Flood

Flash flooding caused by heavy rain falling in a short amount of time.

Dozens of villages were inundated when rain pushed the rivers of northwestern Bangladesh over their banks in early October 2005. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured the top image of the flooded Ghaghat and Atrai

when flow exceeds the capacity of the river channel. That humans continue to inhabit areas threatened by flood damage is evidence that the perceived value of living near the water exceeds the cost of repeated periodic flooding. or debris can cause slow flooding upstream of the obstruction. [. with the result that some of the water escapes its usual boundaries. particularly at bends or meanders.[3] While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt. since time out of mind. and are featured in the mythology of many cultures.[1] The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water. Causes include heavy rains from monsoons. A storm surge.[2] In the sense of "flowing water". Principal types and causes [.] Estuarine  Commonly caused by a combination of sea tidal surges caused by storm-force winds. A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. also compare with Latin fluctus. ice. the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. landslide. such as a river or lake. a word common to Germanic languages (compare German Flut. falls within this category. While flood damage can be virtually eliminated by moving away from rivers and other bodies of water. 2005.Rivers on October 12. The deep blue of the rivers is spread across the countryside in the flood image. flumen). Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow. Fast kinds: include flash floods resulting from convective precipitation (intense thunderstorms) or sudden release from an upstream impoundment created behind a dam. from either a tropical cyclone or an extratropical cyclone. Unexpected drainage obstructions such as landslides.] Riverine   Slow kinds: Runoff from sustained rainfall or rapid snow melt exceeding the capacity of a river's channel. float. which overflows or breaks levees. foreign winds and warm rain affecting snow pack. or glacier. Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water. city or other inhabited area. people have lived and worked by the water to seek sustenance and capitalize on the gains of cheap and easy travel and commerce by being near water. . Floods can also occur in rivers. The word "flood" comes from the Old English flod. it is not a significant flood unless such escapes of water endanger land areas used by man like a village. Deluge myths are mythical stories of a great flood sent by a deity or deities to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution. Floods often cause damage to homes and businesses if they are placed in natural flood plains of rivers. hurricanes and tropical depressions.

g.g. tsunami or hurricane). [. Muddy floods are therefore a hill slope process.] Human-induced  Accidental damage by workmen to tunnels or pipes. and confusion with mudflows produced by mass movements should be avoided. earthquake or volcanic eruption). dam breakage.] Muddy  A muddy flood is produced by an accumulation of runoff generated on cropland. Sediments are then detached by runoff and carried as suspended matter or bed load. gentle orientation or low evaporation). often causing significant damage.e. from rainfall) and cannot rapidly dissipate (i. A series of storms moving over the same area. or as a result of another hazard (e. from either a tropical cyclone or an extratropical cyclone.] Other    Floods can occur if water accumulates across an impermeable surface (e. [. or as a result of another hazard (e. Muddy runoff is more likely detected when it reaches inhabited areas.g. falls within this category. Dam-building beavers can flood low-lying urban and rural areas.g. A storm surge. [. .] Catastrophic  Caused by a significant and unexpected event e.] Coastal  Caused by severe sea storms. [.[.

deforestation. It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region. Victoria. this occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation. Mexico. and climate instability.[2] This global phenomenon has a widespread impact on agriculture. For example. even a short. A drought (or drouth [archaic]) is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. subsistence farmers are . Generally. health.Drought Fields outside Benambra.[3] Lengthy periods of drought have long been a key trigger for mass migration and played a key role in a number of ongoing migrations and other humanitarian crises in the Horn of Africa and the Sahel. Although droughts can persist for several years. Australia suffering from drought conditions. The effect varies according to vulnerability. The United Nations estimates that an area of fertile soil the size of Ukraine is lost every year because of drought. economic and social consequences. intense drought can cause significant damage[1] and harm the local economy. Consequences Dry earth in the Sonoran desert. Periods of drought can have significant environmental. agricultural.

