You are on page 1of 101


BETWEEN 1990 AND 2030, it is estimated that the global population will increase by approximately 3.7 billion people. Ninety per cent of this increase will be located in developing countries, and 90 per cent of that will take place in urban areas. At least 600 million people already live in life-threatening situations in cities, and up to one third more live in sub-standard housing. At least 250 million urban dwellers lack access to safe drinking water and 400 million lack access to adequate sanitation. Although the proportion of people in the developing world defined as poor may be declining in some regions (particularly East Asia), absolute numbers are still rising: from 1051 million people in 1985 to 1133 million in 1990 according to the World Bank.1 And out of this total of 1133 million poor, an estimated 800 million live in the Asian and Pacific region. Given the magnitude of the challenge facing urban authorities in the Asian and Pacific region, there is a clear and crucial need for appropriate tools and methodologies that detail how to implement programmes of good and effective urban governance. The Urban Governance Initiative (TUGI) of the United Nations Development Programme has undertaken the task of compiling a set of 13 exemplary tools and methodologies for good urban governance and presented them here in a brief and easily referenced publication. Action for Better Cities ~ Tools and Methodologies for Good Urban Governance is a sourcebook for local authorities, non-governmental organisations and the private sector who are keen on examining an array of programmes and initiatives that have been implemented in other Asian cities, in order to find one that is most suitable and adaptable to the needs of the city in which they live. Each of the thirteen modalities showcases a programme or initiative that reflects one, or as in some cases, a number of characteristics of good governance. These include: participation of people in decision-making; rule of law; transparency; responsiveness; consensus orientation; equity; effectiveness and efficiency; accountability and strategic vision. We have also endeavored to provide further information in the appendix regarding relevant organisations, networks and fora in which issues of urban governance continue to be discussed, and where new and improved methodologies continue to be developed. It is our hope that by providing a summary description of what we have felt to be exemplary methodologies for good urban governance in one publication, the task of identifying and adapting a suitable programme for the distinctive needs of each city would become easier and less timeconsuming.

United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), Review of national action to provide housing for all since Habitat I 1976 Report of the Executive Director to the Commission on Human Settlements, January 1995. As quoted in Living in Asian Cities: The impending crisis-causes, consequences and alternatives for the future Report of the Second Asia-Pacific Urban Forum, United Nations, New York, 1996.



THE ASIA PACIFIC CITIES FORUM exemplifies the first characteristic of good urban governance - that of participation. By creating a forum in which business entities, local government and other urban stakeholders can come together to share ideas and views, the Asia Pacific Cities Forum makes it possible for people to participate constructively towards the creation of better-managed and more livable cities. The Forum emphasizes the importance of networking as well as the essential process of information dissemination in an attempt to gain the most from the expertise of each participating organisation or individual. This in turn can then be translated towards improving existing decision-making practices and the current method of management of a citys resources.

APCF... Strengthening Links between the entrepreneurial spirit of the business sector and urban leaders ...


Asia Pacific Cities Forum is a network of individuals and organisations who believe that better managed and more livable cities can be created in the Asia-Pacific region if an enlightened business sector comes into partnership with local government and other urban stakeholders towards sustainable development.

To foster the development of partnerships that focus primarily on strengthening links between the entrepreneurial spirit of the business sector and urban leaders, towards creating a synergy for better decision-making practices and the effective management of resources in cities within the region.


The Asia Pacific Cities Forum aims to provide the persuaded leadership within the business community a platform from which they can showcase their efforts in developing a business citizenship/responsibility programme that moves beyond corporate philanthropy to social investment.


Primary orgnisations refer to those bodies which the APCF comes into direct partnerships with in order to undertake any specific activity. The Asia Pacific Cities Forum works in partnership with The Asia Society, The Institute of Public Administration at the University of Washington, the National Institute of Urban Affairs and the Philippines Business for Social Progress. In addition to these organisations, however, APCF also undertakes work with many other networks and institutions, depending on the project that they are collaborating on. These organisations are referred to generally as collaborating organisations, as opposed to the primary organisations with whom joint funding is often a characteristic of the specific project that is undertaken. Cites that participate in the Asia Pacific Cities Forum business partnership programmes include Cebu City and Taguig-Metro Manila in the Philippines, Bangalore, Chennai and Mumbai in India, and Colombo and Kandy in Sri Lanka. Future cities that will be involved are Jakarta and Semarang in Indonesia, Bangkok and Chiangmai in Thailand, Allahabad and Ahmedabad in India and Penang, Malaysia

In total, APCF has exposed over 500 business and urban leaders to the value of business leadership and helped inspire several specific business citizenship programmes in a number of cities in Asia. Urban leaders from other cities and countries have also approached APCF with their interest in setting up business citizenship programmes.


1. Alliance Building To create a space where the regions business leaders and decision-makers interact to share ideas, learn from each other and gain support from their colleagues to continue their efforts of building on the visions, creativity, and business partnerships that they have initiated in their cities in Asia. 2. Catalyst for Action To assist participating cities to initiate carefully selected pilot projects involving business partnerships in urban revitalization, creative re-use of historic areas, provision of basic services and environmental improvement and regeneration. 3. Information Exchange To identify, document and disseminate, through an interactive network and website, examples of innovative and successful business-led urban partnerships in improving the quality of life in cities from around the world, that may be applicable to cities in Asia.


IN NOVEMBER 1998, the Asia-Pacific Cities Forum conducted consultations in four major cities, Chennai, Bangalore, Colombo and Kandy. The local counterparts of APCF organised these events which were well attended by business sector representatives, local government officers and community leaders. Following is a summary of the conclusions reached at each event:

Pest Control India (a private business organisation) agreed to sponsor a malaria eradication pilot project, while the Confederation of Indian Industries undertook an initiative to collaborate with Exnora (a Chennai based NGO that focuses on issues of solid waste management and the environment) and the Sustainable Chennai Project to develop a City Partnership that would be sponsored by business leaders.

The Karnataka Urban Infrastructure Development Finance Corporation (KUIDFC) made an offer to match half of all resources raised by the business sector for social investment projects while the Public Affairs Centre agreed to work with Swabhimana (an NGO that consists of business organisations, NGOs and government bodies which work towards the objective of Keeping Bangalore Green) and business leaders to generate viable projects that can be implemented in the short term.

The Celyinco Insurance Company agreed to build 6 public toilets in partnership with the city administration. One business organisation committed to planting 100 trees in cooperation with the Lions Club, while another agreed to launch an education campaign on the environment. Agreement was also reached to form a committee as a precursor to a Colombo City Partnership, with several businesses committing to specific contributions on a yearly basis. The Konrad Adenauer Foundation offered to assist with this process and to support future meetings.

This forum concluded with a commitment towards the revitalisation of Kandy Lake, as well as the launching of the Kandy City Partnership.


This conference focussed on the value of business citizenship and why this is an important response to a changing urban reality. Through examples, the conference highlighted how businesses have moved beyond their traditional philanthropy role and become active partners in social investment especially to benefit poor communities. Such business partnerships were seen to be essential for continued economic growth in a rapidly globalizing world. This commitment acknowledged that the business sector is a stakeholder in the success or failure of an entire urban region and that businesses have an interest in viable communities with economically healthy and thriving populations. For more details, please go to:


This summit brought together mayors and other government officials, business leaders and citizens from the region to promote sustainable cities, share best practices and exhibit relevant technologies, services and products. The report of the conference is available at the APCF website.

The above information was adapted from the APCF Website, available at For further information, please contact Akhtar Badshah, Executive Director, Asia Pacific Cities Forum, 2203, 246th Pl., NE Redmond, WA-98053, USA. Tel: (1-425) 898 9739 Fax: (1- 425) 898 9649. Email:; Website:


The ADB Benchmarking Project for Enhancing Municipal Service Delivery Capability is a prime example of how an institution can endeavour to improve itself in order to serve the needs of all the stakeholders within a city. By utilising management techniques such as benchmarking and continuous improvement cycles, this modality details how urban authorities can integrate the aspect of responsiveness into their structures such that they efficiently and effectively meet the aspirations of their urban population.


The ADB Benchmarking Project... providing regional technical assistance towards enhancing municipal service delivery... The Asian Development Bank (ADB) Benchmarking Project is a pilot project referred to as Enhancing Municipal Service Delivery Capability, and is currently implemented in ten municipalities within seven Asian countries. The initiative aims to provide regional technical assistance for the purpose of enhancing municipal service delivery in selected developing member countries using two management techniques, benchmarking and continuous improvement. The ABD Benchmarking Project would assist the participating municipalities benchmark at least six services and then use the information to implement improvements in their processes, towards providing affordable and appropriate levels of service delivery. These improvements could encompass lifting the quality of the service, increasing the number of persons serviced, reducing the service response times and/or lowering the unit costs of providing the service.

The project employs modern management techniques such as benchmarking and continuous improvement towards creating support networks between municipalities as well as providing a state-of-the-art methodology for increasing the capacity of Asian municipalities to deliver their services. By applying the above mentioned management strategies to the delivery of their services, the pilot project in these municipalities would provide evidence towards supporting the argument for the applicability of such management strategies within municipal services in order to improve their service delivery. The program would also demonstrate that cooperation between municipalities is a vital component in assisting innovation.


The project began in September 1998 and extended over a period of 18 months. This period involved both a process of implementation of the project and an assessment of results achieved. The municipalities involved include: Shanghai - The Peoples Republic of China Bangalore - India Bandung - Indonesia Semarang - Indonesia Surabaya - Indonesia Kuantan - Malaysia Lahore - Pakistan Peshawar - Pakistan Cebu City - Philippines Colombo - Sri Lanka

Benchmarking is a process which aims to stimulate improvement through comparisons of services, processes and organisational performance between a number of organisations. Usually, one of these organisations has the best practices for the process or service. Through detailed comparisons, participating organisations identify opportunities to improve their services or processes. In order for benchmarking to be effective, existing practices must be studied and performance indicators selected to judge service performance. Service staff must be involved in the benchmarking process, so that they develop the commitment to change existing practices. For example, in Australia, there was a substantial gap between the best and the worst practices in terms of service quality, cost, timeliness and customer satisfaction in such services as planning, rural road maintenance, solid waste disposal, home help, payroll services, revenue collection and corporate services. Based upon the benchmarking process, the municipalities were able to redesign their service delivery practices and lift their performance. Benchmarking may seem simple at first, but in practice the process requires trained staff to conduct the necessary analysis and develop proposals for change. It also achieves greatest success if it is conducted within the context of a Continuous Improvement Strategy.


Continuous Improvement describes a systematic process to improve all aspects of performance involving management and staff, usually through the use of staff teams. Services are considered first and foremost from the customers view. Service delivery performance is measured and improvements are continuously sought. Feedback from customers is a critical factor. The magnitude of infrastructure required to service the expected 50% of the total Asian regional population who will live in urban areas by the year 2025 is staggering. There would be 40 million new urban residents annually. There would also be 17 megacities (greater than 10 million residents) in Asia within the foreseeable future and infrastructure needs would hit $292 billion by the year 2020.
- D r. A s a d A l i S h a h , A s i a n Development Bank, stated at the M a y o r s F o r u m , C e b u C i t y, Philippines, December 1998.

Usually, a number of teams operate at any one time to address specific processes or problems and the members of these teams are trained in improvement techniques. Recognition and reward systems underpin the change culture and regular reporting of key performance measurements enables everyone to understand the progress the organisation is making towards its goals. The gains that stand to be achieved include better quality products and services, faster process and service times, lower costs and greater customer satisfaction.

Organise a number of the municipality staff into teams that are given specific training; Critically examine selected services; Compare these with similar services in other municipalities; Improve upon existing services based upon these comparisons; Use this as a basis for implementing an organisational-wide sustained approach to identifying and implementing improvement in services, process and performance of the municipality.


High Population Densities Large Traffic Flows Congestion Proliferation of Urban Slums High Land Values The Multiplicity of Agencies Involved in the Development Process


This project is conjointly implemented with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)/UNCHS Urban Management Programme (UMP), the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ), the Asian Development Bank and the Asian Development Bank Institute. The specific benefits expected from the implementation of the ADB Benchmarking Project include: Improvements within six specific areas of local government services provided to residents/constituents; An understanding by the municipal management team on how to design and implement programs on service improvement; The obtaining of two staff who are trained to coordinate and lead these improvement programmes; Staff who are trained to work in teams and use the latest improvement techniques; Provide insight into other municipalities service achievements; Provide the opportunity to participate in a network with like-minded municipalities who want to improve their services.

The ADB Project aims to set up a network of cities that will collaborate in benchmarking their processes and driving change through their own continuous improvement programmes. The participating municipalities form the nucleus of this network. In turn, they would then hopefully become role models for other Asian cities. The Asian Development Bank Institute has established an archive of Asian Mayors eForums on their web site. To visit, please go to mayors/news.htm.


Providing visible support for the project by the municipalities Chief Executive Officer/ Mayor/Commissioner and the senior executive management. Nominate two management persons to coordinate change. These two persons would each undertake two weeks full time training and would assist in the training of further teams in conjunction with the Asian Development Banks consultants. In addition to the training time, they would allocate one day each per week to support the teams while they develop improved services. Provide committed operating personnel for training. Allow for the commitment of trained personnel towards team activities in applying improvement techniques to selected services.

The ADB obtained the services of an international management consultancy firm, the Australian Continuous Improvement Group (ACIG) www.asiancities.bench, which specialises in continuous improvement and benchmarking as a strategy for achieving sustainable change in organisation culture, processes and customer service. The ACIG would train and assist two staff (benchmarking coordinators) from each municipality to facilitate and support detailed process mapping, setting of performance standards and the establishing of a continuous improvement program within their municipality. These Benchmarking Coordinators are then tasked with the training of the work-based teams in each of the municipalities. These work-based teams in turn have the responsibility of mapping out the processes involved within selected services that are provided by the municipalities in order to identify the areas in which the delivery of services can be improved.

There are six services that were selected for benchmarking within this project: 1. Solid waste management, especially education and regulation. 2. Customer complaints resolutions services.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Road maintenance services. Parking services. Street vendors. Property tax assessment and collection.

The Benchmarking Project continues to grow and develop. For recent updates regarding the project implementation, please e-mail Ms. Penelope Price, Learning Specialist, Asian Development Bank Institute, Tokyo, Japan at, or call (81 3) 3593 5500; fax: (81 3) 3593 5587 to receive the Asian Development Bank Institutes electronic newsletter, Asian Mayors E-Forum.

The above information was adapted from: 1. Communications with Dr. Naved Hamid, Senior Strategy and Policy Officer, Program Manager of the Asian Development Bank Benchmarking Project. 2. Communications with Ma. Mildred R. Villareal, Asian Development Bank Benchmarking Project. 3. Asian Development Bank - Enhancing Municipal Service Delivery Capability. [Document] Brief Guide. 15 September 1998. 4. Asian Development Bank - Enhancing Municipal Service Delivery Capability. [Document]A Project Summary and Progress Report. 15 September 1998. 5. Asian Development Bank - Enhancing Municipal Service Delivery Capability. [Document] Inception Report. 15 September 1998. 6. Asian Development Bank - Enhancing Municipal Service Delivery Capability. [Document]Report on the Mayors Forum-Cebu City, Philippines, 2-4 December 1998. 15 September 1998. For further information, please contact Dr. Naved Hamid, Senior Strategy and Policy Officer, Program Manager of the Asian Development Bank Benchmarking Project, No. 6, ADB Avenue, Ortigas Centre, Mandaluyong City, Philippines. Tel: (632) 632 5760; Fax: (632) 636 2181; Email:; Website:



Shanghai, PRC Maning Song, Vice Section Chief Shanghai Municipal Government 200 Renmin Dadao, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China. Tel: (86 21) 6311 9688 Fax: (86 21) 6358 1722 Email: or Zhiwei Jiang, Asst. Economist Tel: (86 21) 6321 2810 ext. 3162 Fax: (86 21) 635 81728 Email:

Surabaya, Indonesia Ir Indati Kusumawardani, Head of Education & Campaign Cleansing Services Department Surabaya Municipal Council Jl. Taman Surya, Surabaya, Indonesia Tel: (62 31) 534 6303 Fax: (62 31) 535 3776 or Irvan Dani Ananda, Chief of Input Department Office of Electronic Data Processing Tel: (62 31) 534 3051 Fax: (62 31) 535 3776 Email:

Peshawar, Pakistan Gul Haider Khan, Assistant Engineer Peshawar Municipal Corporation Chawk Hashtnagri Peshawar, Pakistan Tel: (92 91) 253 547 ext. 2004 Fax: (92 91) 271 356 or Javed Amjad,Taxation Officer Tel: (92 91) 218 034 Fax: (92 91) 271 356

Cebu City, Philippines Dr. Tomas L. Fernandez, City Health Officer Gen. Maxilom Avenue Cebu City 6000 Philippines Tel: (63 32) 253 7455/(63 32) 232 5731 Fax: (63 32) 232 1527 Email: or Mike Lucero, Executive Director Waterfront Development Commission Rm. 104 WDC Bldg. Osmena Blvd. Cebu City, Philippines Tel: (63 32) 255 7207 Fax: (63 32) 255 7209

Bangalore, India Dr. S.D. Nagaraj, Additional Health Officer Bangalore City Corporation N.R. Square, Bangalore, India Tel: (91 80) 224 5216/222 2387 Fax: (91 80) 222 3194 or H.B.S. Aradhya, Revenue Officer Tel: (91 80) 558 2580 Fax: (91 80) 222 3194

Kuantan, Malaysia Ahmad Hairi Bin Hussain, Head of Human Resource and Administration Department Kuantan Municipal Council Pahang, Malaysia Tel: (60 9) 513 2311 Fax: (60 9) 513 0644 Email: or Zulkipli Bin Abdul Majid, Head of Parks and Recreation Tel: (60 9) 567 3333 Fax: (60 9) 513 0644

Bandung, Indonesia Priana Wirasaputra. Drs., Secretary of BAPPEDA Bandung Municipal Council Bandung, Indonesia Tel: (62 22) 433 606 Fax: (62 22) 431 929 or Bulgan Alamin, Drg., Head Officer for Municipal Organisation Tel: (62 22) 434 635 Fax: (62 22) 436 150

Colombo, Sri Lanka K.A.D.N. Wickramarathne, Superintending Engineer Colombo Municipal Council Town Hall, Colombo 07 Sri Lanka Tel: (94 1) 691 941 Fax: (94 1) 684 290 Email: or K.T.D. Mallawa Arachchi, Superintending Engineer Tel: (94 1) 693 161 Fax: (94 1) 694 640 Email:

Lahore, Pakistan Tariq Bin Aslam Khan Deputy Chief Officer Metropolitan Corporation Lahore Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam Lahore, Pakistan Tel: (92 42) 9211185/192/387 Fax: (92 42) 9211050/9242 5867146 Email: or

Semarang, Indonesia Budi Tjahjanto, Sub Head in Urban Division Semarang Municipal Council Jl. Pemuda 148, Semarang Indonesia Tel: (62 24) 568 400 Fax: (62 24) 542 522



This chapter details the Community Action Planning (CAP) process which embodies the good governance characteristic of participation and emphasizes the importance of consensus in the process of planning and implementing projects that benefit a particular community. This has resulted in a methodology that ensures that issues of equity are well reflected in all their undertakings.


CAP...a participatory action research methodology for community-based solutions... Community Action Planning, or CAP, is a widely accepted participatory action research workshop methodology that empowers communities to design, implement and manage their own settlement programmes. Its key characteristics are participation, fast, community based solutions oriented specifically towards the implementation of problemsolving initiatives.


The CAP methodology was developed over a period of many years by Nabeel Hamdi and Reinhard Goethert, who together published their experiences in a book entitled Action Planning for Cities: A Guide to Community Practice (1997).


In order to introduce the concept of Community Action Planning to a particular project area, a workshop is held towards achieving two preliminary objectives: 1. To undertake a pilot project that would demonstrate the methods and principles of CAP in a learning by doing setting; 2. To facilitate the transfer of information concerning community priorities and the lessons learned from the implementation of the pilot project to influence policy at both the provincial and national levels.


Workshops that aim to introduce the concept of Community Action Planning to the target communities should include a range of community organisations and local authorities who would either directly or indirectly be involved in the process of implementing the programmes at the community level.



The community action planning methodology was used in a community project in Colombo by Sevanatha towards creating a community managed sewerage system within that locality. Gajabapura-Bosevana is a low-income settlement located close the eastern boundary of the Colombo municipality and lies within a 4 kilometer radius from the central business district. The settlement is average in size and the project encompassed a total of 198 families within the area. In 1980, this settlement received two common toilet blocks and four common water taps under the UNICEF assisted Urban Basic Services Programme (UBSP). Then, in 1985, the entire settlement was vested with the National Housing Development Authority (NHDA) of Sri Lanka under the Million Houses Program. The project initiated by Sevanatha in Gajabapura-Bosevana was towards implementing a community managed sewerage disposal system and was carried out over a period of three years, that being 1993-1996. The main actors in the project included the Community Development Council, Sevanatha and the Metropolitan Environmental Improvement Program (MEIP). The project was implemented and monitored through a participatory mechanism that was built with the help of community action planning (CAP) methodologies. The project began with a CAP workshop in the community and involved a number of selected community members of which 50% were women. Also invited was the local Health Warden from the areas municipality and the Housing Officer from the National Housing Development Authority (NHDA). The objectives of the workshop were to identify the environmental problems in the settlement, formulate general strategies to deal with these problems and to decide on a action plan. THE MILLION HOUSES It resulted in a plan that addressed 15 issues identified by the community members themselves and the responsibility of implementation and the follow up activities of the plan were taken on by the Community Development Council. Sevanatha continued its involvement as a facilitator to assist the community to organise project implementation activities as well as to link local government and other agencies with the activities of the Community Development Council (CDC) in the settlement. The CAP workshop had resulted in an action plan of solutions that were both short term and long term. Short term solutions consisted basically of activities that could be carried out by the community without external assistance. For example, repair works to damaged common toilets, water taps and drains and clearing of common amenities through community labour. The long term solutions were more involved and required appropriate technical designs,


The Million Houses Programme (MHP), and its successor, the Million Five Hundred Thousand Houses Programme (1.5 MHP) were countrywide national processes that ran from 1984-1989 and 1989-1994 respectively. Both programmes were really umbrellas for several sectorspecific sub-programmes. In the six years from 1984-1989, the rural subprogramme successfully provided shelter for 231,752 poor families at an average loan per completion of approximately US$117. The central feature of the programmes was the role of the poor in need of shelter. These people owned and managed the programmes, with the State and others acting as active supporters. This Sri Lankan case represents one of the earliest instances in the world of shifting national housing policy from direct provision to support or enablement.


more capital investment and effective organisational and managerial structures. Examples of these sort of solutions included environmentally sound houses, individual amenities and sustainable community organisations. In the implementation of the Community Action Plan, the first priority was to solve the sanitation problem. The repair of all common toilets was undertaken immediately through organising community labour. Then, the CDC took on the role of organising the community, obtaining municipal approval, collecting contributions, supervising and monitoring construction and working as a liaison with families and external agencies. The National Housing Development Authority provided all technical drawings and estimates for a sewer system to which private household toilets could then be connected. Sevanatha was responsible for planning, organising education and training activities, raising funds, providing technical advice for community organisation and building partnerships with community and other resource agencies. The Japan Embassy provided building material for construction of septic tanks and main sewer lines for the three CDC settlement areas under its small grants scheme. Residents contributed unskilled labour and each household contributed between Rs. 4000- Rs. 6500 for the construction of a private toilet. Three years since the completion of the project, two community organisations involved in the construction of the sewerage system are still functioning as Community Development Councils. They have taken on other infrastructure development projects and welfare activities. Womens savings and credit groups have also found the area to be fertile ground for the development of such community based activities.


Sevanatha is a government registered non-governmental organisation that serves in urban poor communities in Sri Lanka since its inception in 1989. It networks closely with a number of community-based organisations and small non-governmental organisations that represent the interests and aspirations of urban poor communities. Sevanathas main objectives are as follows: 1. To motivate urban poor communities to organise themselves into self-reliant community-based organisations (CBOs); 2. To support communities so that they could organise womens groups, youth and childrens groups to ensure maximum community participation in the CBOs activities; 3. To support communities so that they can start savings and credit programmes as well as income generating activities; 4. To assist communities to develop partnerships with other CBOs and NGOs. Additionally, Sevanatha also works in close collaboration with regional organisations such as the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS), the Economic and Social Council for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), CITYNET and the Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (ACHR).

