an online store that sells digital files of songs over the Internet.
The incorporation of music training from preschool to post secondary education is common in North America and Europe. Involvement in music is thought to teach basic skills such as concentration, counting, listening, and cooperation while also promoting understanding of language, improving the ability to recall information, and creating an environment more conducive to learning in other areas. In elementary schools, children often learn to play instruments such as the recorder, sing in small choirs, and learn about the history
A Suzuki violin recital with students of varying ages.
Music of Western art music. In secondary schools students may have the opportunity to perform some type of musical ensembles, such as choirs, marching bands, concert bands, jazz bands, or orchestras, and in some school systems, music classes may be available. Some students also take private music lessons with a teacher. Amateur musicians typically take lessons to learn musical rudiments and beginner- to intermediate-level musical techniques. At the university level, students in most arts and humanities programs can receive credit for taking music courses, which typically take the form of an overview course on the history of music, or a music appreciation course that focuses on listening to music and learning about different musical styles. In addition, most North American and European universities have some type of musical ensembles that non-music students are able to participate in, such as choirs, marching bands, or orchestras. The study of Western art music is increasingly common outside of North America and Europe, such as the Indonesian Institute of the Arts in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, or the classical music programs that are available in Asian countries such as South Korea, Japan, and China. At the same time, Western universities and colleges are widening their curriculum to include music of non-Western cultures, such as the music of Africa or Bali (e.g. Gamelan music).
Musicology is the study of the subject of music. The earliest definitions defined three sub-disciplines: systematic musicology, historical musicology, and comparative musicology or ethnomusicology. In contemporary scholarship, one is more likely to encounter a division of the discipline into music theory, music history, and ethnomusicology. Research in musicology has often been enriched by cross-disciplinary work, for example in the field of psychoacoustics. The study of music of non-western cultures, and the cultural study of music, is called ethnomusicology. Students can pursue the undergraduate study of musicology, ethnomusicology, music history, and music theory through several different types of degrees, including a B.Mus, a B.A. with concentration in music, a B.A. with Honors in Music, or a B.A. in Music History and Literature. Graduates of undergraduate music programs can go on to further study in music graduate programs. Graduate degrees include the Master of Music, the Master of Arts, the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) (e.g., in musicology or music theory), and more recently, the Doctor of Musical Arts, or DMA. The Master of Music degree, which takes one to two years to complete, is typically awarded to students studying the performance of an instrument, education, voice or composition. The Master of Arts degree, which takes one to two years to complete and often requires a thesis, is typically awarded to students studying musicology, music history, or music theory. Undergraduate university degrees in music, including the Bachelor of Music, the Bachelor of Music Education, and the Bachelor of Arts (with a major in music) typically take three to five years to complete. These degrees provide students with a grounding in music theory and music history, and many students also study an instrument or learn singing technique as part of their program. The PhD, which is required for students who want to work as university professors in musicology, music history, or music theory, takes three to five years of study after the Master's degree, during which time the student will complete advanced courses and undertake research for a dissertation. The DMA is a relatively new degree that was created to provide a credential for professional performers or composers that want to work as university professors in musical performance or composition. The DMA takes three to five years after a Master's degree, and includes advanced courses, projects, and performances. In Medieval times, the study of music was one of the Quadrivium of the seven Liberal Arts and considered vital to higher learning. Within the quantitative Quadrivium, music, or more accurately harmonics, was the study of rational proportions. Zoomusicology is the study of the music of non-human animals, or the musical aspects of sounds produced by non-human animals. As George Herzog (1941) asked, "do animals have music?" François-Bernard Mâche's Musique, mythe, nature, ou les Dauphins d'Arion (1983), a study of "ornitho-musicology" using a technique of Nicolas Ruwet's Langage, musique, poésie (1972) paradigmatic segmentation analysis, shows that bird songs are organised according to a repetition-transformation principle. Jean-Jacques Nattiez (1990), argues that "in the last analysis, it is
Music a human being who decides what is and is not musical, even when the sound is not of human origin. If we acknowledge that sound is not organised and conceptualised (that is, made to form music) merely by its producer, but by the mind that perceives it, then music is uniquely human." Music theory is the study of music, generally in a highly technical manner outside of other disciplines. More broadly it refers to any study of music, usually related in some form with compositional concerns, and may include mathematics, physics, and anthropology. What is most commonly taught in beginning music theory classes are guidelines to write in the style of the common practice period, or tonal music. Theory, even of music of the common practice period, may take many other forms. Musical set theory is the application of mathematical set theory to music, first applied to atonal music. Speculative music theory, contrasted with analytic music theory, is devoted to the analysis and synthesis of music materials, for example tuning systems, generally as preparation for composition.
Ethnomusicology In the West, much of the history of music that is taught deals with the Western civilization's art music. The history of music in other cultures ("world music" or the field of "ethnomusicology") is also taught in Western universities. This includes the documented classical traditions of Asian countries outside the influence of Western Europe, as well as the folk or indigenous music of various other cultures. Popular styles of music varied widely from culture to culture, and from period to period. Different cultures emphasised different instruments, or techniques, or uses for music. Music has been used not only for entertainment, for ceremonies, and for practical and artistic communication, but also for propaganda. There is a host of music classifications, many of which are caught up in the argument over the definition of music. Among the largest of these is the division between classical music (or "art" music), and popular music (or commercial music – including rock music, country music, and pop music). Some genres do not fit neatly into one of these "big two" classifications, (such as folk music, world music, or jazz music).
Ethnomusicologist Frances Densmore recording Blackfoot chief Mountain Chief for the Bureau of American Ethnology (1916)
As world cultures have come into greater contact, their indigenous musical styles have often merged into new styles. For example, the United States bluegrass style contains elements from Anglo-Irish, Scottish, Irish, German and African instrumental and vocal traditions, which were able to fuse in the United States' multi-ethnic society. Genres of music are determined as much by tradition and presentation as by the actual music. Some works, like George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue, are claimed by both jazz and classical music, while Gershwin's Porgy and Bess and Leonard Bernstein's West Side Story are claimed by both opera and the Broadway musical tradition. Many current music festivals celebrate a particular musical genre. Indian music, for example, is one of the oldest and longest living types of music, and is still widely heard and performed in South Asia, as well as internationally (especially since the 1960s). Indian music has mainly three forms of classical music, Hindustani, Carnatic, and Dhrupad styles. It has also a large repertoire of styles, which involve only percussion music such as the talavadya performances famous in South India.
Music therapy is an interpersonal process in which the therapist uses music and all of its facets—physical, emotional, mental, social, aesthetic, and spiritual—to help clients to improve or maintain their health. In some instances, the client's needs are addressed directly through music; in others they are addressed through the relationships that develop between the client and therapist. Music therapy is used with individuals of all ages and with a variety of conditions, including: psychiatric disorders, medical problems, physical handicaps, sensory impairments, developmental disabilities, substance abuse, communication disorders, interpersonal problems, and aging. It is also used to: improve learning, build self-esteem, reduce stress, support physical exercise, and facilitate a host of other health-related activities. One of the earliest mentions of Music Therapy was in Al-Farabi's (c. 872 – 950) treatise Meanings of the Intellect, which described the therapeutic effects of music on the soul. Music has long been used to help people deal with their emotions. In the 17th century, the scholar Robert Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy argued that music and dance were critical in treating mental illness, especially melancholia. He noted that music has an "excellent power ...to expel many other diseases" and he called it "a sovereign remedy against despair and melancholy." He pointed out that in Antiquity, Canus, a Rhodian fiddler, used music to "make a melancholy man merry, ...a lover more enamoured, a religious man more devout."    In November 2006, Dr. Michael J. Crawford and his colleagues also found that music therapy helped schizophrenic patients. In the Ottoman Empire, mental illnesses were treated with music.
 Mousike, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0057:entry=#68891)  John Cage, 79, a Minimalist Enchanted With Sound, Dies (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9E0CE1DB1E3BF930A2575BC0A964958260)  Nattiez, Jean-Jacques (1990). Music and discourse: toward a semiology of music. Carolyn Abbate, translator. Princeton University Press. pp. 48, 55. ISBN 0691027145.  The Music of India (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?vid=ISBN8170173329& id=yySNDP9XVggC& pg=PA11& lpg=PA11& dq=seven+ holed+ flute+ and+ various+ types+ of+ stringed+ instruments& sig=0baqFLb6KItfPYLoCdFWFTCD8Sk) By Reginald MASSEY, Jamila MASSEY. Google Books  Brown, RE (1971). "India's Music". Readings in Ethnomusicology.  Wilkinson, Endymion Porter (2000). Chinese history. Harvard University Asia Center.  "A Theatre Before the World: Performance History at the Intersection of Hebrew, Greek, and Roman Religious Processional" (http:/ / www. rtjournal. org/ vol_5/ no_1/ krahenbuhl. html) The Journal of Religion and Theatre, Vol. 5, No. 1, Summer 2006.  West, Martin Litchfield (1994). Ancient Greek music. Oxford University Press.  Baroque Music by Elaine Thornburgh and Jack Logan, Ph.D. (http:/ / trumpet. sdsu. edu/ M345/ Baroque_Music1. html)  Blume, Friedrich. Classic and Romantic Music: A Comprehensive Survey. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1970. Print.  Richard O. Nidel, World Music: The Basics, p. 219.  Charles Kahn, World History: Societies of the Past, p. 98.  World History: Societies of the Past By Charles Kahn (page 11)  World Music: The Basics By Nidel Nidel, Richard O. Nidel (page 10)  Schaeffer, P. (1966), Traité des objets musicaux, Le Seuil, Paris.  Alyn Shipton, A New History of Jazz, 2nd. ed., Continuum, 2007, pp. 4–5  Bill Kirchner, The Oxford Companion to Jazz, Oxford University Press, 2005, chapter two.  allmusic – Rock and Roll (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ explore/ style/ d32)  Boretz, Benjamin (1995). Meta-Variations: studies in the foundations of musical thought…. Open Space.  Harnsberger, Lindsey. "Articulation." Essential Dictionary of Music. Alfred Publishing Co., Inc,. Los Angeles, CA.  Salimpoor, VN; Benovoy, M; Larcher, K; Dagher, A; Zatorre, RJ (2011). "Anatomically distinct dopamine release during anticipation and experience of peak emotion to music". Nature neuroscience 14 (2): 257–62. doi:10.1038/nn.2726. PMID 21217764.  American Federation of Musicians/History (http:/ / www. afm. org/ public/ about/ history. php)  Hubbard (1985), p. 429.  "Canned Music on Trial" (http:/ / library. duke. edu/ digitalcollections/ adaccess. R0206/ ) part of Duke University's Ad*Access project.  Anderson, Chris (2006). The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More. Hyperion. ISBN 1-4013-0237-8.
