I/ The Economy: 1.

UK Economic Structure
During the heyday of the British Empire, the UK was the largest and most influential economy in the world. As the birthplace of the industrial revolution, the UK was at the forefront of technological advances during the 18th to 19th century. However other countries, and in particular the US, began to catch up to the UK technologically wise. Meanwhile, the UK’s global influence was also beginning to wane as many British colonies were in the process of declaring independence. Finally, the damage received during World War I and World War II severely weakened the UK economy. Although the UK economy has since recovered from both World Wars, it is unlikely to reclaim its former position as the top economic power in the world. Today, the UK is the 6th largest economy in the world in 2010 according to GDP (current prices) and the 8th largest in the world according to GDP (PPP). The UK is also a member of the G7 (now expanding to the G8 and G20), the EU and the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). Although the UK economy faced another major setback during the 2008 global financial crisis, the UK government has implemented austerity measures in order to reduce its global debt as well as facilitate for long-term economic growth. These plan aims to lower London's budget deficit from over 11 per cent of GDP in 2010 to nearly 1 per cent by 2015.
2.UK’s

Economic Geography

UK’s economy encompasses those of its home nations – England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The Isle of Man and the Channel Isles are also considered to be part of the British Isles but have offshore banking statuses. As a member of the EU, the UK is part of a single market that ensures the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within member states. Nevertheless, the UK still maintains its own economy and has chosen to continue using the Pound Sterling as its national currency rather than converting to the Euro. Although 23.23 per cent of the UK is considered to be arable land, vast plots of agricultural land have remained uncultivated. Many critics have blamed subsidizes provided by the EU Common Agricultural Policy as well as price distortions created by the Metropolitan Green Belt, for the lack of agricultural activity on these lands. Apart from its arable land, the UK also has a healthy supply of natural resources. In the past, coal and iron ore was a major player in the UK economy. The UK's primary industry sector was once dominated by coal, which could be found in south Wales, Midlands, Yorkshire, North East England and southern

841 per cent.2 per cent in industries and 80. and a quarter of reserves are located in the North Sea near the Shetland Islands.222 million. 3. and is likely to remain so in the wake of the UK’s austerity plans.3 per cent are between the ages of fifteen and sixty four.UK’s Population and Labour Force The population for the UK in 2010 was 62. the UK is a net importer of both oil and natural gas. with 28. which contains the wealthy financial and technological industries.7 per cent are aged sixty-five and above. the uneven distribution of economic wealth in the UK has led to many UK citizens migration from the north to the south – resulting in a housing market problem. with some areas having many young adults and children and some areas having large numbers of older people. 18. a North-South divide exists within the UK. The waters in the North Sea off the east coast of Scotland contain nearly half of the UK's remaining oil reserves. Iron ore production has also played an important role in UK’s industries.0 per cent are aged below fifteen. the production of coal has fallen drastically by more than 75 per cent. 66. Oil mining activities are concentrated on the east coast of Scotland and North East England. Presently.Scotland.4 per cent in services. . it also assists in the production of automobile and aerospace equipment. agriculture may soon face a labour crisis due to an aging workforce coupled with a general lack of interest among younger workers for agricultural jobs. Although the UK government has sought to rectify this imbalance. the UK was the 4th largest coal producing nation in the world – today the UK is ranked 15th. Under manufacturing.988 million workers. iron ore production supports the UK’s steel and manufacturing industries. Most natural gas production is also located in the North Sea. However. 18. with a small amount onshore and in the Irish Sea. while 15. due to a gradual shift in economic focus. However. unemployment remains high in the UK at 7. 1. The UK government has warned that nearly half a million jobs could be lost in the public sector alone as the government continues its cut on public spending. The age groups are not evenly distributed around the country. However since 1981.4 per cent of the labour force is employed in agriculture. In stark contrast to Southern UK. However. As the primary element of steel. due to its limited supply. In 1981. Out of this population. Currently. The UK also has the 30th largest proven oil reserves and the 39th largest proven natural gas reserves in the world. Northern England and Scotland have seen poor economic performance over the years due its industrial roots. The UK has the fourth highest labour to population ratio in the world.

