Fall 2009 – GSD 4405

ISTANBUL: FROM IMPERIAL CAPITAL TO GLOBAL CITY

Course information: Lecture/seminar, Thursdays 11:30-2:30, Gund Hall 109 Instructor: Sibel Bozdogan, sbozdoga@gsd.harvard.edu, sibelb@rcn.com TA: Aylin Yildirim, yildirim@gsd.harvard.edu Office hours: By appointment (please e-mail for appointment) Host to the 2009 Urban Age Conference and selected as the “2010 Culture Capital of Europe”, Istanbul has been attracting a lot of scholarly and media attention recently. Given the complexity of its historical, cultural and geographical layers, it is a city that resists any easy categorization into typological abstractions like European city, Islamic city, Mediterranean city or global city. Hybrid and fragmented, it continues to defy all attempts to give it morphological coherence and poses formidable challenges to design professionals. This lecture/seminar course offers a historical overview of these complexities, looking at Istanbul’s urban/architectural transformations in the last two centuries and situating these within both the historical dynamics of modern Turkey and the broader trans-national context of the region and the world at large. In a chronological sequence of lectures, four distinct periods will be covered, marked by important political-social-cultural shifts, corresponding to visible changes in city’s macro form, skyline, shoreline and overall urban landscape: 1) piecemeal reforms in urban administration, infrastructure and transportation in the late Ottoman period; 2) early republican imprint of the 1930s and 1940s: the master plan of Henri Prost and the new public spaces of secular modernity; 3) post-WWII high modernist urban interventions and the onset of massive migration, speculative apartment boom and squatter developments transforming Istanbul from a “shore 1

addressing some aspect of their selected theme 3b) or an urban analysis/representation project (using mapping. should give a brief overview of what the lectures and the readings have revealed about the students’ selected themes in the four historical periods respectively. 40% final submission] Students are expected to conclude their thematic research in the form of: 3a) either a site-specific history-theory paper focusing on a specific object of study.city” to a “hinterland city” and 4) “branding” of Istanbul as a global city since the 1980s: transnational spaces of consumption. COURSE REQUIREMENTS: The lectures will present synchronic historical developments in chronological sequence. bridges. the cumulative objective of these lectures is to provoke a diachronic understanding of Istanbul’s physical transformation over time. silhouette. 3) Final paper/project [60% total --20% class presentation. landmarks Infrastructure: connectivity. topography. using historical research and/or formal analysis. resources and documentation. These should be submitted in digital form as well as print outs Final products should be developed in consultation with the instructor and students should present them to the class for feedback during the final weeks of the semester. object-fabric. analytical drawings. Morphology: density. animation etc) visualizing their research on their selected theme. yet. solid-void. ports Industry: industrial zones. Distribution of course credits will be as follows: 1) Weekly readings and participation in class discussions [20%] Each week. For this purpose. factories. photographs. I have identified six themes for closer investigation and students will have the option to choose any one of these six themes to work on: Macroform: metropolitan boundaries. I will be available to offer research help. Lectures will be supplemented by discussion of selected readings. 10/14. Final papers/projects will be due the last days of the final exam week at the end of the semester. coastal roads Skyline: panorama. The purpose is to build up a draft outline of the final paper/project in a piecemeal fashion over the course of the semester. public versus private access. gated communities and suburban sprawl. arteries. graphs. urban sprawl. due on 9/30. figure-ground. 2 . focus on the Golden Horn Students are expected to contribute to the course by researching one of these themes and making site-specific investigations. one or two students will be responsible to briefly present the reading(s) and to summarize the key issues and themes introduced 2) Four short ‘review essays’ during the semester [20%] These short review essays (2 pages maximum). valleys. assigned readings and further bibliography will be posted on the course web site every week. shipyards. 10/28 and 11/11. beaches. built areas-green spaces Shoreline: water’s edges. collages. shore versus hinterland etc. ridges. lecture outlines. modes and nodes of transportation. landfills.