The above information was adapted from: 1. Website of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS). 2. Community Managed Sewer Disposal System Process and Progress. (1993). Produced by the Sevanatha Urban Resource Centre, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 3. K.A. Jayaratne. (1998). Community Managed Sewerage System in Colombo. Evolution of Clean Settlements Concept for Community Based Urban Environmental Improvement and Management. Sevanatha: Colombo. For further information, please contact SEVANATHA-Urban Resource Centre, 220/3, Nawala Road, Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka. Tel/Fax: (94-1) 878893 Email:



The CityNet and TCDC Transfer Process of Best Practices is an example of an urban governance modality that promotes effectiveness and efficiency. By supporting the direct technical exchange and transfer of expertise between cities, the TCDC transfer programmes have proven to be politically more acceptable, institutionally more viable and economically more efficient. This is a modality that describes well how cities can meet the needs of their population while making the best use of available resources.


TCDC transfers...match the demand for learning with a supply of experience and expertise... The Habitat Agenda recognizes partnerships, networking and decentralized forms of cooperation as effective capacity-building strategies to meet the goal of sustainable development. As a result, transfers were developed as one form of decentralized cooperation which present several advantages over conventional forms of technical assistance and cooperation. These advantages include the following attributes: 1. It is a demand-driven process in which one party seeks to learn from a peer without any pre-conditions or other agendas; 2. It is an effective source of inspiration and a potential instrument of change based on the principle that seeing is believing; 3. It is a cost-effective means of matching supply with demand for information, knowledge, expertise and experience; and 4. It is a multi-dimensional form of learning which typically combines political, administrative, technical and managerial dimensions that are difficult to address in more formal learning environments such as seminars, conferences, training courses and expert advice. A transfer is a structured process of learning. A transfer implies, at the minimum, the identification and awareness of solutions, the matching of demand for learning with supply of experience and expertise and a series of steps that need to be taken to help bring about the desired change. Such change may range from policy reform, management systems and technology, to attitudes and behaviour. Transfers may be fully or partially facilitated by a third party. In most cases, however, transfers are undertaken on a bilateral basis. Such transfers were initiated as a follow-up to the City Summit (Habitat II) that was held in Istanbul, Turkey, in June 1996 and has involved over 30 cities, NGOs and communities. It was an attempt by the CityNet network, the United Nations Development Programmes Special Unit for Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC) and the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) to share lessons learned from a series of pilot transfers involving best practices in improving the living environment.



These transfers were based on the realisation that many of the highly

A b e s t p r a c t i c e t r a n s f e r becomes both feasible and desirable when an organisation recognizes that another organisation has successfully implemented a solution for a set of problems or issues which the former is seeking to address and is willing to inspire its own actions based on lessons derived from that success. Nicholas You of the Best Practices and Local Leadership Programme.

successful solutions documented by the UNCHS Best Practices and Local Leadership Programme (please see Appendix II), addressed common social, economic and environmental issues and problems. With financial support from UNDP, many transfers were enabled and facilitated by CityNet, with most of them using the conceptual and methodological framework developed by the Best Practices and Local Leadership Programme of UNCHS (Habitat). These transfers took place between 1993 to 1997 and were discussed and appraised during the TCDC Forum on Transfers of Best Practices that was held during the CityNet 97 Yokohama Congress in November 1997. The TCDC Transfer Programme supports the direct technical exchange and transfer of expertise between cities (peers) as such exchanges have proven to be politically more acceptable, institutionally more viable and economically more efficient.


The effectiveness and feasibility of a transfer depends largely on the quality of the practices that are being transferred. Such practices are characterized by: a tangible, positive impact on living conditions; partnership between two or more public/private organisations; sustainability in its social, economic, environmental and cultural components.

Transfers can fall within three main categories: technical: the transfer of skills and technology applications/processes; informational: the transfer and exchange of ideas and solutions; managerial: a system or series of decision-making and resource allocation processes that can be transferred and adapted.

Key components of a transfer can be identified as knowledge derived from real-world experience together with the human expertise capable of transforming that knowledge into social action


The key elements of a transfer should include the following: Information Dissemination and Exchange: Dissemination of innovative practices as a means for initial matching of supply with demand for knowledge, expertise and experience. Roles and Responsibilities of Actors/Stakeholders: Further matching of supply with demand in identifying and defining the social, economic and environmental issues to be addressed and the roles and responsibilities of hosts and participants. Matched Solution to Problem: Negotiation by two parties for a transfer commitment by recognising that the host has been successful in implementing a process or solution from which the participant is willing to learn. Education and Adaptation: Participants learn from hosts through site visits and surveys of the local application of the programme. Plans of the transfer are widely publicised so that any potential stakeholders are aware of the proposed plan, and to encourage ownership by the community at large. Implementation Plan: A plan and/or feasibility study for the adaptation and implementation of the transfer is developed. Transfer: Initially, a pilot demonstration should be undertaken to test the viability of the programme followed by a full-scale transfer. Follow-up: Monitoring and assessment of the effectiveness and impact of the transfer.


A transfer can be deemed successful even if it has encountered several obstacles during its development and implementation. The following indicators provide a checklist for actors involved in the transfer process, to be used as a tool for assessing an initiatives development and effectiveness.



PARTICIPATION Does the transfer involve and/or promote participation of all possible stakeholders? TRANSPARENCY Is the transfer process open and accessible to all stakeholders? ACCOUNTABILITY Are mechanisms in place to ensure accountability for actions and responsibilities of all partners involved? INCLUSION Is the participation of all potential stakeholders considered in the transfers design? FINANCIAL FEASIBILITY Are resources and/or funding available to realise and sustain the initiative? Are funding alternatives identified? SUSTAINABILITY Does the initiative consider the economic, environmental and social needs without trading off one at the great expense of another, now or in the future? These indicators should provide participants with a framework for qualitative feedback on the status and success potential of their initiatives. It is recommended that as the actors develop and proceed with the transfer process, additional indicators be considered. Technical indicators should also be identified and adopted by transfer participants so that administrative and technical considerations can be assessed throughout the implementation phases. Following is an example of technical indicators for a transfer involving a local authority.


POLITICAL Timing of elections Recent policies adopted or changed Number of years before next national or civic elections ADMINISTRATIVE AND MANAGERIAL Indicators pertaining to roles and responsibilities and degree of autonomy Indicators pertaining to organic structure of the organisation, number of employees per service, number of employees per thousand population Indicators pertaining to size of budget, percentage of own revenue, sources of grants, revenue per capita, etc. Indicators pertaining to performance, e.g. cost per unit of service delivered Indicators pertaining to proportion of professional staff Indicators pertaining to type of services and delivered by whom SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC Number of women involved Number of households below the poverty line Literacy rate Infant mortality rate Crime rates Per capita income Household connection levels Median price of water ENVIRONMENTAL Per capita production of waste Percentage of waste recycled Per capita consumption of water, electricity, etc. CULTURAL Religious composition of the society Ethnic make-up Other special considerations




Bangkok is situated in the downstream flat deltoid plain of the Chao Phraya River, a scant 27 to 56 kilometers from the river mouth. The citys ground level is an average of 0.0 to 1.5 meters above the mean sea level. Bangkok suffers from frequent floods due to the low elevation and rapid urban construction that is turning the natural land into buildings and urban structures. A technical transfer was initiated by dispatching experts from the Sewage Works Bureau of Yokohama to visit Bangkok in July 1997 to provide advice on flood-control strategies for Bangkoks flooding problem. Officials from the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) became interested in this project after hearing about the innovative flood control methods developed by Yokohama. The project concept is simple, focusing on the development of reservoirs and retention ponds which store rainwater temporarily, especially in the early minutes of rainstorms, to retard the outflow and thereby reduce peak discharge volume. The project concept is applied in more than a thousand places in Japan, but especially in the river basin around Yokohama. Experts from Yokohama worked with experts from the BMA, showing them how to design these retention ponds within the urban fabric of the city. This was similar to the design developed and applied in Yokohama and the Tsurumi River Basin area. Two engineers from the city of Yokohama went to Bangkok for a week to work with Thai planners at the Bangkok City Hall and establishedthe validity of this approach. The Thai engineers are now so confident of this approach that they are developing an application handbook and a computer programme with Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok to assist architects and engineers in applying this effective urban flood-control system nation-wide.


The sustainability of a transfer and the implementation of an innovative practice rely upon the follow-through process and an honest evaluation of both the innovation and the transfer. Assessments of the processes, successes and failures should be scheduled both on a short-term and long-term basis, with all key players represented. A key aspect of monitoring is to identify the obstacles faced and to keep track of how they were overcome. This would provide others with valuable information regarding how to avoid some of the obstacles and how to overcome them when encountered. The effective transfer of a practice is not simply replication but rather an innovative adaptation using lessons derived from successes as well as failures. Developing a solution applicable to a communitys specific problem is itself a good practice and should be evaluated and documented for the benefit of others.

Transfer processes are not a panacea, but a process that requires time, commitment and an open, participatory system that allows for different voices and opinions to be heard. Although benefits to the recipient may seem obvious, hosts stand to benefit as well, through developing their capacity as a learning organisation, or one that continually grows in the knowledge of its own strengths, weaknesses and challenges.

The above information was adapted from: 1. CITYNET Regional Network of Local Authorities for the Management of Human Settlements. Guidelines for Transferring Effective Practices : A Practical Manual for South-South Cooperation. Commissioned by CITYNET Regional Network of Local Authorities for the Management of Human Settlements, UNDP Special Unit for Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC), UNCHS (Habitat) Best Practices and Local Leadership Programme (BLP). For further information, please contact: CityNet, The Regional Network of Local Authorities for the Management of Human Settlements, 5F, International Organizations Center, Pacifico-Yokohama, 1-1-1 Minato-Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama 220-0012, Japan. Tel: +(8145) 2232161; Fax: +(81-3) 223-2162; Email:; Website: http://




Local Agenda 21 has been recognised as a valuable approach towards harmonizing urban development and the environment by utilizing consultative processes with the urban population in order to reach a consensus on a Local Agenda 21 for their community. This methodology for good governance embodies the principles of participation, consensus orientation as well as transparency and accountability, because not only does the LA 21 focus on building a common vision for sustainable development, it also promotes methods for ensuring that the programmes are carried out effectively and efficiently.


LA21...harmonising urban development with the environment... In 1992, the leaders of 179 countries gathered in Rio de Janeiro for the United Nations Earth Summit to finalise a global action plan for sustainable development called Agenda 21. In chapter 28 of Agenda 21, local authorities in each country are called upon to undertake consultative processes with their populations in order to achieve a consensus on a Local Agenda 21 for their community. Local Agenda 21 has been recognised as being a valuable approach towards harmonising urban development and the environment. It was recognised that because so many of the problems and solutions being addressed by Agenda 21 have their roots in local activities, the participation and cooperation of local authorities will be a determining factor in fulfilling its objectives. Since then, more than 2000 local authorities from 65 countries have responded to the Agenda 21 mandate by developing their own Local Agenda 21 action plans for sustainable development. The task of mobilising and technically supporting Local Agenda 21 planning in these communities has been led by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) and national associations of local government.

The International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, or ICLEI, was founded by environmentally concerned local authorities. Currently, it is supported by more than 220 members, consisting of communities of all sizes from around the world. The World Secretariat was established in Toronto in 1991, while the European Secretariat was opened in Freiburg, Germany, in 1992. There are regional offices located in Harare (Africa), Santiago (South America), Tokyo (Asia/Japan) and Berkeley (USA). ICLEIs mission is to build and serve a worldwide movement of local authorities to achieve tangible improvements in global environmental conditions through cumulative local actions. During the period of 1992-1996, ICLEI has been providing training and technical assistance to local planning efforts towards sustainable development. It has also been building regional and international networks to support the worldwide Local Agenda 21 process. In particular, ICLEIs Local Agenda 21 Model Communities Programme (MCP) has supported 14 local governments in Africa, Europe, Latin America,


North America and Asia and the Pacific to work together to test and evaluate different planning approaches and methods. Their experiences have guided the development of the Local Agenda 21 approach worldwide.


For further information on ICLEIs activities, please contact:

The International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, ICLEI, World Secretariat, City Hall, East Tower, 8 th Floor, Toronto, Ontario M5H 2N2, Canada. Tel: (1-416) 392 1462 Fax: (1-416) 392 1478 Email: Website: http://

Sustainable development is a programme of action for local and global economic reform. The challenge of this programme is to develop, test and disseminate ways to change the process of economic development so that it does not destroy the ecosystems and community systems that make life possible and worthwhile. No one fully yet understands how, or even if, sustainable development can be achieved; however, there is a growing consensus that it must be accomplished at the local level if it is ever to be achieved on a global basis. At the local level, sustainable development requires that local economic development supports community life and power, using the talents and resources of local residents. It further challenges us to distribute the benefits of development equitably, and to sustain these benefits for all social groups over the long term. This can only be achieved by preventing the waste of ecological wealth and the degradation of ecosystems by economic activities.


Sustainable development planning using the Local Agenda 21 approach is a fundamental first step for local governments towards enabling them to provide the residents of their communities with basic human needs, rights, and economic opportunities, and at the same time ensure a vital, healthy, natural environment. In other words, the Local Agenda 21 approach is a planning approach that enables local governments manage their towns and cities in a sustainable way. Sustainable Development Planning assists communities to: equally factor economic, community and environmental conditions into the design of development projects and service strategies; fully engage relevant interest groups and, in particular, service users in the development of service strategies that meet their needs; and create service strategies that can be sustained because they focus on underlying systemic problems rather than problem symptoms, and because they consider long-term trends and constraints.


Sustainable development planning engages residents, key institutional partners and interest groups, often known as stakeholders, in designing and implementing action plans. Planning is carried out collectively among these groups. It is organised so as to represent the desires, values and ideals of the various stakeholders within the community, particularly local service users. Typically, the first task of such a Stakeholder Group is to formulate a Community Vision which describes the communitys ideal future and expresses a local consensus about the fundamental preconditions for sustainability.


Involving local communities in the analysis of development and related service issues is essential to the optimal solution of the problems. Municipal investments are more likely to succeed and win public support if they are responsive to the articulated needs, concerns and preferences of service users. Service strategies can also benefit from the knowledge and resources that local residents and institutions can themselves contribute to solving problems. At the same time, the process of issue analysis can be used to educate stakeholders about technical conditions and constraints for service delivery, such as ecosystem carrying capacities or financial constraints.


Community-based issue analysis involves two components: 1. Establish a process to gather and discuss the knowledge and wisdom of local residents about local conditions. 2. Undertake technical assessments to provide stakeholders with further information that may not be readily available to them. Popular knowledge and technical research are then reviewed together by the stakeholders to establish a consensus about local problems. The benefits of community-based issue analysis are the creation of a process whereby the local community can establish priorities for action, and to establish baseline data and indicators against which progress and future changes in conditions can be measured.

Following the identification and analysis of priority service issues, the partners can then begin the process of creating Action Plans. The action planning process has three basic components: Action Goals: Action goals are the specific aims that the community wishes to strive towards to achieve its vision for the future. They should translate this Community Vision into focused directives and resource allocation priorities. They are used to guide organisations, experts or professional staff to develop specific programmes, and in this way they serve as an intermediate step between a Community Vision statement and specific measurable targets for improvement of conditions related to sustainability. Targets and Triggers: After action goals are established, professional staff should work with stakeholders to define specific targets to be achieved within specified time frames. These targets permit managers to evaluate both the adequacy of actions being taken and the progress made in implementing an Action Plan. Triggers, on the other hand, are unique forms of targets. They are agreed-upon future conditions that trigger further action by stakeholders when addressing a problem. For example, a community with air pollution problems may not be able to agree at present to establish restrictions on private automobile use, but they could agree that when local roadway use reaches a certain level, they will introduce a system of road pricing, such as toll collection. Action Strategies and Commitments: It is essential that an Action Plan specifies the action strategies and commitments of different stakeholders in order for them to work as partners in achieving the different objectives of an Action Plan. Action strategies and commitments should be very precise and contain specific projects, time schedules for implementation, and commitments to allocate money, time and human resources. It is recommended that action strategies be designed to commence immediately. This is especially important because the sustainable development planning process will inevitably raise community expectations for action and change.


The implementation of partnership-based Action Plans requires adjustments in standard operating procedures and, oftentimes, some institutional re-organisation. Pre-existing administrative procedures, divisions of responsibility among municipal departments, contract arrangements and other practices must be adjusted to allow for the active participation of service users and partner institutions in the implementation of an Action Plan. While the municipality institutes internal reforms to support partnership approaches, external projects and/or partnerships must be formalised. Agreements that outline the responsibilities and investments of each partner are required, including specific work schedules and methods for ongoing monitoring of work. The Stakeholder Group or municipality may consider it necessary to establish a new organisation or institution to coordinate the implementation of certain aspects of an Action Plan. Accurate documentation of both implementation activities and their impacts should be kept regularly, in order to allow for the evaluation of action strategies, service approaches and their impacts on local conditions. Such documentation is extremely valuable to identify the causes of problems that arise during the institution of new service approaches.



Evaluation and feedback differs from monitoring in the sense that the former methods are used both for internal and external management purposes. It is necessary to maintain accountability among the stakeholder participants in the implementation of an Action Plan. Evaluation and feedback are also used to inform the general public about progress in meeting specific targets, and to signal when the Action Plan must be altered in the face of change. An effective evaluation and feedback system provides regular information to both service providers and users about important changes in local conditions and progress towards targets; with this information, the actors can adjust their own actions and behaviours. Evaluation information is used to guide planning and resource allocation processes so that these processes are kept accountable to the Community Vision and its action objectives. If an Action Plan fails to correct problems or to satisfy prioritised needs, then the feedback system triggers further planning or action.

In summary, the sustainable development planning approach embodied in the Local Agenda 21 programme is a participatory planning process. It can be used to improve municipal sector performance, to mobilise and focus resources available in a community , and to address the sustainable development challenge at the local level. Since the programme emphasizes partnership approaches to service delivery, values the concerns of residents and validates their role and contribution in development, and addresses the need to preserve environmental and community systems, it will almost certainly contribute towards the implementation of Agenda 21. The Local Agenda 21 methodology as a whole is complex and there is no ready recipe for implementation. The approach must be tailored to local circumstances, and much learning must occur to discover the best procedures, mechanisms and methods to prepare a LA 21 action plan for sustainable development. Conceptually, LA 21 is an inclusive, participatory, comprehensive agenda for action. Operationally, this means that different community sectors join in a partnership to decide on actions that address immediate priorities, while establishing a plan to sustainably meet long-term needs and aspirations. In such a process, local government is one of the many partners working together to establish a vibrant and healthy environment and an economy that respects the limits of natural systems. More than 2000 local governments worldwide are now instituting LA 21 planning.

The above information was adapted from the following sources: 1. The Local Agenda 21 Planning Guide An Introduction to Sustainable Development Planning. (1996). The International Council for Local and Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI)/The International Development Research Centre (IDRC)/The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Canada. 2. Local Agenda 21 Model Communities Programme - Programme Summary. (1998). International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI). Canada. 3. The Website of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) at For further information, please contact: World Secretariat, 16th Floor, West Tower, City Hall, Toronto, M5H 2N2, Canada. Fax: (1-416) 392-1478; Email:; Website: or The Asia-Pacific Secretariat, Japan Office, Iikura Building, 3rd Floor, 1-9-7 Azabuda, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 106 Japan. Fax: (81-3) 5561-9737; Email:; Website:




The LIFE Programme is a methodology for achieving sustainable human development through participatory local government. It promotes three very important aspects of good governance, namely participation, transparency and equity. Building the local-local level dialogue between various groups ensures that all stakeholders within an urban environment participate in the process of decision-making when considering ways in which they can improve their living environments. This process implicitly assumes a free flow of information between the various institutions, as well as allowing for everyone concerned to have their interests represented equitably.

LIFE...local solutions to local problems... LIFE is a methodology for achieving sustainable human development through participatory local governance. Its goal is to help city dwellers help themselves, to find local solutions to local problems. The programme is part of a worldwide initiative by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to promote local dialogue and practical action to improve the living conditions in low-income urban communities. LIFE was launched as an innovative pilot programme, building upon the guiding principles of Local Agenda 21, developed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. These principles acknowledge that central governments and international donor agencies alone cannot be expected to resolve all the urban development and environmental issues rapidly erupting in the municipal, metropolitan and mega-urban centres of the world. Not only are financial and manpower resources limited, but their efforts are often misdirected due to an incomplete understanding of local actors and regional situations. Local initiatives, that include community-level, cross-sectoral partnerships and participatory processes, which attempt to resolve some of these problems, are the primary focus of LIFE projects. In addition to this, the LIFE Programme has also expanded its reach and impact to country, regional and international levels, acting as a sort of global conduit for the transference of successful projects and experiences.


The Local Initiative Facility for Urban Environment, or LIFE, was launched at the Earth Summit in 1992 by the Management Development and Governance Division (MDGD) of the United Nations Development Programme.


The main actors in the circle of LIFE include community groups, local government authorities and the private sector. The LIFE programme is supported by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the governments of five industrialised countries as well as both public and private institutions in the countries where LIFE Programmes are implemented. At the country level, the purpose of the LIFE programme is to stimulate locallocal discussions, to get organisations


The LIFE Programme has helped to provide a modern sanitation system for the Mominabad section of Gujranwala, a city in Pakistans Punjab province. With a LIFE grant, the otherwise selffinanced and self-managed project has provided flush toilets in homes and underground sewerage systems in the community. The low-cost project will be copied in other slums of Gujranwala, eventually providing modern sanitation for some 52,000 people in 6,465 homes.

working together to solve and surmount problems. LIFE works towards creating dialogue amongst local actors to help them learn how to work together effectively. While the focus of LIFE activities is at the country level, LIFE is reinforced and sustained by regional, inter-regional and global partnerships and alliances. Coordination and cooperation with a network of regional and global organisations has brought a rich variety to LIFE and has bolstered the overall programme. In fact, through the support and collaboration with other networks and regional organisations, the LIFE methodology has spread faster and more efficiently than would have otherwise been possible with the national level programmes alone.


The LIFE Programme is an effort at promoting local-local level dialogue and action with the objective of improving living conditions in low-income urban communities. It aims to encourage collaboration between various stakeholders and support civil society organisations in order to improve local problems of environment degradation and poverty.


The LIFE Programmes structure incorporates action at the country, regional and global levels. Within each of these levels is a three-stage process at the country level that includes an initial upstream phase, a downstream phase and a final upstream phase.

Catalyse a national dialogue, set strategies, gather support Identify the key local actors: local authorities, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and community-based organisations (CBOs). Recruit a national coordinator to animate the LIFE process, run the national programme on a daily basis, mobilize local resources and help support, document and evaluate projects. Hold a national participatory workshop at which local, national and international participants create a local and national strategy for the programme. Include as participants representatives of government, NGOs, CBOs, civic leaders and potential donors. Activate a national selection committee of local and national figures to promote the programme, review and select projects to receive funding, mobilize human and financial resources and act as an on-going forum for policy dialogue on the urban environment.

Ensure effective, collaborative, small-scale projects Conduct provincial workshops to help potential participants formulate collaborative projects. Solicit project proposals from CBOs and NGOs as well as local authorities. Select and fund suitable, well-designed small-scale projects. Help implement projects by providing training, monitoring and networking.

Initiate the dissemination and exchange of information nationally and internationally Help evaluate and document the projects. Assist in disseminating and exchanging information on successful ways to improve the urban environment. Start and upstream policy dialogue based on project results. Conduct national and international workshops to share effective project, programme and policy approaches.

All phases of the programme use the LIFE method which is essentially local-local dialogue within each community. The method is also applied at regional and global levels. This process of local dialogue leading to local cooperation and local action underpins the philosophy of all LIFE projects. This process is then extended at the country, regional and global levels.



The LIFE Initiative understands that when CBOs, NGOs, governments and international agencies first attempt to work together with the poor, women and other marginalised persons, conflict is virtually inevitable due to differing positions and perceptions. However, LIFE believes that through carefully facilitated dialogue, the avenues for understanding can be opened up in order to make compromise possible. And once cooperative work begins, alliances and partnerships can emerge to help stave off new conflicts that inevitably arise throughout the process. LIFE calls this the LIFE cycle from Conflict to Compromise to Cooperation to Alliance.


In Thailand, LIFE projects are sponsored in cooperation with several bilateral donor agencies, and use two different types of implementing institutions: one deals directly with municipalities and the other works through non-governmental organisations. Up to now, 43 LIFE projects have been implemented in 22 towns in the five regions of Thailand. In the last half of 1998, the LIFE National Coordinator paid visits to all regions where LIFE-funded projects are located to convene meetings to summarize activities and determine the direction of activities at the local level, coordinate these with urban development activities and set up regional LIFE committees. There was also approval granted by the LIFE National Selection Committee to the Sustainable Waste Management Project as the first beneficiary in Phase III of the project (1998-2000).