petroleum. UK’s aerospace industry is the second largest in the world with companies such as BAE Systems (the world’s second largest defence contractor). shipbuilding. coal. electric power equipment. and the Bank of England. paper and paper products. Agriculture in the UK is highly mechanized and efficient. contributing to 77. Finance and banking are by far the UK’s most important services with London being one of the three major economic “command centres” alongside New York City and Tokyo. textiles. services is the dominant component of UK’s economy.4. and Rolls-Royce (the world’s second largest aircraft engine maker) boasting annual turnovers of around £20 billion. England uses tourism as a major lift in . According to tourism agency Visit London. Agriculture is still considered an important part of the UK’s economy and society as it produces 60 per cent of the UK’s food needs. automation equipment.4 per cent of UK’s GDP in 2010. Industries were responsible for 22. electronics and communications equipment. With more than 28 million tourist arrivals in 2009. Manufacturing of goods is particularly important for UK industries.457 billion to the economy over ten years. the production of automotive or aerospace equipment is a major contributor to UK industries. the tourism industry is worth nearly £80 billion annually. The UK is the sixth-largest manufacturer of goods in the world according to the value of its outputs. motor vehicles and parts. metals. railroad equipment. the London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange.1 per cent of the nation’s GDP. and other consumer goods. Lloyds of London. both by the UK government and the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy. 5. food processing. the London Metal Exchange.UK’s Industry Sectors Despite only contributing 1. Agriculture in the UK is also highly subsidized. Within manufacturing. clothing. However.Strengths and Weaknesses of England's Economy: 5. The list of industries include machine tools. Tourism is another extremely important service in the UK. the 2012 London Olympics will be a boost to the UK’s economy – providing an additional US$2. Important financial institutions located within London include the London Stock Exchange. combining advanced technology with modern farming techniques.1 Strengths: 1Tourism In today’s society of world travel. chemicals. aircraft.1 per cent of UK’s GDP in 2010. despite the historical importance of agriculture and industries.

Stonehenge is probably the most famous prehistoric landmark on the planet today. This is a perfect example as to how the Premier League is a great advantage to England’s economy. 2Sports When talking about sports in England the world knows that Europe is renowned for soccer which is another one of England’s economic monsters. No matter what people think of making it is almost certain that the people of this region will spend their money on it. this massive structure is surrounded by a garden and will always have guards standing outside of it at the gates to ensure the protection of the Royal Family. The English Premier League is one of the top soccer leagues in the world and contains some of the best players.000 fans attend Manchester United games on a regular basis which proves that even a few teams that play in England will have a big role on their economy.000 years. Each of these landmarks have a uniqueness about them that create a once in a lifetime feeling about visiting them. Buckingham Palace and The Palace of Westminster. The Founder Members Agreement was signed on July 17. More than 60. The league was not created until 1991 which would help the economy out even more. Because of how much the people of this region enjoy and worship football. Windsor Castle is one of the places in which the Queen herself lives and you will know she is there when the standard flies from the circular tower. 1991 which set up the original teams. Not only is England soccer crazed but all of Europe is.their economy. the mystery and beauty of this area draws millions of people to see it. you can get anything from a key ring to a shirt and hat to even beds and coffins. As seen below. There are so many different aspects to sports that allow for the growth of the economy such as the need for contractors to build the stadiums and manufacturers creating the jerseys and hats and shirts for the fans. Another great place to visit in England is places such as: Windsor Castle. This castle has been around for nearly 900 years and to ensure its survival was rebuilt to stone years after it was created. . The unmistakable Buckingham Palace is as every knows where the Royal Family resides. Because of England’s rich history. The Palace of Westminster contains both houses of parliament of the United Kingdom. As of now. Although it has been around for 5. Kings Collage at Cambridge. Attendance alone will show how valuable this sport is to the English economy. merchandise is sold at a rapid pace. As of now. the best team in the premier league would be the best known team of Manchester United. there are many different places that people would like to visit such as Stonehenge.

