INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE

COMPROMIS
BETWEEN THE STATE OF MARKANDA (APPLICANT) AND THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF LOBORDO (RESPONDENT) TO SUBMIT TO THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE STATES CONCERNING THE SITUATION IN LOBORDO
Jointly notified to the Court on 27 June, 2011

COUR INTERNATIONALE DE JUSTICE

COMPROMIS
ENTRE L’ÉTAT D’MARKANDA (DEMANDEUR) ET L’ÉTAT DE LOBORDO (DÉFENDEUR) VISANT À SOUMETTRE À LA COUR INTERNATIONALE DE JUSTICE LES DIFFÉRENDS QUI OPPOSENT LES DEUX ÉTATS CONCERNANT LA SITUATION EN LOBORDO
notifié conjointement à la Cour le 27 June, 2011

1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12

st

JOINT NOTIFICATION ADDRESSED TO THE REGISTRAR OF THE COURT:

The Hague, 27 June, 2011

On behalf of the State of Markanda ("the Applicant") and the People‟s Republic of Lobordo ("the Respondent"), in accordance with Article 40(1) of the Statute of the International Court of Justice, we have the honour to transmit to you an original of the Compromis for submission to the International Court of Justice of the Differences between the Applicant and the Respondent concerning the situation in Lobordo, signed in Bungtak island, on the Twenty Seventh day of June in the year Two Thousand and eleven.

Ambassador of the State of Markanda

Ambassador of the People‟s Republic of Lobordo

1|Page

Considering that differences have arisen between them concerning the legality of Unilateral Declaration of Independence by Lobordo and other matters.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st COMPROMIS SUBMITTED TO THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE BY THE STATE OF MARKANDA AND THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF LOBORDO ON THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THEM CONCERNING THE SITUATION IN LOBORDO The State of Markanda and the People‟s Republic of Lobordo. Desiring further to define the issues to be submitted to the International Court of Justice (hereinafter referred to as "the Court") for settling this dispute. In furtherance thereof the Parties have concluded the following Compromis: Article 1 The Parties submit the questions contained in the Compromis (together with Clarifications to follow) to the Court pursuant to Article 40(1) of the Statute of the Court. 2|Page st . (b) Article 4 (a) All questions of procedure and rules shall be regulated in accordance with the provisions of the Official Rules of the 1 RLC International Moot Court Competition. The Court is also requested to determine the legal consequences. including the rights and obligations of the Parties. arising from its Judgment on the questions presented in the Case. Article 3 (a) The Court is requested to decide the Case on the basis of the rules and principles of general international law. Recognizing that the Parties concerned have been unable to settle these differences by negotiation. as well as any applicable treaties. but such agreement is without prejudice to any question of the burden of proof. Article 2 It is agreed by the Parties that the State of Markanda shall act as Applicant and the People‟s Republic of Lobordo as Respondent.

Ambassador of the State of Markanda Ambassador of the People‟s Republic of Lobordo 3|Page . the Parties shall enter into negotiations on the modalities for its execution. this Twenty Seventh day of June in the year Two Thousand and Eleven. Immediately after the transmission of any Judgment. in triplicate in the English language. Done in The Bungtak Island. have signed the present Compromis and have affixed thereto their respective seals of office. Article 5 (a) The Parties shall accept any Judgment of the Court as final and binding upon them and shall execute it in its entirety and in good faith.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st (b) The Parties request the Court to order that the written proceedings should consist of Memorials presented by each of the Parties not later than the date set forth in the Official Schedule of the st 1 RLC International Moot Court Competition. the undersigned. being duly authorized. (b) In witness whereof. Pacific.

