he Lheory of mulLlple lnLelllgences was proposed by Poward Cardner ln 1983 as a model of

lnLelllgence LhaL dlfferenLlaLes lnLelllgence lnLo varlous speclflc (prlmarlly sensory) modallLlesţ
raLher Lhan seelng lL as domlnaLed by a slngle general ablllLyŦ
Cardner argues LhaL Lhere ls a wlde range of cognlLlve ablllLlesţ and LhaL Lhere are only very weak
correlaLlons beLween LheseŦ lor exampleţ Lhe Lheory predlcLs LhaL a chlld who learns Lo mulLlply
easlly ls noL necessarlly generally more lnLelllgenL Lhan a chlld who has more dlfflculLy on Lhls LaskŦ
1he chlld who Lakes more Llme Lo masLer slmple mulLlpllcaLlon 1) may besL learn Lo mulLlply
Lhrough a dlfferenL approachţ 2) may excel ln a fleld ouLslde of maLhemaLlcsţ or 3) may even be
looklng aL and undersLandlng Lhe mulLlpllcaLlon process aL a fundamenLally deeper levelţ or
perhaps as an enLlrely dlfferenL processŦ Such a fundamenLally deeper undersLandlng can resulL ln
whaL looks llke slowness and can hlde a maLhemaLlcal lnLelllgence poLenLlally hlgher Lhan LhaL of a
chlld who qulckly memorlzes Lhe mulLlpllcaLlon Lable desplLe a less deLalled undersLandlng of Lhe
process of mulLlpllcaLlonŦ
1he Lheory has been meL wlLh mlxed responsesŦ 1radlLlonal lnLelllgence LesLs and psychomeLrlcs
have generally found hlgh correlaLlons beLween dlfferenL Lasks and aspecLs of lnLelllgenceţ raLher
Lhan Lhe low correlaLlons whlch Cardnerƌs Lheory predlcLsŦ neverLheless many educaLlonallsLs
supporL Lhe pracLlcal value of Lhe approaches suggesLed by Lhe LheoryŦż1Ž
ConLenLs żhldeŽ
1 1he mulLlple lnLelllgences
1Ŧ1 LoglcalŴmaLhemaLlcal
1Ŧ2 SpaLlal
1Ŧ3 LlngulsLlc
1Ŧ4 8odllyŴklnesLheLlc
1Ŧ3 Muslcal
1Ŧ6 lnLerpersonal
1Ŧ7 lnLrapersonal
1Ŧ8 naLurallsLlc
1Ŧ9 LxlsLenLlal
2 use ln educaLlon
3 CrlLlcal recepLlon
3Ŧ1 1he deflnlLlon of lnLelllgence
3Ŧ2 1auLology
3Ŧ3 neoŴÞlageLlan crlLlclsm
3Ŧ4 SpaLlal lnLelllgence
3Ŧ3 Modern lC LesLs measure many ablllLles
3Ŧ6 Lack of emplrlcal evldence
4 See also
3 noLes
6 8eferences
7 lurLher readlng
8 LxLernal llnks
żedlLŽ1he mulLlple lnLelllgences


1hls secLlon needs addlLlonal clLaLlons for verlflcaLlonŦ Þlease help lmprove Lhls arLlcle by addlng
clLaLlons Lo rellable sourcesŦ unsourced maLerlal may be challenged and removedŦ (CcLober 2010)
Cardner arLlculaLed several crlLerla for a behavlor Lo be an lnLelllgenceŦż2Ž 1hese were LhaL Lhe
lnLelllgencesť
ÞoLenLlal for braln lsolaLlon by braln damageţ
Þlace ln evoluLlonary hlsLoryţ
Þresence of core operaLlonsţ
SuscepLlblllLy Lo encodlng (symbollc expresslon)ţ
A dlsLlncL developmenLal progresslonţ
1he exlsLence of savanLsţ prodlgles and oLher excepLlonal peopleţ
SupporL from experlmenLal psychology and psychomeLrlc flndlngsŦ
Cardner belleves LhaL elghL ablllLles meeL Lhese crlLerlaťż3Ž
SpaLlal
LlngulsLlc
LoglcalŴmaLhemaLlcal
8odllyŴklnesLheLlc
Muslcal
lnLerpersonal
lnLrapersonal
naLurallsLlc
Pe conslders LhaL exlsLenLlal and moral lnLelllgence may also be worLhy of lncluslonŦż4Ž
