GŦkŦ NoŦ 8S98S August 13ţ 1993

ÞnILIÞÞINL AIkLINLSţ INCŦ (ÞAL)ţ peLlLlonerţ
vsŦ
NA1ICNAL LA8Ck kLLA1ICNS CCMMISSICNţ LA8Ck Ak8I1Lk ISA8LL ÞŦ Ck1IGULkkA and ÞnILIÞÞINL AIkLINLS
LMÞLC¥LLS ASSCCIA1ICN (ÞALLA)ţ respondenLsŦ
5oloo Cotclo fot petltlooetŦ
AJolpbo MŦ Coetzoo fot tespooJeot lAlíAŦ

MLLCţ Ŧť
ln Lhe lnsLanL peLlLlon for cettlototlţ Lhe CourL ls presenLed Lhe lssue of wheLher or noL Lhe formulaLlon of a Code
of ulsclpllne among employees ls a shared responslblllLy of Lhe employer and Lhe employeesŦ
Cn March 13ţ 1983ţ Lhe Þhlllpplne Alrllnesţ lncŦ (ÞAL) compleLely revlsed lLs 1966 Code of ulsclpllneŦ 1he Code was
clrculaLed among Lhe employees and was lmmedlaLely lmplemenLedţ and some employees were forLhwlLh
sub[ecLed Lo Lhe dlsclpllnary measures embodled LherelnŦ
1husţ on AugusL 20ţ 1983ţ Lhe Þhlllpplne Alrllnes Lmployees AssoclaLlon (ÞALLA) flled a complalnL before Lhe
naLlonal Labor 8elaLlons Commlsslon (nL8C) for unfalr labor pracLlce (Case noŦ nC8Ŵ7Ŵ2031Ŵ83) wlLh Lhe followlng
remarksť ƍuLÞ wlLh arblLrary lmplemenLaLlon of ÞALƌs Code of ulsclpllne wlLhouL noLlce and prlor dlscusslon wlLh
unlon by ManagemenLƍ (kolloţ pŦ 41)Ŧ ln lLs poslLlon paperţ ÞALLA conLended LhaL ÞALţ by lLs unllaLeral
lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe Codeţ was gullLy of unfalr labor pracLlceţ speclflcally Þaragraphs L and C of ArLlcle 249 and
ArLlcle 233 of Lhe Labor CodeŦ ÞALLA alleged LhaL coples of Lhe Code had been clrculaLed ln llmlLed numbersŤ LhaL
belng penal ln naLure Lhe Code musL conform wlLh Lhe requlremenLs of sufflclenL publlcaLlonţ and LhaL Lhe Code
was arblLraryţ oppresslveţ and pre[udlclal Lo Lhe rlghLs of Lhe employeesŦ lL prayed LhaL lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe
Code be held ln abeyanceŤ LhaL ÞAL should dlscuss Lhe subsLance of Lhe Code wlLh ÞALLAŤ LhaL employees
dlsmlssed under Lhe Code be relnsLaLed and Lhelr cases sub[ecLed Lo furLher hearlngŤ and LhaL ÞAL be declared
gullLy of unfalr labor pracLlce and be ordered Lo pay damages (ppŦ 7Ŵ14ţ 8ecordŦ)
ÞAL flled a moLlon Lo dlsmlss Lhe complalnLţ asserLlng lLs prerogaLlve as an employer Lo presclbe rules and
regulaLlons regardlng employessƌ conducL ln carrylng ouL Lhelr duLles and funcLlonsţ and alleglng LhaL by
lmplemenLlng Lhe Codeţ lL had noL vlolaLed Lhe collecLlve bargalnlng agreemenL (C8A) or any provlslon of Lhe Labor
CodeŦ Assalllng Lhe complalnL as unsupporLed by evldenceţ ÞAL malnLalned LhaL ArLlcle 233 of Lhe Labor Code clLed
by ÞALLA reffered Lo Lhe requlremenLs for negoLlaLlng a C8A whlch was lnappllcable as lndeed Lhe currenL C8A had
been negoLlaLedŦ
ln lLs reply Lo ÞALƌs poslLlon paperţ ÞALLA malnLalned LhaL ArLlcle 249 (L) of Lhe Labor Code was vlolaLed when ÞAL
unllaLerally lmplemenLed Lhe Codeţ and clLed provlslons of ArLlcles lv and l of ChapLer ll of Lhe Code as defecLlve