Khon Kaen is a city situated in the north-eastern region of Thailand, about 445 kilometres from Bangkok. With a population of 1.7 million people, it is the fifth largest city in Thailand. The Khon Kaen Municipality is one of four municipalities in the Khon Kaen City province. The municipality council includes 18 elected members who serve in their positions for 5-year terms. Their responsibilities entail enactment of legislation and administration of the executive board (which includes the offices of the mayor and vice-mayor). Khon Kaen is the centre of administration for both public and private sector organisations in the North-eastern part of Thailand. This region has seen a rapid expansion of industry and service based businesses in the last ten years, and this has had significant adverse effects on the social structures of urban environments. Problems rampant in this municipality include issues such as child labour, especially in garbage collection, teenage drug addiction and an increasing urban slum population due to rural-urban migration. The city perceives social development as a direct responsibility of government officials in that they are required, in their capacities as public servants, to solve social problems and make life better for the citizens. This concept is soundly rooted in the cooperation between three sectors, namely, municipal organisations, non-governmental organisations and community based groups. Khon Kaen municipal officers work together with such groups within community committees which form the mechanism by which activities and projects that are beneficial to the community are initiated and carried out. All these activities are closely supervised and monitored by the municipal officers. With this simple but effective mechanism, the Khon Kaen Municipality has experienced success within their initiative to encourage participation from municipal organisations, non-governmental organisations and community based groups.



The goal of the LIFE Programme is for its process and method to be mainstreamed by the donor community and institutionalised in developing country policies and structures. LIFE starts as a process to address local urban environmental improvements through participatory local governance. But it is adapted to address other issues, such as access to health services, education, the role of women in communities and the development of income-generating activities. Some of the implications on governance as a result of the switch from conventional to LIFE-like approaches include: 1. That it often leads to a reduction in control over policy and decision-making by government, and a corresponding increase in control by civil society. 2. That it shifts problem-solving from an agency-centric definition of problems towards a community-based definition. 3. That it leads to a reduction of quick-fix projects in favour of longer term programmes. 4. That it is likely to reduce reliance on government and increase self-sufficiency moving from enablement to empowerment.

The LIFE programme is a conduit through which successful local projects are transferred to other districts in the same city, to other towns and cities in the same country and to urban areas in other countries. It is hoped that the effect of this process would be to strengthen local institutional capacity that would allow city dwellers and their institutions to continue to deal effectively and independently with emerging environmental problems and issues of poverty. By the year 2000, the LIFE programme would be completed and the methods and materials will be available to others. Meanwhile, in the 12 pilot countries in which LIFE was implemented, LIFE will continue to serve as a global laboratory for future development efforts.

The above information was adapted from 1. UNDP (97). Participatory Local Governance: Technical Advisory Paper 1. Local Initiative Facility for Urban Environment (LIFE). Lifes method and experience 1992-1997. For further information, please contact Pratibha Mehta, Life Global Coordinator, Management Development and Governance Division, Bureau for Policy Development, United Nations Development Programme, 1 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017, United States of America. Tel: (1-212) 906 6602; Fax: (1-212) 906 5365 Email:; Website:




Global Coordinator Pratibha Mehta Life Global Coordinator, Management Development and Governance Division, Bureau for Policy Development, United Nations Development Programme, 1 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017, United States of America. Tel: (1-212) 906 6602 Fax: (1-212) 906 5365 Email: Website:

Pakistan Fayyaz Baqir LIFE Coordinator, UNDP Islamabad, UN Boulevard, Diplomatic Enclave No. 1, Block No. 2, Ramna-5, Islamabad, Pakistan. Tel: (92 51) 822 071-9 Fax: (92 51) 213 959

Thailand Sompong Patpui LIFE Coordinator, Director, Grassroots Development Institute, 100/22, Loc 6, Art-Narong Rd., Klongtoey, Bangkok 10110, Thailand. Tel: (662) 671 6911 Fax: (662) 671 6910 Home: (662) 249 7313

Bangladesh LIFE Coordinator UNDP Bangladesh, House No. 60, Road No. 11A, Dhanmaondi Residential Area, Dhaka, Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. Tel: (873) 150 6710/6711 Fax: (873) 2 813 196/817 811




The Sustainable Penang Initiative is a model for participation and consensus orientation in its broadest form. The Initiative brings together the three sectors of government, civil society and the business community within a partnership that strives towards building a consensus vision of sustainable development for the island state of Penang. The Initiative promotes greater transparency and accountability on the part of local government, while at the same time, involving the community in the monitoring and implementation of better development policies through the specific use of popular community indicators.


Sustainable Penang... community indicators for a sustainable city... The Sustainable Penang Initiative is a pilot community indicators project conducted by the Socio-Economic and Environmental Research Institute (SERI) of Penang. It seeks to establish a process for greater public consultation in developing and using sustainability indicators for monitoring development in Penang. The aim is to have these indicators incorporated into an integrated and holistic development plan which will guide the realisation of a Sustainable Penang in the next millennium. Through this process, a partnership that brings together government, citizen groups and the business community would be established to attain consensus on the most appropriate sustainable development plan for Penang. Launched in November 1997, the process of bringing together the above mentioned stakeholders consisted of five roundtable consultations that were held over the period of one year, culminating in a popular assembly at the end of 1998, which reviewed the indicators that were developed through this process. In the lead-up to the roundtable discussions, consultations were held with representatives of citizens organisations, relevant government agencies, the industrial and business community as well as with individuals whom have had long-standing involvement in the issues concerned. Each of the five roundtable discussions were tasked with drawing up a status report on Penangs economic progress, ecological sustainability, social justice, cultural vibrancy and popular participation. Representatives at the discussion worked towards reaching a consensus on what were the most important issues affecting Penangs sustainability, and what appropriate indicators could be used to monitor these issues. The results of the negotiations were compiled into a Peoples Report on Penang that was debated in June 1999 at a popular peoples forum. The aim is to use these and other processes to forge a partnership between all levels of Penang society to plan for and participate in the states sustainable development.


The Sustainable Penang Initiative is a long-term project conducted by the Socio-Economic and Environmental Research Institute (SERI) and supported by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) through the


Canada-ASEAN Governance Innovations Network Programme (CAGIN). The Initiative also receives assistance from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP).


The objectives of the Sustainable Penang Initiative are to: 1. Establish a broad set of indicators to monitor development in Penang. 2. Incorporate sustainable development indicators into integrated and holistic development planning. 3. Educate the public about sustainable development and how to achieve it.

The Initiative involves people from all strata of organisations, with consultations initiated since September 1997 with the following agencies: State government agencies and local authorities State assembly representatives and parliamentarians Members of the business community and industrialists Non-governmental organisations and community-based organisations Academics and concerned individuals


As a follow up to the Earth Summit of 1992, many countries and cities around the world have introduced their own set of sustainable development indicators. Penang is the first state in Malaysia to do so. Among the concepts used to assess sustainability are ecological footprint, environmental space and environmental budgeting based on local carrying capacities. As emphasised in Agenda 21, sustainability indicators are necessary to provide solid bases for decisionmaking at all levels and contribute to the self-regulating sustainability of integrated environment and development systems. In order to work towards sustainable development, it was felt that relevant and reliable indicators to tell us how we are progressing. Indicators inform the decisions and actions of individuals, businesses, organisations and policy makers. They can also change behaviour. These indicators would then be compiled into a broader State of the Environment Report for Penang that includes quality of life as well as aspects of sustainability, focusing on information needed to guide decisions and actions. They would serve as an invaluable set of tools for public communication and participation in the agenda of achieving sustainability.



The Socio-Economic and Environmental Research Institute, or SERI, is the Penang State Governments think-tank for long-term strategic planning and policy formulation. It also provides consultancy for social, economic, environmental and sustainable development issues pertaining to the island State of Penang. The Penang State Government established SERI in 1997 to support its mission of building a fully-developed Penang. It states that: The Penang State Government subscribes to the belief that the fundamental purpose of development is the betterment of the quality of life for all through adherence to the principles of sustainable development which seek an optimal balance between economic growth, social progress, cultural enhancement and environmental conservation. It recognises that well-conceived and directed development has to be based on informed choices and that governance in a knowledge-based society must of necessity rest on a firm foundation of facts and figures. SERIs objectives include: To conduct socio-economic and environmental studies related and relevant to the development of the State of Penang, and to recommend policy options that would concur with the principles of sustainable development; To undertake research and analysis of public policies in order to provide inputs for strategic planning in Penang; Provide consultancy on socio-economic and environmental issues to the State government and its agencies; Provide a forum for intellectual and professional exchange on critical, current and strategic issues that would have an impact on Penangs development; To undertake research commissions by private and public sector clients, both local and international; Maintain a comprehensive databank and resource centre in order to facilitate research on the State of Penang; and to Publish and disseminate research findings that would enrich public discourse and promote sustainable development in Penang. For more information on SERI Penang, please contact the Socio-Economic & Environmental Research Institute (SERI), 10 Brown Road, 10350 Penang, Malaysia. Tel: (6-04) 228-3306; Fax: (6-04) 226-7042; Email:; Website:


With the culmination of the first five roundtable discussions on ecological sustainability, social justice, economic productivity, cultural vibrancy and popular participation, the Sustainable Penang Initiative organised a Peoples Forum on the 12th of June, 1999. Held at the Caring Society Complex, the event included the presentation of the Peoples Report Card to the Chief Minister of Penang, the launching of Project 21.21: Citizens Ideas for the 21st Century and various other events organised simultaneously by community groups involved in issues such as environmental preservation, sustainable transport and consumer rights. The Peoples Forum 1999 was an occasion for academia, civil society, business and government sectors to come together and take stock of how Penang is faring in terms of sustainable development. It was an opportunity for diverse institutions and groups that have been working on sustainable development issues to share their creative and forward-looking ideas, and discover opportunities for networking and mutual support towards creating a better Penang.


The above information was adapted from the following sources: 1. The Sustainable Penang Initiative website which can be accessed at 2. Sustainable Penang Initiative: Case Study of a Community and Sustainability Indicator Project, (1999). Canada-ASEAN Governance Innovations Network Programme (CAGIN). Website: 3. The Sustainable Penang Initiative: Penang Peoples Report 1999. SocioEconomic and Environmental Research Institute (SERI), Penang. For further information on the Sustainable Penang Initiative, please contact Khoo Salma Nasution, Coordinator, The Sustainable Penang Initiative, The SocioEconomic & Environmental Research Institute (SERI), No. 10, Brown Road, 10350 Penang, Malaysia. Tel: (604) 228 3306; Fax: (604) 226 7042; Email:; Website:



The Sustainable Cities Programme is geared towards the development of a sustainable urban environment, founded on broad-based public participation. The use of urban indicators within the context of the Sustainable Cities Programme is discussed in terms of ways in which to build in-country and local capacity to collect and use indicators as an integral part of the national and local policy and development framework. The modality also focuses upon social equity in the distribution of development benefits and costs, as well as building a strategic vision in which future development options are examined and actively pursued.


SCP...building capacities for urban planning and management at the local, national and regional levels. The Sustainable Cities Programme is a joint facility of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) or Habitat and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) for the development of a sustainable urban environment, founded on broad-based public participation. The programme has been in operation since 1990 and is now active in over 15 countries around the world. The Sustainable Cities Programme is a capacity building programme. It was established in the early 1990s to put into practice the concepts and approaches developed in the UNEP/UNCHS (Habitat) document Environmental Guidelines for Settlements Planning and Management. The Programme builds capacities in urban planning and management at the local, national and regional levels by providing a forum in which every voice can be heard, and through which diverse local resources can be mobilised and applied.


A Sustainable City has a lasting supply of the natural resources on which its development depends and a lasting security from environmental hazards which may threaten development achievements. The planning and management for Sustainable City development requires agreements and coordinated actions by a variety of public, private and popular sector actors at the individual, community, city and national levels. The Sustainable Cities Programme supports the achievement of conventional development planning and management objectives such as the following: Economic efficiency in the use of development resources. Social equity in the distribution of development benefits and costs. Avoidance of unnecessary foreclosure of future development options.


95% of the resources of the Sustainable Cities Programme are spent at the city level. At this level, the Programme acts as a technical cooperation programme, strengthening the capacities and abilities of municipal authorities and their partners in the public, private and community sector in the field of environmental planning and management (EPM).


The Environmental Management Information System (EMIS) is a tool for collecting, organising and applying information relevant to urban development and the environment. It is designed to assist in clarifying issues, formulating strategies, implementing action plans, monitoring progress and updating changes. To access EMIS, please go to tools/emis/index.htm.

A series of city demonstrations adapt and apply the concepts and approaches of the programme, leading to their institutionalisation at the municipal level, and their subsequent replication regionally. Cross-sectoral, issue-specific Working Groups, whose members are drawn from among the city stakeholders, are the core element in the Programme. The SCP also operates as an inter-agency programme, mobilising technical and financial resources and facilitating the implementation of technical expertise and knowledge as practical city level operations. As a global programme, the SCP encourages and assists the exchange of knowledge and expertise among cities worldwide.


Today, the Sustainable Cities Programme is active in China, Chile, Egypt, Ghana, India, Malawi, Nigeria, the Philippines, Poland, Russia, Senegal, Tanzania, Tunisia, Zambia and Zanzibar. National level activities are taking place in Chile, Egypt, Nigeria and Tanzania. Preparatory activities are underway in Gaza, Haiti, Indonesia, Jordan, the Lebanon, Mozambique, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. At the global level the programme facilitates the exchange of experience and knowhow. It captures lessons of experience, creating environment planning and management tools, and disseminates information through publications, websites and newsletters.


What happened and when: 1992 1993 1994 Draft Project Document and Environmental Profile completed Identification and Mobilisation of Stakeholders Review of UNDP Project Document and Agreement on UNCHS Sustainable Chennai Support Project to strengthen CBO-NGO participation (February) Project document signed by Union Government, State Government and UNDP Steering Committee and Project Team established Environmental Profile updated. Consultative groups established for key environmental issues. City Consultation

1995 1995 1996 1996

The Sustainable Chennai Project is supported by the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Other partners of the initiative include Canadas International Centre for Sustainable Cities (ICSC). The priority issues of the Sustainable Chennai Project included the following: * Surface Water Pollution * Groundwater Contamination and Scarcity of Potable Water * Inadequate Solid Waste Management * Air and Noise Pollution For further information on the Sustainable Chennai Project, please contact Mr. Allauddin, IAS, Member Secretary, Project Director, Sustainable Chennai Project, 8 Gandhi Irwin Rd., Egmore, Chennai 600 008, India. Tel: (91-44) 830 802; Fax: (91-44) 842673;

A Sustainable City is a city where achievements in social, economic and physical development are made to last.


Global-level SCP activities have steadily expanded from programme design and initial resource mobilisation, in 1991, to the considerable volume of work associated with coordinating, operationally supporting and administering todays $20 million dollar programme. The activities pursued today fall into the following six categories:


Operational support at city, national and regional levels; Development of urban environmental management tools; Networking among cities and international programmes; Information and awareness building; and Programme resource mobilisation and management.

In October 1997, all SCP projects attended the SCP 97 meeting in Shenyang, China where the focus was on the sharing of information and specialised know-how concerning the implementation of projects. In the year 2000, the annual meeting of the Sustainable Cities Programme will be held in Cape Town, South Africa.

The above information was adapted from the Sustainable Cities Programme website, which can be accessed at For further information about the Sustainable Cities Programme, please contact the Sustainable Cities Programme, UNCHS/UNEP, P.O. Box 30030, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: (254-2) 623 225 Fax: (254-2) 624 264; Email:; Website:



UDLE is a modality that exemplifies how urban authorities can increase their ability to be responsive towards the needs of their population. By increasing the capacities of local government, UDLE contributes towards making governance structures more efficient and effective by developing a strategic vision and corresponding actions through a participatory consultation process.

UDLE...increasing the capability of municipalities to initiate and manage urban development... The Urban Development through Local Efforts (UDLE) programme is a joint initiative of His Majestys Government of Nepal and the Federal Republic of Germany. UDLEs main aim is to assist the municipalities of Nepal to be responsible for the management of their urban areas.


Although 90% of the Nepalese population is still rural, urban centres in Nepal are growing at a rate of 7% per annum one of the highest urban growth rates in the world. Initiated in 1987, UDLE responds directly to the needs of the municipalities that are responsible for the planning and management of urban development. Urban Development through Local Efforts refers precisely to the method that is used in order to achieve the objective of increasing the capability of municipalities to initiate and manage urban development. Concepts of client, ownership and involvement are integral to the design and implementation of the programme, and contributes significantly towards the ability of the stakeholders to sustain the benefits of the initiatives after the initial assistance comes to an end. UDLE comprises a number of various components that support and interact with each other in order to strengthen the municipalities in all fields of urban management.


In 1992, His Majestys Government of Nepal approved the Municipality Act that resulted in the emergence of a new thrust towards decentralisation, giving each of the then 36 municipalities the responsibility for the management of their urban areas. Previous to this, urban development in Nepal depended predominantly upon the activities of the central government. To assist the municipalities in this task as well as to strengthen their own capacities, the Urban Development through Local Efforts (UDLE) programme was created in 1987, and provides support though a number of mobile advisory teams, being: 1. The Municipal Organisation and Development Administration (MODA) 2. Financial Management (FiMa) 3. Urban Planning 4. The Urban Hygiene and Environmental Education Programmes (UHEEP)


MODA is geared towards helping municipalities improve their organisational structure and administration. It lays the foundation for effective urban management and prepares the municipalities for the assistance provided by other UDLE mobile support services. MODA works in close collaboration with the Municipal Management Section of the Ministry of Local Development towards improving procedures, job descriptions, office layout, record keeping, utility management and other organisational issues.


The core programme has three phases that extend over a period of five weeks: i. ii. iii. Entry phase: Trust, relations and awareness building Orientation and programme setting Participation analysis Diagnosis phase Situation assessment Problem assessment Possible solutions Resource assessment Implementation phase Activity analysis Activity planning Activity implementation

iv. Follow-up Activity monitoring Counseling and reinforcement The MODA approach promotes: Action Learning: Self propelled interest for improvement through internalised learning and action. Client Value: Respect for the municipal staff and elected representatives as clients. Decisions and actions are made by the clients and therefore are more sustainable. Informality and Flexibility: There are no pre-determined recommendations. The output of MODA is unique to each municipality.


The mobile support services provided by the Financial Management (FiMa) component of UDLE focuses on improving municipal accounting procedures through a process of technical up-grading involving the computerisation of accounting systems. FiMa also provides assistance in the form of advice on budgeting procedures and information regarding the maximisation of locally collected revenue as an alternative to octroi tax (the 1% tax levied on all goods entering a city for the consumption therein, and which goes towards the running of the municipality).

According to the 1992 Municipality Act, all municipalities were required to prepare a town development plan to guide and control the process of urbanisation, but few municipalities actually have such an up-to-date plan nor can they actively practice urban planning in the absence of qualified staff. Urban Planning is therefore introduced through this particular UDLE component by using a new approach called integrated action planning (IAP). Through this method, urban development projects are identified with the participation of the people, in order to solve their most urgent needs. UDLE also assists the municipalities with local area planning, town planning legislation and by-laws as well as training in all the above fields. These projects are then matched against the available financial resources of the municipality and systematically prioritised as a multi-sector investment plan. The projects are linked to a physical and environmental development plan to guide rapid urbanisation and to coordinate the provision of roads, drainage and other municipal services. The integrated action planning process is conducted with the participation of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, UDLE and the elected officials and staff of the municipalities.



Integrated Action Planning or IAP is a simple form of town planning that is appropriate for the municipalities of Nepal. With the active participation of municipal staff, elected local representatives and the people of that municipality, the IAP helps to: Identify problems on the basis of peoples needs Resolve the problem by defining projects; Plan, design and coordinate projects to implement a Physical and Environmental Development Plan, which is a simple and realistic town development plan to guide future urban expansion as well as to improve the environment of the existing town. Prioritise the projects to match the available budget of the municipality by preparing a Multi-Sector Investment Programme that helps municipalities plan their development expenditure over a period of five years according to the needs of the people and which is consistent with the Physical and Environmental Development Plan (PEDP). IAP derives its name from the emphasis on immediate action to resolve urgent problems in a planned manner which integrates the efforts of the municipality with those of other agencies responsible for urban development. Unlike previous town plans, IAP is easily understood and used. As a result, it has proven to be a popular planning methodology with the municipalities.


The UHEEP initiative addresses the growing problem of waste in Nepals urban centres, and the consequences of this issue. Through UHEEP, educational programmes that aim at raising awareness and that impart skills associated with waste handling are conducted in primary schools, neighbourhoods and households. This programmeS component also promotes improved methods of waste-handling through publicity campaigns and the mass media. The overall objective of UHEEP is to: Build public awareness of waste problems and their consequences; Encourage individual and collective responsibility in waste handling of the municipal population; Enable people to realise the value of waste reduction through re-use, recycling and composting; Motivate residents to clean their surroundings and dispose of waste properly. In order to achieve these objectives and sustain the same, the programme focuses on the following areas of activity: Elaborates upon the national curricula by including of waste management issues; Develop teaching and learning materials; Conduct orientation and training workshops for the community.

Nepals National Policy on Solid Waste Management, 1996 The National Policy stresses that: Awareness programmes are necessary to promote peoples participation in solid waste handling; Formal education in the schools as well as nonformal education in the communities, should include adequate learning contents on solid waste handling; Simple technologies to reduce waste generation from the home, community and business establishments should be developed; and Non-governmental social organisations should be involved in waste handling efforts.


UDLE as a whole works towards creating municipal bodies that are better trained to administer their municipalities in a system that incorporates improved financial management practices, better urban planning methodology that allows a more systematic and appropriate spending of funds, and the increased ability to manage waste in order to conserve the natural assets, with which Kathmandu has been so richly endowed.

The above information was adapted from the following sources: 1. Urban Hygiene and Environmental Education Programmes (UHEEP). [Leaflet] Produced by the Urban Development through Local Efforts (UDLE) Programme. 2. Financial Management (FiMa). [Leaflet] Produced by the Urban Development through Local Efforts (UDLE) Programme. 3. Municipal Organisation Development and Administration (MODA). [Leaflet] Produced by the Urban Development through Local Efforts (UDLE) Programme. 4. Urban Planning. [Leaflet] Produced by the Urban Development through Local Efforts (UDLE) Programme. 5. Urban Development through Local Efforts (UDLE). [Leaflet] Produced by the Urban Development through Local Efforts (UDLE) Programme. 6. Urban Development through Local Efforts (UDLE). [Book] Produced by the Urban Development through Local Efforts (UDLE) Programme and the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ). 7. Urban Development through Local Efforts (UDLE) Project. UDLE Operations Fourth Implementation Phase: Mid 1998 to Mid 2001. June 1998 Edition. Produced by the Urban Development through Local Efforts (UDLE) Programme. 8. Report on the Project Progress Review for the project : Promotion of Urban Development through Local Efforts (UDLE). January/February 1998. 9. United nations Conference on Human Settlements (HABITAT II). The City Summit: 1996. Improving Environments Through Best Practices Nepal. His Majestys Government of Nepal, Ministry of Housing and Physical Planning, National Habitat II Committee. Kathmandu, Nepal 1996. For further information, please contact the Urban Development through Local Efforts (UDLE) office at P.O. Box 1457, Kathmandu, Nepal. Tel: (977-1) 482378/482969/ 482935; Fax: (977-1) 482767; Email:




The Urban Forum creates a platform for representatives of national and local governments, multi-lateral and bilateral agencies, non-governmental organisations, academic institutions and representatives from the private sector can meet to discuss urban issues, arrive at a common strategic vision for the city or country, and jointly develop action plans to achieve this vision. It promotes the concept of consensus orientation, where differing interests are mediated towards a conclusion that reflects the best interests of the whole group.


Urban Forums...bringing stakeholders together, building a common vision... The Ministerial Conference on Urbanization in Asia and the Pacific, held in Bangkok in November 1993, was also the setting for the first Asia-Pacific Urban Forum. It was the first attempt at bringing together representatives of all actors with an interest in urban issues for the purpose of creating a consensus document outlining actions necessary to address the impending urban crisis faced by many countries. The result of this Conference was a document called the Regional Action Plan on Urbanization, which was adopted by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). This document called for the convening of a regional urban forum every two years and consequently the second Asia-Pacific Urban Forum was held in Bangkok in March 1996. It was attended by representatives of national and local governments, multilateral and bi-lateral agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), academic institutions and the private sector from 33 countries. It was a recommendation of the first Urban Forum that processes should be initiated in which all groups of urban actors, at the sub-local , local, sub-national and national levels, come together to discuss urban issues, arrive at a common vision for the city or country and jointly develop action plans to achieve this vision for sustainable and effective social, economic and environmental development and management of urban areas.


Urban forums in different cities and countries have taken different forms. In Bangalore and Karachi, urban forums are being operated by coalitions of non-governmental voluntary organisations, while in Dhaka and Songkhla, they are being sponsored by government organisations. Urban forums aim to bring together the various stakeholders of a particular urban environment in order to create the opportunity for them to jointly build a vision for their city, and then to put these plans into action towards realising that vision.


Having adopted the Regional Action Plan on Urbanization, the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) assisted several cities and countries in initiating and supporting various urban forums. ESCAP had also received several requests from organisations and governments for assistance in establishing new forums in other cities. These activities were undertaken in collaboration with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)funded Urban Management Programme for Asia and the Pacific (UMPAP).