1he flrsL Lhree are closely llnked Lo fluld ablllLyţ and Lhe verbal and spaLlal ablllLles LhaL form Lhe
hlerarchlcal model of lnLelllgenceż3Ž
żedlLŽLoglcalŴmaLhemaLlcal
1hls area has Lo do wlLh loglcţ absLracLlonsţ reasonlng and numbersŦ Whlle lL ls ofLen assumed LhaL
Lhose wlLh Lhls lnLelllgence naLurally excel ln maLhemaLlcsţ chessţ compuLer programmlng and
oLher loglcal or numerlcal acLlvlLlesţ a more accuraLe deflnlLlon places less emphasls on LradlLlonal
maLhemaLlcal ablllLy and more on reasonlng capablllLlesţ recognlzlng absLracL paLLernsţ sclenLlflc
Lhlnklng and lnvesLlgaLlon and Lhe ablllLy Lo perform complex calculaLlonsŦżclLaLlon neededŽ Loglcal
reasonlng ls closely llnked Lo fluld lnLelllgence and Lo general ablllLyŦż6Ž
żedlLŽSpaLlal
Maln arLlcleť SpaLlal lnLelllgence
1hls area deals wlLh spaLlal [udgmenL and Lhe ablllLy Lo vlsuallze wlLh Lhe mlndƌs eyeŦ Careers
whlch sulL Lhose wlLh Lhls Lype of lnLelllgence lnclude arLlsLsţ deslgners and archlLecLsŦ A spaLlal
person ls also good wlLh puzzlesŦżclLaLlon neededŽ SpaLlal ablllLy ls one of Lhe Lhree facLors
beneaLh g ln Lhe hlerarchlcal model of lnLelllgenceŦ
żedlLŽLlngulsLlc
1hls area has Lo do wlLh wordsţ spoken or wrlLLenŦ Þeople wlLh hlgh verbalŴllngulsLlc lnLelllgence
dlsplay a faclllLy wlLh words and languagesŦ 1hey are Lyplcally good aL readlngţ wrlLlngţ Lelllng
sLorles and memorlzlng words along wlLh daLesŦ 1hey Lend Lo learn besL by readlngţ Laklng noLesţ
llsLenlng Lo lecLuresţ and by dlscusslng and debaLlng abouL whaL Lhey have learnedŦżclLaLlon
neededŽ 1hose wlLh verbalŴllngulsLlc lnLelllgence learn forelgn languages very easlly as Lhey have
hlgh verbal memory and recallţ and an ablllLy Lo undersLand and manlpulaLe synLax and
sLrucLureŦżclLaLlon neededŽ verbal ablllLy ls one of Lhe mosL gŴloaded ablllLlesŦż7Ž
żedlLŽ8odllyŴklnesLheLlc
1he core elemenLs of Lhe bodllyŴklnesLheLlc lnLelllgence are conLrol of oneƌs bodlly moLlons and
Lhe capaclLy Lo handle ob[ecLs sklllfully (206)Ŧ Cardner elaboraLes Lo say LhaL Lhls lnLelllgence also
lncludes a sense of Llmlngţ a clear sense of Lhe goal of a physlcal acLlonţ along wlLh Lhe ablllLy Lo
Lraln responses so Lhey become llke reflexesŦ
ln Lheoryţ people who have bodllyŴklnesLheLlc lnLelllgence should learn beLLer by lnvolvlng
muscular movemenL (eŦgŦ geLLlng up and movlng around lnLo Lhe learnlng experlence)ţ and are
generally good aL physlcal acLlvlLles such as sporLs or danceŦ 1hey may en[oy acLlng or performlngţ
and ln general Lhey are good aL bulldlng and maklng LhlngsŦ 1hey ofLen learn besL by dolng
someLhlng physlcallyţ raLher Lhan by readlng or hearlng abouL lLŦ 1hose wlLh sLrong bodllyŴ
klnesLheLlc lnLelllgence seem Lo use whaL mlghL be Lermed muscle memory Ŷ Lhey remember
Lhlngs Lhrough Lhelr body such as verbal memoryŦ
Careers LhaL sulL Lhose wlLh Lhls lnLelllgence lncludeť aLhleLesţ plloLsţ dancersţ muslclansţ acLorsţ
surgeonsţ docLorsţ bulldersţ pollce offlcersţ and soldlersŦ AlLhough Lhese careers can be dupllcaLed
