RESOURCES FOR THE APPLICATION OF A CONSERVATION POLICY

Any policy for conservation, sation presupposes rying out of actions regulatory, financial, mental. These actions of articulating a broad technical,

adaptation approach cultural

and revitaliand the carand environindeconsists of a "pro-

The

restoration

of buildings

is not

the

automatic

at different

levels: institutional,

consequence of the conservation decision. In purely economic terms and for the owners, the conservation of a building is decided upon a simple equation: as long as the returns derived from the old building is less than that of a new construction demolition will be more attractive This same public immediate tourism, economic than conservation. is more in addition whether complex in the case of of and long

must not be performed The challenge a project. takes the shape

pendently from one another. them within In France this articulation

equation return

tection and revitalisation plan" (plan de sauvegarde et de mise en valeur) wherein the urban and architectural heritage and the organization and social life are of of in in dealt with as an asset from which the development the centers must be conceived. question and its adaptation The prime objective of the heritage and activities the plan is to ensure the usefulness to housing the knowledge that the protection auspices of urban management only to aesthetic concerns. To be effective the status providing at all levels, the protection development land plan, authority plan has thereby to presregulation, endeabuilall be and of an urban and

authorities:

to the parameters indirect

must be included quantifiable

term advantages, and political

or not, such as employment

trade, the choice of investments, parameters of management costs

issues ... One must also take into account such as the limior the use of an expenditure these in funds which entails the need for added

ting of urban sprawl infrastructure existing the construction for other national Let us recall exaggerated conservation an economic charge, profitable It becomes tion in direct impossible indirect through property

of cities is under the and cannot be limited

and operating sector,

asset so as to reduce thereby or local priorities.

freeing

here Bertrand

de Jouvenel's

purposely

it with the legitimate of various

cribe attributions the breakdown vor while it defines Depending operational upon and

use, traffic

statement in "Futuribles", saying that the of the Notre-Dame de Paris cathedral is nonesense since access thereto is free of and that

types of economic of ancient and

the protection provisions

its yearly upkeep costs are staggering office building. therefore to estimate benefits choice impossible economic beforehand to justify

dings and sets forth the rules for new construction. the objectives will financial instruments

on its site one could easily erect a 20 to 50 floor highly conservaor the and

brought to bear in the application urban development. The efficiency presupposes derations of the city. and lastingness comply

of restoration of these

and purely

terms just as it is the profits economic

resources consi-

and long-term the conservation

social, cultural, that can accrue of its heritage.

that above and beyond

heritage

management is a political the rationality

to a comunity Conservation depend upon

that the actions

with the primary functioning

needs of the inhabitants

and the proper

and as such cannot

of the economic

choice from the view-

Resources for the application

of a conservation policy

point of the property

owner or owners.

The regulatory

prohibition residential

of certain function

types of activities and thereby inhibit

such as comwith the its develop-

parameter is required to modify the simple law of the market to which individuals are submited. The objective of such a regulatory terms of the equation from the building zing the returns supposed The following parameter is to reverse the and to maximize the returns by minimiwhich adopted is in

merce or offices which enter into competition ment; the requisitioning facilities to be reserved development grounds, Nothing etc. short of su~h a set of regulations of a policy for the conservation of the historical the following and the development

of parking areas as collective for the residents, the reduction with low income and the such as schools, play-

which is to be conserved from the new construction are generally

of rental rates of occupants

of local amenities

to replace the old one. four measures such a choice:

order to put into practice 1. Banning the demolition importance This measure conservation

can ensure of urban center. recom-

of buildings
starting

with cultural point for any proviand plan which

the framing heritage

is the inalienable and depends

upon the regulatory to be conserved

Having made these observations, mendations can be submitted.

sions of the protection

and revitalisation

provides a list of the buildings bans their demolition. 2. Limitation This limitation seeks to control provisions

REGULATORY

MEASURES

of the rights to build
competition between
The framing of a protection and revitalisation plan

new and old in favour upon the regulatory

of the latter.