they adjusted and tried to become a more industrial country to keep up with everyone else. commercial and industrial sectors which make it a great place to open those types of businesses. By doing this. 3Finance The financial sector of England allows for most of the employment in the country. . The city of London is one of the world’s leading cities for business and commercial industries ranking alongside New York and Tokyo as a leading financial centre.2. however. machinery and fuels. By going out of the country to get manufactured goods. especially when you’re importing much more then exporting. the inhabitants of that area must be spending money. London is the headquarters of 100 of Europe’s top 500 companies which provides plenty of jobs and proves how important England really is to Europe 5. England mainly exports manufactured goods and beef to a lot of the European countries while importing things such as petroleum. This leads to a decrease in the economy. England looked at becoming a service type nation which has benefited them as seen in their strengths. in the mid-20th century.Football and Tourism are the two main forces that drive England’s economy because they are so highly looked upon in this region. Everyone knows that in order to have an economy working its best. England is one of the foremost countries in the financial. the people who are unemployed do not have jobs which does not allow them to put any money back into their economy. in the 1990’s their industries took a hit. Although England exports equal close to $416 billion. you are giving someone else other than your country money. Unfortunately for them. tea and wool. Weaknesses of England’s Economy 1Manufacturing For most of England’s history they have been an agricultural economy. Many countries have been able to be successful simply because they have taken the same action that England has taken and have begun marketing the rich history of the European nation as well as the impeccable athletes that make up the English Premier League. their imports exceed $595 billion which means they are bringing in materials and goods that they are unable to make such as manufactured goods.

there are not a large number of farmers to take care of the land. They also found that it was spread through giving young calves infected protein supplements. Current coins are: 1 penny. Britain’s currency is based on the pound sterling (£). the 10 pound note. It was found out that the disease is caused by giving cattle that are normally herbivores the remains of other cattle through meat and bones meals.Cost of Living: The UK is considered to be an expensive country. It is considered to be cheaper to live in the Midlands and the North of England. This has also crippled their ability to export meat.00 •Cup of Coffee: £1.50 •Pint of beer in pub: £2.60 •Fish and Chips: £5. compared to other countries within the EU. 1 pound and 2 pounds.2Agriculture Recently agriculture has given the English economy some trouble with the development of “mad cow disease”. the 20 pound note and the 50 pound note. The Euro is not used in the UK. Another reason as to the downfall in the agriculture would have to be because even though there is a large area of land to farm. than in London and the South East. although in a few larger department stores it may be accepted.70 •Chocolate bar: £0. England has gone outside of their country to get meat as opposed to just getting if from the animals they already have. The costs below are average costs: •Cigarettes £5. No one wants to buy their meat because of the disease which has hurt their economy to some extent. Cities tend to be the most expensive.70 •Sandwich: £2.000 less farmers are accounted for now than a decade ago which is a huge deficit when attempting to take care of such a large area. Current bank notes are: the 5 pound note. 2 pence. 80.00 •Short bus journey: £1. 50 pence. Cost of living varies within the UK. between rural and urban areas and between towns and cities. Because of this. 10 pence.00 •Cinema Ticket: £6. 20 pence.00 •Loaf of bread £0.00 •Football match: £25-£40 . which is divided into 100 pence (100p). 5 pence. II/ The Everyday Life: 1. with London being the most expensive city in the UK.