Lhrough vlrLual slmulaLlonţ Lhey wlll noL produce Lhe acLual physlcal learnlng LhaL ls needed ln Lhls
lnLelllgenceŦż8Ž
żedlLŽMuslcal
1hls area has Lo do wlLh senslLlvlLy Lo soundsţ rhyLhmsţ Lonesţ and muslcŦ Þeople wlLh a hlgh
muslcal lnLelllgence normally have good plLch and may even have absoluLe plLchţ and are able Lo
slngţ play muslcal lnsLrumenLsţ and compose muslcŦ Slnce Lhere ls a sLrong audlLory componenL Lo
Lhls lnLelllgenceţ Lhose who are sLrongesL ln lL may learn besL vla lecLureŦ Language skllls are
Lyplcally hlghly developed ln Lhose whose base lnLelllgence ls muslcalŦ ln addlLlonţ Lhey wlll
someLlmes use songs or rhyLhms Lo learnŦ 1hey have senslLlvlLy Lo rhyLhmţ plLchţ meLerţ Loneţ
melody or LlmbreŦ
Careers LhaL sulL Lhose wlLh Lhls lnLelllgence lnclude lnsLrumenLallsLsţ slngersţ conducLorsţ dlscŴ
[ockeysţ oraLorsţ wrlLers and composersŦ
żedlLŽlnLerpersonal
1hls area has Lo do wlLh lnLeracLlon wlLh oLhersŦ ln Lheoryţ people who have a hlgh lnLerpersonal
lnLelllgence Lend Lo be exLroverLsţ characLerlzed by Lhelr senslLlvlLy Lo oLhersƌ moodsţ feellngsţ
LemperamenLs and moLlvaLlonsţ and Lhelr ablllLy Lo cooperaLe ln order Lo work as parL of a groupŦ
1hey communlcaLe effecLlvely and empaLhlze easlly wlLh oLhersţ and may be elLher leaders or
followersŦ 1hey Lyplcally learn besL by worklng wlLh oLhers and ofLen en[oy dlscusslon and debaLeŦ
Careers LhaL sulL Lhose wlLh Lhls lnLelllgence lnclude salesţ pollLlclansţ managersţ Leachers and
soclal workersŦż9Ž
żedlLŽlnLrapersonal
1hls area has Lo do wlLh lnLrospecLlve and selfŴreflecLlve capaclLlesŦ Þeople wlLh lnLrapersonal
lnLelllgence are lnLulLlve and Lyplcally lnLroverLedŦżclLaLlon neededŽ 1hey are sklllful aL declpherlng
Lhelr own feellngs and moLlvaLlonsŦżclLaLlon neededŽ 1hls refers Lo havlng a deep undersLandlng of
Lhe selfŤ whaL your sLrengLhs/ weaknesses areţ whaL makes you unlqueţ belng able Lo predlcL your
own reacLlons/emoLlonsŦ Careers whlch sulL Lhose wlLh Lhls lnLelllgence lnclude phllosophersţ
psychologlsLsţ Lheologlansţ lawyersţ and wrlLersŦżclLaLlon neededŽ Þeople wlLh lnLrapersonal
lnLelllgence also prefer Lo work aloneŦżclLaLlon neededŽ
żedlLŽnaLurallsLlc
1hls area has Lo do wlLh nurLurlng and relaLlng lnformaLlon Lo one's naLural surroundlngsŦ
Lxamples lnclude classlfylng naLural forms such as anlmal and planL specles and rocks and
mounLaln LypesŤ and Lhe applled knowledge of naLure ln farmlngţ mlnlngţ eLcŦ Careers whlch sulL
Lhose wlLh Lhls lnLelllgence lnclude naLurallsLsţ farmers and gardenersŦ
żedlLŽLxlsLenLlal
Some proponenLs of mulLlple lnLelllgence Lheory proposed splrlLual or rellglous lnLelllgence as a
posslble addlLlonal LypeŦ Cardner dld noL wanL Lo commlL Lo a splrlLual lnLelllgenceţ buL suggesLed
LhaL an ƍexlsLenLlalƍ lnLelllgence may be a useful consLrucLŦż10Ž 1he hypoLhesls of an exlsLenLlal
lnLelllgence has been furLher explored by educaLlonal researchersŦż11Ž
AblllLy Lo conLemplaLe phenomena or quesLlons beyond sensory daLaţ such as Lhe lnflnlLe and