Though skirmishes between the state forces of Markanda and several Lobres militia groups continued. northern border with Botokia. 3. Thereafter Lobordo was under the military occupation of the State of Markanda. Lobordo shares its eastern border with Markanda. who took shelter in the state of Botokia. the people of Lobres ethnicity remained silent. after which a war broke between Markanda and Lobordo. Markanda and Lobordo are two countries colonized by the Kingdom of Myantra for about 500 years. 2. In 1972 Markanda became a member of United Nation and the world body officially recognized Lobordo as a part of Markanda. which forced Dictator. 4. In 1965 Markanda became a member of MANSA a regional organization promoting peace among the members. the Government of Markanda Declared that Lobordo was a part of their territory. which put an end to the dictatorship. General Saheila in the exile. In the year 1955.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st THE 2011 RLC INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION COMPROMIS THE STATE OF MARKANDA v. The dictator. The new state of Markanda is the 4| P a g e . western border with Myantra. The world community condemned the acts of Markanda. Myantra and Botokia along with 22 other states were members of MANSA. Botokia had the largest population of Lobres in the world. General Saheila ruled Lobordo for 20 years. which were finally decolonized by Myantra in the year 1922. THE PEOPLES‟REPUBIC OF LOBORDO CASE CONCERNING THE SITUATION IN LOBORDO 1. and Lobordo Sea to its south. In 1924 a civil war broke out in Lobordo and the regime was overthrown by a military dictator who took control of the country of Lobordo. and it also ignited a political debate about the status of the declaration of Lobordo as a part of Markanda.

The Lobres community had general resentment towards the Government. The Lobres population were the poorest and illiteracy rate among them was very high. following which on 15 th May. At the same time. They submitted a draft memorandum to the Government of Markanda and they met the president of Markanda who belonged to the Lobres Ethnic Community. 6. Many Makrus also inhabited the Lobordo region as they owned most of the Business Establishments and other oil related trade in the region. Lobordo is a small region however majority of the oil fields are located in the region of former Lobordo. The Lobres are of the former State of Lobordo who are a minority and occupied the western parts of Markanda. It has been observed that the government would give a preference to the Makrus ethnic community in matters of employment and education. 8. 5. The geophysicists submitted a report that estimated about 60 per cent of the oil reserves in the region 5|Page . This unofficial state policy has upset many from the Lobres community and a feeling of resentment began to occupy their thoughts as they felt that the Government of Markanda was doing nothing to uplift them from poverty and that there was no development activities in the Lobordo Region. 1989. and their economy was built on export of Oil to western countries.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st 8 th largest country in the world and 3 rd largest producer of oil. a Lobres National Council was set up which as a non-political entity comprising of members of the Lobres civil society. the Government of Markanda had employed petroleum geophysicists to explore any additional oil deposits in Lobordo region. 7. where they were assured that there would be enquiry into the matter and plans would be made for the region‟s economic growth and development. Markanda is home to two major ethnic communities the Makrus and the Lobres. The Lobres ethnic community has been feeling alienated by the Government of Markanda which comprises mainly of the Makrus ethnic community. Out of the 540 members of the Markanda National Assembly only 25 of them were from Lobres Ethnic community.

the administrative capital of Lobordo.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st remained unexplored. “„Project Explore‟”. which envisaged large scale drilling and exploration of the oil reserves in the Lobordo region. However. Media reports estimated that the potential oil reserves in Lobordo region were so huge that its exploration could make Markanda the largest Oil Producer in the world. 1989 the Government of Markanda formally announced. They also stated that the since Lobres ethnic community had been residing in the Region of Lobordo for many centuries. a NGO report stated that the land was known for its inclement climatic condition and also falls within the Seismic zone which is highly prone to Earthquakes. It was also estimated that the supply of oil from these reserves would substantially reduce the price of crude oil in the international market. On the 13 of July 1989 as teams of petroleum geophysicists began to arrive in the city of Laizon. Based on the report Markanda sought help of many experts from different countries to be a part of the project. also a notice of eviction was served to the residents of this province. an official notification was released by the Parliament of Markanda regarding the details of the „Project Explore‟. The Lobres Ethnic Community refused to evict the Lobordo region and declared that „Project Explore‟ is an attempt to displace the Lobres Ethnic community by destroying their culture and tradition and rehabilitate them to the northern part which falls within the Seismic zone and thus was a direct attempt by the Government of Markanda to exterminate the minority Lobres ethnicity. th 10. they had a feeling of attachment as most of the symbols of their rich cultural heritage and Holy shrines and temples were located in the region. which also had details of the region where dispersed civilians were to be rehabilitated and huge compensation and several other benefits would be provided. On the 5 of July 1989. On 27 th June. th 11. Unprecedented and sporadic violence 6| P a g e . a huge protest was organized at the Memorial Centre by the Lobres community. The Government of Markanda built a massive township for rehabilitation in the northern part of the country. 9.

