Embryology: Lecture 1 – Intro to Embryology Development of the embryo occurs in three main stages: 1.

early development: fertilization to week 3 2. embryonic period: week 3-8 3. fetal period: week 8 – parturition Early development: Fertilization -> implantation -> proliferation of cells -> gastrulation -> formation of the placenta -> body axes Embryonic Period: Organogenesis and body part formation – most organs and body parts VERY susceptible during this time. Beginning = flat disc, End = looks like a person Fetal Period: Rapid growth, both in length (uniform growth) and weight (non-uniform). Tissues and organs LESS susceptible to injury from teratogens, chemicals, etc. BEEPT G – still very susceptible (brain, eyes, ears, palate, teeth, and ext. genitalia) Congenital Anomalies vs. Anatomical Variation - CA = abnormalities of development that are present at birth, detected inadvertently during life, or not detected until death and autopsy. - AV = fairly common anatomical discrepancies between members of the same species Clinically significant CA: - Malformations = occur during organogenesis in embryonic period; result = abnormal structure - Disruptions = result from ext. influences that cause alteration of already formed structures. - Deformations = abnormal form result from mech. Forces - Dysplasia = abnormal organization of cells into tissue Cell Cycle – series of events by which all living things propogate VERY IMPORTANT that things happen when they should, usually happens rapidly. Under TIGHT CONTROL (highly regulated) – monitors environment to be sure it is adequate for progeny Parts of cell cycle: G1 = “gap” phase of the cell cycle, gets bigger, grows up, series of checkpoints S = period of DNA synthesis G2 = b/n DNA synth and mitosis, safety gap to ensure correct replication and cell size. Organelles replicatied. G0 = non-grow, arrested in development – muscle cells and neurons are usually stuck in G0. Mitosis. Result = two identical cells, same chromosome and content as parent Each parent has 22 autosomal pairs of chromosomes and one pair sex chromosomes. (XX, XY, 46) normal somatic cell = 2n, germ cell = 1n 4 main phases: - Prophase = chromosomes condense and each has two strands (chromatids), nucleolus disappears, replication of the centrioles and disintegration of nuclear envelope - Metaphase – microtubules organize into the mitotic spindle, chromosomes line up. - Anaphase = chromosomes pulled apart - Telophase = nucleus reforms around the chromosomes, chromosomes uncoil, cytoplasm divides forming two cells Meiosis Sequence of two cell divisions that results in the formation of 4 cells that have ½ the DNA of the parent cell and different genetic Limited to gamete forming cells. IMPORTANT PARTS of meiosis - Pachytene – crossing over event, exchange of genetic material – unique genetic combos. - Metaphase I – alignment of maternal and paternal chromosomes RANDOMLY. - Meiosis II – similar to mitosis, however end result is cells that are 1n

Meiosis differs in males and females: Males = 4 speratid Female = 1 viable ovum and 3 polar bodies (cell divisions are unequal-all E into one great cell with others being g. .scrap) *PROPHASE I of Meiosis results in daughter cells that are genetically different that the parent cell.

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