It is dependent

Starting with the heritage inventory, a plan of protection must be drawn up for the entire historical center providing a list of the buildings to be conserved, regulations accompanying those which the can be replaced and those which must be demolished. The the plan shall enumerate prescriptions for restoration and for new construction and shall also determine the right to construct, reserve the plots which are to remain free and designate (housing, offices, shops, vehicle access, etc.). The old buildings cannot be isolated land use

of the plan and it can

give rise to the prohibition

to build on all or a part of

a given parcel, to the limitation of built area and to the number of floors permitted as well as various provisions to establish a parity between the cost of restoration and that of a new construction. 3. Financial assistance and interventions in favour to owners, and of of putting assistance down

of restoration
There are various low interest low-cost to owners craftsmen renovation types of aid: subsidies rates to give a boost to renovation

from their new

context which must be regulated in keeping with the character of the buildings and quarters may be built: height, implantation, conserved. Thus, for new buildings, the plan determines the conditions of what footprint on the ground and architectural forms. The plan must be sufficiently restrictive so as to foster restoration. As is the case with all urban planning documents, tection and revitalisation plan is discriminating. the proIn the

high rates in the case of new constructions, buildings on the market, technical of restoration, materials in the process and supplying costs.

the training to bring

4. Improvement of the environment The demolition of buildings, the keeping of free space, the management of public spaces and urban facilities are all part of what makes housing and one's environment attractive. In virtue of the legal principle which states that "public easements do not entitle to an indemnity", be financed the demolitions by the owner imposed by the plan must

same way that other planning documents distinguish land which can be builted from land that cannot, decide the permissable the protection height of buildings depending upon the zone, plan, in so far as it pertains to an old urban

as is the case for all ease-

complex tissue, sets forth rules at the scale ofthe parcel in order to take into account the diversity of situations which it is called upon to conserve, correct or modify. on one on a on the Accordingly, the height or use pattern authorized adjacent parcel. Unvarying provisions

ments like alignment

and others as well. By respecting

this principle, the public authority can nonetheless choose to reduce the burden to the owner through aid if the owner's resources are limited or if the balance of the operation cannot shoulder the costs. These provisuch as the

parcel may be totally different from those authorized the entirety of the center are thus not appropriate diversified and complex urban fabric.

like F.S.I. to cover

sions can be completed

by other measures

Resources for the application

of a conservation policy

The protection tectural project

and revitalisation

plan is not an archibetween It sets stage". who

Introduction This concerns have secured

of enforcement concessional would

of obligation financing, failing

and thus makes a distinction

the obligation,

on the part of owners intervene and carry out

the "urban stage" and the "architectural forth the principle of conservation does not ennunciate the modalities is in fact the project pertaining ding that the scope specified. This distinction the project is a fundamental of the protection the information to maintain pertaining room

of the building but of its restoration. It builof

which the community the prescribed the concerned system buildings persons,

to each individual

works and recover the expenses from owners over a time frame. Such a works especially posing danger in to

and form of restoration between one. During

will be

is called for in prescribing in peril or degradation property and patrimony.

the two stages

the drafting which

plan it is not possible to dispose of all to all the buildings for adaptation Clarification of property titles The authorities must take necessary measures ownership sales registered is highly title when The of non-liquidated to titles enforce the clarification of property over time. Hence the necessity in setting and revitaof the procedure on the basis of wellconditions

will only be assembled certain forth the restoration delineated procedures.

and the obligation immediately. complex successions of property validation 4 years.

to have property

Thus the protection itself.

The jurisdiction raises requires problems that

of successions of property

lisation plan sets forth the "urban project" but not the project Introduction This permit concerns entire building up and especially of buildings protected jected

and thus the great number

filing for loans or subsidies. of a permit for demolition all buildings and not only the which make it for of to trade. In the case

During a sale the transfer a contract be drafted. from 3 to held pro-

as official title can take anywhere Moreover, the sale of individually

but also the elements those subjected

perty is subject

to a tax of 10% of its value. Whether

designated

in the plan, the permit refused. are considered The as a part grant

demolition is automatically by the plan, heritage archaeological

These buildings, by subof a should of injury

successions or simple transfer of property by sale it has often been seen that the transfer has not been reported to the administration. Thus property often remains in the name of a deceased head of household or former owner. Sanctions For sanctions to be effective committed. drastically they should Experience reduces or leniency be perceishows that

and as such cannot buildings

to any form

of commerce. no protected

permit to demolish to adjacent buildings.