lnflnlLeslmalŦ Careers or calllngs whlch sulL Lhose wlLh Lhls lnLelllgence lnclude shamansţ prlesLsţ
maLhemaLlclansţ physlclsLsţ sclenLlsLsţ cosmologlsLs and phllosophersŦ
żedlLŽuse ln educaLlon

Cardner (1999) deflnes an lnLelllgence as ''blopsychologlcal poLenLlal Lo process lnformaLlon LhaL
can be acLlvaLed ln a culLural seLLlng Lo solve problems or creaLe producLs LhaL are of value ln a
culLure'' (ppŦ 33Ŷ34)Ŧ Accordlng Lo Cardnerţ Lhere are more ways Lo do Lhls Lhan [usL Lhrough
loglcal and llngulsLlc lnLelllgenceŦ Cardner belleves LhaL Lhe purpose of schoollng ƍshould be Lo
develop lnLelllgences and Lo help people reach vocaLlonal and avocaLlonal goals LhaL are
approprlaLe Lo Lhelr parLlcular specLrum of lnLelllgencesŦ Þeople who are helped Lo do soţ żheŽ
belleveżsŽţ feel more engaged and compeLenL and Lherefore more lncllned Lo serve socleLy ln a
consLrucLlve wayŦƍż12Ž
1radlLlonallyţ schools have emphaslzed Lhe developmenL of loglcal lnLelllgence and llngulsLlc
lnLelllgence (malnly readlng and wrlLlng)Ŧ lC LesLs (glven Lo abouL 1ţ000ţ000 sLudenLs each
year)żclLaLlon neededŽ focus mosLly on loglcal and llngulsLlc lnLelllgenceŦ upon dolng well on Lhese
LesLsţ chances of aLLendlng a presLlge college or unlverslLy lncreaseţ whlch ln Lurn creaLes
conLrlbuLlng members of socleLy (Cardnerţ 1993)Ŧ Whlle many sLudenLs funcLlon well ln Lhls
envlronmenLţ Lhere are Lhose who do noLŦ Accordlng Lo Peldlng (2009)ż13Žţ ƍSLandard lC LesLs
measure knowledge galned aL a parLlcular momenL ln Llmeţ Lhey can only provlde a freezeŴframe
vlew of crysLalllzed knowledgeŦ 1hey cannoL assess or predlcL a person's ablllLy Lo learnţ Lo
asslmllaLe new lnformaLlonţ or Lo solve new problemsţƍ (ppŦ196)Ŧ Cardnerƌs Lheory argues LhaL
sLudenLs wlll be beLLer served by a broader vlslon of educaLlonţ whereln Leachers use dlfferenL
meLhodologlesţ exerclses and acLlvlLles Lo reach all sLudenLsţ noL [usL Lhose who excel aL llngulsLlc
and loglcal lnLelllgenceŦ lL challenges educaLors Lo flnd ''ways LhaL wlll work for Lhls sLudenL
learnlng Lhls Loplc'' (Cardnerţ 1999ţ pŦ 134)Ŧ
Many Leachersżwho?Ž see Lhe Lheory as slmple common senseŦ Someżwho?Ž say LhaL lL valldaLes
whaL Lhey already knowť LhaL sLudenLs learn ln dlfferenL waysŦ 1he challenge LhaL Lhls brlngs for
educaLors ls Lo know whlch sLudenLs learn ln whlch waysŦ Cn Lhe oLher handţ !ames 1raubƌs arLlcle
ln 1he new 8epubllc noLes LhaL Cardnerƌs sysLem has noL been accepLed by mosL academlcs ln
lnLelllgence or LeachlngŦ Cardner sLaLes LhaLţ ''whlle MulLlple lnLelllgences Lheory ls conslsLenL
wlLh much emplrlcal evldenceţ lL has noL been sub[ecLed Lo sLrong experlmenLal LesLsŦ Ŧ Ŧ WlLhln
Lhe area of educaLlonţ Lhe appllcaLlons of Lhe Lheory are currenLly belng examlned ln many
pro[ecLsŦ Cur hunches wlll have Lo be revlsed many Llmes ln llghL of acLual classroom experlence''
(Cardnerţ 1993ţ pŦ 33)Ŧ
Ceorge Mlllerţ Lhe psychologlsL credlLed wlLh dlscoverlng Lhe mechanlsms by whlch shorLŴLerm