forţ respecLlvelyţ runnlng counLer Lo Lhe consLrucLlon of penal laws and maklng punlshable any offense wlLhln
ÞALƌs conLemplaLlonŦ 1hese provlslons are Lhe followlngť
SecŦ 2Ŧ NooŴexcloslvltyŦ Ÿ 1hls Code does noL conLaln Lhe enLlreLy of Lhe rules and regulaLlons of
Lhe companyŦ Lvery employee ls bound Lo comply wlLh all appllcable rulesţ regulaLlonsţ pollclesţ
procedures and sLandardsţ lncludlng sLandards of quallLyţ producLlvlLy and behavlourţ as lssued
and promulgaLed by Lhe company Lhrough lLs duly auLhorlzed offlclalsŦ Any vlolaLlons Lhereof
shall be punlshable wlLh a penalLy Lo be deLermlned by Lhe gravlLy and/or frequency of Lhe
offenseŦ
SecŦ 7Ŧ omolotlve kecotJŦ Ÿ An employeeƌs record of offenses shall be cumulaLlveŦ 1he penalLy
for an offense shall be deLermlned on Lhe basls of hls pasL record of offenses of any naLure or Lhe
absence LhereofŦ 1he more hablLual an offender has beenţ Lhe greaLer shall be Lhe penalLy for
Lhe laLesL offenseŦ 1husţ an employee may be dlsmlssed lf Lhe number of hls pasL offenses
warranLs such penalLy ln Lhe [udgmenL of managemenL even lf each offense consldered
separaLely may noL warranL dlsmlssalŦ PablLual offenders or recldlvlsLs have no place ln ÞALŦ Cn
Lhe oLher handţ due regard shall be glven Lo Lhe lengLh of Llme beLween commlsslon of lndlvldual
offenses Lo deLermlne wheLher Lhe employeeƌs conducL may lndlcaLe occaslonal lapses (whlch
may neverLheless requlre sLerner dlsclpllnary acLlon) or a paLLern of lncorrlglblllLyŦ
Labor ArblLer lsabel ÞŦ CrLlguerra handllng Lhe case called Lhe parLles Lo a conference buL Lhey falled Lo appear aL
Lhe scheduled daLeŦ lnLerpreLlng such fallure as a walver of Lhe parLlesƌ rlghL Lo presenL evldenceţ Lhe labor arblLer
consldered Lhe case submlLLed for declslonŦ Cn november 7ţ 1986ţ a declslon was rendered flndlng no bad falLh on
Lhe parL of ÞAL ln adopLlng Lhe Code and rullng LhaL no unfalr labor pracLlce had been commlLLedŦ Poweverţ Lhe
arblLer held LhaL ÞAL was ƍnoL LoLally faulL freeƍ conslderlng LhaL whlle Lhe lssuance of rules and regulaLlons
governlng Lhe conducL of employees ls a ƍleglLlmaLe managemenL prerogaLlveƍ such rules and regulaLlons musL
meeL Lhe LesL of ƍreasonablenessţ proprleLy and falrnessŦƍ She found SecLlon 1 of Lhe Code aforequoLed as ƍan all
embraclng and all encompasslng provlslon LhaL makes punlshable any offense one can Lhlnk of ln Lhe companyƍŤ
whlle SecLlon 7ţ llkewlse quoLed aboveţ ls ƍob[ecLlonable for lL vlolaLes Lhe rule agalnsL double [eopardy Lhereby
usherlng ln Lwo or more punlshmenL for Lhe same mlsdemeanorŦƍ (ppŦ 38Ŵ39ţ kolloŦ)
1he labor arblLer also found LhaL ÞAL ƍfalled Lo prove LhaL Lhe new Code was amply clrculaLedŦƍ noLlng LhaL ÞALƌs
asserLlon LhaL lL had furnlshed all lLs employees coples of Lhe Code ls unsupporLed by documenLary evldenceţ she
sLaLed LhaL such ƍfallureƍ on Lhe parL of ÞAL resulLed ln Lhe lmposlLlon of penalLles on employees who LhoughL all