also insist on a guarantee

of non-infliction

ved as being strict or perhaps Introduction of a declaration This declaration right to pre-empt that stipulated procedure provides preceding any sale with the to see This to the whereas respect of wilful refusing sanctions work offence and a right of preemption the local authority the property at the same price as after checking such an attitude

even disproportionate breach of laws climate from the best

weak sanctions non-compliance aid and subsidies

leads to lack of

for laws and also instils a competitive to contraveners, block

in the transaction

with the law. Apart

that it is conform in relation to similar properties. makes it possible to observe to purchase property and to control property

transactions, prices.

seem to be those which bring a stay on the which the use of proby the permit recommended

as well as those observed.

perty until the measures Increasing stringency of the building permit This document certificate must set forth the provisions and comformity. property. of restoby a
FINANCIAL

are structly

ration or of new construction of completion upon receiving this certificate rent out or sell the immovable necessary to expand as to encompass add-ons,

and be followed

It is only

AND TAXATION MEASURES

that the owner may use, Likewise it is permits so The essence or any ficiary renders Direct subsidies to owners of any subsidy the required is that, in return, services The rate of subsidy the benegranted

the scope of building transformations

which, in the pre-

change in the use of a building.

sent case, is restoration.

Resources for the application

of a conservation policy

should be proportionate to the owner's ther functional vary according encourage be granted, Subsidies granted. The subsidies This subsidy work though

to the restoration

carried

out,

as needed

to accommodate

the repayment

capacity of

resources and also to public use, wheor conservational. Subsidies can also to the value of the building restoration. granted upon bridging in order to to of

the applicants. number

The community fund in order

can plan for the creato help a maximum

tion of a subsidy as required

of such owners

who do not have the margin sector.

priority-based are usually

For subsidies to stipulations. completion

by the banking

the work must conform in the meantime

Low interest rate loans for restoration Loans with an interest owners. The interest regulations rebate subsidy are an incentive can be based to the

loans may be are as follows: of protected

upon the

which can be envisaged is granted

current

for HUDCO Bank lending.

Direct municipal subsidy to owners to the owners The initial loan In the agreement Municipal is provided between HUDCO and Ahmadabad financing approach rate, buildings who occupy their house or in certain conditions to those who let out their house. The source of financing • Subsidies perty: Grant aggregate works. • Subsidies is the restoration paid to owners conditions fund which is fed from the who occupy depend their upon prothe

Corporation

a specific

for. Possible terms follow: by HUDCO of the initial interest

"repair cess" levied on recent and vacant buildings. should

The determining

irrespectively of the amount borrowed at the minimum current interest rate; the 11.5% rate must be reduced. Take into account, capacity, even though in the calculation of debt carrying the income of all families living in the home price of the house in the case of loan of 15 years without increa-

income of the entire family with a ceiling on paid to owners who let out their property:

they are not title holders.

The subsidy should be granted at a single rate, e.g. 20% and increased to 40% of the total cost of works if the owner agrees to rent at a rate below market. Subsidies for works of architectural value The subsidies from the Gudjarat department of

• Include the purchase a "purchase-restoration"

• Extend loans to a period sing interest • Exemption • Determine rate

archaeology the buildings

could be increased earmarked

to 50% of the prescrian incentive to restore Financing fund and

from entry rights and initiation fees the total annual amount of restoration permitting the reduction of interfor the

bed work in order to provide must be secured

loans to be granted ests through

for conservation.

a subsidy

and set the conditions

from the archaeological

other partners in the field of international projects. Subsidies for the renovation of water tanks Water supply and connection to the sewage system constitute a hindrance to restoration. The renovation of water tanks and the connection tions must also receive appropriate can be obtained jointly private partners. Loans at special rates and conditions for restoration work It is the "scissor effect", in other words the spread ween rates applied, which produces the betdesired with the European of sanitary funding. installaSubsidies run Bank or

granting of this funding. The interest rebate Interest priority houses subsidy permit rebate should be designed owners so as to incite on a their houses whose A 50% would for the fund of owners

basis occupant

to restore

and also to give incentives applied lending

to renting

are vacant, to preserve

their patrimony. of 500,000Rs

to a loan ceiling

within the framework

of projects

at 5.75%. Subsidy source would be the through an Asia Urbs

Union, the World

"Restoration project

fund". Up front subsidy financing

first two years could be secured with the European for the subsidies

Union. A 10,000,000Rs

would be enough

for the financing

360 loans per annum. Taxing of recent buildings and vacant housing As in Bombay, residential and a restoration commercial buildings. rate. tax should buildings be levied on less than 25 with vary

effects. The greater the spread the greater the stimulus to restoration. The difference can be obtained either through an adjustment introduced by the consortium sub-

years old and vacant the net rental the current letting

The tax base could be in compliance rates would

of banks dealing sidy on lending.

with the old city or an interest

value as calculated Taxation

The term of the loan must be as long

Resources for the opplication

of a conservation policy

\

according

to the category

of the building,

e.g. 10% of

market

and

other

financial

parameters.

