Biopsychology Exam 4 Lecture 18- Language and Aphasias:  Language is localized and distributed (small parts of cortex and many

regions)  Paul BROCA’s patient Tan: production impairment, but comprehension relatively intact (impairment because of disease); suffered from RIGHT HEMIPARESIS (weaken of right arm and leg because of damage to anterior part of left hemispheremovements are lateralized across the body)  Carl WERNICKE: studied 2 patients with fluent speech, but nonsensical sound/words/sentences; damage to posterior region of superior temporal gyrus  You must hear to understand—primary auditory cortex next to Wernicke’s Area APHASIA: disorders of language apparent in speech, writing (AGRAPHIA) or reading (ALEXIA) produced by injury to brain area specialized in these functions  Impairments are not always due to aphasias—disturbances may be due to: intellectual impairment, loss of sensory input (vision, hearing), paralysis/incoordination of muscles in mouth (ANARTHIA), or hand paralysis affecting writing  PRIMARY APHASIA: problems with language-processing mechanisms (purely due to lang. input in brain)  SECONDARY APHASIA: memory impairments, attention disorders, perceptual problems  DISORDERS IN COMPREHENSION: 1. Poor auditory comprehension (can’t understand speech) 2. Poor visual comprehension (can’t read)  DISORDERS IN PRODUCTION: 1. Poor articulation 2. ANOMIA: word finding deficit 3. PARAPHASIA: unintended words or phrases; errors producing specific words 4. Loss of grammar/syntax 5. Inability to repeat aurally presented material (cant repeat sentences exactly the same) 6. Low verbal fluency (ex: asked to say as many words as they can that start with “f” and they can only say a few) 7. AGRAPHIA 8. APROSIDIA: loss of tone in voice  APHASIA CLASSIFICATION TEST PARAMETERS: 1. spontaneous speech 2. auditory comprehension (can they understand commands?) 3. verbal repetition (ask them to repeat words you just said)  THREE BROAD CATAGORIES OF APHASIA: 1. NONFLUENT APHASIA: difficulties in articulation but relatively good auditory verbal comprehension (ex: Broca’s severe & Broca’s mild)

makes errors. Anomic) Wernicke’s aphasia: poor comprehension. FLUENT APHASISA: fluent speech but difficulties in either auditory verbal comprehension or repetition of words. hard because she doesn’t know how to fix it o CONDUCTION APHASIA: aphasia produced by damage to connections between Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. was able to used the word “sew” while describing the hammer . effects many parts of the brain (global language deficit*)) 2. associated with extensive left hemisphere damage (due to carbon dioxide damage. deficit in repeating what was just heard but comprehension and production intact Anomic aphasia: “Amnesic aphasia”. poor repetition. omits function words (verbs—TELEGRAPHIC SPEECH). “r”). drip. poor repetition. saying “drip. verb finding problems (result of left frontal damage) o Problems saying the name (Anchor: know the verb (that it is used to anchor a ship) but doesn't know the noun/name (that it is called an “anchor”) o Video: asked to say the name of the 2 objects (sew and hammer). fluent meaningless speech (word salad) o Paraphasias. stroke. she says the wrong words. comprehend speech. NEOLOGISMS (nonwordsex: “galump”) o deficit in characterization of sounds (ex: “l” vs. phrases. ok repetition.SEMANTIC PARAPHASIAS (substituting words similar in meaning”barn” with house)’ PHONEMIC PARAPHASIAS (substituting words similar in sound”house” with “mouse”). impairment in writing o Damage to temporal lobe near Heschel’s gyrus (primary auditory cortex) *** LEFT TEMPORAL LOBE: language comprehension (semantics) o Video: women knows she has some kind of an impairment.. or sentences spoken by others (ex: Wernicke’s or sensory aphasia. problems with input and repetition language. fluent speech. drip” instead of “water is pouring down”.patient explains sew by saying “you can cut wood with it”. short phrases with lots of pauses. somewhat good comprehension (problems arise with differences in syntax). patient 2: more complex words—problem with verbs but not nouns (problems describing action)able to use hands to show the action but can’t comprehend how to say it GLOBAL APHASIA: deficit in comprehension and language production.nonfluent speech. etc. *can repeat some things but not others o Damage in prefrontal lobe (not due to damage in motor strip) ***LEFT FRONTAL CORTEX: language production and syntax (grammar) o Broca’s area= BA44 and 45 o Video: patient 1: very impaired. repetitious errors in grammar.the patient is away that she cant say it—she will start saying the word and then think she is wrong. she is able to say the word “sew” when not naming the object.    BROCA’S APHASIA/Expressive aphasia. can’t name objects (name problems=result of damage to temporal cortex).