His decision was followed by a huge protest by the Makrus citizen calling for his resignation. MANSA passed a resolution M Res 1195 which pressed the state of Markanda to cease any form of hostilities against the people of the Lobres community.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st erupted and several clashes began between the soldiers of Markanda National Army and the protestors. and called up to consider granting autonomy as a possible situation and to negotiate the terms with province of Lobordo. 7| P a g e . On 15 July 1989 the President vetoed against the Project and in his address to the nation announced that ‟PROJECT EXPLORE´ had been postponed indefinitely. This upset the Markus population and the decision of the president was viewed as biased. due to his ethnic parentage. The Majority of the cabinet comprising of the Makrus Ethnic community were in favour of the Project and voted in its favour. Out of the total 21 votes. In order to resolve the situation and to promote peace. an emergency meeting was convened by the member nations of the regional organization MANSA to deliberate over these recent events. In the evening several Press and media reports stated that 30 protestors were killed and 300 were wounded including women and children. Thereafter. He was proclaimed as a hero by the Makrus community and the funeral was attended by thousands of the Makrus population. 17 votes were for the Project and 4 were against it. Later in the evening the President convened an emergency meeting of the Cabinet Ministers and expressed his concerns and desire to postpone the project and it was put to a vote. th th 13. On 14 July 1989 the President took stock of the situation and condemned the act of brutality by the Markanda National Army and in his address to the Nation his Excellency said “I deeply mourn the death of my fellow citizens and the act of brutality by the Markanda National Army was unacceptable”. 12. On the 18 th July 1989 the President of Markanda was assassinated by unknown person in a suicide bomb attack and later the assassin was identified to be Sakhousi Palli from Makrus Ethnic group. The result of decision was welcomed and celebrated among the Markus population. The dissenting votes were by the Cabinet ministers from the Lobres Community.

On the night of 20 July 1989 people belonging to Makrus ethnic group who were residing in Lobordo around the oil fields were evacuated by the `Markanda National Army‟. an emergency meeting was convened by the UN Security Council to resolve the matter and to cease condemned acts of General Kosthov. chief of the Markanda National Army proclaimed himself to be a dictator and suspended the Parliament. Within a few hours there was a military coup and General Kosthov. Meanwhile on the 18 th of July 1989. In yet another Resolution passed by the General Assembly. There was exchange of gun fire between the LRF and the Markanda National Army. The peace-keeping forces 8| P a g e . Also many civilians were reported to have died and thousands remained missing. After much pressure from UN and various international organizations including the MANSA. They mainly took control of the city of Gallypoli. At around 10:00 am the Lobres community sang patriotic songs and courted arrest as they gathered in and around the Memorial centre. the main city of Lobordo where the maximum Lobres community resided. 17. As the 48 hours deadline was approaching. Following this. the community leaders of the Lobres appealed to the International Community to intervene and save them from the threat of persecution and extermination by the Markanda National Army. st th 15. In the wee hours of 21 July 1989. 16. he decided to abide by RES 1777 and GA RES 1/78 to end hostilities and suspend Air Strike and also to recognize Lobordo autonomy. following which UN SC RES 1777 was passed recalling the MANSA res 1195 and called upon the State of Markanda to suspend the proposed air strike on expiry of the said deadline.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st 14. the Lobres Revolutionary Force (“LRF”) was formed with their slogan “Save the Lobres”. General Kosthov ordered an air strike within the next 48 hours. the UN asked General Kosthov to proclaim/pronounce Autonomy to the Lobordo region. thousands Markanda National Army and other paramilitary forces forcibly evicted Lobres citizens in bloodshed and violence. UN peace-keeping force was dispatched to the region to enforce the RES 1777 and establish an interim Government for the Lobordo Region.