This would to maintain of the

the rental value for property and for buildings months the tax would would

less than 25 years of age 30% the first "Restoration (net

also mean exemption in the rented property

from the obligation

vacant for more that 12 consecutive be progressive: be paid amount into the

the heirs or beneficiaries

year, 40% the second year and 50% the third year. The tax proceeds average perties property fund". The average of 250Rs per annum

lessee. The yearly rental increase inflation or to another relevant avoid abuse it would be advisable tion of a written of protection lease contract concerning

could be indexed to economic index. To to keep the obligathe duration of

and to apply the rules advance notice inclu-

rental value of 2,500Rs) levied on 100,000 prowould yield 25,000,000Rs. is estimated The tax on vacant and when at 750Rs per annum funds would

of the lessee throughout

the lease especially

ding in the event of the sale of the property.
The rehabilitation lease

levied on 3,000 housing yield 2,250,000Rs. These

units (5% of the total) would allow for the via The leasing of houses in exchange rental for financing the over of this or

financing of roughly 500 restorations per annum direct subsidies and subsidized interest loans.

work and for a token time, is practiced practice of be of would

fee, or progressive The extension to create

in Ahmadabad. make it possible

Exemption of land tax for restored old buildings

social houHousing

The exemption restoration continue

of land tax on restored

buildings

for a

sing via organizations

such as Gudjarati

period of fifteen years from the time of completion work is a strong incentive. to apply to other buildings and could

Land tax should

NGO's with the return of the rehabilitated property to the owner at the end of the lease. In this case the leaseholder-organization subsidies would benefit lessors. from the same

adjusted in conformance letting rate as stipulated the age and status compensate

with all the tax bases with the in texts of law regardless This could partly

and loans as private

of the building.

Constitution of a land and property stock

the loss of tax income due to exemptions.
Tax benefits

This is a public land policy the purpose acqire buildings put low cost buildings on the market.

of which is to This property public for the it

and plots of land so as to be able to to building organizations,

Owner-lessors deducting their interest rental

have income.

at present incurred Owner

the

possibility can

of from

could be transfered or private exemplary potential whose social demands

expenses

on their property occupants

deduct owners from

role it is to restore buildings and heritage reasons. Given of the community to transfer in this regard the property

paid on loans from their taxable can be strengthened of their taxable

income. This

mechanism the totality

by permitting

would be justified

for a symor in the

to deduct the cost of work with no limit specified income. would incite wealthy owners This tax benefit measures calculation

bolic sum in exchange form of a loan against

for full ownership an obligation

Such a measure

to perform.

to carry out major work. to an authorization The
Framing of an Asia-Urbs projet with the European Union

would be subject

by the State which levies the taxes and to strict control regarding the work performed. buildings from the base of The exclusion also be a strong of restored incentive. European

"Asia-Urbs"

projects

were

introduced pertain actions

by the of

Union and are set up upon the request These projects and urban planning conservation and the fight

of taxes on wealth for 10 or 15 years would

local governments. of development the environment,

to all types including restoraThe of the transports,

and building against

Exemption from measures of the Rent Act of 1995 for restored buildings

tion, water supply and waste management, public as utilities European projects Union provides over a period

pollution.

Restored

buildings

must be given the same status

65% of the financing

new buildings

in so far as for 15 years following

com-

of two years up to a ceiling of

pletion of works they are out of the field of application of the law. This means that the rent rate would be set by agreement accordance with the possibility with the economic of modulating parameters it in of the

19,300,000Rs. mum amount project European

As for heritage restoration the maxiavailable would be 3,860,000Rs. Such a Ahmadabad and two

would have to associate cities.