Cities within which the urban forum methodology has shown some improvement in communication and cooperation amongst various city-level stakeholders include Bangkok, Songkhla, Nakorn Srithamarat, Nakorn Suwan, Nakorn Ratchasima, Hat Yai, Phuket, Chiang Mai and Surat Thani in Thailand; Bangalore, Mysore and Bombay in India; Karachi and Rawalpindi in Pakistan; Kuching, Malaysia and Cebu City, Philippines.


Often, key decisions regarding development planning and delivery or urban infrastructure and services are arrived at among a few actors, and the fait accompli is presented to the citizens at large. This often results in disaffection among the stakeholders who were not involved in the decision-making and sometimes can lead to violent confrontations. It also diminishes the sense of belonging to the city as a whole and ownership in its development process for the common citizen. The political participation process at the local level , while having democratic processes, in many countries, are often not participatory. A similar situation exists at the sub-national and national levels, where policies are often made and implemented in a top-down manner, without the involvement of the different actors concerned. Urban forums were seen to be a mechanism by which the political participation of the various stakeholders within a city could be substantially increased, thereby providing solutions to the obstacles that lay in the creation of genuine participatory processes.


CIVIC is a citizens organisation in Bangalore, India, whose goal is to empower the citizens of that city to achieve a better quality of life by taking a more active interest in the affairs of the city. CIVIC recognised that this could be made possible by encouraging changes in attitudes, structures and processes of the city administration that were at the time, exclusive and distant from the general public. CIVICs objectives were to establish a peoples movement, increase awareness, break existing information barriers, as well as create greater public accountability among government institutions. Some of CIVICs past activities have included a forum on public participation in Bangalore, a peoples dialogue on the Bangalore Municipal Corporation Budget Proposal for 1992-1993, a public hearing on public transport in Bangalore and public debates on greater autonomy for local governments. In addition to the coalitions forged with individuals and organisations in Bangalore, CIVIC had also created linkages with similar urban forums in Mysore, Karnataka.

The Urban Resources Centre (URC) in Karachi, Pakistan, started as a group of students and teachers from the Architecture and Urban Planning Department of Dawood College of Engineering and Technology. From 1987, it met regularly to discuss and understand better the situation of Karachi as a city, and gradually expanded to include other professionals and grassroots activists until it was finally registered in 1989 under the Societies Act. It was URCs point of view that the greatest impediment to good governance and citizens participation in civic affairs was the lack of information. So URC collected and disseminated information through their regular newsletter Facts and Figures. URC also organised mass forums on public transportation , but there were difficulties in developing concrete links between government planners and civil society groups die to the fact that Karachi did not have a representative government at that time. The breakdown of law and order in the city continued to hamper their efforts at improving public participation in local governance.


As a result of the centralised system of government in Thailand, the local government had a limited ability to solve problems on its own, requiring instead assistance and approval from provincial and central governments. However, as Songkhla was a small city, it was relatively easy to access the local government officials and to develop partnerships with different sectors within the city. Unlike other cities, the Songkhla Municipality was not just involved in one formal urban forum but had initiated several ward-level informal forums where issues relating to a particular ward were discussed and communities and residents mobilised to participate in urban affairs. As a result of these joint activities, Songkhla was awarded the Clean City Prize for Thailand.

Urban development is the responsibility of each and every sector of the urban community and the role of the national government is to help create a cohesive, integrated and united city or town. In this light, it becomes necessary to achieve integration among different groups, perspectives and interests. It is necessary that urban forums should exist perpetually for generating collaborative efforts and learning from others experiences. These forums help disseminate information and experiences, create a basis for conflict resolution, moderate and report on consultations, collating information and data and generating an urban agenda for future consultations. The activities of the urban forum network should be closely linked with Agenda 21, with the focus on capacity building and the creation of sustainable partnerships. To date, there are several other forums that have just started anew in other countries, other than those listed below. Most of them are indigenous efforts that have been initiated solely through the efforts of local groups and organisations. Currently, these developments and the experiences of the urban forums are being documented. There is also a move towards creating what has been referred to as CivicNet, which are national and regional networks of urban forums. In addition to this, existing forums are being assisted in order to prepare State-of-the City reports in relation to the urban observatory programme of the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, UNCHS. It is envisioned that both these activities would strengthen the urban resource centre functions of the various forums.

The above information was compiled and adapted from the following sources: 1. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). New York 1996. Report and Proceedings of the Workshop on the Use of Urban Forums as Consultative Mechanisms for Urban Planning and Policy Making : Bangkok, 19-21 September 1995. United Nations. ST/ESCAP/1602. 2. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). New York 1996. Living in Asian Cities : The impending crisis- causes, consequences and alternatives for the future. Report of the Second Asia-Pacific Urban Forum. United Nations. ST/ESCAP/1660. For further information, please contact Mr. Adnan Aliani, Human Settlements Officer, ESCAP/UNCHS Joint Section on Human Settlements, Rural and Urban Development Division, ESCAP, UN Building, Rajadamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok, Thailand. Tel: (662) 288 1234; Fax: (662) 288 1000/288 1097; Email: or; Website: huset/forums/urbanforums_th.htm.




The Urban Governance Initiative (TUGI) reflects and promotes all nine characteristics of good urban governance, and endeavours towards making information concerning these concepts accessible and adaptable to local authorities by enhancing the tools that are currently available to urban administrators and decision-makers. TUGI acts as a regional hub that promotes demand driven urban governance through information sharing, networking and special pilot activities within and between cities in Asia and the Pacific.

TUGI...a regional hub that promotes demand driven urban governance through information sharing, networking and special pilot activities within and between cities in Asia and the Pacific... The Urban Governance Initiative (TUGI) is a project of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) executed by the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS). Its major objective is to contribute to making cities in the Asia Pacific region more livable through strengthening capacities, promoting good governance principles, and enhancing the tools available to urban administrators and decision makers. It manages a current awareness service called Urban Links and an interactive network with key government, civil society and private sector groups working on habitat issues following the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements that was held in Istanbul, Turkey, in 1996.

Governments at all levels find it challenging to perform some of the priority tasks of urban governance. The nature of the state is also changing, affecting not only social welfare systems but also governance itself. The impetus for change includes democratic and administrative decentralisation of the state, local control and community empowerment. Good governance therefore requires a policy framework that mandates accountability, transparency and participation as a prerequisite for sustained change. It is in this vein that good urban governance is both a goal and a process which seeks to create an environment in which government, business, private citizens and other institutions take ownership of the management of their communities.



Participation All men and women should have a voice in decision-making, either directly or through legitimate intermediate institutions that represent their interests. Such broad participation is built on freedom of association and speech, as well as capacities to participate constructively. Rule of Law Legal frameworks should be fair and enforced impartially, particularly the laws on human rights. Transparency Transparency is built on the free flow of information. Processes, institutions and information are directly accessible to those concerned with them, and enough information is provided to understand and monitor them. Responsiveness Institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders. Consensus Orientation Good governance mediates differing interests to reach a broad consensus on what is in the best interest of the group and, where possible, on policies and procedures. Equity All men and women have opportunities to improve or maintain their well-being. Effectiveness and Efficiency Processes and institutions produce results that meet needs while making the best use of resources. Accountability Decision-makers in the government, the private sector and civil society organisations are accountable to the public, as well as to institutional stakeholders. This accountability differs depending on the organisation and whether the decision is internal or external to an organisation. Strategic Vision Leaders and the public have a broad and long-term perspective on good governance and human development, along with a sense of what is needed for such development. There is also and understanding of the historical, cultural and social complexities in which that perspective is grounded.
Source: Governance for Sustainable Human Development, UNDP

The TUGI logo consists of 3 circles and 3 arms. The 3 circles represent the essential partnership between the 3 principal stakeholders of a city government, business and c i v i l s o c i e t y. T h e 3 a r m s represent the need to address the 3 Es equity, ecology and the economy. In addition, the 3 arms, like that of a windmill, also represent the core business of TUGI capacity building, information and networking.

All good politics begin with good local politics. By bringing good governance closer to those who have elected you, by showing that honest, efficient government is possible, you are giving new life and reason to politics.
- Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the United Nations

Initiated in October 1998, The Urban Governance Initiative (TUGI) seeks to assist mayors, governors and other stakeholders in building the capacity of local governments to perform their tasks effectively. It advances the five principles for livable and sustainable cities, namely social justice, ecological sustainability, political participation, economic productivity and cultural vibrancy. TUGI is a response to the United Nations Development Programmes continuous commitment to work on urban issues, building upon its earlier investment and insights from the Urban Management Programme for Asia and the Pacific (UMPAP) and Asia Pacific 2000 (AP2000).


T h e g o a l o f g o v e r n a n c e initiatives should be to develop capacities that are needed to realise development that gives priority to the poor, advances women, sustains the environment and creates needed opportunities for employment and other livelihoods.
-UNDP Initiatives for Change

The Urban Governance Initiative is directed at assisting local governments in making cities in the Asia Pacific region more livable through strengthening capacities, promoting good governance principles and enhancing the tools available to urban administrators and decision-makers. Specifically, TUGI aims towards improving the quality of urban life through developing good governance indicators, tools and methodologies as well as by identifying positive references that can enhance the capacities of local authorities. TUGI also works towards developing mechanisms to share and enhance the quality of information available on urban governance for sustainable human development in order to improve the quality of life of people throughout the region. It also provides assistance to mayors and city governments to enable them to take full advantage of the increasing flow of information and other networking mechanisms.

This project is intended to build upon what has already been done to provide capacity building support and intellectual leadership to cities of the region by targeting city leadership. Amongst other things, the project will: Support urban capacity building pilot projects leading to collaborative city level activities; Support local and regional efforts to build partnerships with a wider range of local government, civil society and private sector organisations; Act as a regional support and coordination facility for information activities on urbanisation, globalisation and urban governance throughout the Asia Pacific region, at the national and city levels.


TUGI has selected four outstanding cities in the Asia and Pacific region to be the Lead Cities. There is one city from each sub-region, that is South Asia, East Asia, South East Asia and the Pacific. These Lead Cities are implementing pilot projects that exemplify innovative governance practices, the lessons of which can then be translated to Partner Cities in order to strengthen their capacities to practice good governance. Although TUGI is planning to select only four local authorities initially, it is hoped that the number will gradually increase as the lessons learned are replicated and adapted to various cities within the region.


1. To provide a good urban governance sourcebook which would contain specific positive references and indicators of good governance. 2. Provide a summary of major modalities related to good urban governance practices in the region, which in fact emerged in the form of this publication. 3. Disseminate the lessons learnt from the pilot projects through information networks and regional networks. 4. Develop or link existing websites between the Lead and Partner Cities. 5. Update regularly a Directory of Experts that would be maintained as an accessible resource. 6. Publish a quarterly current awareness service (Urban Links). 7. Network with regional institutions in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), and the South Pacific. 8. Provide technical backup to host national forums on good governance in Partner Cities. 9. Organise regional meetings on good urban governance. 10. Work in collaboration with Lead and Partner Cities in developing their programmes.

In the year 2010, 4.2 billion of the worlds seven billion population is projected to be residing in the Asia Pacific region. About half (45%) of the GDP growth will take place in Asia. 43% of the Asian population will live in cities. Thirty three Asian cities will have populations greater than 5 million in the next millennium.



As the result of developing the Sourcebook on Good Governance, TUGI was able to produce a series of Report Cards on the following issues: shelter and housing, employment and job creation, corruption, urban poverty, health services, elderly citizens, solid waste collection and disposal, public transportation and traffic congestion, civil society participation, cultural heritage, children, gender and development, water and sanitation and the physically and mentally challenged. Report cards are an inclusive tool for citizens to assess the performance of their local authorities and act as a peoples audit to provide constructive feedback for urban administrative bodies. These Report Cards have received favourable comments from organisations that have received them, and are currently being field-tested in various cities in the Asia Pacific region. Other tools that have been developed by TUGI for the use of urban administrators, planners and elected officials include this handbook on Tools and Methodologies for Good Urban Governance as well as our quarterly current awareness service, Urban Links. Meanwhile, the pilot project in Kathmandu, Nepal, is focusing upon the issue of good governance practices in the field of environmental management while the other lead cities have developed projects that innovate methods for popular participation in local governance as well as urban planning. TUGI has also initiated an on-line discussion forum on urban issues that is currently hosted on both the TUGI website as well as the Urban Management Programme for Asia (UMP-Asia) site that can be found at

The above information was adapted from the TUGI Website which can be found at For further information, please contact the Programme Manager, The Urban Governance Initiative (TUGI), c/o United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Wisma UN, Kompleks Pejabat Damansara (Block C), Jalan Dungun, Damansara Heights, 50490 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Tel: (603) 255 9122; Fax: (603) 253 2361; Email: or; Website:




The Urban Management Programme provides advice to local and national governments on how they can improve the management of urban development in their countries through organising city consultations in which all stakeholders can participate. In this manner, UMP promotes participation as well as efficiency and effectiveness through the adoption of exemplary urban management policies and techniques.


U M P. . . i m p r o v i n g t h e management of urban development through city consultations The Urban Management Programme (UMP) is a global technical cooperation programme of the United Nations, executed by the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS), with core funding from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and several other bilateral agencies. UMP gives advice to local and national governments on ways in which they can improve the management of urban development in their countries. The advise is given primarily through assistance in organising city consultations, providing for the participation of all stakeholders necessary to the implementation of new approaches, and introducing new urban management policies and techniques. The Programme operates through four regional offices, in Africa, the Arab States, Asia Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean, with a global Programme Coordinator at UNCHS (Habitat) headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya.


The objective of the programme is to strengthen the contribution that cities in developing countries make towards human development, including participatory governance, economic efficiency, social equity, poverty reduction, and environmental improvement. This is to be achieved through: Strengthening regional, country and city urban management capacities by strengthening the capacity of institutions and regional networks of experts. Improving the quality of urban management practices and policies through the adoption of action plans designed in UMP-supported consultations at national and local levels. The three theme areas on which the programme activities specifically focus are Urban Poverty Reduction, Urban Environmental Management, and Participatory Urban Governance.


The programme uses the assistance of regional anchoring institutions for substantive input into the projects in the cities. Working methods include city consultations on urban management issues, support for regional networks of urban management experts, and support in formulating a global strategy. The flagship product and activity of the Urban Management Programme is the participatory city consultation process which is used to define urban issues, and prepare and carry out action plans to address those issues.


UMP has undergone radical changes in the three phases of its history since 1986. Phase 1 focused on research on how countries were addressing urban issues. Phase 2 marked the decentralisation of programme operations to the regions, and begun technical assistance in the areas of land management, environmental management, infrastructure management, municipal finance and poverty alleviation. Phase 3 specifically focuses on capacity building of urban local authorities through city consultations involving partner institutions at the regional, country and local levels.

Cities in the Asia Pacific region that participate in the Urban Management Programme include Lalitpur, Nepal,; Palembang and Semarang, Indonesia; Phuket, Thailand; Phuentsholing, Bhutan; Bangalore, India; Bangkok, Thailand; Colombo, Sri Lanka; Dhaka, Bangladesh; Hanoi, Vietnam; Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Lahore, Pakistan; Tianjin, Wuhan and Shenyang of the Peoples Republic of China; and Surat, India.


Countries which are included in the programme are mostly the poorer countries in each region (measured against human development indices), taking into account the countries willingness to benefit from the programme support and a demonstrable interest in making changes in urban management policies and strategies. The primary method of assistance to a country is through assisting in the holding of policy and action programme consultations at the country level, or preferably at the city level. Consultations may consider either the total urban management needs of a city, or may focus particularly on the application of current thinking of one of the three themes. Major emphasis is placed on achieving programmes of action by the local authorities as follow-up to the consultations. The likelihood of achieving follow-up is a determining factor in selecting countries. The process of holding consultations is intended to provide the opportunity for further professional development of networks of regional experts in each region, based on the experience gained by these experts in facilitating and following up these consultations. The operations of the programme should progressively become based in regional and local partner institutions rather than being coordinated by stand-alone programme offices in each region. In addition to the regional and country level activities, the UMP is dedicated to promoting the exchange of knowledge within an international pool of experts and institutions at the global level and between the global level and the regions and countries.

The above information was adapted from the UMP-Asia website at For further information on UMP activities in the Asia Pacific region, please contact Nathaniel von Einsiedel, The Regional Coordinator, UNDP/UNCHS Urban Management Programme, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific c/o Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), P.O.Box 4 Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand. Tel: (66-2) 524 5779; Fax: (66-2) 524 5778; Email:; Website:; or The Regional Advisor, Mr. Ramanath Jha, South Asia, UMP-South Asia, c/o All India Institute of Local Self-Government, 2223 Institutional Area, D Block, Janakpuri, Panka Road, New Delhi 11000058, India. Tel: (91-11) 5522473; Fax: (91-11) 5500117; Email:




The WHO Healthy Cities Project promotes the development of a structure and process that works towards creating a city that is committed to health. The Project involves the development of a strategic vision for health in the urban environment, as well as encouraging innovation and change in local health policy. As such, it embodies the governance characteristic of responsiveness as well as equity because the Healthy Cities Project emphasizes health promotion strategies that recognise and mediate the interests of different groups in each community.


Healthy Cities. . . cities that are conscious of health and are striving to improve... The healthy city concept means process, not just outcome. A healthy city is not necessarily one that has achieved a particular health status. Rather, it is one that is conscious of health as an urban issue and is striving to improve it. Any city can be a healthy city if it is committed to health and has a structure and process to work for its improvement. Political commitment is the first step in working towards a healthy city. Cities that have entered the WHO network over the past six years have been required to formulate inter-sectoral health promotion plans with a strong environmental component and to secure the necessary resources for implementing the same. They are also required to report back regularly on progress and to share information and experience.

A Healthy City is one that is continually creating and improving those physical and social environments and expanding those community resources which enable people to mutually support each other in performing all the functions of life and in developing to their maximum potential.


The World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe (WHO/EURO), introduced the Healthy Cities project to provide a vehicle for testing the application of the Health For All (HFA) principles at the local level. In 1986, eleven cities were selected to demonstrate the fact that new approaches to public health, grounded in the concept of Health For All, can be successful in practice. The principles of the Health For All strategy for health promotion and the Ottawa Charter for Health promotion that was adopted in 1986, provide the framework for the Healthy Cities project.


1. The reduction of inequalities in health as a result of greater equity. 2. The emphasis of health promotion and disease prevention to help people achieve their full physical, mental and social capacity. 3. Various sectors within society should cooperate to ensure that people have access to the prerequisites for health and are protected from environmental risks. 4. Community participation. 5. Focus on primary health care that provides accessible services where people live and work. 6. Cooperation at the international level in cases where health problems transcend national boundaries.



The pre-requisites for health as laid out in the Ottawa Charter are: 1. Peace 2. Shelter 3. Education 4. Food 5. Income 6. Stable ecosystem 7. Sustainable resources 8. Social justice and 9. Equity


The Healthy Cities project views cities as complex organisms that are living, breathing, growing and constantly changing. A healthy city is one that improves its environments and expands its resources so that people can support each other in achieving their highest potential. The dissemination of Healthy Cities strategies has been greatly aided and accelerated by the growth of national and sub-national networks. Since its inception, the WHO Healthy Cities network has continued to spearhead the process of innovation and policy change, increasing the number of participating cities and reaching outside the European region to protect and improve public health in a period of unprecedented political, economic and social transition. The Healthy Cities Movement is now a mature and dynamic process that has sparked new networks and organisations in over 1000 cities all over the world, creating linkages and building upon the strengths of both existing and new initiatives. These include the International Healthy Cities Foundation and the CityNet-WHO Collaborating Centre in Healthy Cities.


Healthy Cities projects promote innovation and change in local health policy, advocating new approaches to public health. They explore effective ways to translate the principles and targets of the Health For All strategy into practice in urban settings. They provide public health leadership through mechanisms that recognise and mediate the interests of different groups in the community.


A Healthy City is one that strives to provide: 1. 2. 3. 4. A clean, safe physical environment of high quality (including housing quality); An ecosystem that is stable now and sustainable in the long term; A strong, mutually supportive and non-exploitive community; A high degree of participation and control by the public over the decisions affecting their lives, health and well-being; 5. The meeting of basic needs (for food, water, shelter, income, safety and work) for all the citys people; 6. Access to a wide variety of experiences and resources, with the chance for a wide variety of contact, interactions and communication; 7. A diverse, vital and innovative city economy; 8. The encouragement of connectedness with the past, with the cultural and biological heritage of citydwellers and with other groups and individuals; 9. A form that is compatible with and enhances the preceding characteristics; 10. An optimum level of appropriate public health and sick care services accessible to all; and 11. High health status (high levels of positive health and low levels of disease).


1. A strong commitment to health by affirming the holistic nature of health, recognising the interaction between its physical, mental, social and spiritual dimensions. 2. Requires political decision-making for promoting public health in such areas as housing, environment, education and social service. Healthy Cities projects strengthen the contribution of such programmes to health by influencing the political decisions of city councils.


Healthy Cities is a public health approach that builds upon the work of Professor T. McKeown who found that contrary to popular belief the major factor in the improvement of health in the United Kingdom and other developed countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was not advances in medical care and technology, but certain social, environmental and economic changes, being: 1. Limitation of family size 2. Increase in food supplies 3. A h e a l t h i e r p h y s i c a l environment 4. Specific preventive and therapeutic measures

3. Generates inter-sectoral action, a process through which organisations working outside the health sector change their activities so that they contribute more to health. 4. Emphasises community participation by providing the means through which people have a direct influence on project decisions and on the activities of city departments and other organisations. 5. Utilises processes of innovation and creating the opportunities for innovation within a climate that supports change, as well as spreading knowledge of such innovative methods, creating incentives for innovation and recognising the achievements of those who experiment with new policies and programmes. 6. Works towards achieving healthy public policy.


Healthy Cities projects begin when two or three people share their interest in finding new ways to promote public health. They may be city councillors, senior executives in city departments, health care providers or community activists. When they decide to work together towards creating a city that is a healthier place to live, and adopt the Healthy Cities approach in the belief that such a project could provide answers to their concerns, this is when project development starts. There are three essential steps towards developing a Healthy Cities project: 1. Getting Started Develop Local Task Force Build support group Understand ideas Know the city Find finances Decide on the organisation Prepare proposal Get approval 2. Getting Organised Appointment of a Partnership Task Force Appoint a project steering committee Analyse the project environment Define project work Preparation of a Municipal Health Plan Set-up a project office and appointment of coordinators Plan long-term strategy Build project capacity Establish accountability mechanisms 3. Taking Action Increase health awareness Advocate strategic planning Mobilise inter-sectoral action Encourage community participation Promote innovation Secure healthy public policy


Local Task Force: a nucleus of several key individuals in the city with leadership capabilities to initiate the project and all the individuals who are prepared to support the project. Partnership Task Force: provides the leadership and legitimacy needed for health advocacy and mobilization of people and resources for health improvements. It formulates and implements the Municipal Health Plan. Project Steering Committee: Overseeing group to which the Partnership Task Force is accountable. This may be a national or local body.



Health Indicators 1. Life expectancy at birth 2. Infant mortality 3. Levels of nutrition 4. Vaccination coverage 5. Ranking of diseases by morbidity/mortality index Socio-economic Indicators 6. Mean years of schooling for girls and boys 7. Adult literacy 8. Employment Environmental Indicators 9. Percentage of population living in poor housing conditions/slums 10. Drinking water supply coverage 11. Adequate basic sanitation coverage 12. Parasitic disease prevalence (urban malaria, filiariasis, intestinal helminths)

THE KUCHING HEALTHY CITIES PROJECT Kuching is the state capital of Sarawak, one of the 13 states in Malaysia. Kuching was officially proclaimed a City on the 1st of August, 1988, and divided into two administrative areas: Kuching North and Kuching South. Each was administered by the City Hall of Kuching North and the City Council of Kuching South respectively. Kuching City has a population of around 252 000 people (1996). The demography is relatively young, with 33.8% of the population in the 0-14 year old age group and 59.8% in the 15-64 age group. The people of the City live in a multi-racial, multi-religious and multicultural environment as a result of the various races of peoples whom have made this city their home.


Health Status Indicator/Disease (Year) Infant mortality rate per 1000 live births (1995/1993) No. of reported dengue fever cases (1995/1993) No. of cholera cases (1995/1993) No. of reported hospitalised occupational injuries (1995/1993) No. of reported pesticides and chemical poisonings (1995/1993) No. of syphilis cases (1995/1993) No. of gonorrhoea cases (1995/1993) Area Kuching District Kuching City 9/25 Kuching City Kuching District Kuching City Value 6.63/6.95 9/25 0/49 16/59 12/48

Kuching City 202/239 202/239 Kuching District 178/195

When Kuching City agreed to participate in the WHO Healthy Cities Movement in August 1994, the City did so because it believed that the Healthy Cities Movement could provide a useful concept and approach to address the problems faced by the City. This view was further enhanced after conducting a thorough situational analysis of the City and a series of discussions among the participating agencies on whether and how to develop and implement a Healthy Cities project in the City.