the most prominent being principle public service broadcaster. clothing and household items can be bought.970 magazines . Debt is a problem for many people in the UK today and there are several organizations to offer information and advice if you are having difficulties managing money.from 285 media owners in UK.Media and Entertainment: There are 768 radio stations.90 per litter •Car Hire: £35 per day •2 course meal in an average restaurant: £15 per person Buying food and clothing in large department stores will be more expensive than buying the equivalent in supermarkets.5% and the increasingly important other satellite and digital channels for the remaining 42. Charity shops sell second-hand clothes and household goods. The main BBC public service broadcasting channels accounted for and estimated 28. and prices tend to be cheaper.601 newspapers.•Petrol: 0. Art in Britain can be segmented into various categories. 1. In 2009 it was estimated that individuals viewed a mean of 3. The museums. the three main independent channels accounted for 29. 530 television channels. 1.75 hours of television per day and 2.1%. The exhibits and displays in the museums trace the long and illustrious background of Britain and show the transformation from the ancient to the modern times. In 2010 82. The various art galleries and museums in Britain depict the rich art forms of Britain. Entertainment sources in Britain vary extremely. the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). Architecture has reached great heights of excellence in Britain.81 hours of radio. There are various forms of art and entertainment that are prevalent in the country.4% of all television viewing. The UK has a diverse range of providers.5% of the UK population were Internet users. the highest proportion amongst the 20 countries with the largest total number of users in that year. Each of these unique pieces of art is incredibly beautiful. From the very ancient times. These architectural structures reveal a lot about the history of the country. Britain art and entertainment has made a global impact over the ages. The rich cultural and traditional heritage of Britain has attracted tourists from all over the world. and 1. Sales of newspapers have fallen since the 1970s and in 2009 42% of people reported reading a daily national newspaper. architectural structures as well as the art galleries form an integral part of Britain Art. Britain is famous for its . The UK also has a strong music industry. Most towns will have some form of indoor market where food. with the profits from the sales of these normally going to charity. Britain has developed its own rich body of art and entertainment forms that are unique in themselves.

Britain has four safari parks where animals from around the world roam free. Britain Sports enjoy a high level of excellence and popularity. blues. the largest being Chester Zoo in the Midlands. Nightclubs. It is home to over 500 different species of animals and is set in an award winning nature park with diverse varieties of plants. bars and pubs. Britain has excelled in a number of sports through the centuries. Initially.thriving music choirs or rock bands. Hertfordshire. Essex. restaurants. house. with the largest. entertainment in Britain was under the control of the Government. nightclubs. Alton Towers near Stoke-on-Trent in the Midlands being home to rides like the Nemesis. radio as well as newspapers are also sources of entertainment in Britain. Britain has always produced good movies. The amusement park also houses a water park. It has not only produced some of the greatest sportspersons. Wiltshire. Discos are also quite common in Britain where various forms of music like jazz. electronica. Tourists to the country also frequent the theatres and cinema halls in the country. The media sources in the country. Traditional sports at Britain like horse-racing and boating are enthusiastically . The oldest park is Longleat in Wiltshire and the most famous is Knowsley Safari Park on Merseyside. The country also has a large selection of zoos. There are numerous restaurants in the country that serve authentic British cuisine as well as various types of international delicacies. Legoland near Windsor is an interactive theme park based around enormous working models constructed from Lego bricks. are also numerous in the country. spa and golf course with impressive nineteenth century gothic towers as a back drop. Some of Europe’s greatest amusement and theme parks are located in Britain. Edinburgh. a roller coaster with a hair raising vertical drop. which turns upside down and Oblivion. like the television. Oxfordshire and Bedfordshire. A number of sports are enjoyed and played in Britain at the highest level. but gradually it became independent. Thorpe Park and Drayton Manor are also packed with thrilling rides and amusements. a huge roller coaster. Chessington World of Adventures. Sports and games are endowed with a place of high pride and prestige in Britain. techno and rock are played by the DJs. but has also given some of the greatest coaches and instructors to the world in a number of sports. Nightlife in Britain is very active with numerous entertainment facilities on offer for the local people as well as for the travellers and tourists. which has 30 species of wild animals including lions and elephants roaming wild on 550 acres of parkland. It is an excellent day out for families with young children and has plenty of rides to add to the enjoyment. Bars and pubs are especially popular in London. Edinburgh Zoo is the biggest wildlife attraction in Scotland. where live band performances can be enjoyed. Shopping is another form of entertainment that the British love to indulge in. Scotland. which have gained international appreciation.