[13][14] . recurring feature of the climate in most parts of the world. such as Australian bushfires.500 BC Chile have been linked to the phenomenon.[10] Hunter-gatherer migrations in 9. Common consequences of drought include:              Diminished crop growth or yield productions and carrying capacity for livestock Dust bowls.more likely to migrate during drought because they do not have alternative food sources. when drought hits an area suffering from desertification and erosion Famine due to lack of water for irrigation Habitat damage. with the actual lake in blue. present in the Epic of Gilgamesh and tied to the biblical story of Joseph's arrival in and the later Exodus from Ancient Egypt. including water and food Wildfires. themselves a sign of erosion. resulting in internal displacement and international refugees Reduced electricity production due to reduced water flow through hydroelectric dams[5] Shortages of water for industrial users[6][7] Snake migration and increases in snakebites[8] Social unrest War over natural resources. Failure to develop adequate drought mitigation strategies carries a grave human cost in the modern era. which further erode the landscape Dust storms. dehydration and related diseases Mass migration.[11] as has the exodus of early man out of Africa and into the rest of the world around 135. are more common during times of drought[9] [.] Regions Lake Chad in a 2001 satellite image. because lower water flows reduce dilution of pollutants and increase contamination of remaining water sources. exacerbated by ever-increasing population densities. affecting both terrestrial and aquatic wildlife[4] Malnutrition. [. Areas with populations that depend on as a major food source are more vulnerable to drought-triggered famine. Drought can also reduce water quality.[12] Modern peoples can effectively mitigate much of the impact of drought through irrigation and crop rotation.] Globally Drought is a normal. It is among the earliest documented climatic events.000 years ago. The lake has shrunk by 95% since the 1960s.

to land mainly occupied by non-Arab farming peoples. the combination of climate change and deforestation increases the drying effect of dead trees that fuels forest fires. 2008. According to the WWF.000 years ago. because the Arab Baggara nomads searching for water have to take their livestock further south. China.[21][22] In 2005. Nepal and Myanmar could experience floods followed by droughts in coming decades. prompting massive food shortages. are pushing the rainforest towards a "tipping point" where it would irreversibly start to die. By far the largest part of Australia is desert or semi-arid lands commonly known as the outback. also affecting Chad. the Darfur conflict in neighboring Sudan.[23][24] A 23 July 2006 article reported Woods Hole Research Center results showing that the forest in its present form could survive only three years of drought.[29] Australia could experience more severe droughts and they could become more frequent in the future. as it provides drinking water and agricultural irrigation for more than 500 million people. environmentalist Tim Flannery. Recurring droughts leading to desertification in the Horn of Africa have created grave ecological catastrophes. also would be affected. was fueled by decades of drought. Pakistan.Sheep on a drought affected paddock near Uranquinty. coupled with the effects of deforestation on regional climate.4 billion people live in the drainage basin of the Himalayan rivers.[28] In June 2008 it became known that an expert panel had warned of long term. maybe irreversible. combination of drought.[18][19][20] The west coast of North America. Regular burning by these settlers could have prevented monsoons from reaching interior Australia. severe ecological damage for the whole Murray-Darling basin if it does not receive sufficient water by October. predicted that . desertification and overpopulation are among the causes of the Darfur conflict.[25][26] Scientists at the Brazilian National Institute of Amazonian Research argue in the article that this drought response. New South Wales. It concludes that the rainforest is on the brink of being turned into savanna or desert. Bangladesh.[15] To the north-west of the Horn.[30] The Australian of the year 2007.[16] Approximately 2. and suggested that one explanation was related to human settlers who arrived about 50. which gets much of its water from glaciers in mountain ranges such as the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada. a government-commissioned report said on July 6. parts of the Amazon basin experienced the worst drought in 100 years. A 2005 study by Australian and American researchers investigated the desertification of the interior. with catastrophic consequences for the world's climate.[17] India. still recurring. Drought in India affecting the Ganges is of particular concern.

