# 3D FILM TECHNOLOGY

SUMITKUMAR SHRIKANT DUBEY.
Second year engineering , electronics and telecommunication
sumitdubey0@gmail.com

Abstract— This piece of document gives an idea about what all goes behind the scenes for making a2d image projected on a flat screen to look like real 3d object existing around us. This document gives a quick review of the various stages involved in making a 3d film and also helps to understand about various physical phenomena that are responsible for bringing a 2d image to appear in full 3 dimensional glory.

Keywords— stereoscopy ,stereoscopic vision,polarisation.

INTRODUCTION

JAMES CAMERON’S AVATAR brought all together a new revolution in the field of film making .and nowadays 3d movies are quite common .but the technology used behind in making this movies is quite expensive . although the technology is quite expensive the basic principle used in order to make a image look like a real 3d object is quite simple
II . PRINCIPLE

The two eyes of human beings allow them to view the things around them in 3dimension. First let us consider the difference between a 2d image and a 3d image .suppose we have a photograph of a rectangular box then we call that image as a 2d image because from the image we can get the information about only the two dimension of the box which is length and the height .whereas if we have a real rectangular object placed in front of us then what we see is the 3d image of the box this is because we can get the information about all the 3 dimensions of the box height, length and the width. Now the question that arises is how do we get a 3d image of the real object around us in our eyes in order to Understand this let us consider a simple demonstration . Take a pencil and bring it close to the centre of your two eyes now observe the pencil with 1. Your right eye (and the left eye closed) 2. With your left eye (now by closing the right eye) What we observe is in the first case when we observe the pencil with our right eye at that time the pencil appears to be shifted more towards the left hand side and what we can see is only the right part of the pencil, and in the second case just opposite thing happens which means the pencil appears to be shifted more towards the right hand side and what we can observe is only the left part of this pencil. Now the next question that arises is why does this happens ? This is because given an object in front of us our one eye can observe only one part of the object. Now this plays an important role in creating the 3d image of a real object around us in our mind .this is because once our two eyes have taken the image of the two sides of the object what it does is it passes on the images to the brain which combines both these images producing a 3d image of the object The same principle is used while recording a movie and even While projecting it on the screen in the cinemas...how this principle is used in the process of making the 3d films will be dealt in detail in further topics.
III.THE PROCESS

Human eye is the best optical instrument provided to the human beings by the nature. It is because of these 2 eyes of human beings it is possible for him to view the various object around them. and it not only helps to just view the objects but performs various other function . But for our interest consider the best function performed by the eyes of man.

While making the 3d film the above mentioned principle is followed. What is done is while recording the film generally two cameras are used to get the image of the two sides of the object generally a more specialised camera like a stereoscopic camera is used which uses the principle of stereoscopy .now

The wave properties of the light are associated with the electric field . this was done by showing a red and blue version of the movie and giving the audience red and blue glasses. A . In order to polarise the light we need a special instrument called as a polariser since light is a transverse waves it looks like the unpolarised beam in the above diagram. So in order to ensure that one eye is seeing the image of a single projector what is done is .) this two images received by out two eyes are then given to the brain which fuses the two images (analyzes the differences between those two images) forming the 3d image if the object displayed on the screen B. the axis of one of the glass is horizontal and that of the other is vertical . it can be considered as a wave or as a particle . From the above image what we see is the axis of the two glasses of the polarizing glass are not the same in fact they are completely different from each other .this will make sure that one eye is receiving only one image . to supply us with an estimate of the distance of the object. the light from the projectors are polarised in such a way that plane of vibration is horizontal for the light from one projector and vertical for the light from other . Now in order to understand that how this principle is used in making the film to appear in 3d consider the following Image. POLARISING GLASSES OR FILTERS FIRST WE NEED TO UNDERSTAND WHAT IS POLARISATION? .( In the old days.what is done is two projectors are used and the two projectors project the image of the different side of the same object on the screen at the same time .in this case we take the condition that the light ids a wave .and in order to ensure that our one eye sees only one image projected by a single projector polarised glasses are used . STEREOSCOPY OR STEREOSCOPIC VISION Stereoscopy is nothing but the same thing that we have discussed in the principle that one eye can view the information of only one side of the object which helps the brain to construct the 3 d image of the object in the mind. But still in order to get the detailed information about it consider the following diagram Light is dual in nature . now under ordinary condition the vibration of electric field is oriented in all the directions and the phenomenon by which the vibrations of light are restricted in a particular plane is called as polarisation of light. The application of the stereoscopic vision is not only restricted to the 3d viewing of the object around us but it is because of stereoscopy that we are able to know about the angle our eyes have to turn to focus on the object. this glasses make sure that one eye is seeing image of a one projector and the other of the other projector how this is done is can be explained clearly as follows . a polariser are designed such that they allow only those light to pass through them who have their direction of vibration same as the axis of the polariser as shown in the above diagram .this means that from first glass only those light waves can pass which have horizontal plane of vibration and the light with vertical plane of vibration will pass through the other glass.now light is a wave and it is an electromagnetic wave which means that it consists of a vibrating magnetic and electric field. this .3D FILM TECHNOLOGY after we have recorded the whole movie like this the other place where the principle mentioned above is used is while projecting the image on the flat screen on the cinema hall . .

however. Again. otherwise the images won’t sync up. dirt or warping). and that image is then bounced by a tiny internal mirror to another camera where a second image can be recorded. To get a movie like Toy Story 3 into 3D. In modern film rigs. “stereoscopy. \ How It’s Made Cameras There is a difference between creating three-dimensional graphics and images that appear to be 3D in the theater. Human eyes are approximately 50 mm to 75 mm apart — accordingly. Mirror rigs film through one lens. animators create two versions of each frame. Computer Graphics Thus . a staple of modern film. these two cameras are bolted into place preventing any unwanted jostling or disparity. The real heavy lifting.3D FILM TECHNOLOGY There is a lot of fancy footwork that goes into creating 3D. They also need to zoom and track.” refers to how your eyes and brain create the impression of a third dimension. each eye sees a slightly different part of the world. are hard to capture in 3D because the cameras need to be extraordinarily close together to mimic the angle of your eyes. at the same speed. Filmmakers need to triangulate the distance between the two cameras and make sure they are focused on the same object. you essentially need two versions of the same scene filmed from the precisely correct angle as if your eyes were seeing the same scene. Because computer-generated movies don’t need cameras. Close-ups. The downside is that this technique requires a lot of time and elbow grease to get perfect. To solve this. is all just a matter of geometry and precision. one from the perspective of each eye. it’s all just a matter of some high-tech geometry. filmmakers sometimes use mirror rigs. Providing there are no imperfections on the mirror (including scratches. it’s much easier to get perfectly synced images and to fine-tune any mistakes in post-production. the close-up will be filmed in 3D. ADVANCEMENT IN TECHNOLOGY . To get a 3D image. or move.