and they are widely played in Britain as well. anxiety and depression due to overwork are increasingly common complaints. Britain has also played host to a number of prestigious sports meets and tournaments like the Football World Cup in 1966. you are entitled to 20 days holiday. Some of the most famous professional leagues and tournaments are held in Britain.practiced and closely followed alongside modern sports like netball and car racing. so for example if you have a one year contract and work five days per week. many of whom now do the work of two or more people. particularly white-collar workers. Most of them employ state-ofthe-art facilities and equipment for the proper grooming and practice of the sportspersons. There are age-old boating and horse-racing tournaments as well as modern car racing meets that are held in Britain. Workplace: Although the British don’t have a reputation abroad for hard work. football. if you work full time you are entitled to four weeks paid holiday per year. and account for the loss of over 13mn working days a year. particularly among the managerial and professional classes. Stress. Playing in these stadiums is a dream come true for sportspersons from across the world. If you have not taken all the holidays that you are entitled to when your employment ends. Britain has some of the most famous stadiums in the world like the Old Trafford football stadium and the Lords cricket ground. 3. London is also slated to hold the 2012 Olympic Games. Sports in Britain usually enjoy highly commendable professional circuits. British employees work among the longest average hours in the European Union and 12-hour days and work-filled evenings aren’t uncommon. Britain has a wonderful infrastructure related to all kinds of sports that are popularly played and enjoyed in the country. The various training schools and Sports academies spot talents at an early age and nurture them to make them reach up to international standards of excellence and skill. Working today is usually quite safe. Prestigious tournaments like the Premier League and the Wimbledon are the pride of Britain. and most Britons see themselves as hard-working. according to a Health and Safety Commission report. Sports like Cricket. They are watched and closely followed by millions from across the world. Besides. your employer must pay you for the days that you have not taken. Redundancies and cost-cutting have increased the pressure on employees. many Britons are workaholics. The jobs lost in the ‘80s were generally well-paid skilled and semi-skilled . tennis and badminton enjoy great popularity all across the world. The government has made laws saying that employers have to look after the workforce and provide safety equipment and other things for them.

This view is supported by the trend for increasing numbers of full-time jobs to be replaced by part-time jobs (mostly for women). 000 managers and professionals now work part-time or on contract. however the small shop in the UK is almost a thing of the past.g.manufacturing jobs. butchers. and freelance and contract labor at lower wages without benefits.of-town shopping centres. e.Shopping 3The small shop in UK . newsagents etc. Small shops are often run by families operating as sole traders or partnerships. Many villages have lost their local corner shop or post office because of competition from the supermarkets and out. They are mostly self-service and sell a range of goods including groceries. however their main selling items are food and drink. They are often situated on the edge of a town by a main road or motorway and provide a large car park for customers. while perhaps a further third survive in the twilight world of contracts and casual work. which have largely been replaced by poor quality. for example a cheese counter or meat or fish counter. Employment experts believe that the era of secure full-time employment with comprehensive employee benefits and lifetime guarantees has gone forever. They usually specialise in a small range of goods. A supermarket is organised into aisles and goods are displayed on shelves. tailors. Some supermarkets have counters where fresh produce is displayed. (Some 500. as they cannot afford to buy in large quantities. clothing.Kind of stores Britain was once known as a nation of shop keepers. low-paid jobs with few or no benefits. 4. However there tends to be a friendlier atmosphere and personal service. Some small shops even deliver to the home. greengrocers. Prices are often higher in these shops. newsagents especially will deliver a newspaper to the door. and the range of goods on offer is often small.) Only around a third of employees have the security of a full-time job (down from 55 per cent in 1975). electrical goods etc. 4Supermarkets Supermarket must by definition have a minimum selling area of 186m2 and at least 3 check outs. .