 Tapscott, Don; Williams, Anthony D. (2006-12-28). Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything. Portfolio Hardcover. ISBN 978-1591841388.  Woodall and Ziembroski, 2002  Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists," Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357–377   cf. The Anatomy of Melancholy, Robert Burton, subsection 3, on and after line 3,480, "Music a Remedy"  Ismenias the Theban, Chiron the centaur, is said to have cured this and many other diseases by music alone: as now thy do those, saith Bodine, that are troubled with St. Vitus's Bedlam dance. Project Gutenberg's The Anatomy of Melancholy, by Democritus Junior (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 10800/ 10800-8. txt)  "Humanities are the Hormones: A Tarantella Comes to Newfoundland. What should we do about it?" (http:/ / www. med. mun. ca/ munmed/ 84/ crellin. htm) by Dr. John Crellin, MUNMED, newsletter of the Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1996.  Aung, Steven K.H., Lee, Mathew H.M., "Music, Sounds, Medicine, and Meditation: An Integrative Approach to the Healing Arts," Alternative & Complementary Therapies (http:/ / www. liebertonline. com/ doi/ abs/ 10. 1089/ act. 2004. 10. 266?journalCode=act), Oct 2004, Vol. 10, No. 5: 266–270.  Dr. Michael J. Crawford page (http:/ / www1. imperial. ac. uk/ medicine/ people/ m. crawford/ ) at Imperial College London, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychological Medicine.  Crawford, Mike J.; Talwar, Nakul, et al. (November 2006). "Music therapy for in-patients with schizophrenia: Exploratory randomised controlled trial" (http:/ / bjp. rcpsych. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 189/ 5/ 405). The British Journal of Psychiatry (2006) 189 (5): 405–409. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.105.015073. PMID 17077429. . "Music therapy may provide a means of improving mental health among people with schizophrenia, but its effects in acute psychoses have not been explored"  Treatment of Mental Illnesses With Music Therapy – A different approach from history (http:/ / www. iadh. org/ pdf/ 2006November. pdf)
• Colles, Henry Cope (1978). The Growth of Music : A Study in Musical History, 4th ed., London ; New York : Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-316116-8 ( 1913 edition online (http://books.google.com/ books?id=PrkNAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+growth+of+music) at Google Books) • Harwood, Dane (1976). "Universals in Music: A Perspective from Cognitive Psychology". Ethnomusicology 20 (3): 521–33. doi:10.2307/851047. • Small, Christopher (1977). Music, Society, Education. John Calder Publishers, London. ISBN 0-7145-3614-8
• BBC Blast Music (http://www.bbc.co.uk/blast/music/) For 13–19-year-olds interested in learning about, making, performing and talking about music. • The Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary (http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary/), with definitions, pronunciations, examples, quizzes and simulations • The Music-Web Music Encyclopedia (http://www.music-web.org/), for musicians, composers and music lovers • Dolmetsch free online music dictionary (http://dolmetsch.com/musictheorydefs.htm), complete, with references to a list of specialised music dictionaries (by continent, by instrument, by genre, etc.) • Musical Terms (http://www.naxos.com/education/glossary.asp) – Glossary of music terms from Naxos • "On Hermeneutical Ethics and Education: Bach als Erzieher" (http://www.uned.es/dpto_fil/revista/polemos/ articulos/MA_Quintana_On Hermeneutical Ethics &Education (Internet)2.doc), a paper by Prof. Miguel Ángel Quintana Paz in which he explains the history of the different views hold about music in Western societies, since the Ancient Greece to our days. • Monthly Online Features From Bloomingdale School of Music (http://www.bsmny.org/features), addressing a variety of musical topics for a wide audience • Arts and Music Uplifting Society towards Transformation and Tolerance (http://www.musicfoundations.org/ pages/3/index.htm) Articles meant to stimulate people’s awareness about the peace enhancing, transforming, communicative, educational and healing powers of music.
Music • Scientific American, Musical Chills Related to Brain Dopamine Release (http://www.scientificamerican.com/ podcast/episode.cfm?id=musical-chills-related-to-brain-dop-11-01-09)
Theatre (in American English usually theater ) is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place. The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music or dance. Elements of design and stagecraft are used to enhance the physicality, presence and immediacy of the experience. The specific place of the performance is also named by the word "theatre" as derived from the Ancient Greek θέατρον (théatron, “a place for viewing”) and θεάομαι (theáomai, “to see", "to watch", "to observe”). Modern Western theatre derives in large measure from ancient Greek drama, from which it borrows technical terminology, classification into genres, and many of its themes, stock characters, and plot elements. Theatre scholar Patrice Pavis defines theatricality, theatrical language, stage writing, and the specificity of theatre as synonymous expressions that differentiate theatre from the other performing arts, literature, and the arts in general. Theatre includes performances of plays and musicals. Although it can be defined broadly to include opera and ballet, those art forms are outside the scope of this article.
Sarah Bernhardt as Hamlet, in 1899
Classical and Hellenistic Greece
The city-state of Athens invented theatre. It was part of a broader culture of theatricality and performance in classical Greece that included festivals, religious rituals, politics, law, athletics and gymnastics, music, poetry, weddings, funerals, and symposia. Participation in the city-state's many festivals—and attendance at the City Dionysia as an audience member (or even as a participant in the theatrical productions) in particular—was an important part of citizenship. Civic participation also involved the evaluation of the rhetoric of orators evidenced in performances in the law-court or political assembly, both of which were understood as analagous to the theatre and increasingly came to absorb its dramatic vocabulary. The Greeks also developed the concepts of dramatic criticism, acting as a career, and theatre architecture. The theatre of ancient Greece consisted of three types of drama: tragedy, comedy, and the satyr play. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the theatrical culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE (from the end of which it began to spread throughout the Greek world), and continued to be popular until the beginning of the Hellenistic period. No tragedies from the 6th century BCE and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in during the 5th century BCE have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. The origins of tragedy remain obscure, though by the 5th century
Theatre BCE it was institutionalised in competitions (agon) held as part of festivities celebrating Dionysos (the god of wine and fertility). As contestants in the City Dionysia's competition (the most prestigious of the festivals to stage drama) playwrights were required to present a tetralogy of plays (though the individual works were not necessarily connected by story or theme), which usually consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play. The performance of tragedies at the City Dionysia may have begun as early as 534 BCE; official records (didaskaliai) begin from 501 BCE, when the satyr play was introduced. Most Athenian tragedies dramatise events from Greek mythology, though The Persians—which stages the Persian response to news of their military defeat at the Battle of Salamis in 480 BCE—is the notable exception in the surviving drama. When Aeschylus won first prize for it at the City Dionysia in 472 BCE, he had been writing tragedies for more than 25 years, yet its tragic treatment of recent history is the earliest example of drama to survive. More than 130 years later, the philosopher Aristotle analysed 5th-century Athenian tragedy in the oldest surviving work of dramatic theory—his Poetics (c. 335 BCE). Athenian comedy is conventionally divided into three periods, "Old Comedy", "Middle Comedy", and "New Comedy". Old Comedy survives today largely in the form of the eleven surviving plays of Aristophanes, while Middle Comedy is largely lost (preserved only in relatively short fragments in authors such as Athenaeus of Naucratis). New Comedy is known primarily from the substantial papyrus fragments of Menander. Aristotle defined comedy as a representation of laughable people that involves some kind of blunder or ugliness that does not cause pain or disaster.
Western theatre developed and expanded considerably under the Romans. The Roman historian Livy wrote that the Romans first experienced theatre in the 4th century BCE, with a performance by Etruscan actors. Beacham argues that they had been familiar with "pre-theatrical practices" for some time before that recorded contact. The theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, and acrobatics, to the staging of Plautus's broadly appealing situation comedies, to the high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies of Seneca. Although Rome had a native tradition of performance, the Hellenization of Roman culture in the 3rd century BCE had a profound and energizing effect on Roman theatre and encouraged the development of Latin literature of the highest quality for the stage.
Post-classical theatre in the West
Theatre took on many alternate forms in the West between the 15th and 19th centuries, including commedia dell'arte and melodrama. The general trend was away from the poetic drama of the Greeks and the Renaissance and toward a more naturalistic prose style of dialogue, especially following the Industrial Revolution. Through the 19th century, the popular theatrical forms of Romanticism, melodrama, Victorian burlesque and the well-made plays of Scribe and Sardou gave way to the problem plays of Naturalism and Realism; the farces of Feydeau; Wagner's operatic Gesamtkunstwerk; musical theatre (including Gilbert and Sullivan's operas); F. C. Burnand's, W. S. Gilbert's and Wilde's drawing-room comedies; Symbolism; proto-Expressionism in the late works of August Strindberg and Henrik Ibsen; and Edwardian musical comedy. These trends continued through the 20th century in the realism of Stanislavski and Lee Strasberg, the political theatre of Erwin Piscator and Bertolt Brecht, the so-called Theatre of the Absurd of Samuel Beckett and Eugene Ionesco, American and British musicals, the collective creations of companies of actors and directors such as Joan Littlewood's Theatre Workshop, experimental and postmodern theatre of Robert Wilson and Robert Lepage, the postcolonial theatre of August Wilson or Tomson Highway, and Augusto Boal's Theatre of the Oppressed.