Lhe whlle LhaL Lhe 1966 Code was sLlll belng followedŦ 1husţ Lhe arblLer concluded LhaL ƍ(L)he phrase lgnorance of
Lhe law excuses no one from compllance Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ flnds appllcaLlon only afLer lL has been concluslvely shown LhaL Lhe
law was clrculaLed Lo all Lhe parLles concerned and efforLs Lo dlssemlnaLe lnformaLlon regardlng Lhe new law have
been exerLedŦ (pŦ 39ţ kolloŦ) She Lhereupon dlsposedť
WPL8LlC8Lţ premlses conslderedţ respondenL ÞAL ls hereby ordered as followsť
1Ŧ lurnlsh all employees wlLh Lhe new Code of ulsclpllneŤ
2Ŧ 8econslder Lhe cases of employees meLed wlLh penalLles under Lhe new Code of ulsclpllne and
remand Lhe same for furLher hearlngŤ and
3Ŧ ulscuss wlLh ÞALLA Lhe ob[ecLlonable provlslons speclflcally Lackled ln Lhe body of Lhe
declslonŦ
All oLher clalms of Lhe complalnanL unlon (ls) żareŽ herebyţ dlsmlssed for lack of merlLŦ
SC C8uL8LuŦ (pŦ 40ţ kolloŦ)
ÞAL appealed Lo Lhe nL8CŦ Cn AugusL 19ţ 1988ţ Lhe nL8C Lhrough Commlssloner Lncarnaclonţ wlLh Þresldlng
Commlssloner 8onLoŴÞerez and Commlssloner Maglaya concurrlngţ found no evldence of unfalr labor pracLlce
commlLLed by ÞAL and afflrmed Lhe dlsmlssal of ÞALLAƌs chargeŦ noneLhelessţ Lhe nL8C made Lhe followlng
observaLlonsť
lndeedţ fallure of managemenL Lo dlscuss Lhe provlslons of a conLemplaLed code of dlsclpllne
whlch shall govern Lhe conducL of lLs employees would resulL ln Lhe eroslon and deLerloraLlon of
an oLherwlse harmonlous and smooLh relaLlonshlp beLween Lhem as dld happen ln Lhe lnsLanL
caseŦ 1here ls no dlspuLe LhaL adopLlon of rules of conducL or dlsclpllne ls a prerogaLlve of
managemenL and ls lmperaLlve and essenLlal lf an lndusLryţ has Lo survlve ln a compeLlLlve worldŦ
8uL labor cllmaLe has progressedţ LooŦ ln Lhe Þhlllpplne sceneţ aL no Llme ln our conLemporary
hlsLory ls Lhe need for a cooperaLlveţ supporLlve and smooLh relaLlonshlp beLween labor and
managemenL more keenly felL lf we are Lo survlve economlcallyŦ ManagemenL can no longer
exclude labor ln Lhe dellberaLlon and adopLlon of rules and regulaLlons LhaL wlll affecL LhemŦ
1he complalnanL unlon ln Lhls case has Lhe rlghL Lo feel lsolaLed ln Lhe adopLlon of Lhe new Code
of ulsclpllneŦ 1he Code of ulsclpllne lnvolves securlLy of Lenure and loss of employmenL Ÿ a
properLy rlghL! lL ls Llme LhaL managemenL reallzes LhaL Lo aLLaln effecLlveness ln lLs conducL
rulesţ Lhere should be candldness and openness by ManagemenL and parLlclpaLlon by Lhe unlonţ
represenLlng lLs membersŦ ln facLţ our ConsLlLuLlon has recognlzed Lhe prlnclple of ƍshared
responslblllLyƍ beLween employers and workers and has llkewlse recognlzed Lhe rlghL of workers
Lo parLlclpaLe ln ƍpollcy and declslonŴmaklng process affecLlng Lhelr rlghLs Ŧ Ŧ Ŧƍ 1he laLLer
provlslon was lnLerpreLed by Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal Commlssloners Lo mean parLlclpaLlon ln