Continuities and Ruptures Historical background: Roman. Samy Halfon. beaches Film: excerpts from a 1928 documentary of Taksim Garden Populist Modernity and Urban Interventions of the 1950s High modernist urbanism: demolitions. promenades. parks. 2009-excerpts New Urban and Aesthetic Sensibilities in the 18th Century Picturesque. 1961 Imperial City and Its Fragments.CLASS SCHEDULE: September 2: Introduction: Istanbul in recent scholarship and current debates [Course structure. electricity and transportation Stagnation and Renewal during the Early Republic Henri Prost’s 1939 Master Plan: connecting the dispersed city Urbanism and Public Space as the Showcase of Modernity Secularization and citizenship: espaces libres. edge cities and gated residential developments Veteran’s Day [class if needed] Student Presentations Thanksgiving [no class] Student Presentations Final papers/projects due September 9: September 16: September 23: September 30: October 7: October 14: October 21: October 28: November 4: November 11: November 18: November 25 December 2: December 18: 3 . Ottoman Istanbul Film: The historical peninsula of Istanbul. new roads. Americanization Sprawl and Informality: from “shore city” to “hinterland city” Migration and informality: gecekondu and speculative apartments Urban Landscapes/Architectures of Global Modernity after 1980 From populist to neo-liberal economic policies: “brandscapes” Urban Politics and Public Controversy under the AKP since 2002 Metropolitan expansion. Byzantine. logistics and study groups/themes] Film: Istanbul documentaries. panoramic and topographical representations of the city Urban Modernization in late Empire into World War I Infrastructure: industrialization efforts.

Orienting Istanbul: Cultural Capital of Europe? New York: Routledge. pp.20. “The Soul of a City: Huzun. Gul (2009). 1819 [Reprint Istanbul 1969] -for browsing the engravings Emel Ardaman.32-51 Orhan Pamuk. panoramic. gas. interdisciplinary approaches Zeynep Celik. 2005. pp. Paris. 90-107 Engin F. “A brief history of modern Istanbul”. “Epilogue: a picture from circa 1537” in Constantinopolis/Istanbul: Cultural Encounter. The Pennsylvania State University Press.207-226 Orhan Pamuk.109-130 September 23: Urban Modernization in late Empire into World War I Infrastructure. pp. vol. Soysal and Tureli (2010) Deniz Gokturk. JSAH 58. Keyif. 63/1. 2005. Hamadeh (2008). pp.WEEKLY TOPICS/RELATED READINGS: [Further resources will be posted each week] September 2: Introduction: Istanbul in recent scholarship and current debates Historiographic issues in the study of cities in peripheral geographies: traditional frameworks of art/architecture/urban history versus new.504-523 September 9: Imperial City and Its Fragments. Ottoman Istanbul Istanbul in film. topographic representations Shirine Hamadeh. Continuities and Ruptures Historical background: Roman. JSAH. Kuban (1996). rise of “leisure class” Focus on Kagithane valley and Bosporus –picturesque. "New Approaches to the "Non-Western" City". Imperial Vision and the Construction of the Ottoman Capital.1-22 Modern transformations in Istanbul in the context of four periods of Turkish modernity Caglar Keyder. 2009. nostalgia. pp. New York: Alfred A Knopf. Turkey in the Modern World.35-47 September 16: New Urban and Aesthetic Sensibilities in the 18th Century Early modernity: visibility. tram lines and ferries. Keyder (1999).al ed. 2010. water fountains. Gokturk. Urban Age Newspaper (2009). pp. Chapter on “Huzun” in Istanbul: Memories and the City. the Capital of the Ottoman Empire”.Isin. railway. Cambridge University Press. “Ottoman Expressions of Early Modernity and the ‘Inevitable’ Question of Westernization”. “Perspective and Istanbul. literature and popular imaginary: orientalism. no. Levent Soysal and Ipek Tureli. 2010. March 2004. 2008. transparency. Byzantine. westernization. identity Cigdem Kafescioglu.Gokturk et.Kasaba ed. pp. urban space. Voyage Pittoresque de Constantinople et de Rives du Bosphore.2. in R. related buildings 4 . 3. Longing” in D. Journal of Design History. n. Kafescioglu (2009). industry. 374-81 Recent studies of Istanbul: Celik (1986). “Introduction” in Orienting Istanbul: Cultural Capital of Europe? New York: Routledge.62-75 Ignace Melling. New York: Alfred A Knopf. September 1999. pp. “Melling’s Bosporus Landscapes” in Istanbul: Memories and the City. pp. electricity.