o Video: asked to explain the cookie theft picture: used “this” a lot instead of the noun **no visual impairment!. but comprehension is impaired o ARCUATE FALSICULUS/CONDUCTION APHASIA: deficit receiving information in Broca’s area from Wernicke’s area 2 WAYS OF READING: reading by sound AND reading by image/pictures (dissociation) PSYCHOLIGUISTS: don’t breakdown language into production and comprehension— language has 3 parts: PHONOLOGY.recognized the words but can't name them (has the knowledge but can't label the object/noun they are describing) “PURE” APHASISA: selective impairment in reading. often omit function words (ex: verbs) o Not only problems with production—problems with comprehending syntax too (able to understand simple speech. alexia without agraphiacant read but can write) CONCEPT CENTER: place where meanings are stored (store language knowledge— meaningful words) **effecting different centers=different deficits o TRANSCORTICAL MOTOR APHASIA: deficit in retrieving information from concept center to Broca’s area  Comprehension and repetition are preserved (Wernicke’s can access concept center). and SEMANTICS  PHONOLOGY: sounds that comprise language and the rules governing their combinations  PHONEMES: smallest unit of sound that can signal meaning (ex: /b/ in /bat/ and /p/ in /pat/)  People with Wernicke’s aphasia produce the wrong phoneme (phoneme substitutionmight substitute /p/ but /b/)  ALLOPHONES: different representations of the same phoneme (ex: /p/ in /pill/ vs. writing. or recognition of words [[*just can’t do one of the thing]] (ex: agraphia. admissible combination of words or phrases and sentences  People with Brcoa’s aphasia (damage to anterior part of brain)=difficulties with syntax  Broca’s patients impaired syntax. etc. speech is fluent. prepositions. /p/ in /spill)  People with Broca’s aphasia have problems producing correct allophone of a phoneme (lack of fine control mispronunciation of phoneme)  SYNTAX: grammar. but when complex=difficult)  People with Wenicke’s aphasia= relatively unimpaired syntax (their sentences contain syntactic markers: verb endings. but speech is non-fluent o TRANSCORTICAL SENSORY APHASIA: deficit inputting information from Wernicke’s area to concept center  Repetition is preserved (do not need to understand what is being repeated).) o    . SYNTAX.

they try to only operate on the right half of brain ELECTRICAL STIMULATION STUDIES: Penfield and Roberts AND Ojemann (more recent).     SEMANTICS: meaning of words and word combinations. then ask them to repeat and name things and see what regions are used (usually left hemisphere and sometimes crosses over)  CROSSED APHASIA: aphasia arising fro right hemisphere damage (*early in life. and reading  . inject an drugs to understand language function in an individual. technique using sodium amobarbital. we don't directly observe what the missing part actually does (we make inferences that are sometimes misleading)  DIACHISIS: damage to one part of the brains can create problems for another  Disconnection syndrome  PET STUDY: look at effects of focal lesions BEYOND damaged region. semantic deficits (problem understanding meaning of words)  Broca’s aphasia patients= relatively intact semantic processing (only problems when syntax is important) **NEUOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSEPECTIVE: o anterior region (frontal lobe)=speech production and syntax o posterior region (temporal and parietal lobes)=important for comprehension and semantic processing *HUMANS SPEAK AT A YOUNG AGE: able to detect language impairments right away (function that is easily observed) Problems with lesion studies: we record how people perform WITHOUT particular region. expose epileptic patient’s brain and electrically stimulate different regions to see were which electrical stimuli effected speech  Data doesn’t support strict localizationist model of language because effect on BOTH anterior and posterior speech function zones were similar  Neocortex far beyond Wernicke’s and Broca’s areas disrupted speech function  Stimulation of speech zones affected more than just talking—made deficits in voluntary motor control of facial muscles. sentences may have different structures but the same meanings  Wernicke’s aphasia patients= impaired. brain has a lot of plasticity)  People with epilepsy in some cases must have part of their brain removed in order for them to survive—if language a function of left hemisphere. one part of the brain is damage but it affects a different part of the brain (making the other region not functional). resting state of aphasics show hypometabilism in temproparietal region WADA TEST: testing left hemispheres role in language. short-term memory.

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