28 June 1996 was declared as a day of mourning all over the Lobordo region. they also warned him of possible consequences and asked him to end immediate hostilities. The foreign ministers of Myantra and the King of Botokia attended the funeral procession and spoke against the Despotic Regime of General Kosthov. In 1994. The peace-keeping forces were able to cease the conflict and the mission was a success. Thousands poured into the memorial centre with anger and hatred towards the Markus leader General Kosthov. The peace-keeping forces were asked to return. General Saheila who was the dictator of Former Lobordo attended the funeral too.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st involved a large number of armed forces from the neighbouring states of Botokia and Myantra. On 27 th June 1996. after negotiating the terms of autonomy. 20. Independent eye witnesses claimed that the deceased members were seen last with some of the MIA members before they were murdered. Mr Sivally Krug challenged the military forces of Markanda National Army and warned that the Lobres had the support of the international community in this struggle. 21. the leaders of Lobres Regional Assembly accused the Markanda Government of assassinating the Myantra Regional Assembly members. an agreement granting autonomy was signed between the General Kosthov and representatives from the Lobres ethnic community. During the speeches. Subsequently. During his speech he reminded the Lobres of their rich cultural heritage which was on the verge of 9| P a g e th . 19. 18. elections were held for the first time for the Lobordo regional Assembly and meanwhile interim Government would look into the affairs in the presence of international observers and world bodies. it was reported that four among the eighteen Lobordo Regional Assembly members were killed during a meeting in a hotel in Lobordo. Following this event. including their close friends Botokia and Myantra. Under a cloud of suspicion General Kosthov formed a secret Markanda Intelligence Agency to assess the development and track the actions of the Autonomous region of Lobordo. The Lobordo Regional Assembly members have been visiting various countries including Myantra and Botokia. however the forces of Botokia and Myantra continue to stay in the Lobre region.

He further added. On the 22 nd of July 2001. we never were and will never be part of Markanda”. 22. “Lets prepare ourselves for the worst. 23. Lobordo‟s Declaration of independence was recognized by Botokia and Myantra and within few days exchanged diplomatic. He called upon all to unite and fight the evil away from the Lobordo and he concluded his speech by saying. “According to our intelligence report. the Markanda Intelligence Agency attacked the Head Quarter of the Military base in Lobordo Region and seized arms and ammunition. some external element had been supporting the Lobres financially and militarily and any entity acting against the integrity of Markanda would be declared the Enemy of The country”. It was found that those arms and ammunitions were made in Myantra and Botokia. On the same night. “I appeal to the citizen of Markanda to prepare ourselves in the final blow against the Lobres who have challenged the Integrity of the state of Markanda and that the Lobres would be taught a lesson the hard way”. to fight against the evil as the time has come for us to exert our right to self.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st destruction by General Kosthov and that Lobordo was in fact never part of Markanda and that for more than 70 years they have been subjected to human rights violations. On the 25 of July 2001. They denounced the despotic ruler General Kosthov.determination. On 23 July 2001. th rd 10 | P a g e . “the time has come for the Lobres citizen to stand up and give our life for the country for the independence of which our forefathers fought for”. Mr Sivally krug the newly elected Prime Minister of Lobordo Appealed to Myantra and Botokia to send reinforcement and help them defend their country against possible threat of invasion by the Markanda National Army headed by its chief „General Kosthov‟. He further said. General Kosthov addressed the Nation and said. 24. Thousands of Lobres assembled in the Memorial centre to mark their Independence Day and cheered in pride. Lobordo unilaterally declared its independence and raised their National Flag at the Memorial centre.