ƍmanagemenLƍƌ (8ecord of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslonţ volŦ ll)Ŧ
ln a senseţ parLlclpaLlon by Lhe unlon ln Lhe adopLlon of Lhe code lf conducL could have
acceleraLed and enhanced Lhelr feellngs of belonglng and would have resulLed ln cooperaLlon
raLher Lhan reslsLance Lo Lhe CodeŦ ln facLţ laborŴmanagemenL cooperaLlon ls now ƍLhe LhlngŦƍ
(ppŦ 3Ŵ4ţ nL8C ueclslon ffŦ pŦ 149ţ Crlglnal 8ecordŦ)
8espondenL Commlsslon Lhereupon dlsposedť
WPL8LlC8Lţ premlses conslderedţ we modlfy Lhe appealed declslon ln Lhe sense LhaL Lhe new
Code of ulsclpllne should be revlewed and dlscussed wlLh complalnanL unlonţ parLlcularly Lhe
dlspuLed provlslons żŦŽ (1)hereafLerţ respondenL ls dlrecLed Lo furnlsh each employee wlLh a copy
of Lhe appealed Code of ulsclpllneŦ 1he pendlng cases adverLed Lo ln Lhe appealed declslon lf sLlll
ln Lhe arblLral levelţ should be reconsldered by Lhe respondenL Þhlllpplne Alr LlnesŦ CLher
dlsposlLlons of Lhe Labor ArblLer are susLalnedŦ
SC C8uL8LuŦ (pŦ 3ţ nL8C ueclslonŦ)
ÞAL Lhen flled Lhe lnsLanL peLlLlon for cettlototl charglng publlc respondenLs wlLh grave abuse of dlscreLlon lnť (a)
dlrecLlng ÞAL ƍLo share lLs managemenL prerogaLlve of formulaLlng a Code of ulsclpllneƍŤ (b) engaglng ln quaslŴ
[udlclal leglslaLlon ln orderlng ÞAL Lo share sald prerogaLlve wlLh Lhe unlonŤ (c) decldlng beyond Lhe lssue of unfalr
labor pracLlceţ and (d) requlrlng ÞAL Lo reconslder pendlng cases sLlll ln Lhe arblLral level (pŦ 7ţ ÞeLlLlonŤ pŦ 8ţkolloŦ)
As sLaLed aboveţ Lhe Þrlnclpal lssue submlLLed for resoluLlon ln Lhe lnsLanL peLlLlon ls wheLher managemenL may
be compelled Lo share wlLh Lhe unlon or lLs employees lLs prerogaLlve of formulaLlng a code of dlsclpllneŦ
ÞAL asserLs LhaL when lL revlsed lLs Code on March 13ţ 1983ţ Lhere was no law whlch mandaLed Lhe sharlng of
responslblllLy Lherefor beLween employer and employeeŦ
lndeedţ lL was only on March 2ţ 1989ţ wlLh Lhe approval of 8epubllc AcL noŦ 6713ţ amendlng ArLlcle 211 of Lhe
Labor Codeţ LhaL Lhe law expllclLly consldered lL a SLaLe pollcy ƍ(L)o ensure Lhe parLlclpaLlon of workers ln declslon
and pollcyŴmaklng processes affecLlng Lhe rlghLsţ duLles and welfareŦƍ Poweverţ even ln Lhe absence of sald clear
provlslon of lawţ Lhe exerclse of managemenL prerogaLlves was never consldered boundlessŦ 1husţ ln toz vsŦ
MeJloo (177 SC8A 363 ż1989Ž) lL was held LhaL managemenLƌs prerogaLlves musL be wlLhouL abuse of dlscreLlonŦ
ln 5oo Mlqoel 8tewety 5oles lotce uoloo (l1CwO) vsŦ Ople (170 SC8A 23 ż1989Ž)ţ we upheld Lhe companyƌs rlghL
Lo lmplemenL a new sysLem of dlsLrlbuLlng lLs producLsţ buL gave Lhe followlng caveaLť
So long as a companyƌs managemenL prerogaLlves are exerclsed ln good falLh for Lhe
advancemenL of Lhe employerƌs lnLeresL and noL for Lhe purpose of defeaLlng or clrcumvenLlng