Problems faced by Kuching included the existence of several urban slum areas, inappropriate housing, especially for workers in the construction industry, unhealthy sanitary practices at wet markets, and insufficient drainage in certain areas that have resulted in flash floods. There was also a need to improve the public transport system and the tendency for government departments to work in isolation. Some of the benefits that were hoped to be gained from participating in the Healthy Cities Movement included: 1. To be able to develop a coordinated plan to resolve the existing problems and to prevent possible future problems from occurring; 2. To make the Healthy Cities concept the methodology by which all planning and coordinating activities are carried out in future; 3. To ensure that the health and welfare of the people are given a high priority in planning; and 4. To learn from, and share experiences and ideas with other participating cities through networking. At the initiative of the Sarawak State Health Department, an invitation was issued to the Mayors of Kuching North and Kuching South to briefly introduce them to the idea and explain the concept. The first Inter-Agency Conference on Healthy City Kuching was held in November 1994. This was followed by a second similar event in March 1995, when almost all the departments and agencies that had been invited were finally convinced that they indeed have important roles to play in the Healthy City Kuching Project and were enthusiastic about it. The scope of the project included: 1. A definition of what constitutes the New Public Health policy, which is an approach that brings together environmental changes and personal preventive measures with appropriate therapeutic interventions, and emphasises the importance of lifestyles as a determinant of health; 2. The pre-requisites of health, as laid out in the Ottawa Charter; 3. The priority areas that were tackled by cities that have already started the Healthy Cities Project. The Kuching Healthy Cities project targeted three groups of community/public that needed to understand and get involved in the Project, namely ordinary citizens or the general public, private sector business establishments and non-governmental organisations. Various activities were run in order to harness the energies and enthusiasm of these three sectors, towards creating a clear common objective of making Kuching a healthy city. Since its inception in August 1996, Kuching City has achieved a number of milestones. Future steps that are to be undertaken in this initiative include: 1. To continue to implement the Healthy City Kuching Plan and identify and implement activities to solve newly identified priority problems; 2. To maintain the momentum of the Project; 3. To identify and select easily obtainable and sensitive indicators for the Project; 4. To sustain the Project in terms of technical, social, political, financial and managerial sustainability; 5. To ensure that the Healthy City Kuching Project will graduate from being just a project to being a concept, a movement and a way of planning for cities and towns in the state of Sarawak; 6. To secure the support, cooperation, and involvement of the ordinary citizends, businesses and NGOs in the Healthy City Kuching Project; and 7. To extend the Project to three major towns in Sarawak, namely, Miri, Sibu and Bintulu, under the Seventh Malaysia Plan (1996-2000). For further information on the Healthy City Kuching Project, please email


The above information was adapted from the following sources: 1. World Health Organisation, Regional Office for Europe. (1995). Twenty Steps for Developing a Healthy Cities Project. 2nd Edition, 1995. 2. World Health Organisation, Geneva. (1994) Healthy and productive lives in harmony with nature - A WHO Global Strategy for Health and Environment. WHO/EHE/94.1 3. World Health Organisation, Geneva. (1995) Building a Healthy City : A Practitioners Guide - A Step-by-step Approach to Implementing Healthy Cities Projects in Lowincome Countries. WHO/EOS/95.10 4. Beijing Municipal Health Bureau. (1997). Towards Healthy Cities - Proceedings of the International Conference on Healthy Cities, Beijing, China, 14-16 October 1996. Foreign Languages Press. 5. The WHO-Europe Regional Office Website at

For further information, please contact Mr. Stephen A. Tamplin, WHO Regional Officer for the Western Pacific, P.O. Box 2932, 1000 Manila, Philippines. Tel: (632) 528 8001; Fax: (632) 521 1038; Email:; or Dr. Agis Tsouros, Regional Advisor, Urban Health Policy Coordinator, Healthy Cities Project Head, WHO Centre for Urban Health, Healthy Cities Project Office, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 8 Scherfigsvej, DK-2100 Copenhagen , Denmark. Tel: (45 39) 17 12 24/ 17 15 09; Fax: (45 39) 17 18 60; Email; Website: In addition to the above, the website of the International Healthy Cities Foundation is also very helpful and can be found at Also check out the CityNet-WHO Collaborating Centre in Healthy Cities at cnet.html, or contact them at IARCH c/o Healthy Cities, 1111 Middle Drive, Room 236, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, U.S.A. Phone: (1 317) 274-3319; Fax: (1 317) 274-2285.




HE URBAN INDICATORS PROGRAMME and the Best Practice and Local Leadership Programme (BLP), together, make up the Global Urban Observatory, a United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS Habitat) facility for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the Habitat Agenda and Agenda 21. The Urban Indicators Programme is a policy and strategy development and technical cooperation programme which aims to build in-country and local capacity to collect and use indicators as an integral part of the national and local policy and development framework. Wherever possible, the indicators are intended to be part of an enabling process, measuring sector-wide progress of all actors towards achieving social goals, rather than as a narrow measure of government activity. The indicators of government activity emphasize sustainability and efficiency goals rather than simple production goals that have been a feature of government performance indicators in the past.


The major emphasis of the Programme is on developing sustainable in-country capacity in establishing indicators that will help national and local policy review and implementation, and which will be collected regularly. The aim is to develop commitment and expertise and to establish a routine for collecting data in all countries.

To access the UNCHS List of Key Indicators, please go to http://www.urbanobservatory. org/indicators/database/ An indicator is a measure that summarizes information about a particular subject and may point to particular problems. It provides a reasonable response to specific needs and questions asked by decision- and policy-makers. Indicators show trends and provide quantitative and qualitative information. They can also be more than pieces of information if designed in response to well-defined policy objectives. Policy-oriented indicators help prioritize and define targets.

Indicators are not data; rather, they are models simplifying a complex subject to a few numbers, which can be easily grasped and understood by policy-makers and the general public. Indicators are statistics directed specifically towards policy concerns and which point towards successful outcomes and conclusions for policy. They are required to be user-driven and are generally highly aggregated and have easily recognizable purposes. Classic indicators include the unemployment rate or GDP growth, numbers which are powerful and immediately recognizable indicators of the performance of the economy.


They should be easily understood They should be related to the interests of one or more groups of stakeholders They should be measurable using immediately available data at the city or national level They should be clearly related to urban policy goals and capable of being changed by the use of policy instruments They should be linked where possible to the three themes of economic, social and environmental sustainability They should be readily available, easily collected or estimated, and should not normally require special surveys or studies.




SINCE THE ADOPTION of the HABITAT Agenda at the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) in Istanbul, Turkey, numerous efforts have been made at the local, national and international levels to implement the Agendas recommendations. Important lessons have emerged from these experiences, as well as from experiences in the implementation of Local Agendas 21. Local plans of action (Habitat Action Plans) are possible and necessary for marketing and realising the local visions. Habitat Action Plans are local initiatives that are preferably derived from the National Habitat Plan of Action; your national or local Agenda 21; or from citywide plans and policies that aim towards improving the urban living and working environment. It may be a newly formulated plan or it may be an on-going activity. The implementation of your local vision is possible and more likely to happen if the five strategic objectives of the Habitat Agenda are applied: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Form partnerships. Adopt enabling approaches. Use the participation of all interested players. Build capacity among all partner groups. Monitor and assess your progress through networking with other groups that are undertaking similar activities.

The Local Action Plan should include the following elements: An overall vision for the future of the city; Benchmarks; Priority issues; Objectives for each issue; Programmes of action to attain the objectives; A strategy to engage civil society; A strategy with specific indicators for each objective UNCHS Habitat has established a global urban observatory system as a tool for assisting in the implementation of the Habitat Agenda worldwide. Detailed information on how to join the Global Urban observatory Network can be found in the publication: Setting up an Urban Observatory - A Guide to Joining the Global Urban Observatory Network. This document can be accessed from the following website:



AT THE CITY SUMMIT (Habitat II) in Istanbul (1996), Member States of the United Nations committed themselves to implement the habitat Agenda through policies and plans of action designed at each level in cooperation with all interested parties. All partners, including local authorities, the private sector and communities, are asked in the Habitat Agenda to monitor and evaluate their own performance in working towards sustainable urban development and adequate shelter for all. The mission of the Global Urban Observatory is to help governments, local authorities and their partner groups to monitor progress in implementing the Habitat Agenda and to expand the base of knowledge for better urban policy through a system of capacity building programmes and resources. The objective of the Global Urban Observatory is to create a learning environment for more effective civic engagement and decision-making through: Collecting, managing, analyzing and applying urban indicators and indices; Identifying and adopting effective urban policies, plans and practices; Evaluating the impact of policies, plans and practices on urban development; Sharing information, knowledge and expertise using modern communication technology and infrastructure. For further information on the Global Urban Observatory, please go to:

The above information was adapted from the UNCHS-UIP website that is available at For further information, please contact Dr. Jay Moor, Coordinator, The Global Urban Observatory, UNCHS (Habitat), P.O. Box 30030, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: (254 2) 623184 Fax: (254 2) 623080, 624266, 624267 E-Mail:




HE BEST PRACTICES and Local Leadership Programme of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements, UNCHS (Habitat) is a global effort in identifying and disseminating effective urban solutions and in developing a Best Practices Database. Introduced at Habitat II, this global effort has now consolidated with the biennial Dubai International Award for Best Practices in Improving the Living Environment and a global network of capacity building institutions dedicated to the continuous identification, analysis and application of best practice knowledge, expertise and experience at both the project and policy levels. The BLP partners network identifies initiatives in such areas as housing, urban development and governance, the environment, economic development, social inclusion, crime prevention, poverty reduction, women, youth, infrastructure and social services. Every two years, up to 10 outstanding initiatives receive the Dubai International Award for Best Practices in Improving the Living Environment. Those initiatives meeting the criteria for a Best Practice are included in the Best Practices Database. The lessons learnt from selected best practices are analyzed in case studies and guides, which are then transferred to other countries, cities or communities. The objectives of the Progamme are: To build awareness of proven solutions, demonstrated experience and innovative strategies for policy and decision-making at all levels; To develop and disseminate effective learning tools and processes for implementing local and national plans of action and the Habitat Agenda; To promote the transfer of knowledge, expertise and experience derived from Best Practices through peer-to-peer learning, transfers and cooperation. The BLP works through a decentralised network of partners including government agencies, local authorities, civic organisations, professional organisations, the private sector and training institutions. These institutions and organisations serve as regional and thematic resource centres to ensure geographic coverage and the coverage of the key sectoral and cross-cutting issues of the Habitat Agenda and of Agenda 21. BLP Partners, by virtue of their proximity to clients and users, serve as implementing agents in their respective areas of expertise. They apply the knowledge, expertise and experience derived from best practices to on-going training, capacity-building, leadership and policy development activities, and help match supply with demand for expertise. BLP partners also ensure dissemination of best practice knowledge, expertise and experience through more conventional means such as newsletters, journals, occasional papers and training materials. Together with the Urban Indicators Programme (please see Appendix 1), the BLP forms the Global Urban O b s e r v a t o r y, w h i c h i s t h e U N C H S (Habitat)s facility for monitoring global trends in sustainable urban development and evaluating progress in the implementation of the Habitat Agenda and Agenda 21. The policy implications and lessons learned from Best Practices are incorporated into Habitats State of the Worlds Cities report series.

To access the UNCHS Best Practices Database, please go to



THE UNITED NATIONS Center for Human Settlements promotes sustainable urban development through policy advice, capacity-building, knowledge creation and the strengthening of partnerships between government and civil society. In 1996, the United Nations General Assembly designated Habitat as the focal point for the implementation of the Habitat Agenda, which is the global plan of action adopted at the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements. The Centre, established in 1978 with the headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya, is the lead agency for coordinating human settlements development activities within the United Nations family, with a focus on the following ares: shelter and security of tenure urban governance environment and infrastructure and reduction of urban poverty Habitat supports and works in partnership with governments, local authorities, non-governmental organisations and the private sector. In 1998, the Centre had over 200 programmes and projects underway in over 80 countries, focusing on urban management, housing, basic services, infrastructure development and reconstruction. Most of these programmes are implemented in partnership with multilateral and bilateral support agencies. In September 1998, UNCHS (Habitat) was revitalized and reorganised and is now known as the UN City Agency. For further information on Habitat, please contact: Ms. Christina Engfeldt Chief, Information and External Relations P.O. Box 30030 Nairobi, Kenya Tel: (254-2) 623 067 Fax: (254-2) 624 060 Email: Website:

The above information was adapted from the following sources: 1. CITYNET Regional Network of Local Authorities for the Management of Human Settlements. Guidelines for Transferring Effective Practices : A Practical Manual for South-South Cooperation. Commissioned by CITYNET Regional Network of Local Authorities for the Management of Human Settlements, UNDP Special Unit for Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC), UNCHS (Habitat) Best Practices and Local Leadership Programme (BLP). The UNCHS Best Practices and Local Leadership Programme Website at http:/ / For further information, please contact The UNCHS Best Practices and Local Leadership Programme, Asia and the Pacific, Habitat Fukuoka Office, ACROS Fukuoka Building, 1-1-1 Tenjin, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810, Japan. Tel: (81-92) 724 7121 Fax: (81-92) 724 7124 Email: Website: http://




by Sri Husnaini Sofjan


The Asia Pacific Cities Forum (APCF) was established in early 1997 as an action oriented partnership linking leaders of academia, business, civil organisations, government, and media in the Asia and Pacific region. Its mission is to act as a catalyst for a continuing and constructive interaction between leaders of business, government, civil society organisations, academia and media in the region whereby partners are able to leverage their respective resources to a degree not achievable individually. APCFs role is to assist cities and communities by facilitating an activist network among all stakeholders in urban development. Website: <> Dr. Akhtar Badshah Executive Director Asia Pacific Cities Forum (APCF) 2203, 246th Pl. NE Redmond, WA 98053, U.S.A. T: 1-425-898 9739; F: 1-425-898 9649 E-mail: <>

The APEC Sustainable Development Training & Information Network (APEC Network) was established by the APEC Human Resource Development Working Group to support local economy capacity building and human resource development to promote sustainable development practices among the public, non-governmental and private sectors in five priority areas: sustainable cities, sustainability of the marine environment, cleaner production/clean technology; sustainable agriculture and forestry, and energy. The APEC Network is active in promoting Local Agenda 21 (LA21) activities and provides the following services to cities undertaking LA21 initiatives training/capacity building, technical assistance, and information. Website: <http://www/> Ms. Pauli Merriman Operations Manager APEC Sustainable Development Training & Information Network One World Trade Centre, 121 SW Salmon, Suite 210 Portland, Oregon 97204, U.S.A. T: 1-503-2799565; F: 1-503-2799381 E-mail: <>

The Asia Urbs programme aims to promote mutual understanding and lasting cooperation between Asia And Europe, by bringing together local governments and communities in both continents to work on the challenges of urban development issues. The programme, and the pilot partnerships it supports, creates an environment in which European and Asian local communities can work together, bringing their own ways of working and their own experience, to tackle urban problems they all face. It aims to make cities and towns better places for people living and working in them. Publication: Asia-Urbs Magazine. Website: <> Asia Urbs Secretariat 205 rue Belliard, Bte. 8 B-1040 Brussels, Belgium. T: 32-2-2307688; F: 32-2-2306973 E-mail: <>



The Asia Women and Shelter Network (AWAS) is a loose network of women and womens organisations working on women and shelter issues. It works within the framework of the Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (ACHR) and is also affiliated with Habitat International Coalition (HIC) Women and Shelter Network. The basic purpose of this network is to centre-stage womens concerns in the habitat movement, give support and recognition to community-based initiatives that strengthen womens roles in fulfilling practical needs through strategic solutions, and assist lobbying and advocacy efforts of organisations and womens groups in national-level efforts to highlight women and shelter issues. Website: <http://> Ms. Sheela Patel Coordinator Asia Women and Shelter Network (AWAS) c/o SPARC P. O. Box 9389 Bhulabhai Desai Road Mumbai 400 026, India. T: 91-22-3865053/3887566; F: 91-22-3865053 E-mail: <>


The Asia and West Pacific Network for Urban Conservation (APWNUC) was formed in 1991 at a seminar on Urban Conservation and Public Participation supported by the United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD). The objectives of the network are to exchange cultural information and technical expertise in the area of urban conservation. The member countries share much in common in terms of cultural heritage, building technology and urban forms, as well as urban problems, and include representatives from over 15 countries in the region. AWPNUC is the only cultural organisation that links Far East Asia, South East Asia, Australia and the Western Pacific, and plays a significant role in heritage conservation in the region. Publication: APWNUC Newsletter and Heritage Habitat. Ms. Khoo Salma Nasution Secretary General Asia and West Pacific Network for Urban Conservation (AWPNUC) c/o Penang Heritage Trust 19 Kelawei Road 10250 Penang, Malaysia. T: 604-2620123; F: 604-2633970 E-mail: <>


ACHR is a collaboration of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) who are deeply committed to supporting and strengthening the capacities of communities to participate in their own development. It is most active in coordinating local and international exchanges that motivate communities and increase awareness of replication potential, and facilitate the establishment of vital support systems. It serves as the Asian regional office of Habitat International Coalition (HIC). It is currently managing a Training and Advisory Programme (TAP). Publication: People for Housing. Website: <http:/ /> Ms. Somsook Boonyabancha Secretary General Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (ACHR) 73 Soi Sonthiwattana 4 , Ladprao Road Bangkok 10310, Thailand. T: 66-2-5380919; F: 66-2-5399950 E-mail: <>



ADB recognizes that rapid urbanisation has taken place in the Banks developing member countries, and this has been accompanied by growing urban poverty and related problems. The Bank has an approved regional technical assistance grant for managing water resources to meet megacity needs. ADB also has a programme which aims to encourage NGO participation in Bank projects in the environment sector. Website: <> Mr. Naved Hamed Manager Senior Strategy and Policy Officer Asian Development Bank No. 6, ADB Avenue Ortigas Centre, Mandaluyong City Philippines. T: 63-2-6325760; F: 63-2-6362181 E-mail: <>


AFEJ is a pioneer network of environmental journalists for Asia-Pacific countries. It was formed to spearhead the idea of regional cooperation in environmental reporting. The affiliated members of the forum are the National Forums of Environmental Journalists in 13 countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Singapore and Thailand. AFEJs activities are aimed at enhancing public awareness and include such methods as publishing newsletters, observing World Environment Day, providing news clipping services, giving incentives to journalists through awards for the best environmental issues, following up the recommendations of the World Commission on Environment and Development, and conducting investigative reporting on local environmental issues. AFEJ has also undertaken journalists exchange programmes and fellowships; and organised training seminars and workshops. Mr. Mangal Man Shakya Regional Director of AFEJ c/o Nepal Forum of Environmental Journalists (NEFEJ) P.O. Box 5143, Thapathali Kathmandu, Nepal. T: 977-1-260248, 261991; F: 977-1-261191 Email:


AIDCOM is a regional, non-profit organisation that was formed and established in response to the need to develop the communication support system for effective management of sectoral development programmes. AIDCOM emphasizes the development of appropriate human resources on the role of communication in economic, cultural, health, social, and other development efforts. AIDCOM is staffed by a team of consultants, experts and specialists from various parts of Asia and the Pacific who possess expertise in communication skills in the areas of sectoral development programmes which include, among others, juvenile delinquencies, drug addiction, environmental pollution, urban/rural poverty, consumerism, and other emerging social and developmental concerns. Website: <> Mr. Khairul Bashar Executive Director AIDCOM 9th Floor, APDC Building Pesiaran Duta 50480 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. T: 603-6512903; F: 603-6513785 Email:



The Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) is an autonomous, international postgraduate university which aims to take a leadership role in technological change for Asian development, through high-level education, research and outreach activities in engineering, technology, management and planning. AITs Human Settlements Development (HSD) Programme of certificate diploma, masters and doctoral degree studies is designed to meet the demand for trained manpower in human settlements development planning, management and education in Asia. Its graduates work in government and non-government agencies as policy analysts, planners, project managers, executives and consultants. The HSD Programme offers three fields of study: the first in urban development planning and environmental management; the second in rural and regional development training; and the third in urban environmental management. AIT also runs the Urban Management Centre (UMC) which offers consultancy work and services. Website: <> Dr. Seisuke Watanabe Program Coordinator Human Settlements Development Programme School of Environment, Resources and Development Asian Institute of Technology G. P. O. Box 2754 Bangkok 10501, Thailand. T: 66-2-5245610/5245614; F: 66-2-5162126/5246132 E-mail: <>


The Asian Mass Communication Research and Information Centre (AMIC) is a non-profit, non-governmental foundation dedicated to the development of all forms of communication in the Asia-Pacific region. AMICs primary mission is to promote the understanding, development and use of communication as a field of study and its application in the region, within the broad framework of economic, social and cultural progress. It is also a regional institution that is actively engaged in the promotion of environmental protection and conservation through a programme of seminars and workshops, research studies and publications aimed at both communication specialists and practitioners. Website: <> Mr. Vijay Menon Secretary General AMIC School of Communication Studies Building Nanyang Technological University Jurong Point P. O. Box 360 Singapore 916412. T: 65-7927570; F: 65-7927129 E-mail: <>


The Asia-Pacific City Summit was founded by Fukuoka City in Japan to promote Harmony between Urban Development and Human Living Environments. It aims to build a human network among the Asian-Pacific cities. Representatives of 21 cities from 11 countries met from 22 to 24 September 1994 in Fukuoka City and adopted the Fukuoka Declaration which provides the framework for this network. Future follow up summits are planned. Mr. Keichi Kuwahara c/o The Fukuoka City Summit Secretariat City of Fukuoka Fukuoka City Hall 8-1 Tenjin 1-Chome, Chuo-ku Fukuoka City 810, Japan. F/T: 81-92-733-5597



The Asian Partnership on International Migration (APIM) is a light, actionoriented, participatory partnership that aims to work in a collaborative effort amongst existing networks and agencies working on migration issues. APIMs mission is to protect and empower migrant workers and their families through enhancing their human rights and human dignity by developing a just, participatory, productive, ecologically and culturally vibrant societies locally, nationally and internationally. APIM works towards promoting the awareness and acceptance of the International Convention on the Protection of Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (GA Resolution 45/158) and other standards established by the UN, its specialized agencies and other like minded organisations. Website: <> Ms. Saira Shameem Coordinator Asian Partnership on International Migration (APIM) c/o AP2000 P. O. Box 12544 50782 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia. T: 60-3-255-9122; F: 60-3-253-2361 E-Mail: <>


The Asian Urban Information Centre of Kobe cooperates in solving urban problems facing Asian cities, thus contributing to the development of these cities. Publication: Asian People and Cities. Mr. Kazutoshi Sasayama President Asian Urban Information Centre of Kobe Sunpal Building, 8 Floor 5-3-1 Kumoi-dori, Chuo-ku Kobe 651, Japan. T: 81-78-2910461; F: 81-78-2910691 E-mail: <>


The Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FMC) has launched a research project to help Canadian and international municipalities share information to develop more effective and efficient environmental policies and programmes. The project which is called Canadian Urban Research on the Environment (CURE) aims to document innovative environmental initiatives from municipalities across the country. The information is published in a Canadian directory of environmental contacts and initiatives. CURE also documents Canadian environmental services and technical assistance which Canadian municipalities share with partners overseas. CURE is supported by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and Environment Canada. FMC also undertakes the China Open Cities Project. Project Officer Canadian Urban Research on the Environment (CURE) c/o Federation of Canadian Municipalities International Office/Bureau International 24 Clarence Street Ottawa, Ontario K1N 5P3 Canada. T: 1-613-241-8484; F: 1-613-241-7117


Capacity 21 of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) was created to assist developing countries in building their capacities to integrate the principles of Agenda 21 into national planning and development. Capacity 21 provides cities with the following support services for their local sustainability initiatives workshops, training/ capacity building, technical assistance, information, and funding. Capacity 21 supports a number of sustainable development activities at local level in the Asia Pacific region. While these programmes may not necessarily be called LA21, they are using innovative approaches to formulating sustainable development at the local level. Website: <http:/ /> Ms. Anita Nirody Capacity 21, United Nations Development Programme One UN Plaza (FF-948) New York, NY 10016 U.S.A. T: 1-212-9065059; F: 1-212 906-5896 E-mail: <>


The Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions is affiliated with Habitat International Coalition (HIC), and undertakes a variety of activities supporting the full realisation of housing rights for everyone, everywhere. COHRE actively opposes forced evictions whenever they are planned or take place, and views forced evictions as a gross violation of human rights, in particular the right to adequate housing. Its publications are aimed at increasing public awareness about the existence of forced evictions and housing rights, and in addition to annual surveys, it produces the following publications: Legal Sources of the Right to Housing in Human Rights Law (February 1992); Selected Bibliography on Housing Rights and Evictions (March 1993); and Forced Evictions & Human Rights, A Manual for Action (June 1993). Website: <> Mr. Scott Leckie Executive Director COHRE International Secretariat Rue de Montbrillant, 83 1202 Geneva, Switzerland. F/T: 41-22-7341028 E-mail: <>