Eastern theatrical traditions
The earliest form of Indian theatre was the Sanskrit theatre. It began after the development of Greek and Roman theatre and before the development of theatre in other parts of Asia. It emerged sometime between the 2nd century BCE and the 1st century CE and flourished between the 1st century CE and the 10th, which was a period of relative peace in the history of India during which hundreds of plays were written. Japanese forms of Kabuki, Nō, and Kyōgen developed in the 17th century CE. Theatre in the medieval Islamic world included puppet theatre (which included hand puppets, shadow plays and marionette productions) and live passion plays known as ta'ziya, where actors re-enact episodes from Muslim history. In particular, Shia Islamic plays revolved around the shaheed (martyrdom) of Ali's sons Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali. Secular plays were known as akhraja, recorded in medieval adab literature, though they were less common than puppetry and ta'ziya theatre.
Rakshasa or the demon as depicted in Yakshagana, a form of musical dance-drama from India.
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. The term comes from a Greek word meaning "action", which is derived from "to do". The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception. The structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception. The early modern tragedy Hamlet (1601) by Shakespeare and the classical Athenian tragedy Oedipus the King (c. 429 BCE) by Sophocles are among the masterpieces of the art of drama. A modern example is Long Day's Journey into Night by Eugene O’Neill (1956). Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes ever since Aristotle's Poetics (c. 335 BCE)—the earliest work of dramatic theory. The use of "drama" in the narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the 19th century. Drama in this sense refers to a play that is neither a comedy nor a tragedy—for example, Zola's Thérèse Raquin (1873) or Chekhov's Ivanov (1887). Drama is often combined with music and dance: the drama in opera is generally sung throughout; musicals generally include both spoken dialogue and songs; and some forms of drama have incidental music or musical accompaniment underscoring the dialogue (melodrama and Japanese Nō, for example). In certain periods of history (the ancient Roman and modern Romantic) some dramas have been written to be read rather than performed. In improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance; performers devise a dramatic script spontaneously before an audience.
Music and theatre have had a close relationship since ancient times—Athenian tragedy, for example, was a form of dance-drama that employed a chorus whose parts were sung (to the accompaniment of an aulos—an instrument comparable to the modern clarinet), as were some of the actors' responses and their 'solo songs' (monodies). Modern musical theatre is a form of theatre that also combines music, spoken dialogue, and dance. It emerged from comic opera (especially Gilbert and Sullivan), variety, vaudeville, and music hall genres of the late 19th and early
Theatre 20th century. After the Edwardian musical comedy that began in the 1890s, the Princess Theatre musicals of the early 20th century, and comedies in the 1920s and 1930s (such as the works of Rodgers and Hart), with Oklahoma! (1943), musicals moved in a more dramatic direction. Famous musicals over the subsequent decades included My Fair Lady (1956), West Side Story (1957), The Fantasticks (1960), Hair (1967), A Chorus Line (1975), Les Misérables (1980), and The Phantom of the Opera (1986). Musical theatre may be produced on an intimate scale Off-Broadway, in regional theatres, and elsewhere, but it often includes spectacle. For instance, Broadway and West End musicals often include lavish costumes and sets supported by multi-million dollar budgets.
Theatre productions that use humour as a vehicle to tell a story qualify as comedies. This may include a modern farce such as Boeing Boeing or a classical play such as As You Like It. Theatre expressing bleak, controversial or taboo subject matter in a deliberately humorous way is referred to as black comedy.
Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. —Aristotle, Poetics Tragedy refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self-definition of Western civilisation. That tradition has been multiple and discontinuous, yet the term has often been used to invoke a powerful effect of cultural identity and historical continuity—"the Greeks and the Elizabethans, in one cultural form; Hellenes and Christians, in a common activity," as Raymond Williams puts it. From its obscure origins in the theatres of Athens 2,500 years ago, from which there survives only a fraction of the work of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, through its singular articulations in the works of Shakespeare, Lope de Vega, Racine, and Schiller, to the more recent naturalistic tragedy of Strindberg, Beckett's modernist meditations on death, loss and suffering, and Müller's postmodernist reworkings of the tragic canon, tragedy has remained an important site of cultural experimentation, negotiation, struggle, and change. In the wake of Aristotle's Poetics (335 BCE), tragedy has been used to make genre distinctions, whether at the scale of poetry in general (where the tragic divides against epic and lyric) or at the scale of the drama (where tragedy is opposed to comedy). In the modern era, tragedy has also been defined against drama, melodrama, the tragicomic, and epic theatre.
Theories of theatre
Having been an important part of human culture for more than 2,500 years, theatre has evolved a wide range of different theories and practices. Some are related to political or spiritual ideologies, while others are based purely on "artistic" concerns. Some processes focus on a story, some on theatre as event, and some on theatre as catalyst for social change. The classical Greek philosopher Aristotle's Poetics (c. 335 BCE) is the earliest-surviving example and its arguments have influenced theories of theatre ever since. In it, he offers an account of what he calls "poetry" (a term which in Greek literally means "making" and in this context includes drama—comedy, tragedy, and the satyr play—as well as lyric poetry, epic poetry, and the dithyramb). He examines its "first principles" and identifies its genres and basic elements; his analysis of tragedy constitutes the core of the discussion. He argues that tragedy consists of six qualitative parts, which are (in order of importance) mythos or "plot", ethos or "character", dianoia or "thought", lexis or "diction", melos or "song", and opsis or "spectacle". "Although Aristotle's Poetics is
Theatre universally acknowledged in the Western critical tradition," Marvin Carlson explains, "almost every detail about his seminal work has aroused divergent opinions." Important theatre practitioners of the 20th century include Konstantin Stanislavski, Vsevolod Meyerhold, Edward Gordon Craig, Bertolt Brecht, Antonin Artaud, Luís de Sttau Monteiro, Joan Littlewood, Peter Brook, Jerzy Grotowski, Augusto Boal, and Dario Fo. Stanislavski treated the theatre as an art-form that is autonomous from literature and one in which the playwright's contribution should be respected as that of only one of an ensemble of creative artists. His innovative contribution to modern acting theory has remained at the core of mainstream western performance training for much of the last century. That many of the precepts of his 'system' of actor training seem to be common sense and self-evident testifies to its hegemonic success. Actors frequently employ his basic concepts without knowing they do so. Thanks to its promotion and elaboration by acting teachers who were former students and the many translations of his theoretical writings, Stanislavski's 'system' acquired an unprecedented ability to cross cultural boundaries and developed an international reach, dominating debates about acting in Europe and America. Many actors routinely equate his 'system' with the American Method, although the latter's exclusively psychological techniques contrast sharply with Stanislavski's multivariant, holistic and psychophysical approach, which explores character and action both from the 'inside out' and the 'outside in' and treats the actor's mind and body as parts of a continuum.
Technical aspects of theatre
Theatre presupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception. The structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception. The production of plays usually involves contributions from a playwright, director, a cast of actors, and a technical production team that includes a scenic or set designer, lighting designer, costume designer, sound designer, stage manager, and production manager. Depending on the production, this team may also include a composer, dramaturg, video designer or fight director. The technical aspects of theatrical production are described collectively as "stagecraft". This includes, but is not limited to, the construction and rigging of scenery, the hanging and focusing of An example of stage lighting and theatrical fog. lighting, the design and procurement of costumes, make-up, sourcing of props, stage management, and recording and mixing of sound. Stagecraft is considered a technical rather than an artistic field, and it relates primarily to the practical implementation of a designer's artistic vision. This distinguishes it from the more recent, wider discipline of scenography. Stagecraft may be implemented by any number of workers, from a single person (who arranges all scenery, costumes, lighting, sound, and organizes the cast) to hundreds of skilled carpenters, painters, electricians, stagehands, stitchers, wigmakers, and the like. This modern form of stagecraft is highly technical and specialized: it comprises many sub-disciplines and encompasses a vast trove of history and tradition. Regional theatres and larger community theatres will generally have a technical director and a complement of designers, each of whom has a direct hand in their respective designs.
Theatre organization and administration
There are many modern theatre movements which go about producing theatre in a variety of ways. Theatrical enterprise varies enormously in sophistication and purpose. People who are involved vary from professionals to hobbyists to spontaneous novices. Theatre can be performed with no money at all or on a grand scale with multi-million dollar budgets. This diversity manifests in the abundance of theatre sub-categories, which include: • • • • • • • • Broadway theatre and West End theatre Community theatre Dinner theatre Fringe theatre Off-Broadway and Off West End Off-Off-Broadway Regional theatre Summer stock theatre
"West End theatre" is a popular term for mainstream professional theatre that is staged in the large theatres of London's 'Theatreland', the West End. Along with New York's Broadway theatre, West End theatre is usually considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. Seeing a West End show is a common tourist activity in London. Total attendances first surpassed 12 million in 2002 and 13 million in 2007, setting a new record for the West End. Since the late 1990s there has been an increase in the number of famous screen actors on the London stage.
