CCNA2 CHAPTER 11 ***OSPF*** ========== Summary OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is a classless, link-state routing protocol.

The current version of OSPF for IPv4 is OSPFv2 introduced in RFC 1247 and updated i n RFC 2328 by John Moy. In 1999, OSPFv3 for IPv6 was published in RFC 2740. OSPF has a default administrative distance of 110, and is denoted in the routing table with a route source code of O. OSPF is enabled with the router ospf proce ss-id global configuration command. The process-id is locally significant, which means that it does not have to match other OSPF routers in order to establish a djacencies with those neighbors. The network command used with OSPF has the same function as when used with other IGP routing protocols, but with slightly different syntax. Router(config-router)#network network-address wildcard-mask area area-id The wildcard-mask is the inverse of the subnet mask, and the area-id should be s et to 0. OSPF does not use a Transport layer protocol, as OSPF packets are sent directly over IP. The OSPF Hello packet is used by OSPF to establish neighbor adjacencies . By default, OSPF Hello packets are sent every 10 seconds on multiaccess and po int-to-point segments and every 30 seconds on non-broadcast multiaccess (NBMA) s egments (Frame Relay, X.25, ATM). The Dead interval is the period of time an OSP F router will wait before terminating adjacency with a neighbor. The Dead interv al is four times the Hello interval, by default. For multiaccess and point-to-po int segments, this period is 40 seconds. For NBMA networks, the Dead interval is 120 seconds. For routers to become adjacent, their Hello interval, Dead interval, network typ es and subnet masks must match. The show ip ospf neighbors command can be used t o verify OSPF adjacencies. The OSPF router ID is used to uniquely identify each router in the OSPF routing domain. Cisco routers derive the router ID based on three criteria and with the following precedence: 1. Use the IP address configured with the OSPF router-id command. 2. If the router-id is not configured, the router chooses highest IP address of any of its loopback interfaces. 3. If no loopback interfaces are configured, the router chooses highest active I P address of any of its physical interfaces. RFC 2328 does not specify which values should be used to determine the cost. Cis co IOS uses the cumulative bandwidths of the outgoing interfaces from the router to the destination network as the cost value. Multiaccess networks can create two challenges for OSPF regarding the flooding o f LSAs, including the creation of multiple adjacencies - one adjacency for every pair of routers, and extensive flooding of LSAs (Link-State Advertisements). OS PF elects a DR (Designated Router) to act as collection and distribution point f or LSAs sent and received in the multiaccess network. A BDR (Backup Designated R outer) is elected to take over the role of the DR should the DR fail. All other

default-information originate is used to propagate a static default route. A priority v alue of "0" means the router is ineligible to become the DR or BDR. ATM). All routers send their LSAs to the DR. "OSPF Router ID is the hightest Loopback address in the absence of the OSPF rout er-id command" What command can be used to verify or determine the bandwidth value of an interf ace used by the OSPF metric? ================================================================================ =========== "show interface" What command can be used to modify the OSPF cost of an interface without modifiy ing the bandwidth value of that interface? ================================================================================ ======= The interface command. which then floods the LSA to all other routers in the multiaccess network. and next-highest the BDR. and the router with the second highest router ID is the BDR.routers are known as DROthers. The router with the highest router ID is the DR. A default route is propagated in OSPF similar to that of RIP.25. By default. Summary Q&A ----------In the "router ospf" command. including the OSPF process ID. the router w ith the highest priority value is the DR. the ip ospf priority is "1" on all multiacce ss interfaces. unlike EIGRP the OSPF is is locally significant and does not need to match o ther OSPF routers. The show ip protocols command is used to verify important OSPF configuration inf ormation. does the process-id need to match on all routers? ============================================================================== No. the router ID and the networks the rout er is advertising. This can be superseded by the ip ospf priority com mand on that interface. "ip ospf cost" What is the default Hello interval on Ethernet networks and serial point-to-poin t networks? Waht is the default interval on NBMA networks? ================================================================================ ========== By default OSPF Hello packerts are sent every 10 seconds on multiaccess and poin t-to-point segments and every 30 seconds on non-broadcast multiaccess (NBMA) seg ments (Frame Relay. What values must match before two routers will form an OSPF adjacency? ======================================================================== Hello interval . X. If a router is configured with a new priority value. The OSPF router mo de command.

the highest Router ID is used to break the tie. how is the new DR determined? ================================================= The BDR becomes the new DR and an election takes place for a new BDR. What happens when a router witht he highest OSPF interface is added to a network which already has a DR and BDR? ================================================================================ ======= Nothing. Extensive flooding of LSAs (Link State Advertisments) How are the DR and BDR elected? ============================== DR is the router with the highest OSPF interface priority and the BDR has the se cond highest OSPF interface priority. If the OSPF interface priorities are equal . When the DR fails.Dead interval Network Type Subnety masks What problems does electing a DR and BDR solve? =============================================== Creation of multiple adjacencies. one adjacency for every pair of routers. What signigicance does an OSPF interface priority of 0 have? ============================================================ This router's interface is ineligible to become a DR or BDR. What command must be used to propagate a default using OSPF? =========================================================== The OSPF command "default-information originate QUIZ ---True regarding routing that use the link-state routing algorithm -----------------------------------------------------they are known collectively as SPF protocols they maintain a complex database of the network they are based on the Dijkstra algorithm creates and maintain neighbor adjacencies ---->>>hello packet triggered when a topology change has occurred ---->>>>LSA exchange description of an interace and its relationship to other routers ---->>>>sate of a link calculates the best path to each destination network . the DR and BDR only lose their role if the router or the multiaccess in terface fails.

what is used to determine the DR or BDR when par ticipating OSPF routes have identical interface priorities? ----------------------------------------------------the router ID Packet type invalid for OSPF ---------------------------LRU . what is the purpose of entering the "bandwidth 56" com mand on a serial interface? ------------------------------------------------------change the cost value What factors does Cisco's implementation of OSPF use to pick the best route ------------------------------------------------------bandwidth what command will allow a router to advertise default static routes via OSPF? ----------------------------------------------------default-information originate During an OSPF DR/BDR election.---->>>>SPF algorithm what reason would a network administrator have for using loopback interfaces whe n configuring OSPF ------------------------------------------------------Loopback as logical interfaces and do not go down the loopback address will be used as the router ID. ---------------------------------------------------point-to-point point-to-multipoint a network administrtor enters the "router ospf 100" command. overriding the local IP addr ess values In which of the following type of networks will OSPF designated routers not be e lected. what is the functio n of the number 100 in this command ------------------------------------------------------process ID On a router running OSPF.

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