The situation became tense and the region of Lobordo and Markanda once again became home to conflicts. many civilians were attacked. The contents stated that Myantra and Botokia would give military aid and defend Lobordo against the Markanda National Army and in return Lobordo would reward as royalty to Myantra and Botokia. following which the foreign ministers of Botokia and Myantra warned the State of Markanda to cease hostilities against the civilians as it is affecting the economy of their nation. There was chaos amongst the civilians. Many civilians took refuge in the neighbouring states. a major stake in the form of rights reserved to explore oil. Denounced the Unilateral Declaration of Independence by Lobordo as a violation of SC RES 1777 which also further contravenes GA RES 1/ 78 and stated that the Declaration of Independence was void. This letter was dated 15 December 1995. Myantra frontier Army dispatched a battalion in Lobordo and Botokia sent in war planes and other military aid. Though Lobordo did not comment on the document that was seized however the foreign Minister of Myantra denied any such agreement and had a press release stating that their help and military intervention was only relating to a humanitarian intervention to protect the lives of the civilians and was merely responding to a call for help by the Lobordo Prime minister. Botokia refused to comment on the issue. th 27. He also added that they however do not support the acts of General Kosthov and his presence was a threat to peace in the region. 11 | P a g e . 26. A Document was seized which was leaked out from the Military Head Quarter of Lobordo. 28. Markanda i. and killed. The civilians in these areas were seriously affected.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st 25. Also a huge influx of refugees was reported in the region of Botokia and Myantra. due to the scare of war and the ruthlessness of MIA.

both the Representatives of the State of Markanda and the People‟s Republic of Lobordo met at Bungtak. That the acts of Myantra and Botokia amounts to acts of aggression and intervention in the country of Markanda as Lobordo was legally apart of Markanda and resulted in violation of international law and provision of the UN charter. and on the 27 th of June 2011. an island in the pacific to sign the General agreement to confer on the International Court of Justice. 12 | P a g e .1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st ii. 29. Jurisdiction in the instant case to adjudicate upon the aforesaid matters. There was a mixed response from the International Community. Some countries did recognize while some did not agree with the unilateral declaration of Independence. The Security Council ceased of the matter.

and begin and complete verifiable phased withdrawal from Lobordo of all military. 13 | P a g e .1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st Appendix I RESOLUTION Adopted MANSA. Welcomes the acceptance by the Federal Republic of Markanda of the principles and other required elements referred to in paragraph 1 above. Reaffirming the call in previous resolutions for substantial autonomy and meaningful self-administration for Lobordo. Republic of Markanda. Demands in particular that the Federal Republic of Markanda put an immediate and verifiable end to violence and repression in Lobordo. with which the deployment of the international security presence in Lobordo will be synchronized. 3. by the 1195(1990) at its 4011th meeting MANSA Bearing in mind the purposes and principles of its Charter and the primary responsibility of the MANSA for the maintenance of international peace and security. Decides that a political solution to the Lobordo crisis shall be based on the general principles in annex 1 and as further elaborated in the principles and other required elements in annex 2. Reaffirming the right of all refugees and displaced persons to return to their homes in safety. Determining that the situation in the region continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security. Condemning all acts of violence against the Lobordo population as well as all terrorist acts by any party. Determined to ensure the safety and security of international personnel and the implementation by all concerned of their responsibilities under the present resolution. and to provide for the safe and free return of all refugees and displaced persons to their homes. police and paramilitary forces according to a rapid timetable. Determined to resolve the grave humanitarian situation in Lobordo. and demands the full cooperation of the Federal Republic of Markanda in their rapid implementation. Reaffirming the commitment of all Member States to the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Federal Republic of Markanda and the other States of the region. 1. as set out in the Helsinki Final Act and annex 2. 2.