While most modern theatre companies rehearse one piece of theatre at a time, perform that piece for a set "run", retire the piece, and begin rehearsing a new show, repertory companies rehearse multiple shows at one time. These companies are able to perform these various pieces upon request and often perform works for years before retiring them. Most dance companies operate on this repertory system. The Royal National Theatre in London performs on a repertory system. Repertory theatre generally involves a group of similarly accomplished actors, and relies more on the reputation of the group than on an individual star actor. It also typically relies less on strict control by a director and less on adherence to theatrical conventions, since actors who have worked together in multiple productions can respond to each other without relying as much on convention or external direction.
Producing vs. presenting
In order to put on a piece of theatre, both a theatre company and a theatre venue are needed. When a theatre company is the sole company in residence at a theatre venue, this theatre (and its corresponding theatre company) are called a resident theatre or a producing theatre, because the venue produces its own work. Other theatre companies, as well as dance companies, do not have their own theatre venue. These companies perform at rental theatres or at presenting theatres. Both rental and presenting theatres have no full time resident companies. They do, however, sometimes have one or more part time resident companies, in addition to other independent partner companies who arrange to use the space when available. A rental theatre allows the independent companies to seek out the space, while a presenting theatre seeks out the independent companies to support their work by presenting them on their stage. Some performance groups perform in non-theatrical spaces. Such performances can take place outside or inside, in a non-traditional performance space, and include street theatre, and site specific theatre. Non-traditional venues can be used to create more immersive or meaningful environments for audiences. They can sometimes be modified more
Theatre heavily than traditional theatre venues, or can accommodate different kinds of equipment, lighting and sets. A touring company is an independent theatre or dance company that travels, often internationally, being presented at a different theatre in each city.
There are many theatre unions including Actors Equity Association (for actors and stage managers), the Stage Directors and Choreographers Society (SDC), and the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees (IATSE, for designers and technicians). Many theatres require that their staff be members of these organizations.
 Merriam-Webster Dictionary (http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ theater), 2011  M. Carlson, Journal of Dramatic Theory and Criticism, (https:/ / journals. ku. edu/ index. php/ jdtc/ article/ view/ 1642/ 1606), 2011  Pavis (1998, 345). Drawing on the "semeiotics" of Charles Sanders Peirce, Pavis goes on to suggest that "the specificity of theatrical signs may lie in their ability to use the three possible functions of signs: as icon (mimetically), as index (in the situation of enunciation), or as symbol (as a semiological system in the fictional mode). In effect, theatre makes the sources of the words visual and concrete: it indicates and incarnates a fictional world by means of signs, such that by the end of the process of signification and symbolization the spectator has reconstructed a theoretical and aesthetic model that accounts for the dramatic universe" (1998, 346).  Brown (1998, 441), Cartledge (1997, 3–5), Goldhill (1997, 54). Brown writes that ancient Greek drama "was essentially the creation of classical Athens: all the dramatists who were later regarded as classics were active at Athens in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE (the time of the Athenian democracy), and all the surviving plays date from this period" (1998, 441). "The dominant culture of Athens in the fifth century", Goldhill writes, "can be said to have invented theatre" (1997, 54).  Cartledge (1997, 3, 6), Goldhill (1997, 54) and (1999, 20-xx), and Rehm (1992. 3). Goldhill argues that although activities that form "an integral part of the exercise of citizenship" (such as when "the Athenian citizen speaks in the Assembly, exercises in the gymnasium, sings at the symposium, or courts a boy") each have their "own regime of display and regulation," nevertheless the term "performance" provides "a useful heuristic category to explore the connections and overlaps between these different areas of activity" (1999, 1).  Pelling (2005, 83).  Goldhill (1999, 25) and Pelling (2005, 83–84).  Dukore (1974, 31), Janko (1987, ix), and Ward (1945, 1).  Brockett and Hildy (2003, 15–19).  Brown (1998, 441), Cartledge (1997, 3–5), Goldhill (1997, 54), Ley (2007, 206), and Styan (2000, 140). Taxidou notes that "most scholars now call 'Greek' tragedy 'Athenian' tragedy, which is historically correct" (2004, 104).  Brockett and Hildy (2003, 32–33), Brown (1998, 444), and Cartledge (1997, 3–5). Cartledge writes that although Athenians of the 4th century judged Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides "as the nonpareils of the genre, and regularly honoured their plays with revivals, tragedy itself was not merely a 5th-century phenomenon, the product of a short-lived golden age. If not attaining the quality and stature of the fifth-century 'classics', original tragedies nonetheless continued to be written and produced and competed with in large numbers throughout the remaining life of the democracy—and beyond it" (1997, 33).  Brockett and Hildy (2003, 15) and Kovacs (2005, 379). We have seven by Aeschylus, seven by Sophocles, and eighteen by Euripides. In addition, we also have the Cyclops, a satyr play by Euripides. Some critics since the 17th century have argued that one of the tragedies that the classical tradition gives as Euripides'—Rhesus—is a 4th-century play by an unknown author; modern scholarship agrees with the classical authorities and ascribes the play to Euripides; see Walton (1997, viii, xix). (This uncertainty accounts for Brockett and Hildy's figure of 31 tragedies.)  Brockett and Hildy (2003, 15). The theory that Prometheus Bound was not written by Aeschylus adds a fourth, anonymous playwright to those whose work survives.  Brockett and Hildy (2003, 13–15) and Brown (1998, 441–447).  Brown (1998, 442) and Brockett and Hildy (2003, 15–17). Exceptions to this pattern were made, as with Euripides' Alcestis in 438 BCE. There were also separate competitions at the City Dionysia for the performance of dithyrambs and, after 488–7 BCE, comedies.  Brockett and Hildy (2003, 13, 15) and Brown (1998, 442). Rehm offers the following argument as evidence that tragedy was not institutionalised until 501 BCE: "The specific cult honoured at the City Dionysia was that of Dionysus Eleuthereus, the god ‘having to do with Eleutherae’, a town on the border between Boeotia and Attica that had a sanctuary to Dionysus. At some point Athens annexed Eleutherae—most likely after the overthrow of the Peisistratid tyranny in 510 and the democratic reforms of Cleisthenes in 508–07 BCE—and the cult-image of Dionysus Eleuthereus was moved to its new home. Athenians re-enacted the incorporation of the god’s cult every year in a preliminary rite to the City Dionysia. On the day before the festival proper, the cult-statue was removed from the temple near the theatre of Dionysus and taken to a temple on the road to Eleutherae. That evening, after sacrifice and hymns, a torchlight procession carried the statue back to the temple, a symbolic re-creation of the god’s arrival into Athens, as well as a reminder of the inclusion of the Boeotian town into Attica. As the name Eleutherae is extremely close to eleutheria, ‘freedom’, Athenians probably felt that the new cult was particularly
appropriate for celebrating their own political liberation and democratic reforms." (1992, 15).  Brown (1998, 442). Jean-Pierre Vernant argues that in The Persians Aeschylus substitutes for the usual temporal distance between the audience and the age of heroes a spatial distance between the Western audience and the Eastern Persian culture. This substitution, he suggests, produces a similar effect: "The 'historic' events evoked by the chorus, recounted by the messenger and interpreted by Darius' ghost are presented on stage in a legendary atmosphere. The light that the tragedy sheds upon them is not that in which the political happenings of the day are normally seen; it reaches the Athenian theater refracted from a distant world of elsewhere, making what is absent seem present and visible on the stage"; Vernant and Vidal-Naquet (1988, 245).  Brown (1998, 442) and Brockett and Hildy (2003, 15–16).  Aristotle, Poetics, line 1449a (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?lookup=Aristot. + Poet. + 1449a): "Comedy, as we have said, is a representation of inferior people, not indeed in the full sense of the word bad, but the laughable is a species of the base or ugly. It consists in some blunder or ugliness that does not cause pain or disaster, an obvious example being the comic mask which is ugly and distorted but not painful."  Beacham (1996, 2).  Beacham (1996, 3).  Kuritz (1988, 305).  Brockett and Hildy (2003, 293–426).  Richmond, Swann, and Zarrilli (1993, 12).  Brandon (1997, 70) and Richmond (1998, 516).  Deal (2007, 276).  Moreh (1986, 565–601).  Elam (1980, 98).  Pfister (1977, 11).  Fergusson (1949, 2–3).  Burt (2008, 30–35).  Francis Fergusson writes that "a drama, as distinguished from a lyric, is not primarily a composition in the verbal medium; the words result, as one might put it, from the underlying structure of incident and character. As Aristotle remarks, 'the poet, or "maker" should be the maker of plots rather than of verses; since he is a poet because he imiates, and what he imitates are actions'" (1949, 8).  See the entries for "opera", "musical theatre, American", "melodrama" and "Nō" in Banham (1998).  While there is some dispute among theatre historians, it is probable that the plays by the Roman Seneca were not intended to be performed. Manfred by Byron is a good example of a "dramatic poem." See the entries on "Seneca" and "Byron (George George)" in Banham (1998).  Some forms of improvisation, notably the Commedia dell'arte, improvise on the basis of 'lazzi' or rough outlines of scenic action (see Gordon (1983) and Duchartre (1929)). All forms of improvisation take their cue from their immediate response to one another, their characters' situations (which are sometimes established in advance), and, often, their interaction with the audience. The classic formulations of improvisation in the theatre originated with Joan Littlewood and Keith Johnstone in the UK and Viola Spolin in the USA; see Johnstone (1981) and Spolin (1963).  Rehm (1992, 150n7).  Jones (2003, 4–11).  The first "Edwardian musical comedy" is usually considered to be In Town (1892), even though it was produced eight years before the beginning of the Edwardian era; see, for example, Fraser Charlton, "What are EdMusComs?" (http:/ / www. staff. ncl. ac. uk/ fraser. charlton/ edmuscom/ page12/ edmuscom_what. html) (FrasrWeb 2007, accessed May 12, 2011).  Kenrick, John (2003). "History of Stage Musicals" (http:/ / www. musicals101. com/ erastage. htm). . Retrieved May 26, 2009.  S.H. Butcher, (http:/ / ebooks. adelaide. edu. au/ a/ aristotle/ poetics/ ), 2011  Banham (1998, 1118) and Williams (1966, 14–16).  Williams (1966, 16).  Williams (1966, 13–84) and Taxidou (2004, 193–209).  See Carlson (1993), Pfister (1977), Elam (1980) and Taxidou (2004). Drama, in the narrow sense, cuts across the traditional division between comedy and tragedy in an anti- or a-generic deterritorialization from the mid-19th century onwards. Both Bertolt Brecht and Augusto Boal define their epic theatre projects (Non-Aristotelian drama and Theatre of the Oppressed respectively) against models of tragedy. Taxidou, however, reads epic theatre as an incorporation of tragic functions and its treatments of mourning and speculation (2004, 193–209).  Dukore (1974, 31) and Janko (1987, ix).  Aristotle Poetics 1447a13 (1987, 1).  Carlson (1993, 19) and Janko (1987, xx, 7–10).  Carlson (1993, 16).  Benedetti (1999a, 124, 202) and (2008b, 6), Carnicke (1998, 162), and Gauss (1999, 2). In 1902, Stanislavski wrote that "the author writes on paper. The actor writes with his body on the stage" and that the "score of an opera is not the opera itself and the script of a play is not drama until both are made flesh and blood on stage"; quoted by Benedetti (1999a, 124).  Banham (1998, 1032), Carnicke (1998, 1), Counsell (1996, 24–25), Gordon (2006, 37–40), and Leach (2004, 29).  Counsell (1996, 25).  Banham (1998, 1032), Carnicke (1998, 1, 167), Counsell (1996, 24), and Milling and Ley (2001, 1).