Taksim Square and Park No.141-156 October 7: Urbanism and Public Space as the Showcase of Modernity Secularization and citizenship: espaces libres. From the Imperial Capital to the Republican Modern City. 2009. Dubrovnik Annals. casinos and Marmara resorts Cana Bilsel. Chapters 3 and 4 in The Emergence of Modern Istanbul. 1986. Massachusetts: The Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture. “First Moderns”. promenades.B. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 2010.2 Public recreation: beaches. “Istanbul”. public squares” in P. 2009. Geographic Istanbul: episodes in the history of a city’s relationship with its landscape. 1911 Focus on Galata-Pera and Golden Horn –Feshane. “The Parceled City: Istanbul in the XIXth Century.html http://rapiddigger.Bilsel ed.89-98 Sibel. GSD DDes Dissertation. Bozdoğan. Tersane Murat Gul. Context. pp. Paris: Academie de Architecture. 2003. parks. fire swept sites. n. 1905 and “Alman Mavileri”.com/album-of-sultan-abdulhamid-ii-rar-6471552. Cambridge. Seattle: University of Washington Press.net/html_bura/verColeccion/params/id/6805. 2009.Survey maps: Charles Goad. pp. London and New York: I.Pinon and C. monuments Henri Prost’s Archaeological Park.html [download site] September 30: Stagnation and Renewal during the Early Republic City shrinking in population and economy in the 1920s. pp.349-380 Neyran Turan.7-71 Zeynep Celik.82-103 Pierre Pinon. Chapters 1 and 2 in The Emergence of Modern Istanbul: transformation and modernization of a city. pp. “Henri Prost’s Planning Works in Istanbul” in P.Tauris. and Urban Identity in the Work of Sedad Eldem" in Modern Architecture and the Mediterranean: Vernacular Dialogues and Contested Identities. Chapter 1 in Modernism and Nation Building: Turkish architectural culture in the early republic.B. idea of “urban aesthetic” Metropolitan “backbone”: Yenikapi-Aksaray-Unkapani-Sishane-Taksim-Sisli Cana Bilsel. edited by Jean-Francois Lejeune and Michelangelo Sabatino. pp. Petruccioli.73-167 Murat Gul. promenades. pp.Pinon and C. 2010. 1960.72-126 Theo Leveau.7.183-208 Musemma Sabancioglu. From the Imperial Capital to the Republican Modern City: Henri Prost’s Planning of Istanbul 1936-1951. in L’oeuvre de Henri Prost. Silahtaraga. pp. pp. swimming pools. 2001. 2010. Chapter 2 5 .16-55 Abdulhamid II Photograph Albums (1893) –for browsing on the web http://biblioteca.45-64 Sibel Bozdogan. 1998.universia. insurance maps Henri Prost’s 1939 Master Plan --connecting the dispersed city. Architecture et Urbanisme. pp. A. "The Legacy of an Istanbul Architect: Type.Tauris. pp. New York: Routledge. Istanbul: Istanbul Arastirmalari Enstitusu. “Jacques Pervititch and His Insurance Maps of Istanbul”. The Remaking of Istanbul: Portrait of an Ottoman City in the 19th Century. ed.” Rethinking XIXth Century City. London.Bilsel ed. “Espaces Libres: parks. London and New York: I.