memory operaLesţ wroLe ln 1he new ?ork 1lmes 8ook 8evlew LhaL Cardnerƌs argumenL bolled
down Lo ƍhunch and oplnlonƍ (pŦ 20)Ŧ Cardnerƌs subsequenL work has done very llLLle Lo shlfL Lhe
balance of oplnlonŦ A recenL lssue of Þsychologyţ Þubllc Þollcyţ and Law devoLed Lo Lhe sLudy of
lnLelllgence conLalned vlrLually no reference Lo Cardnerƌs workŦ MosL people who sLudy
lnLelllgence vlew MŦlŦ Lheory as rheLorlc raLher Lhan sclenceţ and Lhey are dlvlded on Lhe vlrLues of
Lhe rheLorlcżclLaLlon neededŽŦ
1he appllcaLlon of Lhe Lheory of mulLlple lnLelllgences varles wldelyŦ lL runs Lhe gamuL from a
Leacher whoţ when confronLed wlLh a sLudenL havlng dlfflculLlesţ uses a dlfferenL approach Lo
Leach Lhe maLerlalţ Lo an enLlre school uslng MŦlŦ as a frameworkŦ ln generalţ Lhose who subscrlbe
Lo Lhe Lheory sLrlve Lo provlde opporLunlLles for Lhelr sLudenLs Lo use and develop all Lhe dlfferenL
lnLelllgencesţ noL [usL Lhe few aL whlch Lhey naLurally excelŦżclLaLlon neededŽ 1here are many
dlfferenL onllne LesLs Leachers can have Lhelr sLudenLs Lake ln order Lo deLermlne whlch of Lhe
lnLelllgences are besL sulLed for Lhelr personal learnlngŦ An example of one can be found aLż14Ž
Cf Lhe schools lmplemenLlng Cardnerƌs Lheoryţ Lhe mosL wellŴknown ls new ClLy Schoolţ ln SLŦ
Loulsţ Mlssourlţ whlch has been uslng Lhe Lheory slnce 1988Ŧ 1he schoolƌs Leachers have produced
Lwo books for Leachersţ CelebraLlng MulLlple lnLelllgences and Succeedlng WlLh MulLlple
lnLelllgences and Lhe prlnclpalţ 1homas Poerrţ has wrlLLen 8ecomlng a MulLlple lnLelllgences
School as well as many arLlcles on Lhe pracLlcal appllcaLlons of Lhe LheoryŦ 1he school has also
hosLed four conferencesţ each aLLracLlng over 200 educaLors from around Lhe world and remalns a
valuable resource for Leachers lnLeresLed ln lmplemenLlng Lhe Lheory ln Lhelr own classroomsż13Ž
1homas ArmsLrong argues LhaL Waldorf educaLlon organlcally engages all of Cardnerƌs orlglnal
seven lnLelllgencesŦż1Ž
żedlLŽCrlLlcal recepLlon

żedlLŽ1he deflnlLlon of lnLelllgence
Cne ma[or crlLlclsm of Lhe Lheory ls LhaL lL ls ad hocť LhaL Cardner ls noL expandlng Lhe deflnlLlon
of Lhe word ƍlnLelllgenceƍŤ raLherţ he denles Lhe exlsLence of lnLelllgence as LradlLlonally
undersLood and lnsLead uses Lhe word ƍlnLelllgenceƍ whenever oLher people have LradlLlonally
used words llke ƍablllLyƍŦ 1hls pracLlce has been crlLlclzed by 8oberL !Ŧ SLernberg (1983ţ 1991)ţ
Lysenck (1994)ţ and Scarr (1983)Ŧ
uefenders of Ml Lheory argue LhaL Lhe LradlLlonal deflnlLlon of lnLelllgence ls Loo narrowţ and Lhus
broader deflnlLlon more accuraLely reflecLs Lhe dlfferlng ways ln whlch humans Lhlnk and learnŦ
1hey would sLaLe LhaL Lhe LradlLlonal lnLerpreLaLlon of lnLelllgence collapses under Lhe welghL of
lLs own loglc and deflnlLlonţ noLlng LhaL lnLelllgence ls usually deflned as Lhe cognlLlve or menLal
capaclLy of an lndlvldualţ whlch by loglcal necesslLy would lnclude all forms of menLal quallLlesţ noL
slmply Lhe ones mosL LransparenL Lo sLandardlzed lŦCŦ LesLsŦ