(c) Establishing a secure environment in which refugees and displaced persons can return home in safety. international (e) (f) Supervising demining take over until the international for this and coordinating duties as civil task. of international civil and security presences. maintaining and where necessary enforcing a ceasefire. and further requests the President to instruct his Special Representative to coordinate closely with the international security presence to ensure that both presences operate towards the same goals and in a mutually supportive manner. Affirms the need for the rapid early deployment of effective international civil and security presences to Lobordo. with appropriate equipment and personnel as required. 7. and humanitarian aid can be delivered. and welcomes the agreement of the Republic of Markanda to such presences. in consultation with the MANSA. Requests the President to appoint. and other international organizations. work of the responsibility presence. Authorizes Member States and relevant international organizations to establish the international security presence in Lobordo as set out in point 4 of annex 2 with all necessary means to fulfil its responsibilities under paragraph 9 below 8. police and paramilitary forces. 14 | P a g e . a Special Representative to control the implementation of the international civil presence. the international civil presence. 6. (d) civil Ensuring public presence can take safety and order until the responsibility for this task. Supporting. closely presence with the can. except as provided in point 6 of annex 2. (h) Ensuring the protection and freedom of movement of itself. Decides on the deployment in Lobordo. Confirms that after the withdrawal an agreed number of Markanda military and police personnel will be permitted to return to Lobordo to perform the functions in accordance with annex 2. as appropriate. a transitional administration can be established.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st 4. Decides that the responsibilities of the international security presence to be deployed and acting in Lobordo will include: (a) Deterring renewed hostilities. international civil border (g) Conducting monitoring required. and demands that the parties cooperate fully in their deployment. the international civil presence can operate. under MANSA auspices. (b) Demilitarizing the armed Lobordo groups as required in paragraph 15 below. and ensuring the withdrawal and preventing the return into Lobordo of military. 9. 5. as appropriate.

Decides that the main responsibilities of the international civil presence will include: (a) (b) Promoting the establishment.building activities. including establishing local police forces and meanwhile through the deployment of international police personnel to serve in Lobordo. and for the Federal Republic of Markanda to allow unimpeded access to Lobordo by humanitarian aid organizations and to cooperate with such organizations so as to ensure the fast and effective delivery of international aid. (h) Supporting. overseeing the transfer of authority from Lobordo’s provisional institutions to institutions established under a political settlement. aid. (d) Transferring. 12. including the holding of elections. (j) Protecting (k) Assuring and promoting and human rights. in humanitarian organizations. pending a final settlement. (e) Facilitating a political process designed to determine Lobordo’s future status.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st 10. (c) Organizing and overseeing the development of provisional institutions for democratic and autonomous self-government pending a political settlement. 15 | P a g e . as these institutions are established. and which will provide transitional administration while establishing and overseeing the development of provisional democratic selfgoverning institutions to ensure conditions for a peaceful and normal life for all inhabitants of Lobordo. Emphasizes the need for coordinated humanitarian relief operations. its administrative responsibilities while overseeing and supporting the consolidation of Lobordo’s local provisional institutions and other peace. of Performing basic civilian administrative functions where and as substantial autonomy and self-government in Lobordo. Authorizes the President. return of all refugees and the safe unimpeded displaced persons to their homes in Lobordo. long as required. (f) In a final stage. 11. (g) Supporting the reconstruction of key infrastructure with and other economic reconstruction. to establish an international civil presence in Lobordo in order to provide an interim administration for Lobordo under which the people of Lobordo can enjoy substantial autonomy within the Republic of Markanda. with the assistance of relevant international organizations. coordination humanitarian and international disaster relief (i) Maintaining civil law and order.