Sainsburys and Asda are three of the largest supermarkets in the UK. 6Out of Town Shopping Centres Catering purely to people with cars is the out of town shopping centres.Prices are generally low and there tends to be a large variety. One of the new concepts in supermarkets is the customer loyalty card and banking facilities. clothing. Hated by many people and blamed for the run down state of many city centres they are still extremely popular. in store credit cards and finance and insurance facilities too. Each store is divided into a number of departments and each of these departments specialises in a particular type of product or service. Supermarkets tend to be open 7 days a week with longer opening hours usually until 8pm or 10pm most evenings. they can be described as a collection of shops under one roof. Tescos. They usually occupy large buildings in expensive city centre or out-of-town shopping sites. carpets. For example: electrical goods. in the UK there are thousands of lorries on the road every day. They don't just sell goods either. in addition House of Fraser. Marks and Spencers and Debenhams are three of the largest department stores in the UK. these points can then be redeemed for money off vouchers. 7Fair Trade Fair trade is all about providing fair wages and good employment opportunities to economically disadvantaged artisans and farmers worldwide. The proliferation of supermarkets has led to problems with distribution of goods. with reduced hours of 10am-4pm on a Sunday. . Some in larger town stores now open 24 hours 5Department Stores A department store sells a very wide range of goods. but under the control of one firm. By buying direct from farmers at better prices. furniture etc. The most famous department store in the UK is probably Harrods. the fair trade charities offered consumers the opportunity to buy products which were bought on the basis of a fair trade. The government is concerned about this and this and is looking for a sustainable distribution policy. helping to strengthen their organisations and marketing their produce directly through their own one world shops and catalogues. all of these department stores offer customer loyalty cards. just to deliver fresh produce to the supermarkets. A customer loyalty card allows the customer to collect reward points for every pound they spend.

and don't worry you don't have to buy anything. In Villages: Some rural shops still follow the tradition of an early closing day (usually a Wednesday) when the shops close at 1. However. not just for books and cds. an umbrella body.00pm. It is likely that most shopping centres will be closed on Easter Sunday and there will be reduced shopping hours on Easter Monday (often from either 10 or 11 o'clock in the morning). but for the daily necessities too. food. 8Online Shopping The best way to learn is to do. all shops are closed on Christmas Day (December 25) and a some shops are closed on New Year's Day (January 1). was set up in April 1997. which is when many start their 'New Year' sales. an increasing number of shops are now opening on Boxing Day (December 26). One of its aims is to see the introduction of a single international Fairtrade label. Fairtrade Labelling Organisations (FLO) International. The latest craze to hit the UK is online shopping. fashion and home departments. •Marks and Spences . You can now go shopping in England without leaving your desk. The national initiatives retain responsibility for marketing and promoting Fairtrade in their respective countries. Check out these interesting sites. Over the Christmas and New Year period.no shopping trip is complete until you have visited M&S - food. 4. III/ Comparison of the economy and everyday life in Vietnam and UK: . Bank Holiday Shop opening times 10am to 4pm (or 11am to 5pm). •Beanz Meanz Heinz .Shopping in UK – Shopping Hours •Shopping hours : Open: Monday to Friday: 10am – 9pm Saturday: 9am – 8pm Sunday: 11am – 5pm •Bank Holidays are a great time to shop as there are many sales on especially around Easter and Christmas. clothing etc. They deliver all over the world.In order to co-ordinate the work of the national initiatives and run the monitoring programmes more efficiently.shop online at Heinz's grocery store.

-Current bank notes are: 5 pound note. They have both coins and banknotes. Vietnamese use both coins and paper notes.000. But as Vietnam is -GBP= Great British Pound Since decimalisation in 1971.000. Main industries today are banking and finance.000. 20 1. 50. -Vietnam’s economy was dependent on wet rice cultivating. not controlled by the So the Government directly control Government. Britain -The UK’ economy well represents the type of marketoriented model of financial capitalism (UK can be described as market-oriented capitalism. UK is a famous industrial country -Vietnam’s currency issued by the The British currency is the Vietnam State Bank is the Dong pound sterling (VND). 10 pence.000. oil and gas.000. 200. 2 pence. and tourism. 10. operated for profit and performance policy of the economy. . These values pence. -Coins include VND 5. -UK is a famous industrial country. The structures collective capitalism. the currently changing its money pound has been divided into 100 system. the country’s economy.000. -Vietnam has Industry and Trade -It is an economic system in Ministry and Financial Ministry which the means of production which is under the Government and are all or mostly privately has the responsibility for every owned. the 10 pound note. there exists parallel two different money systems (old and pence. 2. new) which can cause confusion. 500 and 200. or state industry capitalism). and 2 have paper note equivalences. 5 pence. -Current coins are: 1 penny.000.000. social of trade and market capitalism.Viet Nam -The socialist-oriented market economy is comprised of many ownership types and economic sectors.000. So Vietnam is known as the agricultural country. Currency pounds. -The following values: VND 500. 1 pound. 100. transport equipment. the 20 20. in which the State-owned economy plays the vital role. steel. 50 pence.

-Standard banking hours are Monday to Friday from 9:009:30 until 15:30 or 16:00 (some remain open until 17:30).-Exist both in the new polymer form pound note and the 50 pound and the old normal paper notes. Master Charge and to some extent American Express) are increasingly being used. -The US dollar is legal tender in -Direct payment of cash is not popular in Britain. -Many bank branches stay open late once per week (until 17:30 or . -Old money conversions to money used today •Six pence . Small shops. and restaurants will accept Euro. markets and other shopping centre accept other payment like credit cards. Small shops. five-star hotels. it is rarely used across Britain. but only in restaurants. and all golf courses – will list the bill only in US dollars The hours may differ from bank to bank.5p •Half a crown (2 shillings and sixpence) . restaurants.12½p •One guinea . note.2½p •One shilling (or 'bob') . hotels. -Generally banks open from Monday to Friday: 8:00 – 11:30 and 1:00 to 4:00.05 -Direct payment of cash is most popular in Vietnam. many places.£1. especially in big cities and tourist places. honor dollar payments. Although a few of the big shops Many shops. especially in the cities. Method of payment -Major credit cards (such as Visa. -They do not use the Euro. Many establishments – particularly upmarket restaurants. restaurants and markets usually do not accept any other payment. hotels or big shopping malls with a transactional fee (3%5%).

Banking hours -Some large banks also open through lunch or on Saturday mornings. administrated by the •TUC Government. -The unemployment rate in the United Kingdom was last reported at 8 per cent in May of 2011. This problem is exacerbated (made worse) by several factors: the improvement of agricultural productivity and limited land for expansion has driven farmers off the Unemployment land. -From 1971 until 2010 the United Kingdom's Unemployment Rate averaged 7. the wealthiest quintile receives 45 per cent of health assistance while the poorest only receive about 15 per cent. -Banks are closed on public holidays.40 per cent in December of 1973. The non-labor force includes those who are not looking for . -Banks in England and Wales remain open over lunch.90 per cent in April of 1984 and a record low of 3. but many of their counterparts in Scotland and Northern Ireland close for one-hour at lunch. In addition. The labor force is defined as the number of people employed plus the number unemployed but seeking work.22 per cent reaching an historical high of 11. •NUF -Unemployment is falling at its the Vietnamese economy is the large fastest pace in a decade -A major economic problem facing number of individuals who are unemployed or underemployed. Social class system •Workers •Peasants •Socialist intellectuals 18:00) as well as being open on Saturdays (9:00-9:30 until 12:30 or 15:30). Statistic -The richest quintile receives 47 per cent of pensions and the poorest quintile only 2 per cent. •Upper Class •Middle Class •Lower or Working Class Working •Viet Nam General Confederation of •CBI Organization Labour.

receive nearly serving in the military. 40 per cent of social security benefits.work. while the poorest quintile receives less than 7 per cent. the richest 20 per cent of institutionalized and those Vietnamese families. those who are -Households in the top income quintile. •Shopping malls 10The small shop 11Department Stores 12Out of Town 13Shopping Centres 14Fair Trade 15Online Shopping •Supermarkets Shopping in •Galleries UK Kind of •Boutiques stores •Street stalls •Online Shopping 9 .