The Centre for Family-Friendly Cities is supported in part by the Centre for Family Studies, the School of Home Economics and Family Ecology, and the College of Fine and Applied Arts, University of Akron, in cooperation with the United Nations Secretariat for the International Year of the Family. The mission of the Centre is to promote the inherent strengths of families, particularly families who live in the urban centers of the world. This can be accomplished through the sharing and exchange of information on family-friendly programmes worldwide. The key elements of the Centre include facilitation of communication with experts in the field, promotion of scholarship on the subject of urban families, and provision of expertise for the support of the development and evaluation of family-friendly programmes. Dr. Helen K. Cleminshaw Executive Director The Centre for Family-Friendly Cities The University of Akron Schrank Hall South, Suite 210 Akron, Ohio 44325-6103, U.S.A. T: 1-216-9727879; F: 1-216-9725277 E-mail: <>



The Centre for Human Settlements (CHS), University of British Columbia is the multi-disciplinary research arm of the School for Community and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia. CHS originated with the 1976 United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat) held in Vancouver, Canada. For almost two decades since its founding, CHS has served as a link between Canada and international development initiatives. Through its CIDA-funded Asian Urban Research Network, CHS conducts a collaborative research programme with partner institutions in China, Indonesia and Vietnam, with additional smaller projects elsewhere in the region. Major projects are organised around themes of metropolitan rationalization, small town integration and inner city redevelopment. Research is specifically structured to facilitate the involvement of local government officials and community residents and to contribute to the advancement of local planning education through the networks partner institutions. Dr. Aprodicio Laquian Director Centre for Human Settlements The University of British Columbia 2206 East Mall, Vancouver British Columbia U6T 1Z3 Canada. T: 1-604-8225254; F: 1-604-8226164 E-Mail: <>


Centre for New Town Development Studies, De Montfort University acts as a focus and resource base for the study of new towns locally, nationally and internationally. It provides research, consultancy, teaching and training on new towns policy, planning and implementation. Established in the belief that all those involved in the development of new towns and large scale urban settlements should share their knowledge and expertise for the benefit of all, it therefore encourages and facilitates the involvement of policy-makers, researchers and practitioners in the work of the Centre. Website: < depts/benv/cntds/> Dr. Mervyn Dobbin Director Centre for New Town Development Studies De Montfort University Hammerwood Gate, Kents Hill Milton Keynes MK7 6HP, United Kingdom. T: 44-1908-695511; F: 44-1908-834865 E-mail: <>



The Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto has an international urban research project to document the state of the art urban research in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The project is funded by the Ford Foundation. Dr. Richard Stern Director Centre for Urban and Community Studies University of Toronto 455 Spadina Avenue, Toronto Ontario, M5S 2G8 Canada. T: 1-416-978-4093; F: 1-416-978-7162



The China Open Cities Project of the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) is designed to contribute to environmentally sound urban management and economic development in Chinas Open Cities (cities designed by Chinas central government for foreign investment and which have preferential tax polities for foreign investors) through a variety of training packages. The training is targeted at managers and decision makers and aimed at building the capacity of selected training institutions in China to deliver training programmes for municipal administrators and officials. The project also supports municipal links between Chinese and Canadian cities involved in human resource development projects. The project is being funded by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). FCM also undertakes the programme Canadian Urban Research on the Environment (CURE). Ms. Elna Samuelsen-White Project Officer China Open Cities Project Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) 24 Clarence Street Ottawa, Ontario K1N 5P3 Canada. T: 1-613-2418484; F: 1-613-2417117


The Cities Alliance is a global partnership of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) and the World Bank with other UN agencies, regional development banks, bilateral agencies, local authority associations, NGOs and the business community. The alliance has been conceived to help realize the rich promise of what well-managed cities can achieve. It focuses on two priorities for action: City Development Strategies (CDS) and city-wide and nation-wide slum upgrading programme. Website: citiesalliance/ Mark Hildebrand Manager The Cities Alliance Support Team Urban Development Division The World Bank 1818 H Street NW Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A. T: 1-202-4730575; F: 1-202-5222125 Email: <>


The CDSI is a development practice based in the United Kingdom, which works with the authorities responsible for the major urban areas of Latin America, Africa and Asia. Working in conjunction with CDSI coordinators present in many countries, CDSI has identified 18,000 key figures in national, state and local government responsible for the largest 500 cities in the three regions. The CDSI is firmly committed to this belief and action towards enabling sustainable urban development, and welcomes the support of institutions and individuals in the attainment of sustainable urban environments for all city dwellers. Website: <http://> Mr. Jeremy Flay The City Development Strategies Initiative 42 Southwark Street London SE1 1UN, United Kingdom. T: 44-171-4077677; F: 44-171-4077622 E-mail: <>



The Commonwealth Local Government Forum was launched in March 1994 and aimed to promote local democracy and decentralized participatory government. The Forums full members are national local government associations and individual municipalities in Commonwealth countries. The Forums fundamental objective is the sharing of the practice of good governance with countries and institutions embarking on the path to democracy. This entails the pooling of professional and administrative know-how, promotion of participatory democracy, the empowerment of citizens and their councils and the strengthening of the democratic process. Mr. Carl Wright Director Commonwealth Local Government Forum 35 Great Smith Street London SW1P 3BJ, United Kingdom. T: 44-71-799-1730; F: 44-71-799-1731


The Development Planning UNIT (DPU) is an international centre specializing in academic teaching, practical training, research and consultancy in the field of urban regional development, planning and management in developing countries. DPU is directly concerned with understanding the process of rapid urbanisation and the policy, planning and management responses to the economic and social development of urban areas. The central purpose of the DPU is to strengthen the professional and institutional capacity of governments and non-governmental organisations in developing countries at all levels in the field of urban and regional policy, planning, and management. Website: <> Dr. Patrick Wakely Director Development Planning Unit University College London 9 Endsleigh Gardens London WC1H OED United Kingdom T: 44-171-3887581; F: 44-171-3874541 E-mail: <>


EAROPH is an international multi-disciplinary non-governmental organisation covering Asia, Australia and the Pacific region. Its members are technical experts, academics, policy-makers, public administrators and academicians who are involved in the field of human settlements. EAROPHs activities include international technical exchange programmes; international conferences and seminars; technical training programmes; international technical field visits; urban and rural development study projects; and facilitation in arranging funding of projects. Publication: EAROPH Bulletin. Mr. John Koh Secretary General EAROPH Secretariat PAM Centre 4-6 Jalan Tangsi 50480 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. T: 60-3-2984136; F: 60-3-274-6515 E-mail: <>


The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) is the largest of five regional commissions of the United Nations, both in terms of the land area (35 million sq. km.) and the people it serves (3165 million, approximately 56% of the world population). The ESCAP/UNCHS Joint Section on Human Settlements collaborates with the regional programme of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHSHabitat). This Section is part of the Rural and Urban Development Division. ESCAP is one of the four partners in the UNDP-funded Urban Management Programme for Asia and the Pacific (UMPAP) and works with CITYNET to implement the Intra-regional Participatory Urban Management (IPUM) component. This component fosters Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC). The framework for ESCAPs activities is provided by the Regional Action Plan on Urbanisation in Asia and the Pacific which was adopted by the Ministerial Conference on Urbanisation which was held in October 1993. ESCAP also established an Inter-Organisational Committee on Urbanisation which facilitates cooperation and coordination in the implementation of urban-related programmes in this region. Website: <> Mr. Yap Kioe Sheng Chief, Human Settlements Section Rural and Urban Development Division ESCAP, United Nations Building Rajadamnern Avenue Bangkok 10200, Thailand. T: 66-2-2881600; F: 66-2-2881097 E-Mail: <>


GTZ has initiated a project on developing Urban Environmental Management Guidelines in Thailand and Nepal that explores various methods to find the most effective ways to improve environmental management in small and medium sized cities. In the long term, this project intends to create or recreate an awareness at the local level of urban management as a single activity. The immediate result of the project is a generic set of guidelines, a kind of template for use by international agencies, or by national government agencies interested in developing an indigenous process of municipal environmental management. GTZ also supports projects focused on strengthening LA21 processes in the Asia Pacific region. Website: <> Dr. Ernst Reichenbach Programme Coordinator GTZ-UDLE P O Box 1457, New Baneswor Kathmandu, Nepal. T: 977-1-482378; F: 977-1-482767 E-mail: <> Dr. Martin Reinecker GTZ-Team Leader, Decentralization of Physical and Urban Development Planning Project Ministry of Interior-GTZ, Office of the Permanent Secretary, Wang Sunantha, Ratchasima Road Bangkok, Thailand. T: 66-2-6221622; F: 66-2-6221623 Ms. Annette Bahring Section on Municipal and Urban Development German Agency for Technical Cooperation Postfach 5180, 65726 Eschborn, Germany. T: 49-6196-791632; F: 49-6196-797169 E-mail: <>



The Global Urban Observatory (GUO) is an international capacity-building network, established by the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS), to assist in meeting the aims of the Habitat Agenda and Agenda 21, which call for the active participation of all major groups of society to improve our living environment. Its mission is to help build a global base of knowledge for sustainable urban development. The Urban Indicators Programme (UIP) and the Best Practice and Local Leadership Programme (BLP), together make up the Global Urban Observatory, a UNCHS (Habitat) facility for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the Habitat Agenda and Agenda 21. The purpose of the GUO is to help governments, local authorities, the private and professional sectors and civil society to improve urban policies, based on increased capacity to collect, interpret and apply information on urban trends and conditions; to formulate and implement national and local plans of action, based on a better uunderstanding of how cities work; to foster civic engagement and participatory decision-making; and to improve urban management and development. Website: <> Mr. Jay Moor Programme Coordinator Global Urban Observatory Programme United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) P. O. Box 30030 Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: 254-2-623693; Fax: 254-2-624264 E-mail: <>

The HABINET Network links six institutions which have institutional partnership with the Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies (IHS), Rotterdam. The network aims to strengthen the south-south cooperation between institutes in the same field of work through exchange of know-how and training opportunities which they have. They would also complement each others knowledge and experience, and also provide learning experience in other developing countries. The six institutions that form the network are the Centre for Housing Planning and Building, Sri Lanka; Centre for Housing and Human Settlement Studies, Thailand; Centre for Housing Studies, Tanzania; Centre for Popular Habitat Studies, Colombia; Indian Human Settlements Programme, Human Settlements Management Institute, India; and Training for Integrated Urban Infrastructure Development Programme, Cipta Jaya, Indonesia. Project Coordinator Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies Weena 716, P. O. Box 1935 3000 BX Rotterdam; The Netherlands. T: 31-10-4021523; F: 31-10-4045671 Dr. Kulwant Singh Human Settlement Management Institute (HSMI) F-212, Asian Games Village Complex, Khelgaon Marg New Delhi, India. T: 91-11-6493445; F: 91-11-6493726


HIC is an independent, international non-governmental and non-profit organisation integrating more than 300 CBOs and NGOs from over 60 countries, and devoted to action for the recognition and implementation of the right of everyone to secure a place in which to live in peace and dignity. HIC has a permanent programme entitled Habitat and Environment which promotes the theme of sustainable human settlements development and supports the intervention of social organisations directly involved in the grassroots struggle towards the development of a decent living environment. HIC is actively involved in the monitoring of governmental and inter-governmental compliance


with the commitments established in Agenda 21. HIC supports a Women and Shelter Network and has a Housing Rights Subcommittee. HIC operates regionally through a series of Regional Focal Points. Publication: HIC News & Women and Shelter. Mr. Eldridge Jerry Executive Secretary Habitat International Coalition (HIC) HIC Secretariat, P. O. Box 34519 Groote Schuur 7937 South Africa T: 27-21-6962205/6962207; F: 27-21-6962203 E-mail: <> Mr. Kirtee Shah President Habitat International Coalition (HIC) c/o Ahmedabad Study Action Group Dalal Building - Behind Capri Hotel Relief Road Ahmedabad 380 001, India. T: 91-79-7707841 F: 91-79-5507842/449997 E-mail: <> Mr. Scott Leckie Executive Director COHRE International Secretariat Rue de Montbrillant, 83 1202 Geneva, Switzerland. F/T: 41-22-7341028 E-mail: <> Mr. Davinder Lamba c/o Mazingira Institute P. O. Box 14550 Nairobi, Kenya. T: 254-2-443219; F: 254-2-444643 Mr. Malick Gaye c/o ENDA-RUP Rue Carnot 54 B. P. 3370 Dakar, Senegal. T: 221-220942; F: 221-222695 Ms. Somsook Boonyabancha Secretary General Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (ACHR) 73 Soi Sonthiwattana 4, Ladprao Road Bangkok 10310, Thailand. T: 66-2-5380919; F: 66-2-5399950 E-mail: <> Mr. Philippe Debry c/o Habitat et Participation 1, Place du Levant B-1348 Louvain-la Neuve Belgium. T: 32-10-472314; F: 32-10-472179 Mr. Alejandro Florian c/o FEDEVIVIENDA Ave. Calle 40, 15-69 Apartado Aereo 57059 Bogot, Colombia. T: 571-2880711; F: 571-2871941 Mr. Stephen Hodges c/o Construction Resource and Development Centre 11 Lady Musgrave Avenue Kingston 5, Jamaica. T: 1-809-978-4061; F: 1-809-978-4062 Mr. Randy Sach c/o Rooftops Canada Foundation 22 Mowat Ave., Suite 100 Toronto, Ontario M6K 3E8, Canada. T: 1-416-538-7511; F: 1-416-538-7523


The Healthy Cities Commons is the first programme of the Healthy Cities International Foundation and a key resource at the new global centre for health and the environment. Guided by an international advisory council that brings together a multi-sector/multi-disciplinary investment to the Healthy Cities movement, the Healthy Cities Commons provides a number of core services, produce materials and model projects and collaborates on activities to support the development of the Healthy Cities movement. The objectives of Healthy Cities Commons are to provide access to resources and contacts, develop and extend tools and initiate strategic activities. Website: <http://www.> Dr. Leonard Duhl Healthy Cities Commons c/o Planning School of Public Health University of California at Berkeley 410 Warren Hall, Berkeley CA 94720-7360, U.S.A. T: 1-510-6421715; F: 1-510-6436081 E-mail: <>



The World Health Organisation (WHO) launched the Healthy Cities programme in the framework of health for all, a concept which forms the basis for developing and implementing new public health approaches at the local level, where the somewhat abstract and global concepts of health promotion and health for all can be concretized. As the lowest level of government, and thus the closest to the people, cities can and should play a central role in achieving health, a role they had fulfilled historically but that has been neglected in recent times. The Healthy Cities project challenges cities to take seriously the process of developing health enhancing public policies that create physical and social environments that support health and strengthen community action for health. It also advocates the principles of health promotion to develop new styles of enabling, facilitating, mediating, advocating and building new partnerships and coalitions for health. Website: <http:/ /> Dr. Greg Goldstein Scientist and Epidemiologist Environmental Health in Rural and Urban Development & Housing World Health Organisation (WHO) CH-1211 Geneva 27 Switzerland T: 41-22-7912111; F: 41-22-7910746 E-mail: <> Dr. Ilona Kickbusch Director - Lifestyles and Health World Health Organisation (WHO) 8 Scherfigsvej DK-2100 Copenhagen Denmark T: 45-39-171479; F: 45-39-171224 Mr. Hisashi Ogawa World Health Organisation (WHO) Regional Office for the Western Pacific United Nations Avenue, P O Box 2932 Manila 2801 Philippines T: 63-2-5288001; F: 63-3-5211036 E-mail: <>


The International Centre for Sustainable Cities is a non-governmental, nonprofit organisation which has a mandate to promote sustainable urban development around the world through demonstration projects using Canadian experiences and technologies. ICSC is active in the Asia Pacific region with projects in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. Working through national governments and Canadian embassies, ICSC assists local governments in identifying their sustainable development priorities and formulating practical demonstration projects. Website: <> Ms. Nadya Zaverganietz Executive Secretary International Centre for Sustainable Cities (ICSC) Suite 510 744 West Hastings Street Cancouver, BC V6C 1A5 Canada T: 1-604-6662432; F: 1-604-6660009 E-mail: <>



The International City/Country Management Association (ICMA) has engaged in a variety of activities aimed at strengthening local governments and their capacity to protect the environment, deliver environmental services and encourage citizen participation. The Associations Sustainable Communities Programme helps local governments tailor sustainability to their particular community. ICMA also provides programmes on disaster resistant communities, ecosystem protection, intelligent transportation, decentralization and democratization and smart growth. Publication: Cities International, a quarterly newsletter. Website: <> Ms. Amanda Lonsdale International City/Country Management Association (ICMA) Suite 500, 777 N. Capitol Street NE Washington, DC 20002 U.S.A. T: 1-202-9623522; F: 1-202-9623581 E-mail: <>


ICLEI has established the Local Agenda 21 Initiatives to assist local governments in creating their local Agenda 21s and to help advance professional standards and techniques for integrated environmental planning or sustainable development planning. There are three components within the Local Agenda 21 Initiatives mainly the Local Agenda 21 model communities programme, the Local Agenda 21 communities network and the national association campaigns. Publication: Local Agenda 21 Network News & Initiatives. Website: <> Mr. Jeb Brugmann Secretary General ICLEI - World Secretariat City Hall East Tower - 8th Floor Toronto M5H 2N2, Canada. T: 1-416-3921462; F: 1-416-3921478 E-mail: <> European Secretariat Eschholzstrasse 86 D-79115 Freiburg Germany. T: 49-761-36892-0; F: 49-761-36260 Asia Pacific Secretariat Japan Office c/o GEF, Ikura Building 1-9-7 Azabudai, Minato-ku Tokyo 106, Japan. T: 81-3-55619735; F: 81-3-55619737


IDRC assists scientists in developing countries to identify long-term, practical solutions to pressing development problems. IDRC has programmes to pursue the goals of sustainable and equitable development focusing on six core themes: integrating environmental, social and economic policies; technology and development; food systems under stress; information and communication for environmental and development; health and environment; and biodiversity. In addition to the six core themes, it also supports research activities in environment and natural resources; health sciences; information sciences and systems; and social sciences . Dr. Stephen R. Tyler Environment and Natural Resources Division International Development Research Centre Regional Office for Southeast and East Asia Tanglin P. O. Box 101, Singapore 9124. T: 65-2351344; F: 65-2351849 E-mail: <> International Development Research Centre Head Office P. O Box 8500 Ottawa K1G 3H9 Canada. T: 613-2366163; F: 613-2387230



The International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC) was created as the focus of efforts by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) regarding technologies for sustainable urban and freshwater basin management. The Centre brings together information on environmentally sound technologies (ESTs) available worldwide, and makes it available through its computerised directory. The successful adoption and use of ESTs are recognised as being critical to countries ability to achieve sustainable development. Therefore, IETC places equal importance on joining forces with partner organisations within the UN system and elsewhere to increase the management and decision-making capability of those responsible for managing cities and freshwater basins in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, so that ESTs can be adopted and used effectively. The Centre operates from two locations in Japan - one office in Osaka City and one in Lake Biwa in Shiga Prefecture. IETCs activities at each site are supported and augmented by the expertise of two Japanese foundations - the Osaka-based Global Environment Centre Foundation and the International Lake Environment Committee Foundation at Lake Biwa. Publication: Insights. Website: <http://www.> Dr. Steve Halls, Director, International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 2-1110 Ryokuchi koen, Tsurumi-ku, Osaka 538-0036, Japan T: 81-6 6915 4581; F: 81-6 6915 0304 E-mail: <>


The institute specializes in low-income habitat issues and general urban development and management for developing countries. The IHS gives a twice-yearly five-month diploma course, tailor-made short courses and annual 16-month Master Degree courses. The Institute also carries out joint teaching and research programmes with major institutes in developing nations. The Institute also formed the HABINET Network which links it with six other institutions working towards the same goal. Website: <>. Mr. Emiel Wegelin Director, Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies (IHS) Weena 718, P. O. Box 1935 3000 BX Rotterdam, The Netherlands T: 31-10-4021544; F: 31-10-4045671 E-mail: <>


IIED is an independent, international non-profit organisation which promotes sustainable patterns for Third World development with a particular focus in the rights and needs of the poor. Established in 1971, the Institute advises policy makers, undertakes research, training, and the design and implementation of development projects; and also provide technical advice to national governments and international agencies. The Institute has research programmes in a number of areas critical to sustainable development including human settlements, sustainable agriculture, forestry, dry lands, environmental economics, climate change and southern networks. It also founded Earthscan Publications (now jointly owned with Kogan Page); Earthscan publishes 30 books a year on environment and development related subjects including the outstanding journal Environment and Urbanisation a must for all those working on habitat issues. Publication: Environment and Urbanisation. Website: <> Mr. David Satterwaite Human Settlement Programme International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H 0DD, United Kingdom. T: 44-207-3882117; F: 44-207-3882826 E-mail: <>


IIED has a Latin America counterpart office called IIED-America Latina. Its work extends beyond that of the Human Settlements Programme. In addition to work outlined already, recent projects have included a study of sustainable development in Argentina prepared for the Earth Summit (the 1992 United Nations Conference in Environment and Development). The Institute has undertaken a three year programme throughout Latin America of training workshops and seminars for government officials and for the managerial and technical staff of non-governmental organisations who work in low-income settlements. IIED-America Latina has a long-term commitment to support community organisations in a low-income district in the outskirts of Buenos Aires. Publication: Medio Ambiente y Urbanizacion. IIED-America Latina Piso 6, Cuerpo A Corrientes 2835 1193 Buenos Aires, Argentina. T: 54-1-9613050; F: 54-1-9611854


The Association of Netherlands Municipalities (VGN) is an independent organisation of local municipalities which was established in 1912 to strengthen the position of Dutch municipalities relative to central government. The International Project Unit provides support in the international project development process, conducts projects relating to the strengthening of local administration, and assists in the evaluation of international projects. The Unit also organizes and coordinates various activities in the field of international municipal cooperation. Among its programmes are municipal initiative programmes, Netherlands inter-municipal development cooperation programme, and the programme for the strengthening of the functioning of the associations of municipalities. Mr. Peter Knip International Project Unit The Research and Advisory Bureau of the Association of Netherlands Municipalities P. O. Box 30435 2500 GK The Hague, Netherlands. T: 31-70-3738386; F: 31-70-3639345


Based in the Netherlands, IULA acts as a network for local governments world-wide and provides a mechanism for municipal transfers of experience and knowledge. IULA also undertakes training programmes, supports information/education programmes and directly participates in technical cooperation projects. Publication: IULA 1994 & Local Government. Website: <> Mr. Jacques Jobin Secretary General International Union of Local Authorities (IULA) - World Secretariat P O Box 90646 2509 LP The Hague, The Netherlands. T: 31-70-3244032; F: 31-70-3246916 Mr. Endi J. Rukmo Secretary General International Union of Local Authorities Asian & Pacific Section (IULA-ASPAC) Gedung Mitra Praja Lantai 2 Jalan Sunder Permai Raya No. 1 P. O. Box 1286/JKU Jakarta 14350, Indonesia. T: 62-21-6408449/50; F: 62-21-6408446 Email: <>


IULA Africa Section Public Service Association Bldg 9 Livigstone Avenue Harare Zimbabwe T/F: 263-4-726289

IULA Latin America Agustin Guerrero 219 y Pacifico Chiriboga P. O. Box 1701-1109 Quito, Equador. T: 593-2-469365; F: 593-2-435205 IULA - North America c/o Federation of Canadian Municipalities 24 Clarence Street, Ottawa, Ontario Canada K1N 5P3. T: 1-613-2415221; F: 1-613-2417440

IULA East Mediterranean & Middle East Sultanahmet Yerebatan Cad. 2 Istanbul Turkey. T: 90-212-5111010; F: 90-212-5190060 IULA Europe 41, Quai dOrsay 75007 Paris, France. T: 33-1-45514001; F: 33-1-47059743


The League was established in 1994 with the purpose of contributing to the realization of eternal world peace so desired for the future of mankind by all people everywhere; an organisation which will deepen mutual understanding by transcending national boundaries and building on the common foundation of historical cities by strengthening affiliations between cities. To date, the League also aims to contribute to further development of each historical city. The League has 58 member cities, 19 of which are in the Asia Pacific region. The League publishes an 8-page full-colour bulletin entitled World Historical Cities with articles about member cities and their conservation strategies. Website: <http:/> The League of Historical Cities Secretariat International Relations Office Kyoto City Hall, Post Code 604-8671 Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604, Japan. Tel: 81-75-2223072; Fax: 81-75-2223055