Resources for the opplication

of a conservation policy

Training crafstmen as well as financing of material Craft industries ditional materials In Europe restoration construction. autority could artisans. adopts create are often penalized replacements. for every two men employed is only one needed seems that if the in for new public it for by the loss of traknow-how or suitable whereas and the high cost of traditional

depend

solely

upon

the picturesque

character

of a

town teeming with market bustle on the roads. Sooner inhabitants trends themselves and want to see improvements seen internationally. monuments linked the leading

and upon the hustle and or later both visitors and more demanding of which keep pace with Thus the enhancement to the restoration

will become

work there It therefore

and sites of the city appears of the

a long-term

policy of restoration, jobs them becomes

local as well as long-lasting

to be inseparably houses. • The restoration Serail provide

The money spent on training

of the Bhadra of their

fort and Azam Khan's surroundings would

negligible if compared to the benefits reaped from it. As for raw materials, an adjustment in the sale price in accordance change guarantee agreement with bulk purchase of such goods and materials. can also The aid the economics between of the transaction building

and the clearing Ahmadabad

with an incomparable

set of buil-

dings to playa

major urban role.

the use of quality material

• The development of the Ma'idan-i-Shah which could become the center of attraction and prestige of the city. • The highlighting tombs dour. would return of the Jumma Masjid and the royal

Hudco and A.M.C. stipulates cooperative.

for a building

these great works to their splenof the remaining

ENVIRONMENTAL

MEASURES

• The clearing

and the restoration

rem parts as well as the creation Public amenities in the pols It is important to enhance the image of the pols in the eyes of the inhabitants and to regulate their use so as to conserve the residential life there, to restore and enhance comprehensive enhancement fashion tural fragile. wells, both the facilities and far-reaching is to be achieved, unity and which poles, paving and housing in the in a

and the layout of the

boulevards can identify the old city in the urban area which surrounds it. • An alternative proj ect for the banks of the Sabarmati river has to be established to reconcile the city with its river by keeping motor vehicles at a distance.

pols. These are measures

that must be included

urban policy where not in a piecemeal having strucare and consequently water must tanks density.

Control of Traffic The re-routing of traffic, the building of car parks at

but on the basis of ensembles Doors, temples bird feeders and street

and social

the periphery of the walled city to provide traffic relief to the historical center, to reduce pollution and to set aside wide areas for pedestrians indispensable. At present routing reducing we see that a number the amount of cities have begun centers and traffic away from their historical and shops are already

be restored

and some plots must be cleared

to reduce

Highlighting the major monuments of the walled city The demolition the amputation as the handling Sabarmati of the ramparts, of its corner the neglect of the town's central axis, the disfiguring Ellis bridge, the occupation of Bhadra fort with haveli as well of the

of space alloted to cars for, even to improve when comof vehicles wheEurope

at very high costs, the efforts dedicated traffic circulation can only be insignificant pared to increasing increases cal centers demands. The number in western by 2% per annum can

tower in order to enlarge of Gayakwar for the banks

of the project

reas the space that can be devoted only be increased Thus we realize that it is impossible

to them in historivery marginally. to wed a stable

river all seem puzzling

given the autoritie's

desire to glorify and render more attractive. The renovation indeed of ordinary this becomes

the town and its heritage heritage houses alone, if for the

mass, i.e. the space in the center, with a mass underis not enough going constant growth, i.e. that required by the increase in the number of cars. Massive investment and works to solve the problem will not stop the problem at a given point in time its ugly head a losing from rearing

a reality,

highlighting of the city. Moreover, whatever be the distinctive cultural assets of India as compared to other countries, long-term attractiveness cannot

again very soon. Thus one would be fighting

Resources for the application of a conservation policy

battle if seriously trying to satisfy the needs of motor vehicle traffic in historical centers especially in so far, as in Ahmadabad, the growth in the number of vehicles will quicken substantially, given the low current level of vehicle ownership. This situation has led cities such as Rome to prohibit the access of vehicles of non-residents to fully one-half the area of the city center, i.e. an area of 700 hectares. The city of Riga, Latvia has prohibited cars from the city center, acting swiftly before their limited numbers increase. In Barcelona the viaducts that formerly crossed the city have been torn down and public transport has been substituted for cars. Cities in France are demolishing central car parks to keep cars at a distance and others in Germany are prohibiting the building of parkings in office and commercial buildings to avoid attracting cars. It would be in the interest of the city of Ahmadabad to draw inspiration from these examples, stop cutting new roads and shut down motor vehicle traffic in its historical center, introducing a system of entrances and exits which do not cross the center as recommended by the "Walled city revitalisation plan".