Lhe rlghLs of Lhe employees under speclal laws or under valld agreemenLsţ Lhls CourL wlll uphold
LhemŦ
(aL pŦ 28Ŧ)
All Lhls polnLs Lo Lhe concluslon LhaL Lhe exerclse of managerlal prerogaLlves ls oot unllmlLedŦ lL ls clrcumscrlbed by
llmlLaLlons found ln lawţ a collecLlve bargalnlng agreemenLţ or Lhe general prlnclples of falr play and [usLlce
(uolvetslty of 5toŦ 1omos vsŦ Nlkţ 190 SC8A 738 ż1990Ž)Ŧ Moreoverţ as enunclaLed ln Abbott lobotototles (lbllŦ)ţ
vsŦ Nlk (134 713 ż1987Ž)ţ lL musL be duly esLabllshed LhaL Lhe prerogaLlve belng lnvoked ls clearly a managerlal
oneŦ
A close scruLlny of Lhe ob[ecLlonable provlslons of Lhe Code reveals LhaL Lhey are noL purely buslnessŴorlenLed nor
do Lhey concern Lhe managemenL aspecL of Lhe buslness of Lhe company as ln Lhe 5oo Mlqoel caseŦ 1he provlslons
of Lhe Code clearly have repercuslons on Lhe employeeƌs rlghL Lo securlLy of LenureŦ 1he lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe
provlslons may resulL ln Lhe deprlvaLlon of an employeeƌs means of llvellhood whlchţ as correcLly polnLed ouL by
Lhe nL8Cţ ls a properLy rlghL (ollootoţ vs otootloo lblllpploesţ locŦţ 143 SC8A 268 ż1986Ž)Ŧ ln vlew of Lhese
aspecLs of Lhe case whlch border on lnfrlngemenL of consLlLuLlonal rlghLsţ we musL uphold Lhe consLlLuLlonal
requlremenLs for Lhe proLecLlon of labor and Lhe promoLlon of soclal [usLlceţ for Lhese facLorsţ accordlng Lo !usLlce
lsaganl Cruzţ LllL ƍLhe scales of [usLlce when Lhere ls doubLţ ln favor of Lhe workerƍ (ímployees Assoclotloo of tbe
lblllpploe Ametlcoo llfe losotooce ompooy vsŦ Nlkţ 199 SC8A 628 ż1991Ž 633)Ŧ
verllyţ a llne musL be drawn beLween managemenL prerogaLlves regardlng buslness operaLlons pet se and Lhose
whlch affecL Lhe rlghLs of Lhe employeesŦ ln LreaLlng Lhe laLLerţ managemenL should see Lo lL LhaL lLs employees are
aL leasL properly lnformed of lLs declslons or modes acLlonŦ ÞAL asserLs LhaL all lLs employees have been furnlshed
coples of Lhe CodeŦ Þubllc respondenLs found Lo Lhe conLraryţ whlch flndlngţ Lo say Lhe leasL ls enLlLled Lo greaL
respecLŦ
ÞAL poslLs Lhe vlew LhaL by slgnlng Lhe 1989Ŵ1991 collecLlve bargalnlng agreemenLţ on !une 27ţ 1990ţ ÞALLA ln
effecLţ recognlzed ÞALƌs ƍexcluslve rlghL Lo make and enforce company rules and regulaLlons Lo carry ouL Lhe
funcLlons of managemenL wltboot havlng Lo dlscuss Lhe same wlLh ÞALLA and much lessţ obLaln Lhe laLLerƌs
coofotmlty tbetetoƍ (ppŦ 11Ŵ12ţ ÞeLlLlonerƌs MemorandumŤ pp 180Ŵ181ţ kolloŦ) ÞeLlLlonerƌs vlew ls based on Lhe
followlng provlslon of Lhe agreemenLť
1he AssoclaLlon recognlzes Lhe rlghL of Lhe Company Lo deLermlne maLLers of managemenL lL
pollcy and Company operaLlons and Lo dlrecL lLs manpowerŦ ManagemenL of Lhe Company
lncludes Lhe rlghL Lo organlzeţ planţ dlrecL and conLrol operaLlonsţ Lo hlreţ asslgn employees Lo
workţ Lransfer employees from one deparLmenLţ Lo anoLherţ Lo promoLeţ demoLeţ dlsclpllneţ
