General turning – getting started

General turning

Turning theory – de nition of terms
Cutting speed
The workpiece rotates at a certain number of revolutions (n) per minute. This gives a speci c cutting speed, vc (or surface speed), measured in (m/min) at the cutting edge.

Parting and grooving

Cutting depth
The cutting depth (ap) is the difference between the un-cut and cut surfaces. The cutting depth is measured in mm and at a right angle (90º) to the feed direction.


vc =

π×D×n m/min 1000

The axial (or in face turning the radial) tool movement is called feed, fn, and is measured in mm/r. When feeding radially towards the centre of the workpiece, the rpm will increase, until it reaches the rpm limit of the machine spindle. When this limitation is passed, the cutting speed, vc, will decrease until it reaches 0 m/min at the component centre.

Chip thickness
The chip thickness, hex, is equal to fn when using a tool holder with an entering angle κr = 90°. When using a smaller entering angle, hex is reduced. hex = fn × sin κr hex = maximum chip thickness

Inclination and rake angles

γ = the rake angle is a measure of the edge in relation to
the cut.

λ = the inclination angle is a measure of the angle at which
the insert is mounted in the holder.

A 11

Information/ Index


Tool holding/ Machines











Chips can cause burns to the skin or damage to the eyes. C Threading D Effects of feed rate Too light Stringers Rapid ank wear Built-up edge Uneconomical. Too deep High power consumption Insert breakage Increased cutting forces. Materials Be sure that the insert and the component are tightly and secured in the holder to prevent them from coming loose during use.has on tool life. Too heavy Loss of chip control Poor surface nish Crater wear/plastic deformation High power consumption Chip welding Chip hammering. is a method for predicting the tool life. see page A 37. they should not be touched with bare hands. Tool life Cutting depth ap Less effect on tool life than vc. I Information/ Index A 12 . Too much overhang can result in vibration and tool breakage. The depth of cut has the smallest effect. H Safety precautions Chips are very hot and have sharp edges. Adjust vc for best cost ef ciency. maximize fn – for shorter cutting time. SCL. Tool life Large effect on tool life. Cutting speed has by far the greatest effect on the tool life of the insert. For more information. F Boring G How to predict tool life Tool holding/ Machines Cutting speed vc The spiral cutting length. For best tool life: maximize ap – to reduce number of cuts. Tool life Little effect on tool life. Milling E Feed fn Drilling Effects of cutting speed Too low Built-up edge Dulling of edge Uneconomical Poor surface. reduce vc – for best tool life. Too high Rapid ank wear Poor nish Rapid crater wear Plastic deformation. and depth of cut . feed. followed by the feed rate.A General turning General turning – getting started Tool life The following graphs show the effect that each of the three machining parameters . B Parting and grooving Effects of depth of cut Too small Loss of chip control Vibrations Excessive heat Uneconomical.speed.

Reduces notch wear. Tendency for notch wear in HRSA and case-hardened workpieces. is the angle between the cutting edge and the feed direction. 0° clearance angle Milling Effect of entering angle The entering angle. especially at the entrance and exit of the cut. Ability to turn shoulders. Can not turn a 90º shoulder. while a positive insert has an angle of less than 90°. which may result in vibration. Higher cutting forces. how the insert is tilted in the tool holder. A 13 Information/ Index Materials Tool holding/ Machines Drilling Threading D E F G H I . clearance angle C Positive inserts Single sided Low cutting forces Side clearance First choice for internal turning and for external turning of slender components. There is less tendency for vibration. κr. Produces a thinner chip = higher feed rate.General turning – getting started A General turning Negative versus positive inserts A negative insert has an angle of 90°. It is an important angle in selecting the correct turning tool for an operation. Reduced load on the cutting edge. Forces are directed both axially and radially. and in uences: Chip formation Direction of cutting forces Cutting edge length in cut. The illustrations below show. Large entering angle Small entering angle Boring Chip breaking against the tool Chip breaking against the workpiece Forces are directed toward the chuck. Some characteristics of the two insert types are listed below: B Parting and grooving Negative inserts Double and single sided High edge strength Zero clearance First choice for external turning Heavy cutting conditions.