 Benedetti (2005, 147–148) and Carnicke (1998, 1, 8).  Banham (1998, 1194–1195).  Singh, Anita (8 July 2008). "TV talent shows help West End shows to record audience" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ uknews/ 2268735/ TV-talent-shows-help-West-End-shows-to-record-audience. html). Telegraph. . Retrieved 17 January 2010.  Peterson (1982.)  Alice T. Carter, " Non-traditional venues can inspire art, or just great performances (http:/ / www. pittsburghlive. com/ x/ pittsburghtrib/ s_575857. html)", Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 2008-07-07. Retrieved 2011-02-12.
• Aston, Elaine, and George Savona. 1991. Theatre as Sign-System: A Semiotics of Text and Performance. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415049320. • Banham, Martin, ed. 1998. The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. ISBN 0521434378. • Beacham, Richard C. 1996. The Roman Theatre and Its Audience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP. ISBN 978-0674779143. • Benedetti, Jean. 1999. Stanislavski: His Life and Art. Revised edition. Original edition published in 1988. London: Methuen. ISBN 0413525201. • ---. 2005. The Art of the Actor: The Essential History of Acting, From Classical Times to the Present Day. London: Methuen. ISBN 0413773361. • ---. 2008. "Stanislavski on Stage". In Dacre and Fryer (2008, 6–9). • Benjamin, Walter. 1928. The Origin of German Tragic Drama. Trans. John Osborne. London and New York: Verso, 1998. ISBN 1859848990. • Brown, John Russell. 1997. What is Theatre?: An Introduction and Exploration. Boston and Oxford: Focal P. ISBN 978-0240802329 . • Brandon, James R., ed. 1997. The Cambridge Guide to Asian Theatre.' 2nd, rev. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. ISBN 978-0521588225. • Burt, Daniel S. 2008. The Drama 100: A Ranking of the Greatest Plays of All Time. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-8160-6073-3. • Carlson, Marvin. 1993. Theories of the Theatre: A Historical and Critical Survey from the Greeks to the Present. Expanded ed. Ithaca and London: Cornell UP. ISBN 0801481546. • Carnicke, Sharon M. 1998. Stanislavsky in Focus. Russian Theatre Archive Ser. London: Harwood Academic Publishers. ISBN 9057550709. • ---. 2000. "Stanislavsky's System: Pathways for the Actor". In Hodge (2000, 11–36). • Counsell, Colin. 1996. Signs of Performance: An Introduction to Twentieth-Century Theatre. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415106436. • Dacre, Kathy, and Paul Fryer, eds. 2008. Stanislavski on Stage. Sidcup, Kent: Stanislavski Centre Rose Bruford College. ISBN 1903454018. • Deal, William E. 2007. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. Oxford: Oxford UP. ISBN 978-0-19-533126-4. • Deleuze, Gilles and Félix Guattari. 1972. Anti-Œdipus. Trans. Robert Hurley, Mark Seem and Helen R. Lane. London and New York: Continuum, 2004. Vol. 1 . New Accents Ser. London and New York: Methuen. ISBN 0416720609. • Dukore, Bernard F., ed. 1974. Dramatic Theory and Criticism: Greeks to Grotowski. Florence, KY: Heinle & Heinle. ISBN 978-0030911521. • Elam, Keir. 1980. The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama. New Accents Ser. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415039840. • Felski, Rita, ed. 2008. Rethinking Tragedy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP. ISBN 0801887402. • Fergusson, Francis. 1949. The Idea of a Theater: A Study of Ten Plays, The Art of Drama in a Changing Perspective. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1968. ISBN 0691012881.
Theatre • Gauss, Rebecca B. 1999. Lear's Daughters: The Studios of the Moscow Art Theatre 1905–1927. American University Studies ser. 26 Theatre Arts, vol. 29. New York: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-0820441559. • Gordon, Mel. 1983. Lazzi: The Comic Routines of the Commedia dell'Arte. New York: Performing Arts Journal. ISBN 0933826699. • Gordon, Robert. 2006. The Purpose of Playing: Modern Acting Theories in Perspective. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P. ISBN 978-0472068876. • Harrison, Martin. 1998. The Language of Theatre. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1857543742. • Hartnoll, Phyllis, ed. 1983. The Oxford Companion to the Theatre. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford UP. ISBN 978-0192115461. • Hodge, Alison, ed. 2000. Twentieth-Century Actor Training. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415194525. • Janko, Richard, trans. 1987. Poetics with Tractatus Coislinianus, Reconstruction of Poetics II and the Fragments of the On Poets. By Aristotle. Cambridge: Hackett. ISBN 978-0872200333. • Johnstone, Keith. 1981. Impro: Improvisation and the Theatre Rev. ed. London: Methuen, 2007. ISBN 0713687010. • Jones, John Bush. 2003. Our Musicals, Ourselves: A Social History of the American Musical Theatre. Hanover: Brandeis UP. ISBN 1584653116. • Kuritz, Paul. 1988. The Making of Theatre History. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-547861-5. • Leach, Robert. 1989. Vsevolod Meyerhold. Directors in perspective ser. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. ISBN 978-0521318433. • ---. 2004. Makers of Modern Theatre: An Introduction. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415312417. • Leach, Robert, and Victor Borovsky, eds. 1999. A History of Russian Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. ISBN 978-0521034357. • Meyer-Dinkgräfe, Daniel. 2001. Approaches to Acting: Past and Present. London and New York: Continuum. ISBN 978-0826478795. • Meyerhold, Vsevolod. 1991. Meyerhold on Theatre. Ed. and trans. Edward Braun. Revised edition. London: Methuen. ISBN 978-0413387905. • Milling, Jane, and Graham Ley. 2001. Modern Theories of Performance: From Stanislavski to Boal. Basingstoke, Hampshire and New York: Palgrave. ISBN 978-0333775424. • Mitter, Shomit. 1992. Systems of Rehearsal: Stanislavsky, Brecht, Grotowski and Brook. London and NY: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415067843. • Moreh, Shmuel. 1986. "Live Theater in Medieval Islam." In Studies in Islamic History and Civilization in Honour of Professor David Ayalon. Ed. Moshe Sharon. Cana, Leiden: Brill. 565–601. ISBN 978-9652640147. • Pavis, Patrice. 1998. Dictionary of the Theatre: Terms, Concepts, and Analysis. Trans. Christine Shantz. Toronto and Buffalo: U of Toronto P. ISBN 978-0802081636. • Peterson, Richard A. 1982. "Five Constraints on the Production of Culture: Law, Technology, Market, Organizational Structure and Occupational Careers." The Journal of Popular Culture 16.2: 143–153. • Pfister, Manfred. 1977. The Theory and Analysis of Drama. Trans. John Halliday. European Studies in English Literature Ser. Cambridige: Cambridge University Press, 1988. ISBN 978-0521423830. • Rayner, Alice. 1994. To Act, To Do, To Perform: Drama and the Phenomenology of Action. Theater: Theory/Text/Performance Ser. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0472105373. • Rehm, Rush. 1992. Greek Tragic Theatre. Theatre Production Studies ser. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415118948. • Richmond, Farley. 1998. "India." In Banham (1998, 516–525). • Richmond, Farley P., Darius L. Swann, and Phillip B. Zarrilli, eds. 1993. Indian Theatre: Traditions of Performance. U of Hawaii P. ISBN 978-0824813222.
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• Theatre Archive Project (UK) (http://www.bl.uk/projects/theatrearchive/homepage.html) British Library & University of Sheffield. • Theater Wikia – An editable database dedicated to all aspects of theatre. • University of Bristol Theatre Collection (http://www.bris.ac.uk/theatrecollection/) • Music Hall and Theatre History of Britain and Ireland (http://www.arthurlloyd.co.uk)
Modern dance Originating culture various Originating era Antiquity
Dance is an art form that generally refers to movement of the body, usually rhythmic and to music, used as a form of expression, social interaction or presented in a spiritual or performance setting. Dance may also be regarded as a form of nonverbal communication between humans, and is also performed by other animals (bee dance, patterns of behaviour such as a mating dance). Gymnastics, figure skating and synchronized swimming are sports that incorporate dance, while martial arts kata are often compared to dances. Motion in ordinarily inanimate objects may also be described as dances (the leaves danced in the wind). Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, cultural, aesthetic, artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement (such as folk dance) to virtuoso techniques such as ballet. Dance can be participatory, social or performed for an audience. It can also be ceremonial, competitive or erotic. Dance movements may be without significance in themselves, such as in ballet or European folk dance, or have a gestural vocabulary/symbolic system as in many Asian dances. Dance can embody or express ideas, emotions or tell a story.
Dance Dancing has evolved many styles. Breakdancing and Krumping are related to the hip hop culture. African dance is interpretative. Ballet, Ballroom, Waltz, and Tango are classical styles of dance while Square Dance and the Electric Slide are forms of step dances. Every dance, no matter what style, has something in common. It not only involves flexibility and body movement, but also physics. If the proper physics are not taken into consideration, injuries may occur. Choreography is the art of creating dances. The person who creates (i.e., choreographs) a dance is known as the choreographer.
Origins and history
Dance does not leave behind clearly identifiable physical artifacts such as stone tools, hunting implements or cave paintings. It is not possible to say when dance became part of human culture. Joseph Jordania recently suggested, that dance, together with rhythmic music and body painting, was designed by the forces of natural selection at the early stage of hominid evolution as a potent tool to put groups of human ancestors in a battle trance, a specific altered state of consciousness. In this state hominids were losing their individual identity and were acquiring collective identity. Jonathan Pieslak's research shows, that some contemporary military units use loud group singing and dancing in order to prepare themselves for the dangerous combat missions. According to Jordania, this trance-inducing ability of dance comes from human evolutionary past and includes as well a phenomenon of military drill which is also based on shared rhythmic and monotonous group activity.
Ancient Greek bronze statuette of a veiled and masked dancer, 3rd - 2nd century BC, found in Dance has certainly been an important part of ceremony, rituals, Alexandria, Egypt. celebrations and entertainment since before the birth of the earliest human civilizations. Archeology delivers traces of dance from prehistoric times such as the 9,000 year old Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka paintings in India and Egyptian tomb paintings depicting dancing figures from c. 3300 BC.
One of the earliest structured uses of dances may have been in the performance and in the telling of myths. It was also sometimes used to show feelings for one of the opposite gender. It is also linked to the origin of "love making." Before the production of written languages, dance was one of the methods of passing these stories down from generation to generation. Another early use of dance may have been as a precursor to ecstatic trance states in healing rituals. Dance is still used for this purpose by many cultures from the Brazilian rainforest to the Kalahari Desert. Sri Lankan dances goes back to the mythological times of aboriginal yingyang twins and "yakkas" (devils). According to a Sinhalese legend, Kandyan dances originated 250 years ago, from a magic ritual that broke the spell on a bewitched king. Many contemporary dance forms can be traced back to historical, traditional, ceremonial, and ethnic dance.
Dance at Bougival by Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1882–83)
Eadweard Muybridge's phenakistoscope "A Couple Waltzing" (c.1893)
Classification and genres
Dance categories by number of interacting dancers are mainly solo dance, partner dance and group dance. Dance is performed for various purposes like ceremonial dance, erotic dance, performance dance, social dance etc.
Dancing and music
Many early forms of music and dance were created and performed together. This paired development has continued through the ages with dance/music forms such as: jig, waltz, tango, disco, salsa, electronica and hip-hop. Some musical genres have a parallel dance form such as baroque music and baroque dance; others, such as classical music and classical ballet, developed separately. Although dance is often accompanied by music, it can also be presented independently or provide its own accompaniment (tap dance). Dance presented with music may or may not be performed in time to the music depending on the style of dance. Dance performed without music is said to be danced to its own rhythm. Ballroom dancing is a dance art form which combines athletic fitness with artistically skillful dance steps.
Dance studies and techniques
In the early 1920s, dance studies (dance practice, critical theory, Musical analysis and history) began to be considered an academic discipline. Today these studies are an integral part of many universities' arts and humanities programs. By the late 20th century the recognition of practical knowledge as equal to academic knowledge led to the emergence of practice research and practice as research. A large range of dance courses are available including:
Saman Dance from Gayo people of Sumatra, Indonesia
• Professional practice: performance and technical skills • Practice research: choreography and performance • Ethnochoreology, encompassing the dance-related aspects of: anthropology, cultural studies, gender studies, area studies, postcolonial theory, ethnography, etc. • Dance therapy, or dance-movement therapy • Dance and technology: new media and performance technologies • Laban Movement Analysis and somatic studies Academic degrees are available from BA (Hons) to PhD and other postdoctoral fellowships, with some dance scholars taking up their studies as mature students after a professional dance career.
Morris dancing in the grounds of Wells Cathedral, Wells, England
A dance competition is an organized event in which contestants perform dances before a judge or judges for awards, and in some cases, monetary prizes. There are several major types of dance competitions, distinguished primarily by the style or styles of dances performed. Major types of dance competitions include:
An amateur dancesport competition at MIT
• Competitive dance, in which a variety of theater dance styles such as: acro, ballet, jazz, hip-hop, lyrical, and tap, are permitted. • Open competitions, that permit a wide variety of dance styles. A popular example of this is the TV program So You Think You Can Dance.
Dance • Dancesport, which is focused exclusively on ballroom and latin dance. Popular examples of this are TV programs Dancing with the Stars and Strictly Come Dancing. • Single-style competitions, such as; highland dance, dance team, and Irish dance, that only permit a single dance style. Today, there are various dances and dance show competitions on television and the Internet.
Professional dancers at the Tropicana Club, Havana, Cuba, in 2008
There are several careers connected with dancing: Dancer, dance teacher, dance sport coach, dance therapist and choreographer. Dancer Dance training differs depending on the dance form. There are university programs and schools associated with professional dance companies for specialised training in classical dance (e.g. Ballet) and modern dance. There are also smaller, privately owned dance studios where students may train in a variety of dance forms including competitive dance forms (e.g. Latin dance, ballroom dance, etc.) as well as ethnic/traditional dance forms. Professional dancers are usually employed on contract or for particular performances/productions. The professional life of a dancer is generally one of constantly changing work situations, strong competition pressure and low pay. Professional dancers often need to supplement their income, either in dance related roles (e.g., dance teaching, dance sport coaches, yoga) or Pilates instruction to achieve financial stability. In the U.S. many professional dancers are members of unions such as the American Guild of Musical Artists, the Screen Actors Guild and Actors' Equity Association. The unions help determine working conditions and minimum salaries for their members. Dance teachers Dance teacher and operators of dance schools rely on reputation and marketing. For dance forms without an association structure such as Salsa or Tango Argentino they may not have formal training. Most dance teachers are self employed. Dancesport coaches Dancesport coaches are tournament dancers or former dancesports people, and may be recognised by a dance sport federation. Choreographer Choreographers are generally university trained and are typically employed for particular projects or, more rarely may work on contract as the resident choreographer for a specific dance company. A choreographic work is protected intellectual property. Dancers may undertake their own choreography.
By ethnicity or region
During the first millennium BCE in India, many texts were composed which attempted to codify aspects of daily life. In the matter of dance, Bharata Muni's Natyashastra (literally "the text of dramaturgy") is one of the earlier texts. Though the main theme of Natyashastra deals with drama, dance is also widely featured, and indeed the two concepts have ever since been linked in Indian culture. The text elaborates various hand-gestures or mudras and classifies movements of the various limbs of the body, gait, and so on. The Natyashastra categorised dance into four groups and into four regional varieties, naming the groups: secular, South indian folk Dance like a horse known as Poi Kal Kudirai ritual, abstract, and, interpretive. However, concepts of regional geography has altered and so have regional varieties of Indian dances. Dances like "Odra Magadhi", which after decades long debate, has been traced to present day Mithila-Orissa region's dance form of Orissi, indicate influence of dances in cultural interactions between different regions. From these beginnings rose the various classical styles which are recognised today. Therefore, all Indian classical dances are to varying degrees rooted in the Natyashastra and therefore share common features: for example, the mudras, some body positions, and the inclusion of dramatic or expressive acting or abhinaya. The Indian classical music tradition provides the accompaniment for the dance, and as percussion is such an integral part of the tradition, the dancers of nearly all the styles wear bells around their ankles to counterpoint and complement the percussion. Bhangra in the Punjab The Punjab area overlapping India and Pakistan is the place of origin of Bhangra. It is widely known both as a style of music and a dance. It is mostly related to ancient harvest celebrations, love, patriotism or social issues. Its music is coordinated by a musical instrument called the 'Dhol'. Bhangra is not just music but a dance, a celebration of the harvest where people beat the dhol (drum), sing Boliyaan (lyrics) and dance.It developed further with the Vaisakhi festival of the Sikhs.
Dance Dances of Sri Lanka The devil dances of Sri Lanka or "yakun natima" are a carefully crafted ritual with a history reaching far back into Sri Lanka's pre-Buddhist past. It combines ancient "Ayurvedic" concepts of disease causation with psychological manipulation. The dance combines many aspects including Sinhalese cosmology, the dances also has an impact on the classical dances of Sri Lanka.
In Europe and North America
Concert (or performance) dance Ballet Ballet developed first in Italy and then in France from lavish court spectacles that combined music, drama, poetry, song, costumes and dance. Members of the court nobility took part as performers. During the reign of Louis XIV, himself a dancer, dance became more codified. Professional dancers began to take the place of court amateurs, and ballet masters were licensed by the French government. The first ballet dance academy was the Académie Royale de Danse (Royal Dance Academy), opened in Paris in 1661. Shortly thereafter, the first institutionalized ballet troupe, associated with the Academy, was formed; this troupe began as an all-male ensemble but by 1681 opened to include women as well.
Harlequin and Columbine from the mime theater at Tivoli Gardens, Copenhagen, Denmark
20th century concert dance At the beginning of the 20th century, there was an explosion of innovation in dance style characterized by an exploration of freer technique. Early pioneers of what became known as modern dance include Loie Fuller, Isadora Duncan, Mary Wigman and Ruth St. Denis. The relationship of music to dance serves as the basis for Eurhythmics, devised by Emile Jaques-Dalcroze, which was influential to the development of Modern dance and modern ballet through artists such as Marie Rambert. Eurythmy, developed by Rudolf Steiner and Marie Steiner-von A small dance company rehearses for an outdoor performance in Sivers, combines formal elements reminiscent of Stuyvesant Cove Park in Manhattan, New York City traditional dance with the new freer style, and introduced a complex new vocabulary to dance. In the 1920s, important founders of the new style such as Martha Graham and Doris Humphrey began their work. Since this time, a wide variety of dance styles have been developed; see Modern dance.
Dance The influence of African American dance African American dances are those dances which have developed within African American communities in everyday spaces, rather than in dance studios, schools or companies and its derivatives, tap dance, disco, jazz dance, swing dance, hip hop dance and breakdance. Other dances, such as the lindy hop with its relationship to rock and roll music and rock and roll dance have also had a global influence.
Major forms Dance · Music · Opera · Theatre · Circus Minor forms Magic · Puppetry Genres Drama · Tragedy · Comedy · Tragicomedy · Romance · Satire · Epic · Lyric
 Britannica.com (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ eb/ article-9110116/ dance)  Joseph Jordania, 2011, Why do People Sing? Music in Human Evolution, Logos, pg.98-102  Jonathan Pieslak, 2009, Sound Targets: American Soldiers and Music in the Iraq War (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press  William H. McNeill, 1997, Dance and Drill in Human History. Harvard University Press  Nathalie Comte. "Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World". Ed. Jonathan Dewald. Vol. 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004. pp 94–108.  Guenther, Mathias Georg. 'The San Trance Dance: Ritual and Revitalization Among the Farm Bushmen of the Ghanzi District, Republic of Botswana.' Journal, South West Africa Scientific Society, v30, 1975–76.  Exoticindiaart.com (http:/ / www. exoticindiaart. com/ article/ dance), Dance: The Living Spirit of Indian Arts, by Prof. P. C. Jain and Dr. Daljeet.  Lankalibrary.com (http:/ / www. lankalibrary. com/ rit/ yakun natuma. htm), "The yakun natima — devil dance ritual of Sri Lanka"
Further reading • Adshead-Lansdale, J. (Ed.) (1994) Dance History: An Introduction. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-09030-X. • Carter, A. (1998) The Routledge Dance Studies Reader. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16447-8. • Charman, S. Kraus, R, G. Chapman, S. and Dixon-Stowall, B. (1990) History of the Dance in Art and Education. Pearson Education. ISBN 0-13-389362-6. • Cohen, S, J. (1992) Dance As a Theatre Art: Source Readings in Dance History from 1581 to the Present. Princeton Book Co. ISBN 0-87127-173-7. • Daly, A. (2002) Critical Gestures: Writings on Dance and Culture. Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-6566-0. • Dils, A. (2001) Moving History/Dancing Cultures: A Dance History Reader. Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-6413-3. • Miller, James, L. (1986) Measures of Wisdom: The Cosmic Dance in Classical and Christian Antiquity, University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0802025536.
• Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Dance". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. • Historic illustrations of dancing from 3300 B.C. to 1911 A.D. (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/17289) from Project Gutenberg • United States National Museum of Dance and Hall of Fame (http://www.dancemuseum.org/)
Article Sources and Contributors
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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Lincoln Center Twilight.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lincoln_Center_Twilight.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Nils Olander from Panoramio Image:Pittura-Painting3.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pittura-Painting3.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: user:Rinina25 Image:Ac.parthenon5.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ac.parthenon5.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Elinnea, Madmedea, Yonatanh, 1 anonymous edits Image:Table of architecture, Cyclopaedia, 1728, volume 1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Table_of_architecture,_Cyclopaedia,_1728,_volume_1.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Brian0918 Image:Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, from C2RMF retouched.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mona_Lisa,_by_Leonardo_da_Vinci,_from_C2RMF_retouched.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ahura21, CommonsDelinker, Cybershot800i, Dcoetzee, Faigl.ladislav, Interpretix, MrPanyGoff, Rama, Shizhao, SusanLesch, Thierry Caro, Zeugma fr, ZooFari, 1 ,ﻣﺎﻧﻔﯽanonymous edits Image:First Folio.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:First_Folio.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Aristeas, Cowardly Lion, GeorgHH, Ham, Herbythyme, Man vyi, Olaf Simons, Xover, 9 anonymous edits Image:MozartExcerptK331.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MozartExcerptK331.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: en:user:TantalosRFH Image:Ballroom dance exhibition.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ballroom_dance_exhibition.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: User:Che Image:Rembrandt van rijn-self portrait.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rembrandt_van_rijn-self_portrait.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anne97432, Barfoos, Bohème, G.dallorto, Ham, Hekerui, Koppedia, Malene, Martin H., Mattes, QWerk, Singinglemon, Sparkit, Vincent Steenberg, Wst, 1 anonymous edits Image:Malevich.black-square.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Malevich.black-square.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bastique, Emijrp, Kaganer, Rtc, Shakko, Svencb, Thuresson, Vincent Steenberg, Wizardist Image:Dürer - Rhinoceros.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dürer_-_Rhinoceros.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, BeatrixBelibaste, Christophe cagé, Denniss, Dysmorodrepanis, G.dallorto, Jarekt, JoJan, Maksim, Mattes, Olivier2, Tmizuk, Максимов2 Image:Francisco de Goya y Lucientes 100 c.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Francisco_de_Goya_y_Lucientes_100_c.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: AxelBoldt, Balbo, Bukk, Carolus, Ecummenic, Erina, Escarlati, Frank C. Müller, Mattes, Shakko, 1 anonymous edits Image:Christ Hagia Sofia.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Christ_Hagia_Sofia.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Cirt, FocalPoint, G.dallorto, Gryffindor, Gugganij, Man vyi, Mats Halldin, Wst, 2 anonymous edits Image:Dürer Melancholia I.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dürer_Melancholia_I.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bukk, Davemnt, Donarreiskoffer, Jarekt, Karel K., Mattes, Rainer Zenz, Wutsje, 3 anonymous edits Image:Folio from a Koran (8th-9th century).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Folio_from_a_Koran_(8th-9th_century).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unknown in Abbasid dynasty Image:Bellocq Storyville undamaged.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bellocq_Storyville_undamaged.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: E. J. Bellocq ] Image:Ife sculpture Inv.A96-1-4.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ife_sculpture_Inv.A96-1-4.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Jastrow Image:Oak tree.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Oak_tree.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Calabe1992, HJ Mitchell, Pixel23, Sdrtirs, Tyrenius, 5 anonymous edits Image:Edgar Germain Hilaire Degas 004.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edgar_Germain_Hilaire_Degas_004.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Ardfern, Butko, Emijrp, Razr, Rlbberlin, Shakko Image:Royal Opera House and ballerina.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Royal_Opera_House_and_ballerina.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Russ London (talk). Original uploader was Russ London at en.wikipedia Image:Moth (Un Chien Andalou).JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Moth_(Un_Chien_Andalou).JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Luis Bunuel & Salvador Dali Image:Pantheon Dome.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pantheon_Dome.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: The Quill (talk) File:Carracci, Annbale - Studio di nudo.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Carracci,_Annbale_-_Studio_di_nudo.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: DenghiùComm, G.dallorto, Juiced lemon, Warburg, 2 anonymous edits File:Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec - Madame Palmyre with Her Dog, 1897.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Henri_de_Toulouse-Lautrec_-_Madame_Palmyre_with_Her_Dog,_1897.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Petrusbarbygere, Sandik File:leonardo self.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_self.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Leonardo da Vinci File:2-punktperspektive.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:2-punktperspektive.svg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Editor at Large, TomAlt, WikipediaMaster File:William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905) - Study of a Seated Veiled Female Figure (19th Century).png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:William-Adolphe_Bouguereau_(1825-1905)_-_Study_of_a_Seated_Veiled_Female_Figure_(19th_Century).png License: Public Domain Contributors: Docu, Frank C. Müller, Jarekt, OldakQuill, Red devil 666, Thebrid File:wiki.Picture by Drawing Machine 2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wiki.Picture_by_Drawing_Machine_2.jpg License: Free Art License Contributors: Elaine O'Hanrahan, Father Goose File:Duomo Firenze.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Duomo_Firenze.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Bouncey2k, G.dallorto, Jan Arkesteijn, Sailko File:Brunelleshi-and-Duomo-of-Florence.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Brunelleshi-and-Duomo-of-Florence.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: Bouncey2k, G.dallorto, Mac9, Ronaldino, Sailko, TomAlt, 1 anonymous edits File:Parthenon-Restoration-Nov-2005-a.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Parthenon-Restoration-Nov-2005-a.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Barcex, Bibi Saint-Pol, Conudrum, G.dallorto, Para, Platonides, Siebrand File:KillarneyCathedral840.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:KillarneyCathedral840.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: AFBorchert, Alupus, Croberto68, David Edgar, Madmedea File:National Congress of Brazil.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:National_Congress_of_Brazil.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Marcelo Jorge Vieira File:Sydney Opera House Sails edit02.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sydney_Opera_House_Sails_edit02.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: User:Fir0002 File:Stærnes stabbur.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stærnes_stabbur.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: MyName (Mahlum) File:All Gizah Pyramids-3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:All_Gizah_Pyramids-3.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Ricardo Liberato File:Kinkaku3411.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kinkaku3411.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Fg2 File:Taj Mahal in March 2004.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Taj_Mahal_in_March_2004.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Dhirad, picture edited by J. A. Knudsen File:Notredame Paris.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Notredame_Paris.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Madhurantakam File:La Rotonda.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:La_Rotonda.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Philip Schäfer File:Palais Garnier.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Palais_Garnier.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: User:Eric Pouhier File:Bauhaus-Dessau main building.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bauhaus-Dessau_main_building.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Cethegus, Flominator, Shaqspeare, 2 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:FallingwaterWright.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:FallingwaterWright.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: User:Serinde File:Crys-ext.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Crys-ext.jpg License: Attribution Contributors: Arnold C (Buchanan-Hermit) File:Oriente Station Lisboa roof.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Oriente_Station_Lisboa_roof.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Gerhard Missbach File:Green Roof at Vendée Historial, les Lucs.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Green_Roof_at_Vendée_Historial,_les_Lucs.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SiGarb Image:Chen Hongshou, leaf album painting.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chen_Hongshou,_leaf_album_painting.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Jann, PericlesofAthens, Stout256, Sysywjel, Wst Image:Georges Seurat 066.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Georges_Seurat_066.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ad Meskens, AndreasPraefcke, Aotake, Bemoeial2, Emijrp, Jastrow, Schlurcher, Shakko, Traumrune, Wst, Zolo File:Lascaux 04.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lascaux_04.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Peter80 Image:Formella 18, apelle o la pittura, nino pisano, 1334-1336 dettaglio 01.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Formella_18,_apelle_o_la_pittura,_nino_pisano,_1334-1336_dettaglio_01.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: sailko Image:Honoré Daumier 008.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Honoré_Daumier_008.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Fagairolles 34, Léna, Olivier2, Scewing, Zolo File:Ferapontov.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ferapontov.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Aavindraa, Amandajm, Butko, Demidow, Fransvannes, Ghirlandajo, Gugganij, Léna, Ranveig, Shakko, 1 anonymous edits File:Meister von Mileseva 001.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Meister_von_Mileseva_001.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Mattes, Shakko, Wst, Xenophon, 3 anonymous edits File:Honfleur - Le peintre du vieux port.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Honfleur_-_Le_peintre_du_vieux_port.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Marie-Claire File:Zurbaran - Bodegon.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Zurbaran_-_Bodegon.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Balbo, Electron, Erri4a, Escarlati, High on a tree, Kilom691, Oxxo, Shakko, Skipjack, Warburg, 3 anonymous edits File:Twolovers.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Twolovers.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Amir85, Bibi Saint-Pol, Bontenbal, Calame, Fabos, Fg68at, G.dallorto, Johnbod, Kimse, Lysis, Mani1, Meisam, Nevit, Pschemp, Qizilbash, Sailko, Verdy p, Zereshk, 2 anonymous edits Image:Kosuth OneAndThreeChairs.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kosuth_OneAndThreeChairs.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Joseph Kosuth File:Duchamp Fountaine.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Duchamp_Fountaine.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Abiyoyo, DarkEvil, Eusebius, Ignacio Icke, Infrogmation, Mircea, Piero, Progettualita, Ronaldino, Talmoryair, Yann, 7 anonymous edits Image:WeinerText.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:WeinerText.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: GearedBull Image:Stuckists Death of Conceptual Art demo.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stuckists_Death_of_Conceptual_Art_demo.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Kipof, Schekinov Alexey Victorovich, Tyrenius Image:Give-if-you-can.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Give-if-you-can.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Tylicki Image:Programmed Machines installation by Maurizio Bolognini.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Programmed_Machines_installation_by_Maurizio_Bolognini.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: V.fanis1 File:Lakhovsky Conversation.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lakhovsky_Conversation.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Dia^, Ticketautomat, 1 anonymous edits File:Cuneiform script2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cuneiform_script2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Avian, Davidge, JMCC1, Mmcannis, NebMaatRa, Phirosiberia, Sumerophile, Sven-steffen arndt, Yann, Zunkir, 1 anonymous edits Image:Ancient Tamil Script.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ancient_Tamil_Script.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Symphoney Symphoney from New York, US File:Basic constituent structure analysis English sentence.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Basic_constituent_structure_analysis_English_sentence.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: AnonMoos Image:Pieter Bruegel d. Ä. 075b.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pieter_Bruegel_d._Ä._075b.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Gryffindor, User:Oxag Image:Homo sapiens neanderthalensis.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Homo_sapiens_neanderthalensis.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Luna04 Image:Unua Libro.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Unua_Libro.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ludoviko Lazaro ZAMENHOF Image:ASCII-Table-wide.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ASCII-Table-wide.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: ASCII-Table.svg: ZZT32 derivative work: LanoxxthShaddow Image:Bee waggle dance.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bee_waggle_dance.png License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: (Figure design: J. Tautz and M. Kleinhenz, Beegroup Würzburg.) Image:Old book bindings.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Old_book_bindings.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Tom Murphy VII File:Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein 007.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Johann_Heinrich_Wilhelm_Tischbein_007.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alcmaeonid, AndreasPraefcke, Annenkov, Bukk, Emijrp, Hajotthu, Ies, Kresspahl, Mattes, Melkom, Shakko, 1 anonymous edits File:Snowdance.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Snowdance.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Rick Dikeman Image:Bildhuggarkonst, Sofokles, Nordisk familjebok.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bildhuggarkonst,_Sofokles,_Nordisk_familjebok.png License: Public Domain Contributors: G.dallorto, Neddyseagoon, Väsk, 1 anonymous edits Image:KDujardinsCommedia.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:KDujardinsCommedia.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Kilom691, Lucarelli, ML, Mattes, O zanni, Tancrède, Vanished user 001 Image:Isadora duncan.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Isadora_duncan.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Asta, Beyond My Ken, Chico, Frank C. Müller, G.dallorto, Gereon K., OsamaK, Scewing, Thuresson Image:Aa ellington career 2 e.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Aa_ellington_career_2_e.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Perl at en.wikipedia Image:Music lesson Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2421.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Music_lesson_Staatliche_Antikensammlungen_2421.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Bibi Saint-Pol File:David-harp.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:David-harp.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Artist: Unknown File:Filippino Lippi 001.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Filippino_Lippi_001.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anna reg, BeatrixBelibaste, Beek100, HBook, Sailko, Wst, 2 anonymous edits File:PharoahSanders.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PharoahSanders.jpg License: unknown Contributors: William P. Gotlieb File:Naxi Musicians I.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Naxi_Musicians_I.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: BrokenSphere, Chrislb, Colegota, FlickrLickr, FlickreviewR, Olivier2, 1 anonymous edits File:Trill example ornaments.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Trill_example_ornaments.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Original uploader was Sbrools at en.wikipedia File:Photo récital 028.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Photo_récital_028.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Françoise Caudal File:Songbook by Davide Restivo.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Songbook_by_Davide_Restivo.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Davide Restivo File:Adeste Fideles sheet music sample.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Adeste_Fideles_sheet_music_sample.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Tkgd2007
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Mozarteum grosser saal buehne mit orchester.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mozarteum_grosser_saal_buehne_mit_orchester.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Aotake, Geofrog, Gryffindor, MatthiasKabel, NeoUrfahraner, Wst File:Gu Hongzhong's Night Revels 2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gu_Hongzhong's_Night_Revels_2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anonymous Song Chinese artist after the original by Gu Hongzhong File:Vynil record.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vynil_record.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Anomie, Mifter File:Suzuki violin recital.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Suzuki_violin_recital.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: Stilfehler File:Frances Densmore recording Mountain Chief2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Frances_Densmore_recording_Mountain_Chief2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Clusternote, Mvuijlst, Takabeg, Túrelio, UpstateNYer File:Bernhardt Hamlet2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bernhardt_Hamlet2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Lafayette Photo, London Image:Demon Yakshagana.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Demon_Yakshagana.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Mr.Manohara Upadhya. Uploaded by Gnanapiti File:Runaways musical fog red .jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Runaways_musical_fog_red_.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Dcdjdrew Image:Two dancers.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Two_dancers.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Barry Goyette from San Luis Obispo, USA File:Bronze Statuette of a Veiled and Masked Dancer 1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bronze_Statuette_of_a_Veiled_and_Masked_Dancer_1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Claire H. Image:Pierre-Auguste Renoir 146.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pierre-Auguste_Renoir_146.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Bukk, Infrogmation, Irish Pearl, Jacklee, Mattes, Olivier2, Oxxo, Rlbberlin, Tangopaso, Zolo, 1 anonymous edits Image:Phenakistoscope 3g07690b.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Phenakistoscope_3g07690b.gif License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Howcheng, Limonadis, Oldstuff, Origamiemensch, Selket, Trialsanderrors, 1 anonymous edits File:Saman dance.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Saman_dance.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Fajriboy File:morris.dancing.at.wells.arp.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Morris.dancing.at.wells.arp.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Arpingstone, ClemRutter, Man vyi, 1 anonymous edits File:MIT 2006 Standard Prechamp Final 2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MIT_2006_Standard_Prechamp_Final_2.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Nathaniel C. Sheetz File:HavanaDancers2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:HavanaDancers2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Jongleur100 File:nonkudri.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nonkudri.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: User:SreeBot File:Harlekin Columbine Tivoli Denmark.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Harlekin_Columbine_Tivoli_Denmark.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Malene Thyssen File:Outdoor dance rehearsal NYC 2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Outdoor_dance_rehearsal_NYC_2.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Beyond My Ken
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