cooperation. to continue thereafter unless the MANSA decides otherwise. Decides that the prohibitions imposed shall not apply to arms and related material for the use of the international civil and security presences. Demands full cooperation by all concerned. particularly for the purposes set out in paragraph 11 (g) above.Immediate and verifiable end of violence and repression in Lobordo. Annex 1 Statement by the Chairman on the conclusion of the meeting of the Foreign Ministers of MANSA The Foreign Ministers adopted the following general principles on Decides to remain actively seized of the matter. including the international security presence. Demands that all States in the region cooperate fully in the implementation of all aspects of this resolution. the political solution to the Lobordo crisis: . stability and regional 18. including reports from the leaderships of the international civil and security presences. 19. Welcomes the work in hand in other international organizations to develop a comprehensive approach to the economic development and stabilization of the region affected by the Lobordo crisis. 21. with the International Tribunal for the Former Markanda. Decides that the international civil and security presences are established for an initial period of 12 months. the first reports to be submitted within 30 days of the adoption of this resolution. 17. economic prosperity. Demands armed Lobordo groups end immediately all offensive actions and comply with the requirements for demilitarization as laid down by the head of the international security presence in consultation with the Special Representative of the Secretary-General. Requests the President to report to the Council at regular intervals on the implementation of this resolution. 20. 15.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st 13. and emphasizes in this context the importance of convening an international donors’ conference. Encourages all Member States and international organizations to contribute to economic and social reconstruction as well as to the safe return of refugees and displaced persons. including the implementation of a Stability Pact with broad international participation in order to further the promotion of democracy. 16. 16 | P a g e . 14. at the earliest possible date.

Establishment of an interim administration for Lobordo as a part of the international civil presence under which the people of Lobordo can enjoy substantial autonomy within the Federal Republic of Markanda. 6. 5. capable of guaranteeing the achievement of the common objectives.Liaison with the international civil mission and the international security presence. police and paramilitary forces according to a rapid timetable. Annex 2 Agreement should be reached on the following principles to move towards a resolution of the Lobordo crisis: 1. an agreed number of military personnel will be permitted to return to perform the following functions: . The interim administration to provide transitional administration while establishing and overseeing the development of provisional democratic self-governing institutions to ensure conditions for a peaceful and normal life for all inhabitants in Lobordo. to be decided by the MANSA of the United Nations. of the an interim MANSA of the and normal administration for United Nations to for all Lobordo ensure in to be conditions Lobordo. Comprehensive approach to the economic development - and stabilization of the crisis region. 4. Verifiable withdrawal from Lobordo of all military. An immediate and verifiable end of violence and repression in Lobordo. The international security presence must be deployed under unified command and control and authorized to establish a safe environment for all people in Lobordo and to facilitate the safe return to their homes of all displaced persons and refugees. police and paramilitary forces. Marking/clearing minefields.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st . After withdrawal. 2.Withdrawal from Lobordo of military. 17 | P a g e . Establishment decided by for a peaceful life inhabitants The safe and free return of all refugees and displaced persons and unimpeded access to Lobordo by humanitarian aid organizations. Deployment in Lobordo of effective international civil and security presences. 3. endorsed and adopted by the United Nations. Deployment in Lobordo under MANSA auspices of effective international civil and security presences.

responsibilities. 10. stability and regional cooperation. required elements. economic prosperity. previously identified. 7. NOTES 1 Other - required elements: A rapid and precise timetable for withdrawals. Equipment Terms of their functional Timetable Delineation Rules return. e.This will include the implementation of a stability pact with broad international participation in order to further promotion of democracy. seven days to complete withdrawal and air defence weapons withdrawn outside a 25 kilometre mutual safety zone within 48 hours. including the roles and functions of Botokia/Myantra personnel in Lobordo: Withdrawal . Suspension of military activity will require acceptance of the principles set forth above in addition to agreement to other. A political process towards the establishment of an interim political framework agreement providing for substantial self-government for Lobordo. 9. Safe and free return of all refugees and displaced persons under the supervision of the Office of MANSA and unimpeded access to Lobordo by humanitarian aid organizations. geographical relationship areas to of operation..Procedures for withdrawals. 8. among other things. 18 | P a g e . which are specified in the footnote below. specify additional modalities. including the phased.g. Returning personnel associated reference for of their their their with for returning personnel. crossings.1 A military-technical agreement will then be rapidly concluded that would. meaning.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st - Maintaining Maintaining a a presence presence at at patrimonial key border sites. A comprehensive approach to the economic development and stabilization of the crisis region. detailed schedule and delineation of a buffer area beyond which forces will be withdrawn. governing the international security presence and the international civil mission.

of of not thousands). activity withdrawals. will occur after the - Suspension beginning military verifiable The discussion agreement shall completion of and achievement of a military-technical not extend the previously determined time for withdrawals. 19 | P a g e .1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st - Return of personnel for the four functions specified above will be under the supervision of the international security presence and will be limited to a small agreed number (hundreds.