Some of Lhese crlLlclsms arlse from Lhe facL LhaL Cardner has noL provlded a LesL of hls mulLlple
lnLelllgencesŦ Pe orlglnally deflned lL as Lhe ablllLy Lo solve problems LhaL have value ln aL leasL one
culLureţ or as someLhlng LhaL a sLudenL ls lnLeresLed lnŦ Poweverţ he added a dlsclalmer LhaL he
has no flxed deflnlLlonţ and hls classlflcaLlon ls more of an arLlsLlc [udgmenL Lhan facLť
ulLlmaLelyţ lL would cerLalnly be deslrable Lo have an algorlLhm for Lhe selecLlon of an lnLelllgenceţ
such LhaL any Lralned researcher could deLermlne wheLher a candldaLeƌs lnLelllgence meL Lhe
approprlaLe crlLerlaŦ AL presenLţ howeverţ lL musL be admlLLed LhaL Lhe selecLlon (or re[ecLlon) of a
candldaLeƌs lnLelllgence ls remlnlscenL more of an arLlsLlc [udgmenL Lhan of a sclenLlflc assessmenLŦ
(Cardnerţ lrames of Mlndť 1he 1heory of MulLlple lnLelllgencesţ 1983)
Cardner argues LhaL by calllng llngulsLlc and loglcalŴmaLhemaLlcal ablllLles lnLelllgencesţ buL noL
arLlsLlcţ muslcalţ aLhleLlcţ eLcŦ ablllLlesţ Lhe former are needlessly aggrandlzedŦ CerLaln crlLlcs balk
aL Lhls wldenlng of Lhe deflnlLlonţ saylng LhaL lL lgnores ƍLhe connoLaLlon of lnLelllgenceŦŦŦżwhlchŽ
has always connoLed Lhe klnd of Lhlnklng skllls LhaL makes one successful ln schoolŦƍż16Ž
Cardner wrlLes ƍl balk aL Lhe unwarranLed assumpLlon LhaL cerLaln human ablllLles can be
arblLrarlly slngled ouL as lnLelllgence whlle oLhers cannoLŦƍż17Ž CrlLlcs hold LhaL glven Lhls
sLaLemenLţ any lnLeresL or ablllLy ls now redeflned as ƍlnLelllgenceƍŦ 1husţ by adopLlng Lhls Lheoryţ
sLudylng lnLelllgence becomes dlfflculLţ because lL dlffuses lnLo Lhe broader concepL of ablllLy or
LalenLŦ Cardnerƌs addlLlon of Lhe naLurallsLlc lnLelllgence and concepLlons of Lhe exlsLenLlal and
moral lnLelllgences are seen as frulLs of Lhls dlffuslonŦ uefenders of Lhe Ml Lheory would argue LhaL
Lhls ls slmply a recognlLlon of Lhe broad scope of lnherenL menLal ablllLlesţ and LhaL such an
exhausLlve scope by naLure defles a slmpleţ oneŴdlmenslonal classlflcaLlon such as an asslgned lC
valueŦ
żedlLŽ1auLology
1he Lheory and deflnlLlons have been crlLlqued by Þerry uŦ kleln as belng so unclear as Lo be
LauLologous and Lhus unfalslflableŦ Pavlng a hlgh muslcal ablllLy means belng good aL muslc whlle
aL Lhe same Llme belng good aL muslc ls explalned by havlng a hlgh muslcal ablllLyŦż18Ž
żedlLŽneoŴÞlageLlan crlLlclsm
Andreas uemeLrlou suggesLs LhaL Lheorles whlch overemphaslze Lhe auLonomy of Lhe domalns are
as slmpllsLlc as Lhe Lheorles LhaL overemphaslze Lhe role of general lnLelllgence and lgnore Lhe
domalnsŦ Pe agrees wlLh Cardner LhaL Lhere lndeed are domalns of lnLelllgence LhaL are relevanLly
auLonomous of each oLherŦż19Ž ln facLţ some of Lhe domalnsţ such as verbalţ spaLlalţ
maLhemaLlcalţ and soclal lnLelllgence are ldenLlfled by mosL llnes of research ln psychologyŦ
Poweverţ ln uemeLrlouƌs Lheoryţ one of Lhe neoŴÞlageLlan Lheorles of cognlLlve developmenLţ
Cardner ls crlLlclzed for underesLlmaLlng Lhe effecLs exerLed on Lhe varlous domalns of