both of which can make it more sensitive to the effects of heat. The largest possible nose angle should be selected to provide insert strength and reliability. The inserts to the right have better versatility and accessibility. The inserts to the left have larger nose angles and are correspondingly stronger. this has to be balanced against the variation of cuts that need to be performed. I A 14 . as it is an effective compromise for all insert shapes and is suitable for many operations. of edges) Finishing (no. However.nishing (no.A General turning General turning – getting started Insert shape The insert shape should be selected relative to the entering angle accessibility required of the tool. rhombic shaped insert is frequently used. of edges) Longitudinal turning (feed direction) Pro ling (accessibility) Facing (feed direction) F Boring Operational versatility Limited machine power Vibration tendencies G Tool holding/ Machines Hard materials Intermittent machining Large entering angle Small entering angle Most suitable Suitable H Information/ Index Materials The 80º nose angle (C-insert type). while power requirements decrease to the right. Scale 2 indicates that vibration tendencies increase to the left. A small nose angle is weaker and has a small cutting edge engagement. B Parting and grooving + + + – C Scale 1 indicates the cutting edge strength. A large nose angle is strong. nose angle R S 90° C 80° W 80° T 60° D 55° V 35° E Drilling Roughing (strength) Light roughing/semi. but requires more machine power and has a higher tendency for vibration. Milling Threading D Factors affecting choice of insert shape Basic-shape designation.

8 7. In heavy roughing. chip breaking.4 2 4 2 2. of the tool holder. in such cases.2 5. a single-sided. κr. the entering angle. which shows the relation between the depth of cut.3 11 13 18 35 10 11 12 15 20 39 15 16 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 105° 120° 135° 150° 165° 75° 60° 45° 30° 15° 22 30 58 A 15 Information/ Index Materials 18 Tool holding/ Machines Boring Milling la = 2/3 x l la = 1/2 x l E F G H I .5 4. Basic shape Negative Double sided Single sided Positive R *) S 8 4 4 C 4 2 2 W 6 3 3 T 6 3 3 D 4 2 2 V 4 2 B Parting and grooving ∞ ∞ ∞ C *) The no. a stronger insert (thicker or larger) should be used to minimize the risk of insert breakage. mm 90° 1 1.9 4 8 3 3.05 1. An insert with a negative basic shape normally has twice as many edges compared to a positive insert. and the power required. the depth of cut increases dramatically. and the depth of cut. up to the total cutting edge length. The minimum necessary effective cutting edge length can be determined from the table. Deeper cuts. of edges is dependent of the depth of cut in relation to the insert size. κr ap. The round insert has the highest number of cutting edges.5 12 24 7 7.1 2.3 6 12 4 4.4 x iC la = 2/3 x l D K W V la =1/2 x l la = 1/2 x l la = 1/4 x l la = 1/4 x l Drilling Insert size and depth of cut The depth of cut in uences the metal removal rate.1 10 20 6 6. When machining against a shoulder. negative basic-shape insert is recommended for best stability.3 12 16 31 9 9.1 3. ap.2 7 8.General turning – getting started A General turning Insert shape .number of cutting edges The number of cutting edges on an insert varies depending on the choice of insert and nose angle. mm 1 la. R S C T D la = 0.7 5.3 9.3 2.depth of cut The recommended maximum values in the table are intended to provide machining reliability for continuous cuts using a roughing geometry. the number of necessary cuts.2 10 14 27 8 8.3 8. ap. can be made for a shorter period. the entering angle.1 4. a larger and thicker insert should be considered. For other roughing operations. Threading Insert shape . l.7 8 16 5 5. κr.2 1. Establish the effective cutting edge length la along with the shape of the insert. a double-sided insert with twice as many cutting edges is recommended. For extra reliability in more demanding operations.

5 mm/r ap = 5 .0.A General turning General turning – getting started Insert size – according to chip breaking areas Finishing (F) Operations at low depths of cut and low feeds.2.2 . Roughing (R) Operations for maximum stock removal and/or severe conditions.15 mm General depth of cut recommendations for insert shapes.5 .0.0 mm Medium: fn = 0.5 mm/r ap = 1.5 .1 . Medium (M) Medium to light roughing operations. Wide range of depths of cut and feed rate combinations.3 mm/r ap = 0. Type of application Maximum depth of cut ap. High depths of cut and feed rate combinations.5 .1.5. according to chip breaking for different geometries.0 mm Roughing: fn = 0. mm F M Insert size 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R 10 11 12 13 14 15 Threading Round D R Square E S Rombic 80° 06 08 10 12 15 16 19 20 25 32 09 12 15 19 25 31 38 06 09 12 16 19 25 06 08 Drilling Milling C Trigon 80° F Boring W Triangular 11 16 22 27 33 06 11 15 G Tool holding/ Machines T Rhombic 55° H Rhombic 35° Materials D 11 16 22 V I Information/ Index A 16 . C Insert shape Selecting the insert size – according to chip breaking areas. B Parting and grooving Finishing: fn = 0.

or 1/2 of the nose radius in the feed direction.3 0.2 Max. rε.3 0.8 1. Tool holding/ Machines The radial forces that push the insert away from the cutting surface become more axial as the depth of cut increases.2 Nose radius in relation to depth of cut The nose radius also affects the chip formation. As a general rule of thumb. see page A 94. recommended feed. the depth of cut should be greater than or equal to 2/3 of the nose radius. Selection of nose radius depends on the: Depth of cut.10 0. fn and in uences the: Surface nish Chip breaking Insert strength.4 Positive basic-shape inserts Nose radius.8 0.6 2.3 0.7 0.6 0.5 0. on the insert is a key factor in turning operations.6 0.4 0.8 1.2 0.3 0. Generally.25 0.4 0. For more information.General turning – getting started A General turning Nose radius The nose radius.4 Max. fn mm/r Finishing Medium 0.5 Wiper inserts should be used in high productivity applications or when high quality surfaces are required. 0. a p < rε ap = 2/3 × rε ap >2/3 × rε A 17 Information/ Index Materials Boring Drilling Milling Threading D E F G H I . rε mm 0. chip breaking improves with a smaller radius. B Parting and grooving C Nose radius and maximum feed Negative basic-shape inserts Nose radius.4 0.2 1.0) 1.0 (1. ap Feed. Large nose radius Heavy feed rates Large depths of cut Stronger edge Increased radial forces.8 1. recommended feed.4 0.15 0. Small nose radius Ideal for small cutting depths Reduces vibration Less insert strength. rε mm 0.5 0.5 0. fn mm/r Finishing Medium Roughing 0.

E Drilling F Rules of thumb for wiper inserts: Two times the feed = same surface nish Same feed – surface nish is twice as good.A General turning General turning – getting started Nose radius – surface nish and feed In turning operations. and the surface nish is directly related to the feed used.and W-style inserts. This will increase the insert's engagement length and positively affects the feed rate and the surface.1 – 2.4 mm. × 1000 D Rmax (wiper) rε Rmax (wiper) = Rmax 2 Milling Wiper insert The nose radius on a wiper insert has a modi ed nose built up around 3 to 9 different radii. the generated surface nish will be directly in uenced by the combination of nose radius and feed rate.and T-style have a nose con guration that deviates from corresponding conventional inserts. see page A 94. Insert style C and W Insert style D and T H Materials Surface nish measurements Different methods for measuring surface nish are described in chapter I. which can vary between 0. B Parting and grooving Rmax C Conventional insert Threading Rmax rε Rmax = f n2 8 x rε A conventional insert has a single nose radius. I Information/ Index A 18 . while D. Boring G Tool holding/ Machines The modi ed nose radius of the wiper inserts is within the tolerance for C. For more information.

and there are three principle chip breaking alternatives: B Parting and grooving – self breaking. mm Finishing – F mm/r Operations at light depths of cut and low feed rates. Drilling Roughing – R High depth of cut and feed rate combinations. medium and roughing operations. vc Material. fn Cutting speed. κr Cutting depth. Wide range of depth of cut and feed rate combinations. rε Entering angle.General turning – getting started A General turning Chip formation and choice of insert geometry Breaking the chips Chip control is one of the key factors in turning. Operations requiring the highest edge security. for example cast iron – against the tool – against the workpiece C Factors that have an in uence on chip breaking are the: Insert geometry Nose radius. Insert geometries Turning geometries can be divided into three basic styles that are optimized for nishing. The diagram shows the working area for each geometry. based on acceptable chip breaking. in relation to feed and depth of cut. -PF -PM -PR Materials A 19 Information/ Index Tool holding/ Machines Boring Milling Threading D E F G H I . Operations requiring low cutting forces. ap Feed. Medium – M Medium operations to light roughing.

and KF. PR MF. WF. The chip breaking within the marked area is classi ed as good. WM. WM. WR.e. see pages. etc. PR for turning of steels. KM. MM.A General turning General turning – getting started Example of chip breaking for a -PM geometry Cutting depth ap (mm) B Parting and grooving C Threading D Milling Feed fn (mm/r) E Chip breaking test of a CNMG 12 04 08-PM insert at different cutting depths and feeds. WR WMX. A 98 and A 22 -. Boring For more information about insert geometries and workpiece materials. KR for turning of cast irons. WR WMX. SR HM.A 45. WF. MF. KM. Drilling F Insert geometries for different workpiece materials Many insert geometries are optimized for a certain workpiece material type. stainless and cast iron. are suitable for both steel. WM. Other geometries. PM. WM. PM. WR PF. PF. MR KF. WF. HR H Materials Heat resistant alloys Hardened steel I Information/ Index A 20 . MR for stainless steels. and the results are transferred into a diagram. i. KR AL SM. MM. WF. like WMX. G Wiper inserts Tool holding/ Machines Conventional inserts Steel Stainless steel Cast iron Aluminium alloys P M K N S H WMX.