suspend or dlscharge employees for [usL causeŤ Lo layŴoff employees for valld and legal causesţ Lo
lnLroduce new or lmproved meLhods or faclllLles or Lo change exlsLlng meLhods or faclllLles and
Lhe rlghL Lo make and enforce Company rules and regulaLlons Lo carry ouL Lhe funcLlons of
managemenLŦ
1he exerclse by managemenL of lLs prerogaLlve shall be done ln a [usL reasonableţ humane
and/or lawful mannerŦ
Such provlslon ln Lhe collecLlve bargalnlng agreemenL may noL be lnLerpreLed as cesslon of employeesƌ rlghLs Lo
parLlclpaLe ln Lhe dellberaLlon of maLLers whlch may affecL Lhelr rlghLs and Lhe formulaLlon of pollcles relaLlve
LhereLoŦ And one such maLer ls Lhe formulaLlon of a code of dlsclpllneŦ
lndeedţ lndusLrlal peace cannoL be achleved lf Lhe employees are denled Lhelr [usL parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe dlscusslon of
maLLers affecLlng Lhelr rlghLsŦ 1husţ even before ArLlcle 211 of Lhe labor Code (ÞŦuŦ 442) was amended by 8epubllc
AcL noŦ 6713ţ lL was already declared a pollcy of Lhe SLaLeţ ƍ(d) 1o promoLe Lhe enllghLenmenL of workers
concernlng Lhelr rlghLs and obllgaLlons Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ as employeesŦƍ 1hls wasţ of courseţ ampllfled by 8epubllc AcL no 6713
when lL decreed Lhe ƍparLlclpaLlon of workers ln declslon and pollcy maklng processes affecLlng Lhelr rlghLsţ duLles
and welfareŦƍ ÞALƌs poslLlon LhaL lL cannoL be saddled wlLh Lhe ƍobllgaLlonƍ of sharlng managemenL prerogaLlves as
durlng Lhe formulaLlon of Lhe Codeţ 8epubllc AcL noŦ 6713 had noL yeL been enacLed (ÞeLlLlonerƌs Memorandumţ
pŦ 44Ť kolloţ pŦ 212)ţ cannoL Lhus be susLalnedŦ Whlle such ƍobllgaLlonƍ was noL yeL founded ln law when Lhe Code
was formulaLedţ Lhe aLLalnmenL of a harmonlous laborŴmanagemenL relaLlonshlp and Lhe Lhen already exlsLlng
sLaLe pollcy of enllghLenlng workers concernlng Lhelr rlghLs as employees demand no less Lhan Lhe observance of
Lransparency ln managerlal moves affecLlng employeesƌ rlghLsŦ
ÞeLlLlonerƌs asserLlon LhaL lL needed Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of a new Code of ulsclpllne conslderlng Lhe naLure of lLs
buslness cannoL be overemphaslzedŦ ln facLţ lLs belng a local monopoly ln Lhe buslness demands Lhe mosL sLrlngenL
of measures Lo aLLaln safe Lravel for lLs paLronsŦ noneLhelessţ whaLever dlsclpllnary measures are adopLed cannoL
be properly lmplemenLed ln Lhe absence of full cooperaLlon of Lhe employeesŦ Such cooperaLlon cannoL be
aLLalned lf Lhe employees are resLlve on accounLţ of Lhelr belng lefL ouL ln Lhe deLermlnaLlon of cardlnal and
fundamenLal maLLers affecLlng Lhelr employmenLŦ
WPL8LlC8Lţ Lhe peLlLlon ls ulSMlSSLu and Lhe quesLloned declslon Alll8MLuŦ no speclal pronouncemenL ls
made as Lo cosLsŦ
SC C8uL8LuŦ
lellcloooţ 8lJloţ kometo ooJ vltoqţ IIŦţ coocotŦ

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