lnLelllgences by processes LhaL deflne general processlng efflclencyţ such as speed of processlngţ
execuLlve funcLlonsţ worklng memoryţ and meLaŴcognlLlve processes underlylng selfŴawareness
and selfŴregulaLlonŦżclLaLlon neededŽ All of Lhese processes are lnLegral componenLs of general
lnLelllgence LhaL regulaLe Lhe funcLlonlng and developmenL of dlfferenL domalns of lnLelllgenceŦ
1husţ lL ls argued LhaL Lhe domalns are Lo a large exLenL expresslons of Lhe condlLlon of Lhe general
processesŦ AL Lhe same Llmeţ Lhe domalns may vary because of Lhelr consLlLuLlonal dlfferences buL
also dlfferences ln lndlvldual preferences and lncllnaLlonsŦ Moreoverţ Lhelr funcLlonlng boLh
channels and lnfluences Lhe operaLlon of Lhe general processesŦż20Žż21Ž 1husţ one cannoL
saLlsfacLorlly speclfy Lhe lnLelllgence of an lndlvldual or deslgn effecLlve lnLervenLlons programs
unless boLh Lhe general processes and Lhe domalns of lnLeresL are evaluaLedŦż22Žż23Ž
żedlLŽSpaLlal lnLelllgence
Cardner argues LhaL lC LesLs only measures llngulsLlc and loglcalŴmaLhemaLlcal ablllLlesŦ
ÞsychologlsL Alan SŦ kaufman argues LhaL lC LesLs have measured spaLlal ablllLles for 70 yearsŦż24Ž
żedlLŽModern lC LesLs measure many ablllLles
Modern lC LesLs are greaLly lnfluenced by Lhe CaLLellŴPornŴCarroll Lheory whlch lncorporaLes a
general lnLelllgence buL also many more narrow ablllLlesŦ Whlle lC LesLs do glve an overall lC
scoreţ Lhey now also glve scores for many more narrow ablllLlesŦż24Ž
żedlLŽLack of emplrlcal evldence
Accordlng Lo a 2006 sLudy many of Cardnerƌs ƍlnLelllgencesƍ acLually correlaLe wlLh Lhe g facLorţ
supporLlng Lhe ldea of a slngle domlnanL Lype of lnLelllgenceŦ Accordlng Lo Lhe sLudyţ each of Lhe
domalns proposed by Cardner lnvolved a blend of gţ of cognlLlve ablllLles oLher Lhan gţ andţ ln
some casesţ of nonŴcognlLlve ablllLles or of personallLy characLerlsLlcsŦż23Ž
Llnda SŦ CoLLfredson (2006) has argued LhaL Lhe resulLs of Lhousands of sLudles supporL Lhe
lmporLance of lC for school and [ob performanceŦ lC also predlcLs or correlaLes wlLh numerous
oLher llfe ouLcomesŦ ln conLrasLţ emplrlcal supporL for nonŴg lnLelllgences ls lacklng or very poorŦ
She argued LhaL desplLe Lhls Lhe ldeas of mulLlple nonŴg lnLelllgences are very aLLracLlve Lo many
due Lo Lhe suggesLlon LhaL everyone can be smarL ln some wayŦż26Ž
A crlLlcal revlew of Ml Lheory argues LhaL Lhere ls llLLle emplrlcal evldence Lo supporL lLť
ƍ1o daLe Lhere have been no publlshed sLudles LhaL offer evldence of Lhe valldlLy of Lhe mulLlple
lnLelllgencesŦ ln 1994 SLernberg reporLed flndlng no emplrlcal sLudlesŦ ln 2000 Alllx reporLed
flndlng no emplrlcal valldaLlng sLudlesţ and aL LhaL Llme Cardner and Connell conceded LhaL Lhere
was ƍllLLle hard evldence for Ml Lheoryƍ (2000ţ pŦ 292)Ŧ ln 2004 SLernberg and Crlgerenko sLaLed
LhaL Lhere were no valldaLlng sLudles for mulLlple lnLelllgencesţ and ln 2004 Cardner asserLed LhaL
he would be ƍdellghLed were such evldence Lo accrueƍ (pŦ 214)ţ and he admlLLed LhaL ƍMl Lheory
has few enLhuslasLs among psychomeLrlclans or oLhers of a LradlLlonal psychologlcal backgroundƍ
because Lhey requlre ƍpsychomeLrlc or experlmenLal evldence LhaL allows one Lo prove Lhe
exlsLence of Lhe several lnLelllgencesƍ (2004ţ pŦ 214)Ŧƍ (WaLerhouseţ 2006aţ pŦ 208)Ŧ
1he same revlew presenLs evldence Lo demonsLraLe LhaL cognlLlve neurosclence research does noL
supporL Lhe Lheory of MulLlple lnLelllgencesť
ƍLhe human braln ls unllkely Lo funcLlon vla Cardner's mulLlple lnLelllgencesŦ 1aken LogeLher Lhe
evldence for Lhe lnLercorrelaLlons of subskllls of lC measuresţ Lhe evldence for a shared seL of
genes assoclaLed wlLh maLhemaLlcsţ readlngţ and gţ and Lhe evldence for shared and overlapplng
ƍwhaL ls lL?ƍ and ƍwhere ls lL?ƍ neural processlng paLhwaysţ and shared neural paLhways for
languageţ muslcţ moLor sklllsţ and emoLlons suggesL LhaL lL ls unllkely LhaL each of Cardner's
lnLelllgences could operaLe ƍvla a dlfferenL seL of neural mechanlsmsƍ (1999ţ pŦ 99)Ŧ Lqually
lmporLanLţ Lhe evldence for Lhe ƍwhaL ls lL?ƍ and ƍwhere ls lL?ƍ processlng paLhwaysţ for
kahneman's Lwo declslonŴmaklng sysLemsţ and for adapLed cognlLlon modules suggesLs LhaL Lhese
cognlLlve braln speclallzaLlons have evolved Lo address very speclflc problems ln our envlronmenLŦ
8ecause Cardner clalmed LhaL Lhe lnLelllgences are lnnaLe poLenLlallLles relaLed Lo a general
conLenL areaţ Ml Lheory lacks a raLlonale for Lhe phylogeneLlc emergence of Lhe lnLelllgencesŦƍ
(lrom WaLerhouseţ 2006aţ pŦ 213)Ŧ
A number of arLlcles have surveyed Lhe use of Cardnerƌs ldeas and conclude LhaL Lhere ls llLLle Lo
no academlcally subsLanLlaLed evldence LhaL hls ldeas work ln pracLlceŦ SLeven AŦ SLahl found LhaL
mosL of Lhe prevlous sLudles whlch clalmed Lo show poslLlve resulLs had ma[or flawsť
Among oLhersţ Marle Carbo clalms LhaL her learnlng sLyles work ls based on researchŦ žl dlscuss
Carbo because she publlshes exLenslvely on her model and ls very promlnenL ln Lhe workshop
clrculLŦŦŦſ 8uL glven Lhe overwhelmlngly negaLlve flndlngs ln Lhe publlshed researchţ l wondered
whaL she was clLlngţ and abouL a decade agoţ l LhoughL lL would be lnLeresLlng Lo Lake a lookŦ
8evlewlng her arLlclesţ l found LhaL ouL of 17 sLudles she had clLedţ only one was publlshedŦ llfLeen
were docLoral dlsserLaLlons and 13 of Lhese came ouL of one unlverslLyŸSLŦ !ohn's unlverslLy ln
new ?orkţ Carbo's alma maLerŦ none of Lhese had been ln a peerŴrefereed [ournalŦ When l looked
closely aL Lhe dlsserLaLlons and oLher maLerlalsţ l found LhaL 13 of Lhe 17 sLudles LhaL supposedly
supporL her clalm had Lo do wlLh learnlng sLyles based on someLhlng oLher Lhan modallLyŦż27Ž
1o daLeţ Lhe currenL no Chlld LefL 8ehlnd LesL leglslaLlon ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes does noL encompass
Lhe mulLlple lnLelllgences framework ln Lhe examsƌ deslgn and/or lmplemenLaLlonŦż28Ž

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