[35] [. and ridges of high pressure areas form with behaviors which prevent or restrict the developing of thunderstorm activity or rainfall over one certain region.unless it made drastic changes.[31] East Africa currently faces its worst drought in decades. rather than oceanic air masses (i.[32][33] with crops and livestock destroyed. may also carry with them increased chances of drought.N. Generally.e. flooding and erosion will increase in others.[44] Along with drought in some areas. an abandoned city with no more water to sustain its population.[45] .[41][42][43] Overall. some proposed solutions to global warming that focus on more active techniques. global warming will result in increased world rainfall. activities resulting in global climate change are expected to trigger droughts with a substantial impact on agriculture[40] throughout the world. solar radiation management through the use of a space sunshade for one. excessive irrigation.[37] Human activity can directly trigger exacerbating factors such as over farming. Germs. Perth in Western Australia could become the world’s first ghost metropolis.] Causes A Mongolian gazelle dead due to drought . winds carrying continental. the result is a drought. Paradoxically. If either of these are reduced.[36] Another climate oscillation known as the North Atlantic Oscillation has been tied to droughts in northeast Spain. combined with the upward forcing of the air mass containing that water vapor. and erosion adversely impact the ability of the land to capture and hold water.[39] While these tend to be relatively isolated in their scope. reduced water content). Guns.[34] The U.[38] deforestation. This can be triggered by an above average prevalence of high pressure systems. rainfall is related to the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. and especially in developing nations. and Steel author Jared Diamond sees the stark impact of the multi-year ENSO cycles on Australian weather patterns as a key reason that Australian aborigines remained a hunter-gatherer society rather than adopting agriculture. Oceanic and atmospheric weather cycles such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) make drought a regular recurring feature of the Americas along the Midwest and Australia. World Food Programme recently said that nearly four million Kenyans urgently needed food.

at risk of completely drying out. the conditions surrounding it gradually worsen and its impact on the local population gradually increases.[48] . Meteorological drought is brought about when there is a prolonged period with less than average precipitation.[47] Similar circumstances also place their largest lake. However. This condition can also arise independently from any change in precipitation levels when soil conditions and erosion triggered by poorly planned agricultural endeavors cause a shortfall in water available to the crops. Hydrological drought tends to show up more slowly because it involves stored water that is used but not replenished. this can be triggered by more than just a loss of rainfall. Like an agricultural drought. Kazakhstan was recently awarded a large amount of money by the World Bank to restore water that had been diverted to other nations from the Aral Sea under Soviet rule. 2. Balkhash. People tend to define droughts in three main ways:[46] 1.] Types of drought Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea. Hydrological drought is brought about when the water reserves available in sources such as aquifers. in a traditional drought. 3. Meteorological drought usually precedes the other kinds of drought. For instance. it is caused by an extended period of below average precipitation.[. Agricultural droughts are droughts that affect crop production or the ecology of the range. As a drought persists. lakes and reservoirs fall below the statistical average.

. Cloud seeding . using such metrics as the Keetch-Byram Drought Index[9] or Palmer Drought Index. analysis of water usage in Yemen has revealed that their water table (underground water level) is put at grave risk by over-use to fertilize their Khat crop. Transvasement . hoses or buckets on outdoor plants.Continuous observation of rainfall levels and comparisons with current usage levels can help prevent man-made drought. filling pools. For instance.[49] Desalination of sea water for irrigation or consumption.Carefully planned crop rotation can help to minimize erosion and allow farmers to plant less water-dependent crops in drier years. mitigation or relief include:          Dams . Waiting for water distribution (Ebeye.an artificial technique to induce rainfall. Recycled water .Former wastewater (sewage) that has been treated and purified for reuse. Land use .Collection and storage of rainwater from roofs or other suitable catchments.[50] Careful monitoring of moisture levels can also help predict increased risk for wildfires. Rainwater harvesting .) Strategies for drought protection. Marshall Islands.Regulating the use of sprinklers.many dams and their associated reservoirs supply additional water in times of drought. Drought monitoring . Outdoor water-use restriction .] Drought protection and relief The effects of the drought brought on by El Niño. and other water-intensive home maintenance tasks.[.Building canals or redirecting rivers as massive attempts at irrigation in droughtprone areas.