The Local Initiative Facility for Urban Environment (LIFE) is a UNDP programme whose objective is to promote local-local dialogue and collaboration through supporting small-scale activities by municipal authorities, NGOs and CBOs to improve the urban environment. The programme began with two countries per region, and for the AsiaPacific region, Pakistan and Thailand have participated in this programme. In 1992, LIFE was merged with Asia Pacific 2000 in Pakistan and Thailand to strengthen both the grant giving mechanisms as well as local-local dialogue, networking and capacity building of local urban actors. The LIFE programme also supports regional and inter-regional projects that promote interchange of information concerning successful approaches of urban environmental improvement. Website: <> Ms. Pratibha Mehta Global Coordinator - LIFE United Nations Development Programme One United Nations Plaza New York, NY 10017, U.S.A. T: 1-212-906-6602; F: 1-212-906-5365 E-mail: <> Mr. Fayyaz Baqir LIFE Coordinator c/o UNDP Islamabad UN Boulevard, Diplomatic Enclave No. 1 Block No.2, Ramna-5 Islamabad, Pakistan. T: 92-51-822618; F: 92-51-822796 Mr. Sompong Patpui LIFE Coordinator c/o Grassroot Development Institute 100/22 Soi Damrong Latapipat Artnarong Road, Klong Toey Bangkok 10110 Thailand. T: 66-2-6716911; F: 66-2-6716910



The Mega-Cities project, based in New York, U.S.A., has developed a programme to transfer Good Works to selected cities in Asia. This project concentrates its efforts in four high-priority areas: environment regeneration - toward circular systems for water, sanitation, garbage, food, and energy; poverty and income generation - toward alleviating poverty and strengthening the informal sector; decentralization and democratization - toward greater local participation in planning, service delivery, resource allocation and urban management; and womens empowerment and well-being - toward greater choice, access and voice. Website: <> Dr. Janice Perlman Executive Director Mega-Cities Project 300 Summit Street Hartford, CT 06106 U. S. A. T: 1-860-297 4035; F: 1-860-297 4079 E-mail: <>


The Nagoya Centre for Urban Advancements main activities are focused on conducting research and analysis of urban development projects through selffinanced researches and entrusted researches; maintaining an active programme of collection and distribution of information, on-going publications, and regular exhibitions; organising promotion and exchange of human resources through urban development courses, field visits, symposia and seminars on urban developments, consultations on urban development and training courses for foreign planners. Secretary General Nagoya Centre for Urban Advancement 15-16 Kanayama 2-chome Naka-ku Nagoya 460 Japan. T: 81-052-321-1441; F: 81-052-321-1491

The Network of Local Government Training and Research Institutes in Asia and the Pacific (LOGOTRI) is a network of training and research institutes in the region whose primary focus is on training and research in local government. It was established under an ESCAP project in March 1999. LOGOTRI has a membership of 22 institutes and organizations from 12 countries in the region. Mr. Girija Prasad Gorkhaly Coordinator of LOGOTRI Urban Development Training Centre Nagar BikaPrashishen Kendra Bagar, Pokhara Nepal. T: 977-61-20282; F: 977-61-20146/20098 E-mail: <>



TRISHNET is a network of institutes and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) on research and training activities in human settlements issues. Its activities are focused on the promotion and facilitation of exchange of information, publication and data on human settlements; promotion of experience-sharing among specialists within their field of expertise and promotion of their awareness of other fields of expertise; coordination and collaboration in research and training among participating institutes; promotion of collaboration with other actors/stakeholders, particularly local governments and NGOs; promotion and implementation of effective and innovative technologies and approaches; and institutional strengthening of research capabilities of member institutes. Publication: TRISHNET News. Dr. Kulwant Singh Steering Committee of TRISHNET Executive Director Human Settlement Management Institute (HSMI) F-212, Asian Games Village Complex, Khelgaon Marg New Delhi, India. T: 91-11-6493445; F: 91-11-6493726 Mr. Yap Kioe Sheng Chief Human Settlements Section Rural and Urban Development Division ESCAP, United Nations Building Rajadamnern Avenue Bangkok 10200, Thailand. T: 66-2-2881600; F: 66-2-2881097 E-Mail: <>


The Organisation of Islamic Capitals and Cities was established in 1980 with membership opened to all Capitals of the member states of the Islamic Conference Organisation. Each member state may register a maximum of eight cities in addition to its Capital City. The objectives of the organisation are to strengthen the bonds of friendship, brotherhood and solidarity among the Islamic Capitals and Cities; to promote, develop and expand the scope of cooperation among the Islamic Capitals and Cities; to preserve the identity and heritage of the Islamic Capitals and Cities, to seek implementing comprehensive ordinance and urban planning to guide the growth of Islamic Capitals and Cities in accordance with their actual economic, social and cultural and environmental characteristics; and to upgrade the standards of the public services and utilities in the Islamic Capitals and Cities. Secretary General Organisation of Islamic Capitals and Cities P. O. Box 1362, Jeddah 21414 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. T: 966-2-665-5896/6388; F: 966-2-665-7516


A group of about 14 nations of the Pacific Basin initiated the Pacific Basin Study Centre to address common problems of all the nations: trade, environment, population, and poverty, including the pressures of global environmental constraints. Programme elements of the Center are collaborative research projects building on the Supercities conference and potential pairing of cities for joint research; providing consultation and assistance in developing demonstrations for adoption of appropriate environmental practices in each country; exploration of environmental quality and health related research areas; and establishment of a resident scientist programme at the Presido by the Pacific Basin nations to facilitate research and exchange programmes and for the initiation of new dialogue on problem solving of common environmental and global problems. Dr. Joseph B. Knox Executive Director Pacific Basin Study Center San Francisco State University 1600 Holloway Avenue San Francisco, CA 94132, U.S.A. T: 1-415-338-6439; F: 1-415-338-6136



The Pacific Rim Council on Urban Development (PRCUD) is dedicated to enhancing the urban development process in the Pacific region. Central to PRCUD is the view that Pacific Rim cities are the essential focal points in a network of trade, investment, information and population flows. PRCUD membership comprises individuals and organisations from the private sector, public sector and the university community from throughout the region who are in a position to influence how our urban areas evolve. These members are brought together under PRCUD auspices by a common desire to promote a better understanding of urban development issues and processes and to benefit from each others knowledge, contacts and expertise. Mr. Eric Heikkila PRCUD Secretariat Commons Building, Suite 463 830 Childs Way Los Angeles, CA 90007 U.S.A. T: 1-213-740-3955; F: 1-213-740-1160

The network aims to encourage specialists in water and environmental sanitation in peri-urban settings to share common issues, concerns, and lessons learned from project successes and failures. Its objectives are to promote information sharing, create a forum for discussing common issues and lessons learned, and increase knowledge about peri-urban water and environmental sanitation by learning more from field workers. Publication: Peri-Urban News. Mr. Dan Campbell Water and Sanitation for Health Project 1611 N Kent Street, Room 1001 Arlington, Virginia 22209-2111, U.S.A. T: 703-243-8200; F: 703-243-9004

The United States Agency for International Developments (USAID) Regional Housing and Urban Development Programme administers the Housing Guarantee Programme as well as grant funded technical assistance, research and training activities. The Housing Guarantee Programme provides financing and technical assistance for low -cost housing initiatives such as sites-and-services and core housing; urban neighbourhood infrastructure; municipal facilities, and financial and technical management skills through training for municipal administrative and technical staff. Mr. William Frej RHUDO/USAID American Embassy Jln Medan Merdeka Selatan No. 3-5 Jakarta 10110, Indonesia. T: 62-21-360360; F: 62-21-3806694 E-mail: <> Ms. Julie Otterbein Regional Housing and Urban Development Office for Asia USAID 37 Soi 15 Phetchaburi Road Bangkok 10400, Thailand. T: 66-2-255-2650; F: 66-2-255-3730 Mr. Earl Kessler Regional Housing and Urban Development Office (RHUDO/New Delhi) c/o USAID New Delhi B-28 Institutional Area New Mehrauli Road (Near Qutab Hotel) New Delhi 110 016, India. T: 91-11-686-5301; F: 91-11-686-8594




CITYNET is a network of cities, NGOs and CBOs which aims to promote the creation of conditions and appropriate mechanisms for communities to plan and manage their own settlements and environment. It serves as a catalyst to encourage partnerships for technical exchange of expertise among local authorities, NGOs and grassroots organisations in Asia and the Pacific. It also contributes to selfreliant development and international understanding among its members. Publication: City Voice. Website: <> Ms.. Bernadia Irawati Tjandradewi Programme Manager CITYNET Secretariat 5F International Organisation Centre Pacifico-Yokohama 1-1 Minato Mirai, Nishi-ku Yokohama 220, Japan. T: 81-45-223-2161; F: 81-45-223-2162 E-mail: <>


The Sustainable Cities Programme is a joint programme of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (HABITAT) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Its principal goal is to provide municipal authorities and their partners in the public, private and popular sectors with an improved environmental planning and management capacity. SCP is designed to promote the sharing of expertise and lessons of experience between cities within and between various regions of the world. SCP also mobilizes know-how, technology, and financial resources for city-level application. Website: <http:// scp/scphome.htm> Mr. Jochen Eigen Sustainable Cities Programme United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) P. O. Box 30030 Nairobi, Kenya. T: 254-2-230-800; F: 254-2-226-473 E-mail: <>

The Sustainable Transport Action Network for Asia and the Pacific (SUSTRAN) is a network of interested government officials, transport and urban planners, NGO representatives, academicians and others which was set up to respond to the challenges of transportation planning and management in the region. SUSTRAN taps into the expertise of many civil organisations and it represents the interests of thousands including its own membership and its affiliated organisations. SUSTRAN calls for encouraging full-cost accounting of private motor travel, promoting public transportation, limiting urban sprawl, fairly allocating road space, and improving access for bicyclists and pedestrians. Publication: News-Flashes & Streets for People. Website: <> Mr. Bambang Santono Coordinator Sustainable Transport Action Network for Asia and the Pacific (SUSTRAN) c/o PELANGI Jalan Danau Tandono A-4 Jakarta 10210, Indonesia.. Tel: 62-21-5735020/5732503; Fax: 62-21-571 9360 E-Mail: <> Mr. Abdul Rahman Paul Barter Director Information and Research SUSTRAN Resource Centre P. O. Box 11501 50748 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. T/F: 603-22742590 E-Mail: <>



TAP is a programme of the Asian Coalition of Housing Rights (ACHR) aimed at supporting and strengthening community based processes in Asian cities by drawing on a network of experience and knowledge of successful Asian projects and processes. TAPs activities are focused on the Skills and Project workshops - an On the Job training experience offered to teams of grassroots community workers, NGOs and professionals; and the Young Professionals Programme- targeting students and young professionals to be involved in low-income community-based shelter processes; and a New Initiatives programme - to explore and promote community-based urban processes in Asian cities. Website: <> Mr. Maurice Leonhardt Programme Coordinator Training and Advisory Programme (TAP) Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (ACHR) 73 Soi Sonthiwattana 4 Ladprao Road Bangkok 10310, Thailand. T: 66-2-5380919; F: 66-2-5399950 E-mail: <>


UNCHS (HABITAT) is the United Nations focal point for facilitating human settlements solutions as an integral component of sustainable development processes, not only for individual countries but also the world community. In this challenge the Centre is particularly conscious of the urgent need to bring more direct benefits to the millions of inadequately sheltered and homeless people throughout the world. Based in Nairobi, Kenya, UNCHS (HABITAT) was established in 1978 by the United Nations General Assembly two years after HABITAT: the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements held in Vancouver, Canada. UNCHS is responsible for overseeing the implementation of the Habitat Agenda and was the Secretariat for the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (HABITAT II) held in June 1996 in Istanbul, Turkey. UNCHS has recently launched the Global Campaign for Good Urban Governance and Security of Tenure. Publication: Habitat Debate. Website: <http:/ /> Ms. Disa Weerapana Technical Cooperation Division - Asia Pacific UNCHS (Habitat) Fukuoka Office 1-1-1 Tenjin Chuo-ku Fukuoka 810, Japan. T: 81-92-7247121; F: 81-92-7247124 E-mail: < Mr. Nathaniel von Einsiedel Regional Coordinator Urban Management Programme - Asia Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) Km. 42 Paholyothin Highway (P. O. Box 4) Klong Luang Pathumthani 12120, Thailand. T: 66-2-5246205; F: 66-2-5245778 E-mail: <> Mr. Paul Taylor The Urban Governance Campaign Manager United Nations Centre for Human Settlements P. O. Box 30030 Nairobi, Kenya. T: 254-2-623216; F: 254-2-624264 E-mail: <> Mr. Ali Shabou Information Manager Global Campaign for Secure Tenure United Nations Centre for Human Settlements P. O. Box 30030 Nairobi, Kenya. T: 254-2-623141/623118; F: 254-2-624265 E-mail: <>



UNCRD aims to enhance the capabilities of the developing countries in local and regional (sub-national) development and planning. UNCRD organizes courses, promotes collaborative research on substantive issues in regional development, extends technical advisory services, serves as a forum for exchange of experiences, and fosters exchange of publications and information on local and regional development and planning. UNCRDs Environmental Planning and Management Unit has a project on solid waste management and produces a newsletter SWM Info to support a network of people and institutions working in this issue. Publication: UNCRD Newsletter, Regional Development Dialogue, SWM Info. The Director United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) Nagono 1-47-1, Nakamura-ku Nagoya 450, Japan. T: 81-052-561-9377; F: 81-052-561-9375


UNICEFs mandate touches on the core victims of the urban crisis - children and families. One of its special programmes is the Basic Urban Services Strategy. UNICEF has come up with a new vision for urban children and families and delineates the future vision of a child-friendly city. The vision stresses that mayors and heads of local governments are the focal point for changing cities because of their leadership role which enables them to mobilise the extraordinary strengths of existing communities in combination with the coordinated energies of existing government and nongovernmental organisations and of civil society. Publication: Urban Examples. Website: <> United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) Regional Office for South Asia P O Box 5815 Lekhnath Marg Kathmandu, Nepal. T: 997-1-417082/4419471; F: 997-1-419479


The United Nations Development Programme promotes sustainable human development through support for actions in five priority areas: alleviating poverty; strengthening urban local government and administration; providing urban infrastructure, shelter and services; improving urban environment; and promoting the private sector and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). At present UNDP is assisting more than 280 on-going urban development and human settlements projects. UNDPs main partner agency in the urban sector is the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS-Habitat), which promotes the role of cities in sustainable development and strengthens urban management. UNDP also works in close collaboration with the United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF), the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank. The Urban Governance Initiative (TUGI), the Local Initiative Facility for Urban Environment (LIFE), and the Urban Management Programme (UMP) are examples of on-going national, regional and global-level cooperation among partner agencies. Publication: Choices. Website: <> Mr. Shabbir Cheema Director Management Development and Governance Division Bureau for Programme Planning and Support United Nations Development Programme One United Nations Plaza New York, NY 10017, U.S.A. T: 1-212-9065000; F: 1-212-9065365 E-mail: <>


Ms. Joana Merlin-Scholtes Chief - Regional Programme and Policy Division Regional Bureau for Asia and the Pacific United Nations Development Programme One United Nations Plaza New York, NY 10017, U.S.A. T: 1-212-9065838; F: 1-212-9065898 E-mail: <> Mr. Jonas Rabinovitch Senior Urban Advisor Management Development and Governance Division Bureau for Programme Planning and Support United Nations Development Programme One United Nations Plaza New York, NY 10017, U.S.A. T: 1-212-9065780/906 6791; F: 1-212-9066471 E-mail: <> Mr. Phillips J. Young Resident Representative United Nations Development Programme P. O. Box 12544, 50782 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. T: 603-2559122; F: 603-2552870 E-mail: <>


The United Towns Development Agency (UTDA) aims to foster greater sharing of knowhow on urban environmental issues from European cities to towns and cities in Asia through its EC-Asia Municipal Environment Cooperation Programme. This programme is aimed at cities in Europe that have shown their intention to collaborate in this programme by providing experts and in-service training, and for cities and towns in Asia that are members of the CITYNET regional network. Activities of this programme include expert missions organised on the basis of detailed requests presented by Asian towns for specialized assistance, support for technical town-to-town twinning, a database matching the cooperation supply and demand of European and Asian towns in the urban environmental field, co-financing of cooperation activities, and assistance in sourcing funds for the implementation of projects developed through this cooperation. Publication: MECP. Mr. Laurent Bernier Project Manager for Asia United Town Development Association (UTDA) 22 rue dAlsace, 92300 Levallois-Perret, France. T: 33-1-47-39-3686; F: 33-1-42-70-3799


TUAN was initiated by the Division of Global and Inter-regional Programmes of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 1991. It recognizes the potential of urban agriculture and seeks to promote urban farming world-wide. TUAN aims to encourage agencies of the benefit of urban farming as a tool - in the areas of urban development, nutrition, hunger and health, income generation and enterprise development, environment, and waste management. Through its three programmes of communication, research and project development assistance, the Network promotes research analysis, communication and information dissemination and projects and surveys. Mr. Jac Smit President The Urban Agriculture Network (TUAN) c/o Regional and Community Development Consultants Inc. 1711 Lamont Street N.W Washington D.C 20010, U.S.A. T: 202-483-8130; F: 202-986-6732



The Urban Capacity Building Network was formed by a group of institutions which worked together with the Capacity Building and Training Section of the UNCHS at the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II). This Network works directly with regional and national capacity building institutions, who in turn will have direct contacts with local governments and community organisations. The objectives of the Network are to develop and nurture an informed and active group of capacity building institutions, municipal authorities and individuals; support capacity building institutions and help programmes become more effective; as well as provide a forum for discussion. The activities of the Network include promoting the concept of local capacity building strategies; lobbying to increase awareness and support; research and documentation; networking, coordination and partnerships; information dissemination through web-sites and newsletters; organisation of conferences and workshop; and developing high quality generic teaching materials. Dr. Patrick Wakely Development Planning Unit University College London 9 Endsleigh Gardens London WC1H OED, United Kingdom. T: 44-171-3887581; F: 44-171-3874541 E-mail: <> Mr. F. Davidson/Ms. M. Peltenburg The institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies P. O. Box 1935 NL 300 BX Rotterdam The Netherlands. Tel: 31-10-4021523; Fax: 31-10-4045671 E-mail: <> Mr. Jonnay Astrand Lund Centre for Habitat Studies Lund University Box 118 Se-22100 Lund, Sweden. Tel: 46-46-2229761; Fax: 46-46-2224545 E-mail: <>

Professor Yap Kioe Sheng c/o Urban Management Centre Human Settlements Development Programme Asian Institute of Technology G. P. O. Box 2754 Bangkok 10501, Thailand. T: 66-2-5245610; F: 66-2-5162126/5246132 E-Mail: <> Ms. Marlene Fernandes Instituto Brasileiro de Administracao Municipal Largo IBAM, Humaita 22271-070 Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil. Tel: 55-21-5377595; Fax: 55-21-5371262 E-mail: <>


The Urban Governance Initiative (TUGI) is a project developed and funded by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and executed by the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS). TUGI is a response to UNDPs continuous commitment to work on urban issues, building upon its earlier investments and insights from the Urban Management Programme for Asia and the Pacific (UMPAP) and Asia Pacific 2000 (AP2000). TUGI aims at assisting local authorities, especially the leadership of the same, in improving the urban quality of life through strengthening capacities, promoting good governance principles and enhancing the tools available to urban administrators and decision makers. The outcome of this initiative includes the development of appropriate indicators, tools and methodologies grounded in a regionally specific definition of good governance within the four sub-regions. TUGI is also developing mechanisms to share and enhance the quality of information available on urban governance whilst distributing best practices and lesson learned. Publication: Urban Links, a quarterly current awareness service. Website: <> Programme Manager The Urban Governance Initiative (TUGI) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) P. O. Box 12544, 50782 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. T: 603-2559122; F: 1-603-2532361 Email: <>



The Urban and Popular Environmental Economy Programme (PRECEUP) is an initiative of Environmental Development Action in the Third World (EDNA) based in Senegal. The programme which is managed from its European office, and funded by the EEC, aims to support initiatives in the field of urban environment, and to stimulate thoughts and the exchange of information. The two components of the programme are the operational and informational components. The operational component supports urban environmental projects especially in areas relating to water sanitation and waste, and South-South exchange of experiences, know-how, animation methodology and local technologies. The goal of informational component is to stimulate and facilitate the exchange of information between urban actors involved in the fields of urban environment and popular economy. Ms. Vanessa Rousselle Urban and Popular Environmental Economy Programme (PRECEUP) Environmental Development Action in the Third World (ENDA) 5, rue des Immenbles Industries 75011 Paris France. T: 33-1-43720909; F: 33-1-43721681 E-mail: <> Mr. Henri de Reboul ENDA Vietnam 12 Cu Xa Bac Hai P15-Q10 Ho Chi Minh Vietnam. T: 84-8-646096; F: 84-8-298540 Mr. Virup Panwalkar ENDA Bombay 5 Vashi Saphalya, Plot 10, Sector 9a Vashi, New Bombay India. T: 91-22-766 1902; F: 91-22-6105617


The University of Hawaii East-West Centre has an action research project on Urban Community-based Environmental Management in low-income communities within cities of six countries covered by the Urban Management Programme for Asia and the Pacific (UMPAP): Bangkok, Thailand; Bandung, Indonesia; Bombay, India; Colombo, Sri Lanka; Kathmandu, Nepal; and Manila, Philippines. This project has two major objectives: to improve the understanding of the problems of and potentials for better environmental management in poor urban communities in Asia; and to facilitate the development of the institutional capacity for environmental management in and with these communities. Dr. Yok-shiu Lee Project Manager Department of Geography & Geology The University of Hong Kong Pokfulam Road Hong Kong. T: 852-28592840; F: 852-25598994 E-mail: <>



The Urban Management Programme (UMP) is a global technical support programme designed to strengthen the contribution that cities and towns in developing countries make toward human development, including economic growth, social development, and the reduction of poverty. The UMP is a major undertaking of the international community and involves a partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS-Habitat), the World Bank; and other multilateral agencies, bilateral donors and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The UMP is working with developing countries to build local capacity to address problems in five substantive areas: municipal finance and administration, infrastructure, land management, urban environment, and poverty alleviation. The three processes used for this capacity building efforts are: city and country consultations; regional panels and technical cooperation; and global support and synthesis. Publication: UMP-Asias Occasional Papers. Mr. Dinesh Mehta Programme Coordinator Urban Management Programme (UMP) United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) P. O. Box 30030 Nairobi, Kenya. T: 254-2-230-800; F: 254-2-226-479 E-mail: <> Ms. Sonya Hamman Team Leader Urban Managemnent Programme Urban Development Division The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A. T: 1-202-4585335; F: 1-202-5223232 E-mail: <> Mr. Shabbir Cheema Director Management Development and Governance Division Bureau for Programme Planning and Support (BPPS) United Nations Development Programme One United Nations Plaza New York NY 10017, U.S.A. T: 1-212-9065054; F: 1-212-9065365 E-mail: <> Mr. Alioune Badiane Africa Regional Coordinator Urban Management Programme Plot 146, Airport West P. O. Box 9698, K.I.A. Accra, Ghana. T: 223-21-772561; F: 223-21-773106 Mr. Nathaniel von Einsiedel Regional Coordinator for Asia and the Pacific Urban Management Programme - Asia Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) Km. 42 Paholyothin Highway (P. O. Box 4) Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 Thailand. T: 66-2-5246205; F: 66-2-5245778 E-mail: <> Mr. Mounir Neamatalla Arab States Regional Coordinator Urban Management Programme 3B, Bahgat Ali Street, 7th Floor Cairo, Egypt. T: 20-2-3400052; F: 20-2-3413331 E-mail: <> Mr. Yves Cabannes Regional Coordinator for Latin America and the Caribbean Urban Management Programme Av. Naciones Unidas 1084 Ed. Bco. La Previsora Torre B. Ap. 612, Casilla 17-17-1449 Quito, Ecuador. T: 593-2-461595/462012; F: 593-2-500553 E-mail: <>



The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Development Cooperation is responsible for official development assistance. The Ministry recognised problems of rapid urbanisation in developing countries and emphasised the need to develop small and intermediate cities to alleviate growth pressures on the major cities. Bilateral aid from the Dutch Government is channeled through the following 4 accounts: i) Programme countries; ii) Programme regions; iii) Emergency and humanitarian aids; and iv) Spearhead programmes on the environment, urban poverty alleviation, women in development and research. Urban Poverty Alleviation Programme(DST/UR) Department for Development Cooperation Ministry of Foreign Affairs P. O. Box 20051 2500 EB The Hague The Netherlands. T: 31-70-348-4413; F: 31-70-348-4848


Waste Wise Asia-Pacific is an informal regional network of organisations and individuals, dedicated to promoting Solid Waste Management policies which are environmentally friendly and socially responsible. The essence of the network is a process which enables concepts to translate to actions, and a meaningful manifestation of peoples participation in civil society. A programme of action was planned for information exchange, networking, advocacy and promotion of local initiatives. Web-site: < rainforest/vines/6662> Mr. Anselm Rosario Coordinator - Waste Wise Asia-Pacific 1300 D, 1st Main Road 1st Cross, HAL 3rd Stage New Thippsarna Bangalore 560008 India. T/F: 91-80-5255543 E-mail: <>