Decides to remain actively seized of the matter. Recalling the resolutions and statements by MANSA concerning the situations in Lobordo. in particular MANSA‟s Resolution. ___________________ 20 | P a g e . non-interference and cooperation in the relations between States of the region. Restates Res 1195 in terms of the UN Charter and calls upon the state of Markanda to observe compliance with it.: General 2 April 1991 Security Council Resolution 1777 Adopted by the Security Council at its 5745th meeting The Security Council. 1195 the GA RES 1/78 Having considered the report of the Secretary-General of 27 March 1991 Recalling the importance of the principles of goodneighbourliness.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st Appendix II United Nations SC/RES/1777 Distr.

and of universal respect for. obligations arising out of international economic cooperation. and recognizing the increasingly powerful trends towards freedom in such territories which have not yet attained independence. cultural and economic development of dependent peoples and militates against the United Nations ideal of universal peace. 21 | P a g e . sex. Aware of the increasing conflicts resulting from the denial of or impediments in the way of the freedom of such peoples. in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom. and observance of. Recognizing the passionate yearning for freedom in all dependent peoples and the decisive role of such peoples in the attainment of their independence. Affirming that peoples may. human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race. an end must be put to colonialism and all practices of segregation and discrimination associated therewith. impedes the social. and international law. language or religion. which constitute a serious threat to world peace. Welcoming the emergence in recent years of a large number of dependent territories into freedom and independence. Declaration on the demand for independence in Lobordo The General Assembly. in order to avoid. for their own ends. based upon the principle of mutual benefit. Conscious of the need for the creation of conditions of stability and well-being and peaceful and friendly relations based on respect for the principles of equal rights and self-determination of all peoples. Recognizing that the peoples of the world ardently desire the end of colonialism in all its manifestations. Believing that the process of liberation is irresistible and irreversible and that. serious crises. freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources without prejudice to any. Considering the important role of the United Nations in assisting the movement for independence in all countries. in the dignity and worth of the human person.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st Appendix III UNGA 1/78. Convinced that the continued existence of colonialism prevents the development of international economic cooperation. Mindful of the determination proclaimed by the peoples of the world in the Charter of the United Nations to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights.

Declares that: 1. in order to enable them to enjoy complete independence and freedom. without any distinction as to race. The subjection of peoples to alien subjugation. social or educational preparedness should never serve as a pretext for delaying independence. social and cultural development. economic. in Lobordo which have not yet attained independence. 6. Solemnly proclaims the necessity of bringing to a speedy and unconditional end colonialism in all its forms and manifestations. 7. and respect for the sovereign rights of all peoples and their territorial integrity. to transfer all powers to the peoples of those territories. 22 | P a g e . domination and exploitation constitutes a denial of fundamental human rights. All armed action or repressive measures of all kinds directed against dependent peoples shall cease in order to enable them to exercise peacefully and freely their right to complete independence and the integrity of their national territory shall be respected. All States shall observe faithfully and strictly the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations.with their freely expressed will and desire. Any attempt aimed at the partial or total disruption of the national unity and the territorial integrity of a country is incompatible with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. All peoples have the right to self-determination. 4. 3. the exercise of their sovereignty and the integrity of their national territory. 2. without any conditions or reservations. And to this end. by virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic. non-interference in the internal affairs of all States. 5. Inadequacy of political. is contrary to the Charter of the United Nations and is an impediment to the promotion of world peace and co-operation. the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the present Declaration on the basis of equality. Immediate steps shall be taken. creed or colour.1 RLC International Moot Court Competition 2011-12 st Convinced that all peoples have an inalienable right to complete freedom. in accordance .