ponsibility of the State which, in conjunction with the local authorities and scientific and professional entities will establish, approve and enforce the document appropriating the necessary resources. Management authorities of the protection and revitalisation plan The local autority cannot by itself take on the responsibility of implementing the conservation plan, managing its provisions, its fil1ancial and operational benefits. Thus tax deductions are granted by the State and its competent bodies. Not only are there far too many actors on the scene, but concerned services are also far too many. For this purpose the management of the plan needs a commission presided over by a representative of the State which can bring under its wing different authorities - territorial, technical, professional, financial... - and assess the programmes and projects, free from any direct pressures and constraints. In fact the aforesaid commission may even envisage an advance action plan in anticipation of its eventual completion and assess the operations involved in each case so that the results are not unduly delayed. Finally, agents from outside the municipality could also act in the name of the above commission and monitor the plan on a daily basis. This does not however mean abandoning the town, its elected body and its administration but rather supporting it. Such a joint management, backed by the State and working in accordance with the local authorities, can free them from the contradictions which they have to face on a daily basis. Similar management measures by the State have been taken up in six other cities like Goa, Hyderabad and Chandigarh. They provide us with sound examples to follow. A "(enter for housing and heritage" There must be a certain unity in the design and administration, in the drafting and enforcement of the plan. Likewise the resident, the user, the homeowner and investor must all be presented with one single authority whose responsibility it is to inform, to assist and to provide access to available resources while at the same time the regulatory provisions are being enforced upon them. The best approach appears to be a "Center for housing and heritage" comprising one single entry point, an administrative, technical and financial counter. Amongst others, its roles would be as follows:

INSTITUTIONAL

MEASURES

Authority in charge of framing the protection and revitalisation plan It is not a mere coincidence that in most of the countries which have an urban conservation policy, protection plans are framed and approved by supra-local authorities, indeed by the State itself. We know only too well how far the provisions of a conservation plan conflict with the individual interests and are a constraint when they are either being drawn up or being enforced for the first time. It is only later on, when the positive effects, -effects which flatter and enhance the value of the city and its buildings-, that the owners begin to appreciate it and consider restoration as a desirable value addition to their properties. If we consider that urban heritage is a national interest and that local autorities are its guardians, then the State must bear its responsibility by declaring that the historical center of Ahmadabad is of national interest and conserve it with a protection and revitalisation plan placed under its own authority. It is hereby propose that the protection and revitalisation plan of Ahmadabad must be placed under the res-

Resources for the application

of a conservation policy

• Raising awareness: help inhabitants to discover their own city through exhibitions, visits, games, films and festivals. Such activities meant to sensitize and awaken inhabitants must not be under-estimated. They can trigger a groundswell of opinion with important results over the long term. • Information: inform applicants as to their duties, rights and the financial, administrative and technical means'at their service. • Assistance: help applicants prepare their administrative forms for financial assistance; help them with the design of their project, to estimate the cost, with the technical end of things, with the choice of craftsmen and with legal considerations, all precious assistance. Help the municipality in evaluating the declarations which precede sales, with building and project authorizations. This center provides a direct link between the administration and the situation on the ground. The applicant must have one point of entry, one contact person so as not to get lost in the meanders of administration. This contact person must come across as a public servant and not a censor. However, this unified organization must not be the entity responsible for the regulatory or financial decision which must be entrusted to the aforementioned commission due to the necessity that the decision-making body must be able to act in total serenity, free from immediate confrontation with the public. Likewise, the bodies responsible for sanctions must be separate from those entities responsible for information and assistance. It is also important for this center of housing and heritage to be located within the quarters concerned in a perfectly-restored old house .

viable and financially affordable, or will the laissezfaire simply continue worsening the state of the old town so much as to make it trivial? If this happens, it will not even be able to make use of its heritage which will have suffered the dual onslaught of physical deterioration and market pressure.


Supposing that those recommendations are relevant, they may appear to be excessive with regard to the current situation and available resources. But if not implemented immediately they will turn out to be insufficient. With every day that goes by, things become more difficult, either because the state of the houses and neighbourhoods worsens or because the economical pressure has pushed things into a stalemate. Ahmadabad is today standing very close to a point of no return. Will it be able to save and valorize its heritage which is in a situation still technically

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