WaterWatch Asia is a light action oriented participatory network to exchange information and facilitate advocacy amongst civil society groups concerned about water resources and management. WaterWatch Asias activities include producing a resource book that will help NGOs to correct policies as well as undertake specific activities like rapid mapping of water deficient areas and quick and clean tests on the quality of water; developing and updating an NGO Bulletin Board and Web-site on water issues; developing a programme linking NGOs with UN efforts in this area particularly that of the Global Water Partnership supported by UNDP. Water Watch Penang c/o Socio-economic and Environment Research Centre (SERI) 10 Lorong Brown 10350 Penang Malaysia. T: 604-2283306; F: 604-2267042 E-mail: <>


The Wise-Cities Network is a new global network of local initiatives and visions that bring into practice ideals for a better city life . It aims to facilitate communication, inspire and strengthen organisations and individuals involved in tangible and direct initiatives and activities for the improvement of the local urban situation; to stimulate linkages among emancipatory movements; and to influence changes in policies of local and national governmental institutions regarding urban processes. Michel Ligthart World Information Service on Energy Wise-Cities International P. O. Box 18185 1001 ZB Amsterdam, The Netherlands. T: 31-20-639-2681; F: 31-20-639-1379


World Association of the Major Metropolises (Metropolis) was formed in Montreal, Canada in 1985, and now has an active membership of 49 cities each with a population of over one million. Associate membership is comprised of corporations, research institutes, and specialists from all over the world. METROPOLIS pools the experience and the outcomes of innovative town-planning projects worldwide. METROPOLIS promotes action in the area of transport, pollution, the management of urban spaces, the urban economy, and social solidarity through projects to improve the urban environment. It has a technical assistance service which enables cities to develop and manage projects with the aid of experts with financial assistance from a cooperation fund. Secretary General METROPOLIS 251 rue de Vaugirard 75740 Paris cedex 15 France. T: 33-1-40437800; F: 33-1-40437602


The World Bank is among the largest donors in the urban assistance field. It has an urban management approach to urban interventions which emphasizes municipal institution building, the improvement of urban financial systems and resource mobilization and, through the support for decentralization programmes, building the capacity of municipalities to deliver and maintain urban services. Two programmes of specific interest relating to urban management are the Urban Management Programme (UMP) and the Global Urban Partnership initiative which includes the Cities Alliances and the City Development Strategy (CDS) projects . Publication: Urban Age. Website: <> Ms. Sonya Hamman Team Leader Urban Management Programme Urban Development Division The World Bank 1818 H Street NW Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A. T: 1-202-4585335; F: 1-202-5223232 E-mail: <>





by Sri Husnaini Sofjan


Australian National Local Government Competencies and Research : Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei. : Beijing, P. R. China : Calcutta Municipal Corporation, India. : City of Denver, U.S.A. : City of Edmonton, Canada. : City of Vancouver, Canada. : Chiang Mai, Thailand. : Esfahan, Iran Fairfield City Council, Australia. : Fukuoka, Japan : Guilin Municipal Peoples Government, P. R. China. : Hangzhou, P. R. China Hong Kong : or Honolulu Council, U.S.A. : International City/Council Management Association (ICMA) : Ipoh City Online, Malaysia. : Kaohsiung, P. R. China. : Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal. : Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. : Kuching, Malaysia. : Osaka, Japan. : Pusan, South Korea Phuket City, Thailand. : Sandakan Municipal Council, Malaysia. : Santiago, Chile : Seoul, South Korea. : Shanghai, P. R. China. : or Singapore : Subang Jaya, Malaysia : Taipei : Vientiane, Laos : Yokohama, Japan : 88


1999 Best Practices Database : or to purchase the CD-Rom version contact the Together Foundation at: ADB Benchmarking Project : ALGIS The Australian Local Government Database : Alliance for Redesigning Government : It is a centre of a national network and clearinghouse for state, local and national innovators; nonprofit and corporate leaders; and scholars who advocate performance-based, result-driven governance. Asia Pacific City Forum (APCF) : An action partnership promoting business citizenship in Urban development. Asia Pacific Gender Equality Network (APGEN) : APGEN is an initiative of UNDP. Asia-Urbs Programme : Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (ACHR) : The site of a regional network of grassroots community organizations, NGOs and professionals actively involved with urban poor development processes in Asian cities. Asian Development Bank (ADB) : Asian Sustainable Development Online Programme of Murdoch University. : This site provides online programme opportunities for graduates in the Asian region to study the central issue of global, national and local sustainable development. Asian Women and Shelter Network (AWAS) : A Network founded by women who were part of the Habitat International Coalition (HIC) women and shelter network and the Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (ACHR) process. Asian Women Resource Exchange (AWORC) : Asiaweek Asian Best Cities Survey (annually) : Asset-Based Community Development Institute : Established at Northwestern Universitys Institute for Policy Research, AssetBased Community Development Institute has been the basis for the production of resources and tools for community builders, helping them identify, nurture and mobilize neighbourhood asset. The Australian Best Practice and Benchmarking Exchange for Local Government. : Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. : An Australian site relating to urban and housing research, policy and development. Beijing+5 : The Beijing+5 Homepage of the UNDP. Best Practices Database : This database contains over 650 proven solutions to the common social, economic and environmental problems of an urbanizing world. Best Practices and Local Leadership Programme of the UNCHS. : Building and Social Housing Foundation : Centre for Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE) : This is the website of a group affiliated with Habitat International Coalition (HIC). COHRE undertakes a variety of activities supporting the full realization of housing rights for everyone, everywhere. 89

Centre for Human Settlements, University of British Columbia. : This site contains information about the Centres research projects and a list of available publications. Centre for new Town development Studies, De Montfort University, United Kingdom. : The Change Project: Healthy Cities/Healthy Communities : Articles on building healthy cities and communities can be found here. The Citistates Group : The Citistates Group a network of journalists, speakers and consultants who believe that successful metropolitan regions are todays key to economic competitiveness and sustainable communities. City of Bits Online : This is William J. Mitchells (dean of the School of Architecture and Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) book City of Bits on-line. This site is not only important for planners but also relevant for the face of city due to the modern age of electronics and information. City Development Strategies Initiative (CDSI). : CDSI is a development practice that works with the authorities responsible for the major urban areas of Latin America, Africa and Asia. It has an online facility which allows case studies and examples of best practice be shared to achieve wide-scale global exposure. City Informatisation Initiative of UN-DESA and UNDP : A regional initiative to promote the usage of information communication technologies (ICT) at the city level to improve urban governance and management. CityNet : CityNet is a network promoting local urban improvement initiatives in the Asia Pacific region. Concept 5 : An exploration of Japan and the city of Tokyo- the architecture, culture, urban living, technology, observation. The Creative Town Initiative : The Cyber City Initiative. : This site looks at the ways we might best prepare a city (example given City of Grande Prairie, Canada) and its residents for the Information Age and how one can exploit information for economic and general benefits. It also contains information relevant for future planning. The Development Planning Unit (DPU) of London Strategic Environmental Planning and Management website. : List of various research information and discussion groups related to environment planning and management. Development Resource Centre, New Zealand. : The Dubai International Award for Best Practices in Improving the Living Environment (DIABP). : Eco Hab International (EHI). : EHI is a service corporation committed to promoting the organization, financing, planning, building and management of environmentally sustainable, affordable communities. Environment Australia : The site of the Department of Environment and Heritage, Australia. GalingPook Awards : This site features excellent and innovative practices of local government in the Phillippines. Gender in Development Programme of UNDP : 90

Global Integrated Village Environment (GIVE)

: A site of a project that studies the human habitat of the future, where telematics and information technology enable us to create smaller communities that feature more diversity, sustainability and open natural spaces. Global Urban Observatory Initiative of UNCHS (Habitat). : An initiative made up of the Urban Indicators Programme and the Best Practices and Local Leadership Programme. Government Performance Measures/Benchmarking This site is built into FinanceNet, the Internets home for public financial management workdwide. Governments on the World Wide Web. : Habitat Advice and Research Platform. : Habitat in Developing Countries : The site contains information on improving the habitat in developing countries including housing, architecture, urban design, building-infrastructures, planning, Habitat II, environment, and many more. Healthy Cities Programme of the World Health Organisation (WHO) : Human Settlements in Asia : The site of the Human Settlements Department (HSD) of the Asian Institute of technology (AIT). Information available from this iste includes statistics on 13 largest cities in Asia, new publications on Human Settlements in Asia with annotated bibliography, findings of research and publication of the HSD. Human Settlements Issues in Asia and the Pacific. : This site contains information on human settlements issues in Asia and the Pacific and on activities of the ESCAP/UNCHS Joint Section on Human Settlements. Human Settlements Programme of the Institute of Environment and Development (IIED). : IIED is an independent, international non-profit organisation which promotes sustainable patterns for Third World development with a particular focus in the rights and needs of the poor. The Institute has research programmes in a number of areas critical to sustainable development including human settlements, sustainable agriculture, forestry, dry lands, environmental economics, climate change and southern networks. Indigenous Knowledge Initiative. : The site of a World Bank program designed to preserve and exchange indigenous knowledge of development practices in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Innovations Group : A network of top cities and local government leaders that provides support services like research, training, publications, programmes and networking opportunities necessary to pioneer new approaches in managing cities. A learning organization and community on benchmarking and best practices. Institute of Government : This Institute which is based in the University of North Carolina, is the largest and most diversified university-based local government training, consulting and research organisation in the U.S.A. Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies (IHS) : IHS is one of the largest institutes in Europe specializing in housing, urban environmental management and urban management in Asia, Africa, Latin America, Central and Eastern Europe. Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF), University of Technology, Sydney. : ISF works with people and organizations to develop sustainable futures. In partnership with industry, government and the community, ISF applies its transdisciplinary expertise to reseach and develop training programmes. Institute for Sustainable and Development Policy (ITDP) :


Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy (ISTP), Murdoch University, Australia. : The Inter-Agency Benchmarking & Best Practices Council : The Councils vision is to serve as a resource for leveraging information and knowledge on benchmarking and best practices using the World Wide Web. International City/Country Management Association (ICMA) : ICMA is a professional and educational organization representing appointed managers and administrators in local governments throughout the world. International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) : ICLEI is an association of local governments dedicated to the prevention and solution of local, regional and global environment problems through local action. Approximately 300 cities, town. Counties and their associations from around the world are members of the council. International Healthy Cities Foundation : International Labour Office (ILO). : International Local Government Home Page. : http://world/ A Clearinghouse for information on local government and its organizations globally, with links to home pages around the world. International Society for City and Regional Planners (ISOCARP). : Includes information on ISOCARPs projects, membership, publications, events and links to other international planning resources. The International Union of Local Authorities (IULA) : Istanbul+5 : This is the home page of the Istanbul+5 Conference and all preparatory information and documents related to it. Library of Congress State and Local Government Websites : The Library of Congress Internet Resource page for state and local government websites. Local Government Institute : An independent, nonprofit organisation dedicated to improving the quality of local government. The Local Initiative Facility for Urban Environment (LIFE) programme of UNDP : The programme is part of a worldwide initiative by UNDP to promote local dialogues and practical action to improve the living condition in low-income urban communities. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. : A site of a non-profit educational institution that seeks to disseminate information on land and tax policy issues throughout the world through research, courses, conference, and publications. The site also as an on-line version of its Landlines Newsletter. Local Government Network : An on-line resource for city. Country and state government innovators. Localising Agenda 21 Initiative of UNCHS. : This is a programme that responds to Chapter 28 of Agenda 21, where local authorities are called upon to develop and implement a Local Agenda 21 with their communities. Micro-enterprise Unit of the Inter-American Development Bank. : The Municipal Forum : The largest collection of municipal government related information on the web, with direct links to over 2,700 official municipal sites in 26 countries. The National Community Building Network : The Network is an alliance of locally driven urban initiatives working to reduce poverty and create social and economic opportunity through comprehensive community-building strategies. 92

National League of Cities

: The National League of Cities is the largest and most representative organisation in the U.S.A. serving municipal governments. Through the League, mayors and city council members join together to establish unified policy positions, advocate these policies forcefully and share information that strengthens municipal government throughout the nation. News and Events related to Urban Governance, Sustainable Development, Best Practices. : OECD : One World-Virtual Gateway : A site that list the world of non-governmental organizations. PanAsia Site for Regional Networking. : Partner Cities Network : A site developed by the City Development Strategies Initiative (CDSI) which enables citis to list their website at the most comprehensive collection of local government websites available. Planning Schools. : The site of the Institute of Housing and Urban Development Studies in Rotterdam, Netherlands. Regional Studies Association (RSA) : Home Page of the RSA. Regional Studies Home Page at the University of Sussex : Research on Links between Crime and Neighbourhood Design and Urban Development. : Sister Cities International : Sister Cities International is the national membership organization for sister city, country and state programmes in the United States. As the premier citizen diplomacy network in the United States it leads the national movement for global community partnerships and volunteer action. State and Public Administration Reform (Conference). : The Society of Writers on the Environment and Development : Sustainable Cities Programme (SCP) of UNCHS. : SCP is a joint UNCHS/UNEP programme that works towards the development of a sustainable urban environment, building capacities in urban environmental planning and management, and promoting a broad-based participatory process. Sustainable Communities Network : http://www.sustainable .org This site offers information to help make communities more livable and to increase the visibility of successful community projects in the U.S.A> and other countries. It covers a wide range of issues related to community sustainability, including creating community, smart growth, growing a sustainable economy, protecting natural resources, and governance. The Sustainable Penang Initiative (SPI) : Sustainable Transport Action Network for Asia and the Pacific (SUSTRAN) : The site for the network that promotes and popularizes people centred, equitable and sustainable transport with a focus on Asia and the Pacific. U.S. Conference of Mayors : The U.S. Conference of Mayors is the official nonpartisan organisation of cities with populations of 30,000 or more. Conference of Mayors members speak with a united voice on matters pertaining to organizational policies and goals. Individually, each member-mayor contributes to development of national urban policy through service on one or more of the organisations 10 standing committees. United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS - Habitat) : 93

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) : United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO.) : UNESCO Cities for Peace Prize. : UNEP International Environmental Technology Centre. : A site that lists information on environmentally sound technologies to address urban environmental problems. United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM). : Urban Environment Forum of UNCHS : Urban Environmental Management Research Initiative (UEMRI). : Urban Futures. : Urban Indicators Programme of UNCHS(Habitat) : The Urban Governance Initiative (TUGI) : TUGI is a project of UNDP and is executed by the United Nations Office for Project services (UNOPS). Its major objective is to contribute to making cities in the Asia Pacific region more liveable through strengthening capacities, promoting good governance principles, and enhancing the tools available to urban administrators and decision makers. Urban Management Programme For Asia and the Pacific (UMP-Asia) : The site of a global technical cooperation Programme of the United Nations, executed by UNCHS (Habitat), with core funding from UNDP, and several bilateral agencies. UMP-Asia is working in 14 cities in the Asia Pacific region. Western New York Regional Information Network : An overview of some of the newest innovations in public service delivery. WomenAction : WomenAction is a global information, communication and media network that enables NGOs to actively engage in the Beijing review process with the long term goal of womens empowerment, and special focus on women and communications. The Women & Habitat Programme of UNCHS. : World Academy for Local Governance and Democracy (WALD). : World Bank Urban Development Home Page : World Bank Global Knowledge Partnership : World Directory Of Development Organizations :


City Development Strategies: The International Journal of Integrated Urban Development : The Urban Age Journal by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The World Bank : Urban Links the quarterly current awareness service of The Urban Governance Initiative (TUGI) :




by Sri Husnaini Sofjan


Bangalore, India Mumbai, India Chennai, India Jakarta, Indonesia Penang, Malaysia Cebu City, Philippines Metro Manila, Philippines Colombo, Sri Lanka Kandy, Sri Lanka Bangkok, Thailand


Shanghai, The Peoples Republic of China Bangalore, India Bandung, Indonesia Semarang, Indonesia Surabaya, Indonesia Kuantan, Malaysia Lahore, Pakistan Peshawar, Pakistan Cebu City, Philippines Colombo, Sri Lanka

Muscat, Oman Islamabad, Pakistan Waigani, Papua New Guinea Beijing, Peoples Republic of China Manila, Philippines Doha, Qatar Seoul, Republic of Korea Sanaa, Yemen Apia, Samoa Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Singapore Colombo, Sri Lanka Damascus, Syria Bangkok, Thailand Apia, Tokelau (Western Samoa) Nukualofa, Tonga Ankara, Turkey Funafuti, Tuvalu Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Port Vila, Vanuatu Hanoi, Viet Nam

Panzhihan Baishan Chengdu Guangzhou Tongchuan Chizhou Hefei Yiohang Jiaxing Huzhou Wuxi Yixing Hangzhuo Dafeng Qingdao INDIA Bangalore Bombay Delhi Madras Mysore Ahmedabad Belgaum Bhopal Panaji-Goa Vadodara Jhansi Orchha Hyderabad Chandigarh Khajuraho Nagpur Chikniakhali Shillong INDONESIA Bandung Jakarta Surabaya Tana Toraja Semarang Balikpapan Sukoharjo Wonosobo Saensuk City MALAYSIA Petaling Jaya Miri Kuantan Kerian PHILIPPINES Metro Manila Guimaras Iloilo City Boracay Island

CHINA Shanghai Zhangjiagang Beijing Hubei Guizhou Hebei Henan Shanxi Jiangxi Sichuan Shannxi Anhui Fujian Tianjin Liaoning Jiling Shandong Jiangsu Yunnan Zhejiang Giunangdong Chongging Ganslu Inter-Mongolian Autonomous Region Guanxi Xinjiang Benxi Changzhou Nanyang Shenyang Wuhan Dalian


Manama, Bahrain Dhaka, Bangladesh Thimphu, Bhutan Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Pyongyang, Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Suva, Fiji Territory of Hong Kong New Delhi, India Jakarta, Indonesia Iraq, Baghdad Iran, Tehran Amman, Jordan Safat, Kuwait Vientiane, Lao Peoples Democratic Republic Beirut, Lebanon Tripoli, Libya Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Male, Maldives Yangon, Myanmar Kathmandu, Nepal


Baguio City Dagupan City Cebu City San Jose del Monte Puerto Princessa City Naga City Mandaue City Tacloban City Zamboanga City General Santos City Ilo Ilo Bulacan Bohol Makati City Imus Municipality Batangus Mandaue Irosin Municipality Cavite Laguna Davao Lipa Tagbilaran Cagayan de Oro SRI LANKA Colombo Kandy THAILAND Bangkok Songkhla Lamphan Phayao Chieng Mai Nong Khai Samut Prakan Trad Paak Phanang Phuket Choubuti Pattaya Dhuket Hat Yai Udon Thani Chonburi City Lamphoon Pitsanulok Nakorn Ratchasima Khonkaen Nonthaburi Rayong Sri Racha Laemchabang Saensuk Thakam KOREA Kumi City

VIETNAM Ha Long City Haiphone Vinh City


Guntur, India Balikpapan, Indonesia Medan, Indonesia Kuantan, Malaysia Kuching South, Malaysia Penang, Malaysia Butwal, Nepal Lalitpur, Nepal Nepalgunj, Nepal Siddharthanagar, Nepal Kathmandu, Nepal Suva, Fiji Dalian, Peoples Republic of China Shenyang, Peoples Republic of China Olangapo, Philippines Pasig City, Philippines Colombo, Sri Lanka Kandy, Sri Lanka Danang City, Vietnam


Mominabad, Pakistan Gujranwala, Pakistan Karachi, Pakistan Islamabad, Pakistan Songkhla, Thailand Bangkok, Thailand Chiangmai, Thailand Dhaka, Bangladesh


Madras (Chennai), India Shenyang, China Wuhan, China Colombo, Sri Lanka Lipa, Philippines Tagbilaran, Philippines Cagayan de Oro, Philippines


Lalitpur Patan, Nepal Palembang, Indonesia Semarang, Indonesia Phuket, Thailand Phuentsholing, Bhutan Bangalore, India Surat, India Bangkok, Thailand Colombo, Sri Lanka Dhaka, Bangladesh Hanoi, Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Lahore, Pakistan Tianjin, P.R. of China Shenyang, P.R. of China Wuhan , P.R. of China


In 33 of 58 municipalities within Nepal

Bangkok, Thailand Songkhla, Thailand Nakorn Srithamarat, Thailand Nakorn Suwan, Thailand Nakorn Ratchasima, Thailand Hat Yai, Thailand Phuket, Thailand Chiang Mai, Thailand Surat Thani, Thailand Bangalore, India Mysore, India Bombay, India Karachi, Pakistan Rawalpindi, Pakistan Kuching, Malaysia Cebu, Philippines


AUSTRALIA Far North Queensland/Cairns Bundaburg Maryborough Caboolture Newcastle Canberra Illawara Shoalhaven Hawkesbury-Windsor Noarlunga

Unley Whyalla Wanneroo Stirling CAMBODIA Phnom Penh CHINA Beijing Shanghai Chongqing Haikou Baoding Dalian JAPAN Tokyo (and 96 others, but not specified) LAO PEOPLES DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC Vientiane MALAYSIA Johor Bahru Kuching Melaka MONGOLIA Ulaanbaatar Darkhan NEW ZEALAND Manukau Otago Nelson North Shore Wanganui Masterton Porirua Lower Hutt Gibson REPUBLIC OF KOREA Kwachun VIETNAM Haiphong Hue COOK ISLANDS Rarotonga FIJI Kadavu Island Ovalau Island Suva Sigatoka


INDONESIA Bandung Surabaya Banjarmasin Semarang Medan Jakarta IRAN Mashad Tehran NEPAL Biratnagar Bharatpur Kathmandu Pokhara PAKISTAN Lahore PHILIPPINES Davao Metro Manila Cebu SRI LANKA Colombo


BANGLADESH Tangail Chittagong Dhaka BRUNEI DARUSSALAM Bandar Seri Begawan CHINA Hefei Shanghai Foshan Zhangjiagang Qingdao Chengdu FIJI Suva INDIA Mysore Madras Lucknow Tumkur Varanasi Gulbarga Bombay Bhiwandi Bangalore, Hubli-Dharba Delhi

If you have any additional information, corrections or would like to add new cities to the above list, please contact: The Programme Manager, The Urban Governance Initiative (TUGI), c/o United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Wisma UN, Kompleks Pejabat Damansara (Block C), Jalan Dungun, Damansara Heights, 50490 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Tel: (603) 255 9122; Fax: (603) 253 2361; Email:; Website:



All men and women should have a voice in decision-making, either directly or through legitimate intermediate institutions that represent their interests. Such broad participation is built on freedom of association and speech, as well as capacities to participate constructively.

Rule of Law
Legal frameworks should be fair and enforced impartially, particularly the laws on human rights.

Transparency is built on the free flow of information. Processes, institutions and information are directly accessible to those concerned with them, and enough information is provided to understand and monitor them.

Institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders.

Consensus Orientation
Good governance mediates differing interests to reach a broad consensus on what is in the best interest of the group and, where possible, on policies and procedures.

All men and women have opportunities to improve or maintain their well-being.

Effectiveness & Efficiency

Processes and institutions produce results that meet needs while making the best use of resources.

Decision-makers in government, the private sector and civil society organisations are accountable to the public, as well as to institutional stakeholders. This accountability differs depending on the organisation and whether the decision is internal or external to an organisation.

Strategic Vision
Leaders and the public have a broad and long-term perspective on good governance and human development, along with a sense of what is needed for such development. There is also an understanding of the historical, cultural and social complexities in which that perspective is grounded.

Source: Governance for Sustainable Human Development, UNDP



TUGI is a project of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) executed by the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS). Its major objective is to contribute to making cities in the Asia Pacific Region more livable through strengthening capacities, promoting good governance principles, and enhancing the tools available to urban administrators and decision makers. It manages a current awareness service called Urban Links and an interactive network with key government, civil society and private sector groups working on habitat issues following the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements that was held in Istanbul, Turkey, in 1996. TUGI seeks to assist mayors, governors and other stakeholders in building the capacity of local governments to perform their tasks effectively. It will advance the five principles for livable and sustainable cities, i.e. social justice, ecological sustainability, political participation, economic productivity and cultural vibrancy. This Initiative is a response to the United Nations Development Programmes continuous commitment to work on urban issues, building upon its earlier investment and insights from the Urban Management Programme for Asia and the Pacific (UMPAP) and Asia Pacific 2000 (AP2000).

The Urban Governance Initiative (TUGI) c/o The United Nations Development Programme Wisma UN, Kompleks Pejabat Damansara (Block C) Jalan Dungun, Damansara Heights 50490 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Tel: (603) 255 9122 Fax: (603) 253 2361 E-mail: Website: