Second year engineering , electronics and telecommunication

Abstract— This piece of document gives an idea about what all goes behind the scenes for making a2d image projected on a flat screen to look like real 3d object existing around us. This document gives a quick review of the various stages involved in making a 3d film and also helps to understand about various physical phenomena that are responsible for bringing a 2d image to appear in full 3 dimensional glory.

Keywords— stereoscopy ,stereoscopic vision,polarisation.


JAMES CAMERON’S AVATAR brought all together a new revolution in the field of film making .and nowadays 3d movies are quite common .but the technology used behind in making this movies is quite expensive . although the technology is quite expensive the basic principle used in order to make a image look like a real 3d object is quite simple

The two eyes of human beings allow them to view the things around them in 3dimension. First let us consider the difference between a 2d image and a 3d image .suppose we have a photograph of a rectangular box then we call that image as a 2d image because from the image we can get the information about only the two dimension of the box which is length and the height .whereas if we have a real rectangular object placed in front of us then what we see is the 3d image of the box this is because we can get the information about all the 3 dimensions of the box height, length and the width. Now the question that arises is how do we get a 3d image of the real object around us in our eyes in order to Understand this let us consider a simple demonstration . Take a pencil and bring it close to the centre of your two eyes now observe the pencil with 1. Your right eye (and the left eye closed) 2. With your left eye (now by closing the right eye) What we observe is in the first case when we observe the pencil with our right eye at that time the pencil appears to be shifted more towards the left hand side and what we can see is only the right part of the pencil, and in the second case just opposite thing happens which means the pencil appears to be shifted more towards the right hand side and what we can observe is only the left part of this pencil. Now the next question that arises is why does this happens ? This is because given an object in front of us our one eye can observe only one part of the object. Now this plays an important role in creating the 3d image of a real object around us in our mind .this is because once our two eyes have taken the image of the two sides of the object what it does is it passes on the images to the brain which combines both these images producing a 3d image of the object The same principle is used while recording a movie and even While projecting it on the screen in the cinemas...how this principle is used in the process of making the 3d films will be dealt in detail in further topics.

Human eye is the best optical instrument provided to the human beings by the nature. It is because of these 2 eyes of human beings it is possible for him to view the various object around them. and it not only helps to just view the objects but performs various other function . But for our interest consider the best function performed by the eyes of man.

While making the 3d film the above mentioned principle is followed. What is done is while recording the film generally two cameras are used to get the image of the two sides of the object generally a more specialised camera like a stereoscopic camera is used which uses the principle of stereoscopy .now

The wave properties of the light are associated with the electric field . this was done by showing a red and blue version of the movie and giving the audience red and blue glasses. A . In order to polarise the light we need a special instrument called as a polariser since light is a transverse waves it looks like the unpolarised beam in the above diagram. So in order to ensure that one eye is seeing the image of a single projector what is done is .) this two images received by out two eyes are then given to the brain which fuses the two images (analyzes the differences between those two images) forming the 3d image if the object displayed on the screen B. the axis of one of the glass is horizontal and that of the other is vertical . it can be considered as a wave or as a particle . From the above image what we see is the axis of the two glasses of the polarizing glass are not the same in fact they are completely different from each other .this will make sure that one eye is receiving only one image . to supply us with an estimate of the distance of the object. the light from the projectors are polarised in such a way that plane of vibration is horizontal for the light from one projector and vertical for the light from other . Now in order to understand that how this principle is used in making the film to appear in 3d consider the following Image. POLARISING GLASSES OR FILTERS FIRST WE NEED TO UNDERSTAND WHAT IS POLARISATION? .( In the old days.what is done is two projectors are used and the two projectors project the image of the different side of the same object on the screen at the same time .in this case we take the condition that the light ids a wave .and in order to ensure that our one eye sees only one image projected by a single projector polarised glasses are used . STEREOSCOPY OR STEREOSCOPIC VISION Stereoscopy is nothing but the same thing that we have discussed in the principle that one eye can view the information of only one side of the object which helps the brain to construct the 3 d image of the object in the mind. But still in order to get the detailed information about it consider the following diagram Light is dual in nature . now under ordinary condition the vibration of electric field is oriented in all the directions and the phenomenon by which the vibrations of light are restricted in a particular plane is called as polarisation of light. The application of the stereoscopic vision is not only restricted to the 3d viewing of the object around us but it is because of stereoscopy that we are able to know about the angle our eyes have to turn to focus on the object. this glasses make sure that one eye is seeing image of a one projector and the other of the other projector how this is done is can be explained clearly as follows . a polariser are designed such that they allow only those light to pass through them who have their direction of vibration same as the axis of the polariser as shown in the above diagram .this means that from first glass only those light waves can pass which have horizontal plane of vibration and the light with vertical plane of vibration will pass through the other glass.now light is a wave and it is an electromagnetic wave which means that it consists of a vibrating magnetic and electric field. this .3D FILM TECHNOLOGY after we have recorded the whole movie like this the other place where the principle mentioned above is used is while projecting the image on the flat screen on the cinema hall . .

however. Again. otherwise the images won’t sync up. dirt or warping). and that image is then bounced by a tiny internal mirror to another camera where a second image can be recorded. To get a movie like Toy Story 3 into 3D. In modern film rigs. “stereoscopy. \ How It’s Made Cameras There is a difference between creating three-dimensional graphics and images that appear to be 3D in the theater. Human eyes are approximately 50 mm to 75 mm apart — accordingly. Mirror rigs film through one lens. animators create two versions of each frame. Computer Graphics Thus . a staple of modern film. these two cameras are bolted into place preventing any unwanted jostling or disparity. The real heavy lifting.3D FILM TECHNOLOGY There is a lot of fancy footwork that goes into creating 3D. They also need to zoom and track.” refers to how your eyes and brain create the impression of a third dimension. each eye sees a slightly different part of the world. are hard to capture in 3D because the cameras need to be extraordinarily close together to mimic the angle of your eyes. at the same speed. Filmmakers need to triangulate the distance between the two cameras and make sure they are focused on the same object. you essentially need two versions of the same scene filmed from the precisely correct angle as if your eyes were seeing the same scene. Because computer-generated movies don’t need cameras. Close-ups. The downside is that this technique requires a lot of time and elbow grease to get perfect. To solve this. is all just a matter of geometry and precision. one from the perspective of each eye. it’s all just a matter of some high-tech geometry. filmmakers sometimes use mirror rigs. Providing there are no imperfections on the mirror (including scratches. it’s much easier to get perfectly synced images and to fine-tune any mistakes in post-production. the close-up will be filmed in 3D. ADVANCEMENT IN TECHNOLOGY . To get a 3D image. or move.

CONCLUSION The 3d technology used in movies in theatre and even in televisions has some advantages as well as some disadvantages . The first is that linear polarized filters remove 50% of the light incident on the filter. The second disadvantage is that the effectiveness of the filter is dependent on the orientation of the filter with respect to the screen. If you tilt your head sideways. TVs must include a converter chip and software to break down the signal and separate the left and right images.however the technology used is different as we don’t have two different projectors projecting two different images of the same object at the same place . Cons: You need to sit in one of the “sweet spots” to get the image right.com . This creates a ghosting effect References www. and thus will allow the viewer the freedom to see the screen from more directions than the current sets limit them to with the glasses. but to be 3-D-capable.mashable. the flicker can be noticeable. nausea and just that icky feeling that kills the thrill of 3-D.com www. rapidly block one eye at a time so that each eye sees only the frame meant for it. Though it is the ultimate one but this technology definitely requires you to sit in exactly the right spot. In case of fast-moving sequences like a NASCAR race. Reduced viewer fatigue Cons: It’s like watching television with your sunglasses on. like those included in Panasonic’s system. TVs must refresh the picture at least 120 times a second with alternating frames for the left and right eye. which tricks our brain into seeing only one image. This advantages and disadvantages are due to the the various elements or tools used to view the 3d images Starting from the glasses we have many different type of glasses the pros and cons of each of vthese glasses are explained as follows Colour Filter Glasses Pros : : Inexpensive. no ghosting effect or delayed images that results when tinted glasses are used. Active-shutter glasses. pictures with amazing level of detail and color. 2.physics.wikipedia. black-and-clear LCD lenses that darken or lighten when a radio or infrared pulse from the TV (or an add-on emitter) signals that the image is changing. Cons: Since the image input to the eye is not controlled. No lying down on the floor! Now looking at the 3d film technology in a broader sense we find that the technology is not really perfect as there many disadvantages associated with it. It’s not worth the trouble. There can be up to a 50 percent loss of picture brightness.but then what happens in a television showing 3d images We see depth when images from our left and right eyes merge into one. The new technology works by projecting light at multiple angles. Cons: The big TV makers have to still buy into the technology.3D FILM TECHNOLOGY 3d technology is now not just limited to the films or movies in the theatre but the technology is also used in televisions so that even the image displayed on the television can be seen in 3d . Now some of the giants in the field of electronic products are planning to launch a 3d television which will show its effect without any glasses. No Glasses Pros: No glasses required. Also sitting in the lotus position may be preferred. An infrared or radio beam syncs shutter glasses with the screen to produce the final 3-D effect. It’s like watching TV the old fashioned way.org www. Consider the two main disadvantages of this existing 3d technology 1. This means that a movie theater needs to have a much brighter lamp in its projectors to compensate for the filtering. Most new TVs are fast enough to do this. Shutter Glasses Pros: Glasses are relatively inexpensive. Add to that the timing lag and 3-D can get a bit rocky. Yes in case of televisions shutter glasses are used instead of polarizer glasses as in the case of the films in the theatre. The glasses contain two small. it can cause headaches. the polarization of the filters is now different with respect to the light reflected by the screen and now the left image bleeds into the right eye and vice-versa. because the 3-D picture is not much to look at either Polarized Glasses Pros: Light weight. to re-create that in high-def. quick and easy way to watch and create 3-D movies or shows.