Istanbul: Nesriyat ve Turizm Mudurlugu. gecekondu developments Bosporus bridges and ring roads. 1957 October 21: Sprawl and Informality: from “shore city” to “hinterland city” Migration from rural Anatolia and informal sector. “The housing market from informal to global” in Istanbul between the Global and the Local. 2009. latin america. “Informality and its Discontents” in R. Istanbul History Foundation: Habitat II Publication. pp. new roads. Modernism and the Middle East. and south asia.Sudjic eds.116-138 Annabel Wharton.Burdett and D.345-354 Murat Balamir.Rizvi eds.B. The Gecekondu: Rural Migration and Urbanization. 1996. pp. “New Problems/Old Solutions: A Look at the Gecekondu in the Urban Space”. Istanbul: Maarif Matbaasi.. “The Making of a Modern Payitaht in Istanbul: Menderes’ executions after the Prost Plan”. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Istanbul History Foundation: Habitat II Publication. 1985 Geetam Tiwari.-------. 2007. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp.Pinon and C. Urban Informality : Transnational perspectives from the middle east. London: Phaidon.143-159 Kemal Karpat. 1952 ---------Istanbul’un Kitabi [The Book of Istanbul]. London and New York: I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. S.335-344 Michael Danielson and Rusen Keles. 1999.167-201 Murat Gul. Levent Ipek Akpinar. pp. Building the Cold War: Hilton International Hotels and Modern Architecture. From the Imperial Capital to the Republican Modern City. high modernist urbanism. 2004 6 .Roy eds. Development and the Americanization of Turkish Architectural Culture in the 1950s”. Chapters 5 and 6 in The Emergence of Modern Istanbul. in P. 2008.Isenstadt and K. in Housing and Settlement in Anatolia: a historical perspective.AlSayyad and A. 1976 Tansi Senyapili. pp. expansion into hinterland. “Democracy. New York: Holmes & Meier. pp. The Endless City: The Urban Age Project. 2010. 2001. Americanization Modern architecture and new residential suburbs: Yesilkoy. Atakoy. 127-171 Sibel Bozdogan. University of Chicago Press. 1949 ---------Guzellesen Istanbul [Beautification of Istanbul]. Istanbul. pp. pp. The Politics of Rapid Urbanization : Government and Growth in Modern Turkey. Lexington Books/Center for Middle Eastern Studies. official publication with photos.Bilsel ed. “Making Cities of Apartment Blocks: transformation of the built environment in Turkey by means of the reorganization of property rights”. Istanbul: Milli Egitim Basimevi.Cumhuriyet Devrinde Istanbul [Istanbul in the Republican period]. University of California at Berkeley. 1943 October 14: Populist Modernity and Urban Interventions of the 1950s Menderes years: demolitions. 1996. photography album.Tauris.13-38 ---------Istanbul Albumu [Istanbul Album]. speculative apartment boom Caglar Keyder. in Housing and Settlement in Anatolia: a historical perspective.348-351 N.

“biennale”. pp. pp. v. Istanbul: Garanti Galeri. “Architectures of Global Modernity: Colonialism and Places”. v.815–840 Ipek. no. April 2007.2. pp.Gokturk et. "Modelling Citizenship in Turkey’s Miniature Park" in Orienting Istanbul: Cultural Capital of Europe? 2010. June 2004. and Biray Kolluoğlu. Orienting Istanbul: Cultural Capital of Europe? New York: Routledge. v. "Emerging Spaces of Neoliberalism: A Gated Town and a Public Housing Project in Istanbul" New Perspectives on Turkey. pp. n. “Istanbul between Civilization and Discontent”. Urban Studies. pp. Orienting Istanbul: cultural capital of Europe?. "The Politics of Urban Waterfront Regeneration: The Case of the Golden Horn. Istanbul. “gentrification” November 4: Urban Politics and Public Controversy under the AKP since 2002 Urban regeneration schemes: “state sponsored gentrification” by TOKI Metropolitan expansion: edge cities and gated residential developments Ozlem Unsal and Tuna Kuyucu. “Istanbul into the 21st Century” in D.127-138 Anna Secor. n.771-798 Nil Uzun.57-74 Dikmen Bezmez. pp. Becoming Istanbul: an encyclopedia.1.33-61 Caglar Keyder. pp. “Producing Elite Localities: the rise of gated communities in Istanbul”. Space and Identity in the City”.. 2008 –entries on “shopping centers”. n. pp. n. Urban Age Newspaper 2006. Journal of Housing and Built Environment. Tureli. 2008. 39 (2008): 5-46. Serife Genis. pp. v.367. The Endless City: The Urban Age Project.net/conferences/istanbul/ Ricky Burdett and Deyan Sudjic eds.1. Cultural Geographies. 2010. 4.44.urban-age.94. 2010." International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 32. “skyscraper”.17.22. 1994. accessible at http://www. v. no. “There is an Istanbul that Belongs to me: Citizenship. “Globalization and Urban Governance in Istanbul”.13.51-71 Ayfer Bartu. Modern Chinese Literature and Culture.“Istanbul: City of Intersections”.105-125 Pelin Dervis ed.352368 Amy Mills. 367-394 7 .10. Spring 2005. 2007 Arif Dirlik. New Perspectives on Turkey. “Boundaries of the Nation in the Space of the Urban: landscape and social memory in Istanbul”.October 28: Urban Landscapes and Architectures of Global Modernity after 1980 From populist to neo-liberal economic policies: from production to service sector Changes in skyline and macro form.25-34 Asu Aksoy and Kevin Robbins. “Challenging the Neoliberal Urban Regime: regeneration and resistance in Basibuyuk and Tarlabasi” in Deniz Gokturk. pp.. March 2007.al ed. 2006. London: Phaidon. n. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. “brandscapes” and “themed” environments -------. Levent Soysal and Ipek Tureli ed.

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